DE102008036009B4 - Method for collision protection of a motor vehicle and parking garage assistant - Google Patents

Method for collision protection of a motor vehicle and parking garage assistant

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Publication number
DE102008036009B4
DE102008036009B4 DE102008036009.0A DE102008036009A DE102008036009B4 DE 102008036009 B4 DE102008036009 B4 DE 102008036009B4 DE 102008036009 A DE102008036009 A DE 102008036009A DE 102008036009 B4 DE102008036009 B4 DE 102008036009B4
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Germany
Prior art keywords
vehicle
environment
environment map
characterized
objects
Prior art date
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DE102008036009.0A
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German (de)
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DE102008036009A1 (en
Inventor
Dr. Scholz Stephan
Alexander Karmrodt
Carsten Semmler
Gordon SEITZ
Dr. Barthenheier Thomas
Dr. Auer Richard
Dr. Brosig Stefan
Daniel Mossau
Dennis Rosebrock
Jens Spehr
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Volkswagen AG
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Volkswagen AG
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Publication date
Priority to DE102008016337.6 priority Critical
Priority to DE102008016337 priority
Priority to DE102008028097.6 priority
Priority to DE102008028097 priority
Application filed by Volkswagen AG filed Critical Volkswagen AG
Priority to DE102008036009.0A priority patent/DE102008036009B4/en
Publication of DE102008036009A1 publication Critical patent/DE102008036009A1/en
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Publication of DE102008036009B4 publication Critical patent/DE102008036009B4/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D15/00Steering not otherwise provided for
    • B62D15/02Steering position indicators ; Steering position determination; Steering aids
    • B62D15/027Parking aids, e.g. instruction means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D15/00Steering not otherwise provided for
    • B62D15/02Steering position indicators ; Steering position determination; Steering aids
    • B62D15/025Active steering aids, e.g. helping the driver by actively influencing the steering system after environment evaluation
    • B62D15/0265Automatic obstacle avoidance by steering
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D15/00Steering not otherwise provided for
    • B62D15/02Steering position indicators ; Steering position determination; Steering aids
    • B62D15/029Steering assistants using warnings or proposing actions to the driver without influencing the steering system
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08GTRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    • G08G1/00Traffic control systems for road vehicles
    • G08G1/16Anti-collision systems
    • G08G1/165Anti-collision systems for passive traffic, e.g. including static obstacles, trees
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08GTRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    • G08G1/00Traffic control systems for road vehicles
    • G08G1/16Anti-collision systems
    • G08G1/168Driving aids for parking, e.g. acoustic or visual feedback on parking space

Abstract

A method for collision protection of a vehicle (1), in particular of a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle combination, in the parking and maneuvering area, wherein the vehicle (1) an environment sensor system (S1-S16) for detecting environment objects (9-11, 13-16) in the environment of the vehicle (1), comprising the following steps: - acquiring the sensor information of the environment sensor of the vehicle (1), - creating an environment map (26) from the sensor information of the surroundings sensor, wherein the environment map (26) is a grid-based map with equidistant grid points Determining the vehicle - own movement, and determining the collision probability of the vehicle with environment objects located in the surroundings of the vehicle from the surroundings objects depicted in the environment map, taking into account the vehicle 's own movement, characterized in that The grid points formed grid surfaces the values "Busy", "Free" or "Not Bek annt "are assigned by the sensor information, wherein the vehicle has a display (23) for displaying the environment map (26) and the vehicle (1) and in the environment map (26) a safety zone (32) surrounding the vehicle is shown, wherein objects (33) of the environment map (26) within the security zone (32) are shown highlighted, while objects outside the security zone are shown visually restrained.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for protecting a vehicle from a collision in the parking and maneuvering area as well as a parking garage assistant for assisting the driver of a vehicle according to the preamble of claim 1 and of claim 14.
  • A driver of today's motor vehicles is in the parking and maneuvering area, so when parking and maneuvering in a parking lot or in a parking garage, often overwhelmed with the driving tasks. This is essentially due to the fact that the vehicle dimensions of the models increase in the course of model maintenance, the parking spaces, however, remain the same or be reduced for optimization. Thus, the available parking space for the driver is objectively too small. Furthermore, the vehicles, for example, for aerodynamic and / or design reasons, designed so that the driver can not overlook the dimensions of the vehicle or estimate.
  • The consequences can therefore be considerable damage to the vehicles and the infrastructure of parking garages or parking lots, which entails high follow-up costs. Also, the damage to the vehicle can be safety-relevant and significantly reduce the time value of the vehicle.
  • Meanwhile, today's vehicles are often already equipped as standard with distance warning for the parking area, known as Park Distance Control PDC equipped. Furthermore, systems for the concrete support of the driver when parking in a parking space are available as standard equipment for a short time, which is known under the name park steering assistant or Park Assist. Consequently, environment sensors that observe the immediate surroundings of the vehicle are already installed in production vehicles.
  • It is known from the field of robotics that mobile robots, by means of one or more suitable sensors, create an image of their surroundings in order to plan movement paths without colliding with objects in the surroundings and to move autonomously along such paths. Such images of the environment can be created in the form of so-called "Occupancy Grid Maps", d. H. in the form of grid-based environment maps with equidistant grid points, each grid area of the grid being assigned a probability value. For the occupation of a grid area, three states can be defined from the measurements of the sensor in the simplest case, namely the states "occupied", "free" or "unknown", which are assigned to the grid area. These states then each corresponding to a probability of "1", "0" or "0.5". The various methods used in robotics for the creation of such grid-based environment cards will not be discussed further here since this is not the subject of the invention.
  • Meanwhile, the use of grid-based environment maps in the automotive sector is being considered. This is how the document Sugimoto et. al.: "Obstacle Detection Using Millimeter-wave Radar and Its Visualization on Image Sequence," Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, IEEE, 2004, a method of detecting objects by radar, using the radar data to create a grid-based map and equate the resulting clusters in the map with objects.
  • Furthermore, in the article Nguyen et. al., "A Sensor Fusion Approach Based on Occupancy Grid and Fuzzy Logic, 5th International Workshop on Intelligent Transportation (WIT), Hamburg, March 18-19, 2008, the fusion of data from multiple and different sensors of a motor vehicle using a grid based environment map conceived by means of a fuzzy logic approach.
  • The publication DE 10 2005 026 386 A1 relates to a method for determining open spaces in an environment of a motor vehicle and a corresponding device, wherein the following steps are carried out:
    • - Performing a signal transit time measurement for measuring objects in the environment of the motor vehicle;
    • Determining an object probability distribution based on the result of the signal propagation time measurement and
    • Fusing the object probability distribution with an obstacle probability distribution, the obstacle probability distribution being represented by means of a cellular environment map of the motor vehicle, and occupancy values of the cells being reduced and / or increased during fusing, the cells initially having a predefined occupancy value.
  • In known environment maps, a probability distribution of the obstacles in the surroundings of the vehicle is stored so that a complex representation of the surroundings of the vehicle results with different cell occupation values.
  • The publication DE 10 2004 005 225 A1 describes a driver assistance device for avoiding a collision of a vehicle door with an obstacle upon opening the vehicle door, in which an output unit is used to output information about the door opening. A measuring unit determines the Distance of the vehicle to obstacles to output this information. When passing the obstacle, the measurement result of a position is assigned to the travel path of the vehicle. The output unit serves to output a stop point for opening the vehicle door.
  • The publication DE 103 31 235 A1 describes a driving assistance device with an output unit for outputting driving instructions to a driver, in particular for parking in a parking space, in which the driver with the driving instructions, a driving range between two trajectories is indicated, within which the driver can choose a path into the parking space freely. As a result, he does not have to follow a single, predetermined ideal line and yet has the security of not taking a collision risk.
  • The invention is therefore based on the object to provide a simple method for collision protection of a vehicle in the parking and maneuvering area and such a parking garage assistant using an environment map, which a 360 ° collision protection for the vehicle is made possible.
  • The object is achieved by a method having the features of claim 1 and by a parking garage assistant having the features of claim 14. Preferred embodiments of the invention are the subject of the dependent claims.
  • The method according to the invention for protecting a vehicle from a collision in the parking and maneuvering area, wherein the vehicle has surroundings sensors for detecting objects in the surroundings of the vehicle, comprises the following steps:
    • Detecting the sensor information of the environment sensor of the vehicle,
    • Creating an environment map from the sensor information of the environmental sensor system,
    • - determination of the vehicle's own movement, whereby the environment map ( 26 ) is a grid-based map with equidistant grid points, and
    • Determining the collision probability of the vehicle with environmental objects located in the surroundings of the vehicle from the environment objects depicted in the environment map, taking into account the vehicle's own movement, wherein the grid surfaces formed by the grid points are the values "busy", "free" or "not known" by the sensor information be assigned to.
  • In this case, the vehicle has a display for displaying the environment map and the vehicle. If a radio navigation system with a corresponding display is present in the vehicle, this display can be used for the display.
  • Furthermore, a safety zone surrounding the vehicle is displayed in the environment map, whereby objects of the environment map in the safety zone are visually highlighted. Furthermore, for the driver's information, the predicted driving route and / or the driving route for driving on a collision-free path of the vehicle are preferably displayed in the surroundings map.
  • Here, in particular, a vehicle or a motor vehicle combination, d. H. a motor vehicle with a trailer, understood.
  • Consequently, in the above-mentioned first step of the method, environmental information is obtained from the sensors installed on the vehicle. The type of sensor used plays only a minor role. Preferably, however, existing series sensors can be used for this purpose, such as. B. the ultrasonic sensors used for Einparkassistenzfunktionen.
  • In the second step, this information is entered in an environment map. This can be expressed as being co-moving with the vehicle coordinate system or as an environment map statically defined on the world coordinate system. The content of the card is preferably updated by the sensor information from acquisition cycle to acquisition cycle.
  • Considering the vehicle's own motion, a vehicle trajectory can be predicted in the future and it can thus be determined whether the vehicle will collide with an environmental obstacle. The decisive advantage that results from this is that the environment information is stored and, so to speak, traced relative to the vehicle movement. This also makes it possible to provide protection for the vehicle side area (flank), even if this area is not detected directly by a sensor, so that possible collisions can also be predicted there without additional sensors.
  • The environment map is realized by a grid-based map with equidistant grid points. As a result, the grating surfaces have an identical size and, depending on the grating spacing, a sufficient quantization of the area of the surroundings of the vehicle results in order to localize objects in the environment map sufficiently precisely, so that the collision risk can be localized with sufficient spatial accuracy.
  • Advantageously, the environment map is updated by the sensor information of each new acquisition cycle. Since the current sensor information is measured relative to a vehicle-fixed coordinate system, this information for Updated the environment map in the case of a space-fixed environment map in the space-fixed coordinate system of the environment map to be transformed. Since the vehicle speed and the steering angle are known, this transformation can be performed in consideration of the vehicle movement. With the update of the environment map with each acquisition cycle, taking into account the vehicle's own movement, the environment map contains not only objects of the current sensor measurement but also of an earlier one. Therefore, the environment map contains information about objects in the 360 ° environment of the vehicle and it can also be determined for the currently not detected by the environment sensors, but in the environment map objects, a collision probability, since the environment map has, so to speak, a memory.
  • It is irrelevant whether the environment map is fixed space or vehicle-fixed. Preferably, however, the space-safe environment map is used, as this is an image of what the driver offers in reality.
  • As already mentioned, a future vehicle trajectory can be predicted from the vehicle's own motion, wherein the trajectory can be derived from the vehicle's own speed and the steering angle. From this prediction of the vehicle trajectory, a three-dimensional travel tube is preferably derived, taking into account the geometrical vehicle dimensions, from which the collision probability can be determined using an environment object. The determination of the driving tube of the vehicle is also possible for teams, as the behavior of the coupled trailer due to the movement of the towing vehicle is predictable.
  • Advantageously, it can be checked by means of the environment map even when the vehicle is stationary, whether a door opening would collide with an environment object of the environment map. For this purpose, the over-swept area or opening trajectory of the vehicle door to be opened is predicted, which is possible due to the knowledge of the geometric properties of the door. In particular, the maximum collision-free door opening angle can be determined from the environment map in this way. In this embodiment of the method, therefore, the environment map is used to detect the stop of the vehicle doors when opening against an obstacle when the vehicle is stationary. It is recognized from the vehicle data that the vehicle is at a standstill and an occupant wants to open a door. The opening of the door can be detected, for example, by operating the door opener. Based on the door geometries and the maximum opening angle of the door to be opened, its opening trajectory or the surface swept over the ground can be determined. If an obstacle lies within the trajectory or the swept area in the environment map, the potential collision is detected. In a further step, the maximum possible collision-free opening angle is determined.
  • Advantageously, an acoustic and / or optical and / or haptic warning is output in the event of a collision. In this case, the visual warning can be carried out in a display, wherein in the display, the vehicle is displayed with a highlighted representation of the prospective collision location. Furthermore, the current vehicle speed and / or other relevant information can be displayed in the display. The presentation of this warning information takes place, for example, in the multi-function display of the vehicle.
  • Preferably, in the display, further vehicle data such as the vehicle's own speed and / or direction of travel and / or wheel steering angle can be displayed.
  • Preferably, the longitudinal axis of the vehicle shown in the display is parallel to the real longitudinal axis of the vehicle. As a result, the image of the surroundings of the vehicle shown in the display corresponds to that of the driver of the vehicle, so that due to the direct relationship of the driver, the information of the surroundings map can be recorded more quickly.
  • The parking garage assistant according to the invention of a vehicle for carrying out the above-described method comprises an environment sensor system for detecting the environment of the vehicle, an evaluation unit for evaluating the environment data and creating an environment map of the vehicle with equidistant grid points and at least one display, wherein the grid surfaces formed by the grid points, the values "Busy", "Free" or "Not known" can be assigned by the sensor information.
  • Preferably, the parking garage assistant has a predetermined number of ultrasonic sensors, wherein furthermore the parking garage assistant can have at least one optically active sensor, for example a laser scanner and / or a camera.
  • Preferably, the data of a maximum of 16 ultrasonic sensors are detected, with a maximum of 8 sensors in the bow area and a maximum of 8 sensors in the rear of the vehicle are arranged.
  • It is presented with the above-described method and apparatus a warning concept, with which it is possible to damage the vehicle, which may arise during parking or maneuvering prevent. Based on the warning concept, the driver is provided with a very intuitive way of knowing which objects in the vehicle environment are relevant depending on the current vehicle maneuver and if these would endanger the vehicle and where the vehicle would be damaged if the driver did not intervene to correct it.
  • The display concept therefore has the following advantages:
    • - Visualization of the ego vehicle
    • - Illustration of the vehicle-related safety zone around the vehicle as a function of driving dynamics characteristics such as speed
    • - Determination and display of the predicted driving tube
    • - Showing the detected by the sensor in the vehicle environment obstacles, as well as visualization of the relevance and criticality of the objects related to the current driving maneuver, as well as the predicted impact on the vehicle
    • - directed acoustic and visual warning of the driver
  • It is essential here that the viewer of the ad is immediately aware of the meaning of what is portrayed, or that it can easily be deduced. The ego vehicle is z. B. easily recognizable as such by its stylized representation and the viewer has no difficulty recognizing how the vehicle is aligned. This is partly due to the graphics themselves, as this makes it easy for the viewer to distinguish the front of the vehicle from the rear end. In addition, there is no contradiction to the actual vehicle position, since the longitudinal axis of the stylized vehicle is parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis of the real vehicle. So the viewer does not have to make a complicated conversion to his own position in the room, as z. B. the case would be, if the representation of the ego vehicle would be rotated by 90 °.
  • Another significant advantage of the method lies in the way in which the objects detected by the environmental sensor system are displayed:
    • - The viewer is also displayed objects in the 360 ° environment, which are not immediately a threat;
    • - This is done in the form that objects outside the security zone are shown only schematically and
    • - only then be visually highlighted when they dip into the safety zone.
  • The design of the safety zone can be carried out in such a way that the size, position and shape depending on various driving dynamics parameters such as speed and steering angle done. The representation of the safety zone in relation to the vehicle may have different characteristics:
    • - The display size of the vehicle remains constant, the envelope of the safety zone is varied
    • - The display size of the safety zone remains constant and the display size of the vehicle is varied, or
    • - Combinations of the previously mentioned characteristics
  • If the surrounding objects constitute a hazard as a function of the current driving maneuver, this is indicated by the fact that the affected part of the safety zone is highlighted in color and a directional acoustic warning depending on the obstacle direction and Kollisionskritikalität is issued.
  • In addition, the viewer is shown by color coding, at which point of the ego vehicle the damage would occur if the driver does not intervene corrective.
  • The collision criticality is not only dependent on the absolute distance to the relevant obstacle, as in conventional systems, but is determined by the travel path of the vehicle to the collision. Accordingly, in addition to the geometric arrangement, the driving dynamics parameters also influence the urgency of the warning.
  • It is further preferred that in the case of an expected collision, the parking garage assistant generates an active steering recommendation. Therefore, if the parking garage assistant determines that a collision will occur within the predicted driving lane as it is tracked by the driver within a predetermined distance or time, i. E. H. the collision probability exceeds a predetermined threshold, then the parking garage assistant can intervene in a predetermined manner to prevent a collision. This can be done in the form that the active steering recommendation is made by optical evidence. Another possibility is that the active steering recommendation is done by direct steering intervention or by impressing a steering torque on the steering.
  • Preferred embodiments of the invention are illustrated below with reference to the drawings. It shows
  • 1 a schematic representation of a conventional collision scenario in a parking garage or a parking garage,
  • 2 a vehicle in a parking garage floor in a schematic representation without parking garage assistant (left) and with parking garage assistant (right),
  • 3 the generation of an environment map by means of an exemplary sensor in a moving vehicle,
  • 4 the arrangement of environmental sensors in a vehicle,
  • 5 the possibilities of mapping the environment sensor data on a multifunction display (top right) and on the display of the radio navigation unit (bottom right),
  • 6 the representation of the environment map of a vehicle with security zone displayed when reversing,
  • 7 the display of 6 in zoomed view,
  • 8th the representation of the environment map of a vehicle with security zone displayed during forward travel, and
  • 9 the display of 8th in zoomed representation.
  • 1 shows a typical collision-intensive situation when driving in a parking garage or underground parking, for example, to search for a free parking space, which often lead to vehicle damage and motivation for the development of the method and the parking garage assistant forms.
  • A vehicle 1 moves in a parking garage 2 along a lane 3 looking for a parking space or to leave the parking garage. To get out of the parking area 4 into a transit 5 For example, an exit or a ramp to another parking area, not shown, to enter, the vehicle must 1 drive a left turn, with the vehicle around an edge area 6 the passage 5 must be maneuvered around. If the driver of the vehicle 1 the lane 3 to handle the left-hander, as selected incorrectly, is a collision of the lateral area of the vehicle 1 with the edge area 6 the passage 5 inevitable.
  • 2 shows the basic procedure of the parking assistant in a schematic representation. In both parts of the 2 the vehicle drives 1 in the park area 4 a parking garage 2 For example, looking for a parking space.
  • In the left part of the 1 is the vehicle 1 not equipped with a parking garage assistant and the driver selects the route (not shown) in the passage 5 without support.
  • In the right part of the 2 is the vehicle 1 equipped with a parking garage assistant, the locating signals 7 emitted on both sides. The locating signals 7 be right side of the wall 8th and left side of the parked vehicle 9 reflected so that the parking garage assistant from the reflected signals of the locating signals 7 as well as the proper motion of the vehicle 1 Create an environment map and generate appropriate information to the driver.
  • 3 shows a schematic representation of the procedure of the parking garage assistant in detail. The vehicle 1 moves within a space-fixed xy-coordinate system along a series of possible collision objects, namely columns in the case shown 9 . 10 and 11 , In the left part of the 3 sends a front sensor (not shown) of the vehicle 1 locating signals 8th from the pillar 11 are reflected and the reflected signals are detected by a corresponding receiver of the front sensor and supplied to the parking garage assistant. This is the vehicle 1 At time t0 of the measurement, the reference point P0 is assigned in the xy coordinate system.
  • At another time t1, shown in the middle part of the 3 in which the vehicle 1 the reference point P1 is assigned, the vehicle has become 1 moved from the reference point P0 to the reference point P1 in the space fixed xy coordinate system and it will be a further measurement with the on the vehicle 1 sensor arranged on the front right, which is caused by the locating signals 8th is shown. The locating signals 8th the measurement with respect to the reference point P1 also detects the column 11 , but with different distances relative to the vehicle 1 which then takes into account the vehicle's own speed 1 be converted into the xy reference system.
  • Taking into account various measuring cycles at different reference points due to the vehicle's own motion 1 , ie at different times, then results in the right part of the 3 illustrated grid-based environment map 12 in which the positions of the columns 9 . 10 and 11 are reflected in space. Positions in a grid-based environment map means the assignment of the value "busy", ie usually logical "1", to a corresponding grid area. The other grid areas have the value "Free" or the value "Not known". The value "Free" is assigned to the grid areas swept by the lobe of the location signal beam, without triggering a reflection. The value "not known" can be assigned to grid surfaces which are shielded from the lobe of the locating signal beam, that is, for example, are arranged behind an obstacle and regardless of the position of the vehicle are not reached by the locating signal, ie always lie in the beam shadow.
  • 4 shows an example representation of a vehicle 1 with on the vehicle 1 arranged environment sensors S1 to S16. Conventionally, ultrasound sensors already used in production vehicles, such as those used for park steering assistant applications (PLA) and for park distance control applications (PDC), are used. Usually, PLA sensors have a detection range of approx. 3.5 m and can be used up to a maximum speed of approx. 15 km / h. PDC sensors usually have a detection range of approx. 1.5 m and can be used up to a maximum speed of approx. 10 km / h. The sensors are arranged at predetermined angles on the vehicle, so the sensor S5 detected at 0 ° to the vehicle longitudinal axis forward, sensor S6 detects 30 ° to the side, sensor S7 detects 60 ° to the side and sensor S8 90 ° to the side, each based on the vehicle longitudinal axis. The sensors S1 to S4 and S9 to S17 are arranged correspondingly symmetrical. Furthermore, the vehicle may also have an optically active sensor, such as a laser scanner and / or a monocular camera (not shown).
  • 5 shows several possibilities of displaying the results of a parking garage assistant in the cockpit of a vehicle. In the left part of the 5 is a vehicle 1 in an environment with 4 objects 13 . 14 . 15 . 16 shown in the form of columns, with the intended direction of travel 17 symbolically represented by an arrow. The environmental sensors (not shown) of the car park assistant of the vehicle 1 send locating signals 18 forward and locating signal 19 to the rear to determine the vehicle environment. As already described above, the parking garage assistant generates a grid-based environment map of the vehicle's 360 ° environment 1 and possibly a warning. Furthermore, the parking garage assistant determines the collision area of the vehicle 1 concerning the possible collision.
  • The upper arrow 20 of the 5 indicates possible representations of a risk of collision in the multifunction display 22 of the vehicle 1 out. In the left illustration of the multifunction display 22 the collision area is directly as a highlighted hint area 24 the representation of the vehicle 1 shown here in 5 shown in dashed lines. In the right-hand illustration of the multifunction display 22 is the range of possible collision by an on the front left area of the vehicle shown 1 indicative pointer 25 visually visualized, which in 5 also shown in dashed lines. Thereby the hint areas become 24 . 25 on the collision areas in the presentation of the multifunction display 22 visually highlighted, for example in red. Furthermore, in the multifunction display 22 even more information such as direction and vehicle speed be shown, which are not shown here.
  • The lower arrow in 5 points to the representation of the environment map and the warning of a possible collision in the display 23 of the radio navigation system. This display is usually mounted in the center console or in the center of the dashboard and is much larger than the multifunction display 22 , which is located in the dashboard directly in the driver's field of vision. Presented in the ad 23 is the grid-based environment map 26 with in the environment map 26 represented vehicle 1 as well as its from own airspeed, steering angle and vehicle dimensions predicted Fahrschlauch 28 , It should be noted that the orientation of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle 1 parallel to the real longitudinal axis of the vehicle 1 takes place so that the reference system of the vehicle coincides with that of the driver. Further, in the environment map 26 detected environment objects 27 shown. The visually highlighted area 30 (hatched shown) the representation of the vehicle 1 Visualizes the driver a possible collision in a follow-up of the predicted driving tube 28 , Further, in the ad 23 another free area 29 present, which is used to display the vehicle speed, the steering angle and other information important to the driver of the parking garage assistant.
  • 6 shows a further preferred embodiment of the representation of the grid-based environment map 26 on a display in the vehicle, preferably the display 23 of the radio navigation system. There is also a security area 32 around the vehicle 1 shown. Within this security area 32 are the detected environment objects 33 visually highlighted, while the surrounding objects 31 outside the security area 32 the environment map 26 visually restrained. This will ensure that the driver's attention to the important objects 33 in the immediate vicinity of the vehicle 1 is steered. Furthermore, in the environment map the predicated driving line 28 represented by the vehicle speed, the steering angle and the geometric dimensions of the vehicle 1 is calculated. In the 6 is the predicted driving tube 28 directed backwards so that it is a reverse drive, ie, for example, a Ausparkvorgang is. The free space above and below the representation of the environment map 26 can for the Presentation of further information of the parking garage assistant serve.
  • 7 shows the situation of 6 in enlarged, ie zoomed representation. The change between enlarged and normal representation can be initiated by the driver or automatically based on predetermined criteria. The environment map 26 is not completely on the ad 23 shown, however, is the security zone 32 so enlarged shown that they the permissible display range of the environment map 26 maximally exploited. The objects within the security zone 32 are again shown highlighted, which should be symbolized by the hatching. Because the predicted driving tube 28 no collision hazard, no collision warning is displayed.
  • 8th shows a representation of the environment map 26 of a vehicle 1 in an ad 23 of the radio navigation system. Shown are the visually restrained objects 31 outside the security zone 32 of the vehicle 1 while the objects 33 within the security zone 32 visually highlighted, which is to be symbolized by the dashes. In 8th is a predicted driving tube 28 in the forward direction of the vehicle 1 intended. This will cause collisions of the vehicle 1 with environment objects, whereby the immediately to be expected collision by warning areas 34 and 35 is shown. The warning area 34 concerns the collision object of the environment map 26 while the warning area 35 the impact area of the vehicle 1 symbolizes. That by the intended driving route 28 in time direction later acting collision object 36 is not marked with a warning area, because first the collision in the areas 34 and 35 will be done.
  • 9 shows the situation of 8th in an enlarged view, the representation of the safety zone 32 within the display area of the environment map 26 is maximized. The warning areas 34 and 35 a possible collision while maintaining the predicted driving tube 28 are optically maximally highlighted, for example, by the use of a red color, which in the 8th and 9 symbolized by a punctuation. There is therefore the gradation "visually restrained", "optically highlighted" and "optically maximally highlighted" in the illustration to convey to the driver the urgency of the particular information. These gradations can be effected by appropriate choice of brightness and color design, for example "optically restrained" by low brightness, "optically highlighted" by high brightness and "optically maximized" by maximum brightness in conjunction with aggressive coloration, such as Color red, be effected.
  • The main advantages of the described embodiments can be summarized as follows:
    • The driver immediately receives feedback that the protection function is active and can more easily establish a system confidence than if only those objects are represented that currently endanger the vehicle.
    • - By the additional display of the driving tube, it is easy for the driver to recognize whether the current steering angle is suitable to avoid obstacles, even if they are not yet in the shelter.
    • - Highlighting objects in the shelter makes it easier for the viewer to keep track even when there are many obstacles in the vehicle environment.
    • - The fact that the relevant part of the shelter is highlighted, the warning function is implemented in an easy-to-understand manner in the presentation.
    • - This is also upgraded visually and content by the fact that even the endangered areas on the ego vehicle itself are highlighted. Particularly in situations in which objects become dangerous only when the vehicle passes by, the point of impact not immediately adjacent to the object clarifies to the observer why an object is classified as critical.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    vehicle
    2
    car park
    3
    lane
    4
    parking area
    5
    passage
    6
    edge
    7
    locating signal
    8th
    locating signal
    9
    pillar
    10
    pillar
    11
    pillar
    12
    environment map
    13
    object
    14
    object
    15
    object
    16
    object
    17
    direction of travel
    18
    Locate signals forward
    19
    Tracking signals backwards
    20
    Hinweispfeil
    21
    Hinweispfeil
    22
    Multi-function display
    23
    Display radio navigation system
    24
    Note collision
    25
    Note collision
    26
    grid-based environment map
    27
    environment objects
    28
    predicated two-dimensional driving tube
    29
    free ad area
    30
    Note on possible collision area of the vehicle
    31
    Objects of the environment map outside the security zone
    32
    security zone
    33
    Objects within the security zone
    34
    warning area
    35
    warning area
    36
    in the temporal direction later possible collision object
    P0
    Reference point 0
    P1
    Reference point 1
    S1-S16
    ambient sensor

Claims (19)

  1. Method for collision protection of a vehicle ( 1 ), in particular a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle combination, in the parking and maneuvering area, wherein the vehicle ( 1 ) an environment sensor system (S1-S16) for detecting environmental objects ( 9 - 11 . 13 - 16 ) in the environment of the vehicle ( 1 ), comprising the following steps: - detecting the sensor information of the environment sensor of the vehicle ( 1 ), - creating an environment map ( 26 ) from the sensor information of the environment sensor system, wherein the environment map ( 26 ) is a grid-based map with equidistant grid points, - determining the vehicle's own motion, and - determining the collision probability of the vehicle ( 1 ) with environment objects located in the surroundings of the vehicle from the environment map ( 26 ) imaged environment objects ( 31 . 33 ) taking account of the vehicle's own movement, characterized in that the grid areas formed by the grid points are assigned the values "Busy", "Free" or "Not known" by the sensor information, the vehicle displaying ( 23 ) for displaying the environment map ( 26 ) as well as the vehicle ( 1 ) and in the environment map ( 26 ) a safety zone surrounding the vehicle ( 32 ), where objects ( 33 ) of the environment map ( 26 ) within the security zone ( 32 ) are shown highlighted, while objects outside the security zone are shown visually restrained.
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the environment map ( 26 ) is updated by the sensor information of a new acquisition cycle.
  3. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the environment map ( 26 ) is fixed in space or vehicle-resistant.
  4. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a future vehicle trajectory is predicted from the vehicle's own motion.
  5. A method according to claim 4, characterized in that from the future Fahrzeugtrajektorie a predicted driving tube ( 28 ) is derived from the predicted driving line ( 28 ) a collision probability with an environment object ( 33 ) is determined.
  6. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that when the vehicle is stationary ( 1 ) is checked whether a door opening would collide with an environment object of the environment map.
  7. A method according to claim 6, characterized in that the maximum collision-free door opening angle from the environment map ( 26 ) is determined.
  8. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at the risk of a collision, an audible and / or visual and / or haptic warning is issued.
  9. A method according to claim 8, characterized in that the visual warning in a display ( 22 ), wherein in the display the vehicle is displayed with a highlighted representation of the prospective collision location.
  10. A method according to claim 9, characterized in that the current vehicle speed in the display ( 22 ) is pictured.
  11. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the environment map of the predicated driving tube ( 28 ) of the vehicle ( 1 ) is shown.
  12. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the display ( 23 ) for displaying the environment map ( 26 ) Further vehicle data such as the vehicle's own speed and / or direction of travel and / or wheel steering angle are shown.
  13. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the longitudinal axis of the in the display for displaying the environment map ( 26 ) shown vehicle ( 1 ) is parallel to the real longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
  14. Parking garage assistant of a vehicle ( 1 ), which is set up and designed to carry out the method according to one of the preceding claims, with an environment sensor system (S1-S16) for detecting the environment of the vehicle, an evaluation unit for evaluating the environmental data and creating a grid-based environment map ( 26 ) of the vehicle ( 1 ) with equidistant grid points and at least one display, characterized in that the grid areas formed by the grid points are assigned the values "Busy", "Free" or "Not known" by the sensor information, the vehicle displays ( 23 ) for displaying the environment map ( 26 ) as well as the vehicle ( 1 ) and in the environment map ( 26 ) a safety zone surrounding the vehicle ( 32 ), where objects ( 33 ) of the environment map ( 26 ) within the security zone ( 32 ) are shown highlighted, while objects outside the security zone are shown visually restrained.
  15. Parking garage assistant according to claim 14, characterized in that the parking garage assistant has a predetermined number of ultrasonic sensors (S1-S16).
  16. Parking garage assistant according to claim 15, characterized in that the parking garage assistant has at least one optically active sensor.
  17. Parking garage assistant according to one of claims 14 to 16, characterized in that in the case of an expected collision of the parking garage assistant generates an active steering recommendation.
  18. Parking garage assistant according to claim 17, characterized in that the active steering recommendation is made by visual cues.
  19. Parking garage assistant according to claim 18, characterized in that the active steering recommendation is carried out by direct steering intervention or by impressing a steering torque on the steering.
DE102008036009.0A 2008-03-28 2008-08-01 Method for collision protection of a motor vehicle and parking garage assistant Active DE102008036009B4 (en)

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DE102008016337 2008-03-28
DE102008028097.6 2008-06-13
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