DE102008042643B4 - Belt drive - Google Patents

Belt drive

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Publication number
DE102008042643B4
DE102008042643B4 DE200810042643 DE102008042643A DE102008042643B4 DE 102008042643 B4 DE102008042643 B4 DE 102008042643B4 DE 200810042643 DE200810042643 DE 200810042643 DE 102008042643 A DE102008042643 A DE 102008042643A DE 102008042643 B4 DE102008042643 B4 DE 102008042643B4
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
wheel
counterweight
drive
balance shaft
drive means
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
DE200810042643
Other languages
German (de)
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DE102008042643A1 (en
Inventor
Walter Blume
Bernd Steiner
Dr. Kluge Torsten
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Ford Global Technologies LLC
Original Assignee
Ford Global Technologies LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Ford Global Technologies LLC filed Critical Ford Global Technologies LLC
Priority to DE200810042643 priority Critical patent/DE102008042643B4/en
Publication of DE102008042643A1 publication Critical patent/DE102008042643A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE102008042643B4 publication Critical patent/DE102008042643B4/en
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Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H7/00Gearings for conveying rotary motion by endless flexible members
    • F16H7/02Gearings for conveying rotary motion by endless flexible members with belts; with V-belts
    • F16H7/023Gearings for conveying rotary motion by endless flexible members with belts; with V-belts with belts having a toothed contact surface or regularly spaced bosses or hollows for slipless or nearly slipless meshing with complementary profiled contact surface of a pulley
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B67/00Engines characterised by the arrangement of auxiliary apparatus not being otherwise provided for, e.g. the apparatus having different functions; Driving auxiliary apparatus from engines, not otherwise provided for
    • F02B67/04Engines characterised by the arrangement of auxiliary apparatus not being otherwise provided for, e.g. the apparatus having different functions; Driving auxiliary apparatus from engines, not otherwise provided for of mechanically-driven auxiliary apparatus
    • F02B67/06Engines characterised by the arrangement of auxiliary apparatus not being otherwise provided for, e.g. the apparatus having different functions; Driving auxiliary apparatus from engines, not otherwise provided for of mechanically-driven auxiliary apparatus driven by means of chains, belts, or like endless members
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H57/00General details of gearing
    • F16H57/0006Vibration-damping or noise reducing means specially adapted for gearings

Abstract

Drive system (1), in particular for an internal combustion engine, wherein the drive system (1) has a drive wheel (2) and at least one output gear (3) which are connected to one another via a drive means (4) and one on a same shaft as the output gear ( 3) arranged further wheel (9), and a balance shaft gear (10) and on a same balance shaft (16) as the balance shaft gear (10) arranged counterweight (11), wherein the further wheel (9) so with the balance shaft wheel (10 ) in that the balance shaft wheel (10) is driven by the further wheel (9), and wherein the counterweight (11) in one of the drive wheel (2), the driven wheel (3) and the drive means (4) defined Riementriebebene (5) is arranged in engagement with the drive means (1), wherein the counterweight (11) together with a peripheral filling member (17) has a common outer diameter, which is designed so that a peripheral speed of Ge gengewichts (11) together with the circumferentially-filling element (17) and a running speed of the drive means (4) are different, ...

Description

  • The invention relates to a drive system, in particular for an internal combustion engine, wherein the drive system, a drive wheel and at least one output gear, which are interconnected via at least one drive means, and arranged on a same shaft as the output gear further wheel, and arranged on a balance shaft balance shaft and a counterweight disposed on the same balancer shaft, the other gear being in communication with the balancer shaft so that the further wheel drives the balancer shaft, and wherein the counterweight is disposed in a belt drive plane defined by the drive gear, the driven gear and the drive means Engaging with the drive means is.
  • Such drive systems are known. For example, with the drive system ancillaries such. Example, the oil pump can be driven by the rotation of the crankshaft associated drive wheel is transmitted by means of the drive means to the output gear associated with the output to drive the exemplary oil pump. But it is also known to use the drive system for the primary drive of the internal combustion engine (crankshaft / camshaft). However, systems are also known in which an electric motor drives a ball screw via a drive means (eg toothed belt) (belt-driven electric power steering systems).
  • As drive means usually endlessly executed chains or belts, in particular toothed belts, are used. Basically toothed drive belts are advantageously used as drive means in motor vehicles or internal combustion engines. In particular, an increasing application of toothed belts, which can also be referred to as synchronous belts, can be observed in a wet, ie oil-containing environment. Here, the drive system is housed in a housing, gets into the lubricant or oil. For example, the drive wheel is a gear associated with the crankshaft, which rotates in an oil bath. These "wet" timing belt, for example, in primary drives, but also for driving ancillaries, such. B. of oil pumps used. In the primary drives relatively complex designed and costly clamping systems are used for clamping the timing belt. To drive ancillaries currently no clamping systems are used as for the primary drives for cost reasons. However, a "wet" toothed belt drive without suitable preloading significantly reduced dynamic properties z. As in the transmission of torque from the drive wheel to the output gear, resulting in a very short life of the belt results. As a "worst case" of a drive system or as a malfunction of a drive system, it is to be regarded that the drive means or the toothed belt deflects under certain conditions or migrates out of the gear wells in certain areas. This causes spur and control losses in the drive system.
  • Next occur disturbing running noise, which z. B. caused by a tooth rattling of the intermeshing gears on. Of course, the tooth rattle also adversely affects the life of the gears and thus the drive system.
  • The drive means should therefore be stretched in a suitable manner to ensure a smooth running of the drive means without fluttering and without severe abrasion. For this purpose, a clamping system is often used, which biases the drive means. This includes, for example, a lever clamping device with a conventional wheel, which is rotatably mounted at the free end of a pivotable lever and presses in a region between the drive wheel and driven gear so against the drive means that the drive means receives a desired bias.
  • Although with such a clamping system on the side facing the tensioning device, also called Trum, the drive means, the drive means is prevented by the bias and the concern to the tensioning device on a flutter and thus runs quietly, there is the disadvantage that the drive means in another, remote from the clamping device strand between the drive wheel and the output gear in spite of the voltage of the drive means, which keeps the drive means taut, can flutter. By fluttering the drive means may unintentionally touch a rotating counterweight on the balance shaft. This could be remedied by the fact that a second tensioning device is also provided on this run, which faces away from the tensioning means, as corresponds, for example, to the first tensioning device which is pressed against the drive means. However, this has the disadvantage that the resulting tensioning system has a plurality of components, which greatly increases weight, susceptibility and cost of the clamping system.
  • In order to prevent accidental contact of the drive means with the counterweight, so an uncontrolled engagement of the counterweight in the drive means, the applicant has post-published DE 10 2008 011 673 A1 discloses that the counterweight of the balance shaft can be arranged in the plane of the drive means, wherein the counterweight in the embodiment as a wheel is in engagement with the drive means. These Design has proven to be effective in practice, as a constant engagement of the wheel-shaped counterweight of the balance shaft in the drive means wanted and controlled is brought about. However, this undesirable gear rattling is perceived.
  • The invention is therefore based on the object to provide a drive system of the type mentioned, which prevents a gear rattle while avoiding the above-mentioned disadvantages despite compact design.
  • According to the invention, the object is achieved with a drive system having the features of claim 1, wherein the counterweight and the circumferentially-filling element have a common outer diameter, which is designed such that a peripheral speed of the counterweight together with the circumferentially-filling element and a running speed of the drive means are different.
  • Drive wheel, driven gear and drive means together form a unit called "belt drive" which lie in a common plane designated "belt drive plane". The further wheel and the balance shaft wheel together form a unit called a "wheel drive" which lies in a common wheel drive plane. Radtriebebene and Riementriebebene lie parallel to each other. The Radtriebebene can be within the scope of the invention in front of or behind the belt drive plane. With the drive system, for example, a coolant pump, an oil pump, a fuel pump, a mechanical supercharger, an alternator or a hydraulic pump of a power steering can be driven.
  • In the drive system is achieved using the existing balance shaft, that the drive means is deflected by the counterweight with the circumferentially-filling element and thus guided. This guide causes a controlled engagement in the drive means and prevents unwanted movement of the drive means in a transverse direction. In this case, only the counterweight must be arranged with the circumferentially-filling element on the balance shaft. It is thus achieved by extremely simple means a quiet guidance of the drive means. In addition, in particular the circumferential filling element advantageously prevents oil splashing.
  • Surprisingly, moreover, a chatter is reduced between the wheel pair or gear pair consisting of the balance shaft wheel and the further wheel, whereby the possibility of the gear pair moving freely relative to one another is reduced, ie. H. For example, a backlash is reduced, or the meshing gears are held backlash to each other.
  • The counterweight may be integrally formed with the balance shaft. This has the advantage of low susceptibility and low maintenance costs, since a smaller number of parts, in particular of moving parts, is present. But it is also possible to form the counterweight to the balance shaft. In this case, the counterweight could be lifted out stepwise from the wheel drive plane in the belt drive plane.
  • Preferably counterweight and balance shaft wheel can be formed as two separate parts. These can be exchanged separately in this case and be spaced apart along the balance shaft, for example. It is conceivable, for example, an embodiment of the counterweight with a circular segment-like design, wherein the umfangsausfüllende element can be designed as a correspondingly adapted circular segment-like cap, so that mutually connectable ring segments are formed. In this respect, it is entirely within the meaning of the invention to provide a combination of plastic (eg plastic) and steel, only steel or only plastic (eg plastic) for the design of the counterweight and of the element which fills the circumference.
  • Advantageously, the counterweight has a circular outer periphery together with the peripheral-filling element. This ensures a uniform guidance of the drive means in the belt drive plane between counterweight and output gear and thus a smooth running of the drive means without fluttering.
  • The counterweight, together with the peripheral-filling element, is given a further functionality which combines a compact design with a quieter running characteristic of the drive means.
  • An imbalance of the counterweight is preferably achieved in this case by recesses or recesses in the counterweight. In terms of size and distribution, these can be deliberately counterweighted in such a way that an imbalance can be predetermined. As a result, in contrast to conventional counterweights whose unbalance is caused by an asymmetric outer shape, an imbalance while maintaining a circular outer shape (counterweight with circumferentially-filling element) is obtained.
  • According to the invention, the further wheel is braced against the balance shaft wheel to compensate, for example, a backlash between the other wheel and the balance shaft gear.
  • This bracing is achieved in that the peripheral speed of the counterweight with the circumferentially-filling element arranged thereon is different, ie greater or smaller than the running speed of the drive means, so that the balance shaft wheel is braced relative to the other wheel. This can be adjusted by the diameter of the counterweight together with the circumference-filling element targeted. In this case, the thickness of the drive means is taken into account. The diameter of the counterweight together with the peripheral filling element must not be too large, in order not to press too strongly on the drive means. If the diameter is too small, on the other hand, the drive means will no longer abut against the outer circumference of the counterweight together with the peripheral filling element, which will cause poorer guidance and may result in flutter. Accordingly, the diameter of the counterweight together with the circumferential filling member is adjusted so that the component formed interacts both by frictional engagement with the drive means and results in a peripheral speed different from the running speed of the drive means.
  • In addition, the drive means can be tensioned with at least one further tensioning device, in particular on the run of the drive means opposite the balance shaft.
  • Further advantageous embodiments of the invention are disclosed in the subclaims and the following description of the figures. Show it
  • 1 schematically a drive system according to the invention,
  • 2 a perspective view of a provided with a balance shaft wheel balance shaft, which carries a counterweight, and
  • 3 an exemplary circumference-filling element as a detail.
  • In the different figures, the same parts are always provided with the same reference numerals, which is why these are usually described only once.
  • 1 shows a drive system 1 , The drive system 1 has a drive wheel 2 and a drive wheel 3 on that, via a drive means 4 connected to each other. Together they form a belt drive 5 which lies in a common belt drive level.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the drive wheel 2 a crankshaft (not shown) of an internal combustion engine associated gear, hereinafter crankshaft gear 2 called. The driven wheel 3 is an accessory, such. As an oil pump of a motor vehicle, associated gear, hereinafter oil pump gear 3 called. The drive means 4 is as a timing belt 4 executed, also called synchronous belt. The timing belt 4 has a tooth side 6 with teeth 7 and one of the tooth side 6 opposite outside 8th on.
  • Coaxial with the oil pump gear 3 is on a shaft (not shown) another wheel 9 arranged, with a balance shaft wheel 10 communicates. The balance shaft wheel 10 is on a balance shaft 16 (in 1 not shown, see 2 ) arranged. Together form the other wheel 9 and the balance shaft wheel 10 a wheel drive, which lies in a Radtriebebene. The Radtriebebene is parallel to the Riementriebebene offset from this.
  • The balance shaft 16 contributes to compensate for an imbalance that may be caused by the internal combustion engine, at least one counterweight 11 , The counterweight 11 but could in the context of the invention, the balance shaft 10 also be assigned only, but in particular be formed integrally with him. The counterweight 11 lies together with the oil pump gear 3 , the crankshaft gear 2 and the timing belt 4 at least in the Riementriebebene, which will be discussed in more detail below.
  • The Radtriebebene is in this embodiment in the view of 1 in front of the belt drive level. Depending on the spatial arrangement of the drive system 1 and any other components may be within the scope of the invention, however, the Radtriebebene behind the belt drive plane.
  • The counterweight 11 has an imbalance, as specifically recesses or recesses in the counterweight 11 are introduced, leading to a non-rotationally symmetric weight distribution within the counterweight 11 to lead.
  • An outer circumference 12 of the counterweight 11 (along with a perimeter element 17 ) is in a contact area between counterweight 11 and oil pump gear 3 in contact with the outside 8th of the toothed belt 4 so that the timing belt 4 in this area between counterweight 11 and oil pump gear 3 is guided by these components (belt drive level). As can be seen, the timing belt 4 towards the output gear 3 deflected, or from the counterweight 11 controlled redirected.
  • To a tension of the toothed belt 4 to achieve, has the belt drive 5 In this embodiment, in addition, a clamping device 13 that is a conventional pulley 14 can be. This is by means of a lever against the outside 8th of the toothed belt 4 pressed. At a length extension of the toothed belt 4 Over time, the lever is mounted so that the pulley 14 by adjusting further against the timing belt 4 can be pressed to the tension of the toothed belt 4 to increase again.
  • The transmission ratio of belt drive 5 and gear drive is designed so that the balance shaft 16 rotates at the same angular velocity as the crankshaft, but in opposite directions. According to the invention, the counterweight 11 together with a peripheral element 17 in its outer diameter designed so that a rotational speed of the formed component (counterweight 11 with a peripheral element 17 ; 2 ) different from the running speed of the toothed belt 4 is, so that the balance shaft wheel 10 to the other wheel 9 is tense.
  • The following describes the mode of action of the exemplified drive system 1 described.
  • The crankshaft gear 2 as a drive wheel 2 drives over the drive means 4 or over the timing belt 4 the oil pump gear 3 as a driven wheel 3 at. Both gears 2 . 3 rotate by way of example in a clockwise direction. That together with the oil pump gear 3 on a wave located further wheel 9 or gear 9 rotates at the same angular velocity as the oil pump gear 3 and drives the balance shaft wheel 10 at. The balance shaft wheel 10 So, for example, it turns counterclockwise. The counterweight 11 is together with the balance shaft wheel 10 on the balance shaft 16 arranged and thus rotates at the same angular velocity as the balance shaft 10 by way of example counterclockwise.
  • The tensioning device 13 holds the timing belt 4 between crankshaft gear 2 and oil pump gear 3 curious; excited. Nevertheless, the timing belt tends 4 with the strand, that of the tensioning device 13 is opposite, to flutter. This is done by the drive system 1 prevented by the timing belt 4 between oil pump gear 3 and counterweight 11 with his tooth side 6 at the oil pump gear 3 and with its outside 8th on the counterweight disc 11 or its outer circumference 12 is guided fittingly. A flutter, ie a vibration of the toothed belt 4 is thus in the range of a free route 15 avoided by the leadership or diversion, but at least reduced. In addition, the timing belt 4 on the tensioning device 13 opposite side of the belt 4 curious; excited.
  • According to the invention, a diameter of the counterweight is together with the circumference-filling element 17 and thus the circumference of the component thus formed is adapted, for example, reduced, such that a difference between the peripheral speed of the component formed (counterweight 11 together with the peripheral filling element 17 ) at the same angular velocity (relative to the balance shaft 16 and balance shaft wheel 10 ) and the running speed of the toothed belt 4 results. Due to the resulting friction between counterweight 11 together with the peripheral filling element 17 and timing belt 4 become the other wheel 9 and the balance shaft wheel 10 braced against each other. This exemplifies the backlash between the other wheel 9 and the balance shaft wheel 10 eliminated or at least reduced. This will cause a disturbing chattering or rattling of the gear pair 9 . 10 prevented, but at least reduced and achieved a smoother running.
  • In 2 is a front end of the balance shaft 16 shown which the balance shaft wheel 10 and the counterweight 11 wearing. In the illustrated embodiment, the counterweight 11 designed as a circular segment survey, which on the one hand at the free end face 18 the balance shaft wheel 10 and on the opposite side on the shaft side 19 the balance shaft wheel 10 is arranged. Insofar is part of the counterweight 11 arranged in front of the Radtriebebene and the opposite part in the Riementriebebene. The part of the counterweight arranged in the belt drive plane 11 is the perimeter element 17 assigned to form a component having the correspondingly designed outer circumference. The peripheral element 17 is expediently designed so that this the rest of the by the circular segment-like counterweight 11 full circle cut out.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the at the free end face 18 of the balance shaft wheel 10 arranged part of the counterweight 11 in the circular segment-like execution identical to the opposite, arranged in the belt drive plane part of the counterweight 11 be, with this part, in particular in adaptation to the drive means 4 , can be made wider. It is also conceivable, however, both sides of the counterweight 11 be executed differently in the circular segment-like execution, so that one side of the counterweight seen in the circumferential direction is larger or smaller than the other side of the counterweight 11 , The peripheral element 17 can be adapted to it, so that a common outer circumference (full circle) results.
  • The counterweight 11 and the extent-filling element 17 are assembled from ring segments in several parts. In 3 is a comprehensive element 17 represented, which can also be referred to as a segment cap. The counterweight 11 and the extent-filling element 17 can be made of different materials. Conceivable is a combination of steel and plastic (eg plastic). Of course, it is also possible if both components are formed from the same material, ie z. B. only made of steel or for example only made of plastic. Of course, the counterweight can 11 together with the peripheral filling element 17 also be made in one piece.
  • Essential to the invention, however, is that the outer diameter of the counterweight 11 together with the peripheral filling element 17 , So the component thus formed is adapted so that one to the running speed of the belt 4 sets different peripheral speed of the component formed. Since the balance shaft wheel 10 through the other wheel or gear 9 Both are driven and also the counterweight 11 together with the peripheral filling element 17 an equal angular velocity. The peripheral speed can also be referred to as web speed.

Claims (3)

  1. Drive system ( 1 ), in particular for an internal combustion engine, wherein the drive system ( 1 ) a drive wheel ( 2 ) and at least one driven wheel ( 3 ), which via a drive means ( 4 ) and one on a same shaft as the output gear ( 3 ) arranged further wheel ( 9 ), and a balance shaft wheel ( 10 ) and one on a same balance shaft ( 16 ) like the balance shaft wheel ( 10 ) counterweight ( 11 ), wherein the further wheel ( 9 ) so with the balance shaft wheel ( 10 ) that the balance shaft wheel ( 10 ) from the further wheel ( 9 ), and wherein the counterweight ( 11 ) in one of the drive wheel ( 2 ), the driven wheel ( 3 ) and the drive means ( 4 ) defined belt drive level ( 5 ) arranged in engagement with the drive means ( 1 ), the counterweight ( 11 ) together with a scope-filling element ( 17 ) has a common outer diameter, which is designed so that a peripheral speed of the counterweight ( 11 ) together with the extent-filling element ( 17 ) and a running speed of the drive means ( 4 ) are different, so that the balance shaft wheel ( 10 ) opposite the other wheel ( 9 ) is braced.
  2. Drive system according to claim 1, characterized in that the common outer diameter of the counterweight ( 11 ) and the peripheral element ( 17 ) is such that the peripheral speed of the counterweight ( 11 ) together with the extent-filling element ( 17 ) greater than the running speed of the drive means ( 4 ).
  3. Drive system according to claim 1, characterized in that the common outer diameter of the counterweight ( 11 ) and the peripheral element ( 17 ) is such that the peripheral speed of the counterweight ( 11 ) together with the extent-filling element ( 17 ) smaller than the running speed of the drive means ( 4 ).
DE200810042643 2008-10-07 2008-10-07 Belt drive Active DE102008042643B4 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200810042643 DE102008042643B4 (en) 2008-10-07 2008-10-07 Belt drive

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200810042643 DE102008042643B4 (en) 2008-10-07 2008-10-07 Belt drive
CN200910205207.1A CN101713450B (en) 2008-10-07 2009-09-30 Belt drive

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102008042643A1 DE102008042643A1 (en) 2010-04-15
DE102008042643B4 true DE102008042643B4 (en) 2013-01-17

Family

ID=41820866

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE200810042643 Active DE102008042643B4 (en) 2008-10-07 2008-10-07 Belt drive

Country Status (2)

Country Link
CN (1) CN101713450B (en)
DE (1) DE102008042643B4 (en)

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102008011673A1 (en) * 2008-02-28 2009-09-03 Ford Global Technologies, LLC, Dearborn Traction mechanism drive for driving e.g. coolant pump, of internal-combustion engine of motor vehicle, has compensating shaft arranged parallel to drive shaft, and counterweight designed in shape of wheel, which is engaged with mechanism

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3548673A (en) * 1969-06-17 1970-12-22 Us Army Antibacklash gear train
JPS6338573B2 (en) * 1983-08-31 1988-08-01 Matsuda Kk
DE19620233A1 (en) * 1996-05-20 1997-11-27 Audi Ag Device for balancing mass moments on reciprocating piston internal combustion engines
US6655340B2 (en) * 2001-10-01 2003-12-02 General Motors Corporation Engine with balancer for second order pitching couple

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102008011673A1 (en) * 2008-02-28 2009-09-03 Ford Global Technologies, LLC, Dearborn Traction mechanism drive for driving e.g. coolant pump, of internal-combustion engine of motor vehicle, has compensating shaft arranged parallel to drive shaft, and counterweight designed in shape of wheel, which is engaged with mechanism

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN101713450A (en) 2010-05-26
DE102008042643A1 (en) 2010-04-15
CN101713450B (en) 2014-02-26

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