DE102008024308B4 - Method for detecting non-cooperative aviation on board an aircraft - Google Patents

Method for detecting non-cooperative aviation on board an aircraft

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Publication number
DE102008024308B4
DE102008024308B4 DE200810024308 DE102008024308A DE102008024308B4 DE 102008024308 B4 DE102008024308 B4 DE 102008024308B4 DE 200810024308 DE200810024308 DE 200810024308 DE 102008024308 A DE102008024308 A DE 102008024308A DE 102008024308 B4 DE102008024308 B4 DE 102008024308B4
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
characterized
target
position
aircraft
sensors
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Active
Application number
DE200810024308
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German (de)
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DE102008024308A1 (en
Inventor
Alexander Dr. Knoll
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Airbus Defence and Space GmbH
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EADS Deutschland GmbH
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Priority to DE200810024308 priority Critical patent/DE102008024308B4/en
Publication of DE102008024308A1 publication Critical patent/DE102008024308A1/en
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Publication of DE102008024308B4 publication Critical patent/DE102008024308B4/en
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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/16Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08GTRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    • G08G5/00Traffic control systems for aircraft, e.g. air-traffic control [ATC]
    • G08G5/0017Arrangements for implementing traffic-related aircraft activities, e.g. arrangements for generating, displaying, acquiring or managing traffic information
    • G08G5/0021Arrangements for implementing traffic-related aircraft activities, e.g. arrangements for generating, displaying, acquiring or managing traffic information located in the aircraft
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08GTRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    • G08G5/00Traffic control systems for aircraft, e.g. air-traffic control [ATC]
    • G08G5/0073Surveillance aids
    • G08G5/0078Surveillance aids for monitoring traffic from the aircraft

Abstract

Method for detecting non-cooperative aviation on board an aircraft (1), wherein the distance and / or the position of the target (Z) from the angles (2) of the aircraft (1) are detected by means of two sensors (S1, S2) on the two wings (2) of the aircraft (1). φ 1 , φ 2 ), under which the sensors (S1, S2) detect the target (Z) is calculated, characterized in that the current position of the aircraft (1) is detected and by means of a terrain database, a comparison of the calculated distance or the position of the target (Z) is made with the terrain data to verify the target (Z).

Description

  • The The invention relates to a method for detecting non-cooperative Aviation on board an aircraft.
  • In certain airspaces is both controlled (cooperative) and uncontrolled (non-cooperative) Air traffic. The uncontrolled air traffic is partly not obliged, transponder or similar equipment carry. So far, uncontrolled traffic has to be visually recognized by the pilot become.
  • The Visual recognition currently does not allow a sufficiently accurate determination the distance. The human pilot can because of his eye relief see only up to distances under 10 m spatially. The pilot is otherwise dependent on his experience. But not in advance it is known how big a Flying object is, therefore, no reliable distance estimation possible.
  • For the business of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), e.g. As drones, it is for approval required to prove that such non-cooperative objects can be detected at least with the same accuracy as this could also be the human pilot.
  • From the US 5,581,250 A is a collision warning system for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is known in which at the wing tips in each case a forward looking IR camera is present.
  • The US 6,678,394 A describes a three-dimensional obstacle warning system. In a training phase, a three-dimensional image of the scene is created. In the deployment phase, the scene image generated in the training phase is compared with the current three-dimensional image of the scene.
  • It Object of the invention to provide a method, the position (in particular the relative position relative to the own aircraft) and / or Distance of non-cooperative flying objects on board an aircraft reliable and detected with little effort.
  • These The object is achieved by the method according to claim 1. advantageous versions are the subject of dependent claims.
  • The Proposed method uses one sensor on each wing of the Aircraft. This can be done by comparing the angle under which the object is detected on each sensor, the Distance and / or the position of the target can be detected. The sensors are preferred on the outer tips the wing appropriate to one as possible size range resolution to reach. With sufficient span, the sensors can also in other places on the wing be arranged.
  • In an execution the method according to the invention can more than two such sensors can be used to cover a larger angular range (ideally 360 °) to be able to.
  • When Sensors can both active sensors (eg radars, laser radars) and passive sensors be used (eg, IR sensors).
  • optical Sensors have the advantage of being very cost effective because commercially available. For some time now, passive IR sensor systems have been available on the market for subsequent mounting Sport aircraft available. This inexpensive Sensors can also be used within the scope of the invention.
  • With Help of such a system, it is possible the admission requirement for UAV, according to which at least the skills be met by the human pilot in terms of obstacle detection have to, to excel.
  • The two wings are usually subject to strong relative movements to each other and lead with the plane additional Movements (especially roll and yaw). To these shifts and to compensate for rotations of the sensors, z. B. via position sensors or position change sensors the movement of the aircraft are detected. The relative movement the sensors on the two wings can then based on this by detecting the deflection of the wing included in the calculation become. Alternatively, however, is also a direct position determination the two wing tips (eg by satellite navigation) possible.
  • According to the invention is at known own position of the aircraft by accessing a terrain database verifies a once detected target. The detected target is only of interest with regard to evasion of aircraft, if its distance from the aircraft is less than the distance of the aircraft to the terrain, such as he himself due to the terrain data of the database. With that you can especially detected as target target terrain objects detected and discarded become.
  • Also, by examining whether the position of the detected target changes relative to the terrain over time, a target can be quickly verified. Obstacles that maintain their position relative to the ground are mostly terrain objects and are discarded. Most important are goals that change their position to the terrain. Exceptions are z. B. hovering helicopters or airships. These are also relevant for evasive maneuvers, but usually this can be avoided more easily. From the time course of the distance change and the known own position, the speed of the target can be determined. Particularly advantageous can be derived from the speed of the target, the required evasive maneuver.
  • at known position of the aircraft in space and time of day the position of sun and moon are calculated. Their positions can advantageously aligned with the position of the detected target to avoid stars being recognized as flying objects become.
  • The Invention will be described with reference to concrete embodiments with reference closer to figures explained. Show it:
  • 1 a sketch for carrying out the method according to the invention;
  • 2 a sketch for the possible distance estimation;
  • 3 a sketch to determine the deflection of a wing.
  • 1 shows a schematic representation of the situation in the course of the method according to the invention. The aircraft 1 points to the ends of his two wings 2 in each case a sensor S1, S2. Suitable z. B. IR sensors. Such sensors are suitable for detecting warm objects (aircraft) from the cold sky. This applies during the day and at night and with restrictions even in fog. From the two angles φ 1 , φ 2 , among which the possible collision target Z appears on the two spatially separated sensors S1, S2, the distance to the target can be determined unambiguously. The position of the sensors S1 and S2 relative to the aircraft 2 known, as well as the distance a of the two sensors to each other.
  • at a UAV big Span can be the distance a between the two sensors S1, S2 z. B. 26 m.
  • By Use of additional passive sensors or sensor pairs on the aircraft The angle range can be extended (eg to full 360 ° view).
  • In the 2 the measuring principle for distance measurement is explained. The distance of objects can be determined if the viewing angle to the object is known from both sensors S1, S2.
  • The Resolution Δφ states from when an object is seen at infinity, so not a distance estimation more is possible is. An exemplary IR sensor has a horizontal angle of view of 40 ° Detection elements. This means a resolution Δφ = 40 ° / 320 = 0.125 °.
  • With two sensors at a distance a, the maximum distance at which a distance determination is possible applies: sinΔφ = a / 2 d d = a / 2 sin0,125 °
  • With a span of a = 26 m (if the sensors S1 and S2 are arranged at the wing tips) results d = 6 km, ie up to a distance of 6 km can be determined with the sensor according to the invention, the distance to the target. In the in 2 In the example shown it is assumed that the target is located exactly in the middle between the two sensors.
  • 3 shows a sensor for measuring the deflection of a wing, which is designed here as a commercially available laser tracker. It comprises a transmitting / detecting unit 30 at the wing root as well as a mirror 32 at the wing tip, on which in this embodiment, the sensor is arranged (not shown here). The mirror 32 is firmly attached to the wingtip so that it is at a fixed angle to the wing 2 , here z. B. 90 °, is oriented. That of the transmitter / detector unit 30 emitted light is at the mirror 32 reflected and at the detector of the transmitter / detector unit 30 received again. Will the wing 2 bent, so the orientation of the mirror changes in space, but it always remains below 90 ° to the wing tip. This will be a laser beam 34 , which was emitted by the transmitter / detector unit, now reflected at a different angle. The point at the transmitter / detector unit 30 at which the reflected beam impinges will change accordingly. The distance 36 between outgoing beam and reflected beam is thus a measure of the wing deflection. This procedure is very accurate. Since there is an IR sensor for distance measurement on both wings, the construction described will be on both wings 2 performed.

Claims (12)

  1. Method of detecting non-cooperative Aviation on board an aircraft ( 1 ), wherein by means of two sensors (S1, S2) on the two wings ( 2 ) of the aircraft ( 1 ) the distance and / or the position of the target (Z) from the angles (φ 1 , φ 2 ), under which the sensors (S1, S2) detect the target (Z) is calculated, characterized in that the current position of the aircraft ( 1 ) and an alignment of the calculated distance or the position of the target (Z) with the terrain data is performed by means of a terrain database in order to verify the target (Z).
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that in that IR sensors are used as sensors (S1, S2).
  3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized that detects the position of the sensors (S1, S2) and in the calculation of distance and / or position of the target (Z) is taken into account.
  4. A method according to claim 3, characterized in that by means of a position sensor or a position change sensor, the proper movements of the aircraft ( 1 ) and taken into account in the calculation of the distance and / or position of the target (Z).
  5. Method according to claim 4, characterized in that the deflection of the wings ( 2 ) and taken into account in the calculation of the distance and / or position of the target (Z).
  6. A method according to claim 5, characterized in that the detection of the deflection of the wings ( 2 ) is carried out as follows: emission of an optical signal in the region of the wing root, reflection of the optical signal by a reflector fixedly arranged on the wing in the region of the sensors (S1, S2) 32 ), - detection of that location in the area of the wing root to which the emitted signal from the reflector ( 32 ) is reflected.
  7. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that the comparison by comparison of the calculated Distance to the destination with the distance determined on the basis of the terrain data to the terrain carried out becomes.
  8. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that the comparison by checking if the position of the target (Z) relative to the terrain above Time changes, is carried out.
  9. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the speed of the target (Z) relative to the aircraft ( 1 ), whereby due to the speed of the target the necessary evasive maneuver of the aircraft ( 1 ) is derived.
  10. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that the current position of sun and moon is up the basis of time of day and position of the aircraft is determined, where by comparison with the position determined by the sensors (S1, S2) of the target (Z) this is verified.
  11. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the sensors (S1, S2) at the outer regions of the wings (S1, S2) 2 ), in particular be attached to the wing tips.
  12. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that on the wings of the aircraft at least one other pair of sensors present is the angle range within which targets are detected can, to expand.
DE200810024308 2008-05-20 2008-05-20 Method for detecting non-cooperative aviation on board an aircraft Active DE102008024308B4 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200810024308 DE102008024308B4 (en) 2008-05-20 2008-05-20 Method for detecting non-cooperative aviation on board an aircraft

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200810024308 DE102008024308B4 (en) 2008-05-20 2008-05-20 Method for detecting non-cooperative aviation on board an aircraft

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DE102008024308B4 true DE102008024308B4 (en) 2010-12-09

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Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8884229B2 (en) 2012-02-22 2014-11-11 Excelitas Technologies Singapore Pte. Ltd. Passive infrared range finding proximity detector
US9217672B2 (en) 2014-03-04 2015-12-22 Excelitas Technologies Singapore Pte. Ltd. Motion and gesture recognition by a passive single pixel thermal sensor system
CN105270602A (en) * 2014-05-27 2016-01-27 成都零点科技有限公司 Method and device for realizing direction finding and positioning of radio signals by multi-rotor (multi-shaft) aircraft
US20180091797A1 (en) * 2016-09-27 2018-03-29 The Boeing Company Apparatus and method of compensating for relative motion of at least two aircraft-mounted cameras

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5581250A (en) * 1995-02-24 1996-12-03 Khvilivitzky; Alexander Visual collision avoidance system for unmanned aerial vehicles
US6678394B1 (en) * 1999-11-30 2004-01-13 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation Obstacle detection system
US6804607B1 (en) * 2001-04-17 2004-10-12 Derek Wood Collision avoidance system and method utilizing variable surveillance envelope
WO2005086078A1 (en) * 2004-03-02 2005-09-15 Sarnoff Corporation Method and apparatus for classifying an object
US7061401B2 (en) * 2003-08-07 2006-06-13 BODENSEEWERK GERäTETECHNIK GMBH Method and apparatus for detecting a flight obstacle
US7239339B2 (en) * 2000-05-26 2007-07-03 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Position detection apparatus, position detection method and position detection program
WO2008020889A2 (en) * 2006-03-13 2008-02-21 The Boeing Company Aircraft collision sense and avoidance system and method

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5581250A (en) * 1995-02-24 1996-12-03 Khvilivitzky; Alexander Visual collision avoidance system for unmanned aerial vehicles
US6678394B1 (en) * 1999-11-30 2004-01-13 Cognex Technology And Investment Corporation Obstacle detection system
US7239339B2 (en) * 2000-05-26 2007-07-03 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Position detection apparatus, position detection method and position detection program
US6804607B1 (en) * 2001-04-17 2004-10-12 Derek Wood Collision avoidance system and method utilizing variable surveillance envelope
US7061401B2 (en) * 2003-08-07 2006-06-13 BODENSEEWERK GERäTETECHNIK GMBH Method and apparatus for detecting a flight obstacle
WO2005086078A1 (en) * 2004-03-02 2005-09-15 Sarnoff Corporation Method and apparatus for classifying an object
WO2008020889A2 (en) * 2006-03-13 2008-02-21 The Boeing Company Aircraft collision sense and avoidance system and method

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Owner name: AIRBUS DEFENCE AND SPACE GMBH, DE

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