DE102007033449A1 - Semiconductor wafer for use as donor wafer, has layer structure that stands under course or compression stress and another layer structure compensates tension with compression stress or tensile stress - Google Patents

Semiconductor wafer for use as donor wafer, has layer structure that stands under course or compression stress and another layer structure compensates tension with compression stress or tensile stress

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Publication number
DE102007033449A1
DE102007033449A1 DE200710033449 DE102007033449A DE102007033449A1 DE 102007033449 A1 DE102007033449 A1 DE 102007033449A1 DE 200710033449 DE200710033449 DE 200710033449 DE 102007033449 A DE102007033449 A DE 102007033449A DE 102007033449 A1 DE102007033449 A1 DE 102007033449A1
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layer structure
layer
semiconductor wafer
characterized
silicon
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Ulrich Prof. Dr. Gösele
Manfred Dr. Reiche
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Siltronic AG
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Siltronic AG
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    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
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    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
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    • H01L21/02107Forming insulating materials on a substrate
    • H01L21/02109Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates
    • H01L21/02112Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates characterised by the material of the layer
    • H01L21/02123Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates characterised by the material of the layer the material containing silicon
    • H01L21/02126Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates characterised by the material of the layer the material containing silicon the material containing Si, O, and at least one of H, N, C, F, or other non-metal elements, e.g. SiOC, SiOC:H or SiONC
    • H01L21/0214Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates characterised by the material of the layer the material containing silicon the material containing Si, O, and at least one of H, N, C, F, or other non-metal elements, e.g. SiOC, SiOC:H or SiONC the material being a silicon oxynitride, e.g. SiON or SiON:H
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    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
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    • H01L21/02107Forming insulating materials on a substrate
    • H01L21/02109Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates
    • H01L21/02112Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates characterised by the material of the layer
    • H01L21/02123Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates characterised by the material of the layer the material containing silicon
    • H01L21/02164Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the type of layer, e.g. type of material, porous/non-porous, pre-cursors, mixtures or laminates characterised by the material of the layer the material containing silicon the material being a silicon oxide, e.g. SiO2
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    • H01L21/02107Forming insulating materials on a substrate
    • H01L21/02225Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the process for the formation of the insulating layer
    • H01L21/0226Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the process for the formation of the insulating layer formation by a deposition process
    • H01L21/02263Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the process for the formation of the insulating layer formation by a deposition process deposition from the gas or vapour phase
    • H01L21/02271Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the process for the formation of the insulating layer formation by a deposition process deposition from the gas or vapour phase deposition by decomposition or reaction of gaseous or vapour phase compounds, i.e. chemical vapour deposition
    • H01L21/02274Forming insulating materials on a substrate characterised by the process for the formation of the insulating layer formation by a deposition process deposition from the gas or vapour phase deposition by decomposition or reaction of gaseous or vapour phase compounds, i.e. chemical vapour deposition in the presence of a plasma [PECVD]
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    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/314Inorganic layers
    • H01L21/3143Inorganic layers composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxinitrides, e.g. formation of oxinitride by oxidation of nitride layers
    • H01L21/3144Inorganic layers composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxinitrides, e.g. formation of oxinitride by oxidation of nitride layers on silicon
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    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/314Inorganic layers
    • H01L21/3143Inorganic layers composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxinitrides, e.g. formation of oxinitride by oxidation of nitride layers
    • H01L21/3145Inorganic layers composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxinitrides, e.g. formation of oxinitride by oxidation of nitride layers formed by deposition from a gas or vapour
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    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/70Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of a plurality of solid state components formed in or on a common substrate or of parts thereof; Manufacture of integrated circuit devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/71Manufacture of specific parts of devices defined in group H01L21/70
    • H01L21/76Making of isolation regions between components
    • H01L21/762Dielectric regions, e.g. EPIC dielectric isolation, LOCOS; Trench refilling techniques, SOI technology, use of channel stoppers
    • H01L21/7624Dielectric regions, e.g. EPIC dielectric isolation, LOCOS; Trench refilling techniques, SOI technology, use of channel stoppers using semiconductor on insulator [SOI] technology
    • H01L21/76251Dielectric regions, e.g. EPIC dielectric isolation, LOCOS; Trench refilling techniques, SOI technology, use of channel stoppers using semiconductor on insulator [SOI] technology using bonding techniques
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    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/30Technical effects
    • H01L2924/35Mechanical effects
    • H01L2924/351Thermal stress
    • H01L2924/3511Warping

Abstract

The present invention relates to a semiconductor wafer comprising a substrate consisting of a substrate material, a first layer structure deposited on the substrate, which comprises at least a first layer consisting of a first material which is different from the substrate material, and one produced on the first layer structure Second layer structure, comprising at least one second layer, consisting of a second material, characterized in that the first layer structure under a tensile or compressive stress is a compressive or tensile stress at least partially compensated. Due to its optimized voltage ratios, the semiconductor wafer according to the invention is particularly suitable for being connected to a second semiconductor wafer, for example as a donor wafer in the context of a layer transfer process.

Description

  • The The present invention relates to a semiconductor wafer having a layer structure, in particular as Donorscheibe for connecting to a second Semiconductor wafer in the context of a layer transfer method is suitable.
  • Semiconductor substrates are known in the art which are made by bonding a donor wafer to a handle wafer and then removing most of the thickness of the donor sheet. As a result, a thin superficial layer of the donor disk is transferred to the carrier disk. In many cases, the donor disc has a layer structure on the surface to be bonded to the carrier disk, whereby one or more of the layers are transferred from the donor disk to the carrier disk by said method (layer transfer, for example) and SGOI substrates ("strained silicon an insulator" or "silicon germanium an insulator") produced in this way. sSOI substrates and SGOI substrates are characterized by an electrically insulating layer or an electrically insulating substrate. In the case of a sSOI substrate, a thin, single-crystalline, strained silicon layer is in direct contact with the insulator, while an SGOI substrate has one or more layers on the insulator, silicon and germanium in a given composition (Si x Ge 1-x with 0 <x <1). This layer or these layers as a whole are also referred to below as "silicon-germanium layer". In turn, a thin, monocrystalline, strained silicon layer can be applied to the surface of the silicon-germanium layer.
  • Such a method for producing a sSOI disk is, for example, in US2005 / 0070070A1 On a silicon germanium donor disk, a thin, strained silicon layer is deposited and transferred to a carrier disk. The carrier disk or the donor disk or both bear on the surface to be bonded an electrically insulating layer, which consists for example of silicon oxide, silicon nitride or aluminum nitride. By connecting the two disks and removing most of the donor disk, the strained silicon layer is transferred to the carrier disk to produce a sSOI disk.
  • One An essential step of said method is the joining (English: "bonding") of the donor disc with the carrier disc. This requires the surfaces of both Bring slices together in (atomic) contact. That requires on the one hand a good "geometric" flatness and low Roughness of the disc surfaces by a previously performed polishing process can be achieved. Thereby and by known measures for conditioning the surfaces The bond may be due to adhesion at room temperature be ensured substantially. By a subsequent Heat treatment (bond anneal) become the atomic bonds transformed at the interface to stable chemical bonds. For example, Si-O bonds become at the interface formed when two silicon or silicon oxide surfaces or a silicon and a silicon oxide surface hydrophilic be bonded. This results in an increase of the interfacial or bonding energy.
  • It However, often happens that the connection between the at least in places rips open again. This effect, called "debonding", became particular for donor discs with a superficial layer structure observed, for example, in silicon wafers, the silicon-germanium buffer layer and carry a strained silicon layer deposited thereon. Will the procedure known as "Smart Cut" applied, in which in the donor disc first by implantation of Hydrogen ions or other ions of light gases a separation layer then the donor disc with the carrier disc and then the donor disk by a heat treatment is split at the separation layer, so the local "debonding" leads to that during layer transfer under the transferred Layer of bubbles are created (English "blistering"). Such bubbles can rupture during further processing and to holes in the thin layer and so on lead to unusable areas on the disc. In extreme cases tears the connection between both bonded discs completely up.
  • It Therefore, the task, known from the prior art Method of transferring layers from a donor sheet on a carrier disk to improve so that a stable Connection between the donor disc and the carrier disc can be made and the so-called debonding effect no longer occurs.
  • This object is achieved by a semiconductor wafer comprising
    a substrate 1 consisting of a substrate material,
    a first deposited on the substrate layer structure 2 , the at least one first layer 23 consisting of a first material different from the substrate material,
    and one on the first layer construction 2 produced second layer structure containing at least one second layer 3 consisting of a second material,
    characterized in that the first layer structure 2 is under a tensile or compressive stress and the second layer structure, this tension by a compressive or tensile stress at least partially compensated.
  • It It has been proven that debonding is effectively avoided can be, if such a semiconductor wafer as Donorscheibe is used.
  • Therefore, the invention also relates to a method for producing a semiconductor wafer, which comprises a carrier wafer, a first layer consisting of a first material and a second layer lying between the carrier wafer and the first layer consisting of a second material, the method comprising the following steps in the order given includes:
    • a) provision of a donor disk, wherein a semiconductor disk of the type described above is used as the donor disk,
    • b) bonding the surface of the second layer structure of the donor disk with a carrier disk to form a bonding interface and
    • c) thermal treatment of the bonded donor disk and carrier disk,
    wherein the shear forces occurring during the thermal treatment at the bond interface are smaller than the bond forces acting across the bond interface between the donor disk and the carrier disk.
  • Preferably each cover at least 90% of the first and second layers the flat surface on one side of the donor disk used semiconductor wafer. It is particularly preferred that the first and second layer structure in each case the entire flat surface cover on one side of the semiconductor wafer. Likewise, it is preferable the second layer structure is that which prevails in the first layer structure Stress of at least 20%, more preferably at least 50% or even at least 80% compensated. This generally means the voltages in the first and second layer structures have opposite signs and in particular, that counteracts the amount of tension at set sign in the second layer structure preferably at least 20, 50 or 80% of the amount of money in the first shift Voltage is.
  • Brief description of the figures
  • 1 illustrates the concave bending of a semiconductor wafer caused by a tensile stress layer.
  • 2 illustrates the convex bending of a semiconductor wafer caused by a compressive stress layer.
  • 3 shows a semiconductor wafer with a first layer structure according to the prior art.
  • 4 shows how the bow of the in 3 shown semiconductor wafer changed during a thermal treatment.
  • 5 shows a semiconductor wafer according to the invention with a first layer structure comprising a first layer and a second layer structure comprising a second layer.
  • 6 shows how the bow of the in 5 shown semiconductor wafer changed during a thermal treatment.
  • 7 shows the voltage behavior of three different silicon oxides and silicon oxynitrides.
  • Detailed description of invention
  • It has been shown that Donorscheiben, which at the surface to be bonded a layer structure 2 exhibit ( 1 - 3 ), usually not flat, but curved. This can have several causes: One cause is that the layer or layers is usually at high temperatures on the substrate 1 the donor disc are deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Upon subsequent cooling of the donor disk, different thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate result 1 and the layer structure 2 to that in the layer construction 2 a tensile or compressive stress is generated so that the donor disc curves. In addition, there are layers that are already growing under a mechanical tension.
  • If z. B. one or more silicon-germanium buffer layers 21 . 22 at elevated temperature on a silicon substrate 1 is deposited, so are the silicon-germanium buffer layers 21 . 22 after cooling to room temperature under tension and exerts a compressive stress on the donor disk ( 1 ). This is primarily due to the higher thermal expansion coefficient of silicon germanium compared to pure silicon.
  • Due to the mechanical stresses, there is a deformation (bending) of the donor disk according to the equation
    Figure 00060001
  • Here, R is the radius of curvature of the donor disk (in m), σ i the stresses induced by the layers i (in Pa), t i the thicknesses of the layers i (in m), h the thickness of the donor disk (in m), E the Modulus of elasticity of the donor disc (in N / m 2 ) and ν the Poisson number (dimensionless). This equation allows the conversion between the measurable curvature of a donor disk and the mechanical stress prevailing in the layer structure.
  • Depending on the occurring stresses, the curvature is concave ( 1 in the case of a tensile layer construction 2 ) or convex ( 2 , in the case of a stressed layer structure 2 ).
  • The distortion of the donor disc caused by the stresses can be quantified with the aid of the bow, which describes the height of the ball cap represented by the disc. An exact definition of the parameter "Bow" can be found in the SEMI standard MF534 , Positive bow values describe a convex deformation, negative values a concave deformation, whereby the viewing direction for the decision between a convex or a concave deformation always refers to the layer structure 2 bearing side of the donor disk is directed (ie in 1 and 2 from above on the disc). The bow can be easily determined with the commonly used in the semiconductor industry geometry gauges.
  • Becomes bonded such a donor disk with a carrier disk, so the existing bow of the donor disk can to a certain extent Degree compensated by a deflection of the carrier disc be, d. H. after bringing both slices together at room temperature they stick to each other. However, it can happen that the Stresses in the layer structure and thus the bow of the donor disk during a subsequent heat treatment, as they z. B. performed to increase the bond strength will continue to increase. At the bond interface thereby become Shearing forces effective. Exceeding during the thermal treatment at any temperature these shear forces each acting across the bonding interface Bond forces, so tears the connection between donor and Carrier disk along the bond interface partially or completely, d. H. the problem of debonding described above occurs.
  • For example, if the donor disk exists as in 3 represented by a silicon substrate 1 with a first layer structure 2 consisting of one or more silicon-germanium buffer layers 21 . 22 and a thin strained silicon layer 23 (the "first layer"), the silicon-germanium layers are under a tensile stress which leads to a concave bending of the donor disk 4 It is shown how such a donor disk behaves in the course of a thermal treatment in which the donor disk is gradually heated to 850 ° C, maintained at this temperature and finally cooled back to room temperature. Shown is the behavior of a donor disk that is not connected to a carrier disk, but the temperature cycle corresponds to a typical bond anneal. The negative sign of the bow indicates a concave deformation. The arrows indicate the direction of the temperature cycle. First, the donor disc is heated from room temperature to 300 ° C (open circle, o), then maintained at 300 ° C (filled, upward triangle, Δ), heated to 600 ° C (open square, ☐), to 600 ° C (filled, pointing to the left triangle, ⨞) and finally heated up to 850 ° C (open diamond, ♢). After a holding phase at 850 ° C (open triangle pointing downwards) the donor becomes disc cooled down to room temperature (filled circle, ⦁). It turns out that the bow of the donor disc initially decreases slightly during heating, but increases significantly from about 700 ° C and especially during the holding phase to 850 ° C. This development continues on cooling until a temperature of about 450 ° C is reached. Upon further cooling, the bow remains constant. Over the course of the entire thermal treatment, the bow increases from about -75 μm to a value of about -130 μm.
  • When such a deformed donor disk is bonded to a carrier disk, around the thin strained silicon layer 23 (usually provided with an insulator layer) to transfer to the carrier disk, so the further bending of the donor disk during the Bond Anneals to the above problems.
  • According to the invention this problem by the deposition of a second, under one Stress-voltage layer structure solved, the Tensile stress, under which the first layer structure is, as far as possible compensated, so that there is no significant bending of the semiconductor wafer comes.
  • Depending on the thermal treatment to be carried out, on the development of the stress states in the first layer structure of the donor disk on the one hand, and on the bond forces between donor and carrier disk on the other hand, the second layer structure is selected with regard to material, layer thickness and possibly combination of the layers such that one or more several of the following effects can be achieved:
    • 1. The stress at which the first layer structure is located is largely compensated at room temperature by the tension prevailing in the second layer structure, ie the bow of the donor disk at room temperature is reduced by the second layer structure. This means that the starting point of in 4 is shifted by the application of the second layer structure in the vicinity of the zero line.
    • 2. The change in the stress state of the first layer structure during the heating phase of a heat treatment following the bonding of the donor disk to a carrier disk is largely compensated by the second layer structure, so that the bow remains substantially constant during the heating phase. In a representation analog 4 this would be reflected in a flat course of the curve in the warm-up phase.
    • 3. The hysteresis of the heating and cooling curve, as it 4 shows is largely avoided. In the course of an entire thermal treatment, the tensile stress prevailing in the first layer structure (as in FIG 4 shown) or decreases a pressure prevailing in the first layer structure, a material or a combination of materials for the second layer structure is required for compensation in which or in which the opposite effect occurs: In the same thermal treatment must prevail in the second layer structure Remove tension or increase a compressive stress prevailing in it. The same applies in the opposite case: If, during the course of a complete thermal treatment, a compressive stress prevailing in the first layer structure increases or a tensile stress prevailing in the first layer structure decreases, materials for the second layer structure are required in which a compressive stress prevailing in the materials decreases or a tension prevailing in it increases. This effect is shown in a representation analogous to 4 in that the curves of the heating and cooling phases deviate less from each other, or ideally even collapse.
  • Which the effects mentioned in the individual case larger or smaller importance depends, as already mentioned, of how, on the one hand, the states of tension in the first layer structure and on the other hand, the bond forces during to develop the thermal treatment. Take the example Bonding force already very strong at low temperatures, without that the stress states in the first layer structure substantially change, so comes the effect described above under 1. the biggest importance too. In this case, need So primarily materials for the second layer structure be selected at room temperature in the first layer structure compensate for prevailing stresses, with the evolution of tensions during the thermal treatment no big Role plays more. Takes the bow of a donor disk, the only wearing the first layer structure, when heating so strong to that the shear forces during heating up the bond forces exceed, making it debonding First and foremost, make sure that the second layer construction the effect described above under 2. achieved. Is the hysteresis that dominant problem, so is particularly on the under 3. described Effect to be respected. Preferably, the materials and layer thicknesses of the second layer structure chosen so that all three effects simultaneously be achieved.
  • The compensation of the voltages in this way is only a compensation of the global voltage in the entire composite of the two layer structures 2 . 3 ( 5 ). The stress conditions within the individual layers are not changed by this. 5 shows by way of example a donor disk consisting of a substrate 1 and a first layer structure 2 consisting of two silicon germanium buffer layers 21 . 22 and a thin strained silicon layer 23 , The silicon-germanium buffer layers 21 . 22 are under tension. This tensile stress is compensated by the additional second layer structure according to the invention, which is under a compressive stress. In the in 5 In the case illustrated, the second layer structure consists exclusively of a second layer 3 which is under compressive stress. However, according to the invention, the second layer structure may also comprise several different layers, of which at least one is under a compressive stress, if the first layer structure 2 under a tensile stress, and under a tensile stress, if the first layer structure 2 is under a compressive stress. Overall, the second layer structure must be below one of the voltages prevailing in the first layer structure in order to compensate for the latter.
  • Stands the first layer structure under a compressive stress, so is for the second layer construction requires at least one material that is under a tensile stress. Is the substrate material silicon, For example, the second layer structure may be at least one Containing a layer of silicon dioxide under tension, Silicon oxynitride or silicon nitride exists. Under tension standing silicon oxides, for example, by thermal Treatment of a silicon-containing surface in an oxygen-containing Atmosphere can be produced.
  • Is the first layer structure 2 By contrast, under a tensile stress, so at least one material is required for the second layer structure, which is under a compressive stress. For example, if the substrate material is silicon, the second layer structure may include at least one layer consisting of a silicon oxide or silicon oxynitride under compressive stress. Particularly preferred is a non-stoichiometric silica produced by chemical vapor deposition under a compressive stress. Typical deposited on silicon, under tension layers of a first layer structure are silicon-germanium layers (possibly with a directly adjacent to the silicon-germanium layer first layer consisting of strained silicon), germanium layers or gallium arsenide layers and combinations of mentioned layers.
  • Particularly preferred in both cases is the production of the second layer structure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and in particular by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). By a suitable choice of the process conditions during the deposition and the composition in the ternary phase diagram silicon-oxygen-nitrogen can be deposited on a first layer structure, which was deposited on a substantially silicon substrate, electrically insulating layers under a tensile stress or under are a compressive stress: Under compressive stress z. As silicon oxynitrides of suitable composition and non-stoichiometric silicon oxides of suitable composition. By contrast, a tensile stress generally refers to silicon nitride (Si x N y ), silicon oxynitrides of suitable composition, and silicas of suitable composition.
  • An alternative to these mixed layers are layer constructions, which are composed of the individual layers (SiO 2 or Si x N y ). This has the advantage that the overall tension of the second layer structure can be set very precisely by choosing a suitable thickness of the individual layers. Additional advantages of these layered structures consisting of several individual layers are, for example, better electrical and preparative properties (eg as polishing stop).
  • The following is an example of the application of the invention to a donor disk for the production of sSOI substrates:
    For the preparation of sSOI substrates by the transfer of a strained silicon layer from a donor disk to a carrier disk is usually a donor disk ( 5 ), whose substrate 1 consists of silicon. Thereupon, one or more silicon-germanium layers are formed 21 . 22 and then a strained silicon layer 23 (the "first layer") is deposited in accordance with the invention 2 prevailing tensile stress a second layer structure with at least one second layer 3 generated, which is under a compressive stress. For z. As silicon oxynitrides of suitable composition and produced by chemical vapor deposition, non-stoichiometric silicon oxides of suitable composition. By way of example, a behavior on a donor disk without the second layer structure was determined 4 shows, by means of PECVD a second layer 3 consisting of a non-stoichiometric silicon oxide, wherein the deposition was carried out under the following conditions:
    Temperature T = 350 ° C
    Pressure p = 100 Pa
    RF power P RF = 40 W
    Flow SiH 4 = 20 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute)
    Flow N 2 O = 700 sccm
    Flow Ar = 380 sccm
    Deposition rate: 120 nm / min
    Layer thickness d = 200 nm
    Composition: SiO 1.7
    Refractive index: n = 1.60
  • In 6 It is shown how the bow of such a donor disk behaves during a thermal treatment in which the donor disk is gradually heated to 850 ° C, maintained at this temperature and finally cooled back to room temperature. Shown is the behavior of a donor disk that is not connected to a carrier disk, but the temperature cycle corresponds to a typical bond anneal. The negative sign of the bow indicates a concave deformation. First, the donor disc is heated from room temperature to 300 ° C (open circle, o), then held at 300 ° C (filled, pointing upward triangle,
    Figure 00150001
    ) heated to 600 ° C (open square, ☐), held at 600 ° C (filled, pointing to the left triangle,
    Figure 00150002
    and finally heated up to 850 ° C (open diamond, ♢). After a holding phase at 850 ° C (open triangle pointing downwards), the donor disk is again cooled to room temperature (filled circle, ⦁). It turns out that the bow of the donor disc is already significantly lower at room temperature than in 4 (1st effect). In addition, the bow hardly changes during heating (2nd effect) and there is no hysteresis (3rd effect), so that the bow after cooling has essentially the same value as before the start of the thermal treatment. Obviously, the second layer deposited according to the invention leads 3 to a substantial compensation by the silicon-germanium layers 21 . 22 caused compressive stresses, in all phases of the thermal treatment.
  • 7 shows by way of example the voltage behavior of three different silicon oxides and silicon oxynitrides, which were deposited on a strained silicon layer. The substrate 1 is made of silicon, which was initially a first layer structure 2 consisting of a silicon germanium layer 21 . 22 and a strained silicon layer 23 deposited. In turn, an insulator layer (silicon oxide or silicon oxynitride) was deposited on the surface of the strained silicon-germanium layer under three different conditions:
  • insulator layer 1 ( 7 : square symbols)
    • Temperature T = 350 ° C
    • Pressure p = 100 Pa
    • RF power P RF = 20 W
    • Flow SiH 4 = 20 sccm
    • Flow NH 3 = 15 sccm
    • Flow N 2 O = 100 sccm
    • Flow N 2 = 800 sccm
    • Deposition rate: 50 nm / min
    • Layer thickness d = 200 nm
    • Composition: SiON
    • Refractive index: n = 1.76
  • insulator layer 2 ( 7 : triangular symbols)
    • Temperature T = 350 ° C
    • Pressure p = 100 Pa
    • RF power P RF = 20 W
    • Flow SiH 4 = 20 sccm
    • Flow N 2 O = 80 sccm
    • Flow Ar = 1000 sccm
    • Deposition rate: 67 nm / min
    • Layer thickness d = 200 nm
    • Composition: SiO 1.70
    • Refractive index: n = 1.60
  • insulator layer 3 ( 7 : circular symbols)
    • Temperature T = 380 ° C
    • Pressure p = 100 Pa
    • RF power P RF = 20 W
    • Flow SiH 4 = 15 sccm
    • Flow N 2 O = 53 sccm
    • Flow Ar = 980 sccm
    • Deposition rate: 47 nm / min
    • Layer thickness d = 200 nm
    • Composition: SiO 1.46
    • Refractive index: n = 1.72
  • In 7 the stresses in the insulator layer (stress, expressed in MPa) are plotted as a function of the temperature prevailing during a thermal treatment (T, in ° C). It is expressed that the three insulator layers behave significantly differently in the course of a thermal treatment of the donor disk. During the thermal treatment, the donor sheets with the various insulator layers were heated from room temperature to 500 ° C (open symbols), held at 500 ° C (half-filled symbols), and finally cooled back to room temperature (filled symbols). insulator layer 1 (Squares) is already at room temperature under a significant compressive stress of about 100 MPa, which increases during the thermal treatment up to 600 MPa and decreases only insignificantly during cooling. The insulator layers 2 (Triangles) and 3 (Circles) are at room temperature under a slight tensile stress, but develop during the thermal treatment, a significant compressive stress, which in the insulator layer 2 even more pronounced than in the insulator layer 3 , It becomes clear that the use of adapted insulator layers in the second layer structure makes it possible to compensate for the most different stress behavior of layers in a first layer structure.
  • by virtue of the compensated voltages and thereby greatly reduced Bows both at room temperature and during a thermal treatment semiconductor wafers according to the invention are suitable excellent to, connected to another semiconductor wafer to become. This is especially the case when the bond anneal not at the typically used temperatures of over 1100 ° C is carried out but at lower Temperatures, because then the shear forces at the bond interface work against lower bond forces and thus the risk the debonding is bigger. A ripping the connection between the two semiconductor wafers (Donorscheibe and carrier disc) occurs when using an inventive Do not donor disk. After connecting, the rest of the donor disk can are removed to expose the first layer.
  • This can be done, for example, by a suitable combination of grinding, etching and polishing processes. However, it is also the "Smart Cut" called method can be used, which also in US2005 / 0070070A1 is mentioned. In this method, the donor disk is split along a predefined cleavage plane by a thermal treatment.
  • The invention is preferably used in the context of the production of sSOI disks, since an electrically insulating layer is required in any case ( 5 ). In this case, the electrical insulator can be chosen to match the tensile stress of the silicon-germanium buffer layers 21 . 22 just compensated by a suitable compressive stress and thus simultaneously the function of the stress compensating second layer 3 takes over. In addition, it is possible to appropriately select the electrical properties (eg breakdown voltage, interface states) of the electrically insulating material. The surface of the above-described electrically insulating layer 3 The carrier disk is, for example, a silicon wafer with or without a surface silicon oxide layer 1 the donor disk and the silicon germanium buffer layers 21 . 22 removed by one of the methods known in the art to the thin strained silicon layer 23 (the "first layer") which is in direct contact with the electrically insulating layer 3 and is connected via this with the carrier disk. The bonding interface is located between the electrically insulating layer 3 and the carrier disk, the interface between the strained silicon layer 23 and the electrically insulating layer 3 is a grown interface. This significantly improves the electrical properties of the strained silicon layer.
  • in the In the case of sSOI production, the invention is very different Types of donor discs applicable: on donor discs with thick ones relaxed silicon germanium buffer layers as well as on donor disks with thin silicon-germanium buffer layers, for example were relaxed by the implantation of ions (so-called "Jülich process"). However, the invention is not limited to the production of sSOI applicable, but generally relates to the blending of heterogeneous materials (eg, SGOI, GeOI, Si / GaAs, etc.).
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list The documents listed by the applicant have been automated generated and is solely for better information recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • US 2005/0070070 A1 [0003, 0040]
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • - SEMI standard MF534 [0023]

Claims (23)

  1. Semiconductor wafer comprising a substrate ( 1 ) consisting of a substrate material, a first deposited on the substrate layer structure ( 2 ), which has at least a first layer ( 23 ) consisting of a first material, which is different from the substrate material, and one on the first layer structure ( 2 ) produced second layer structure containing at least one second layer ( 3 ) consisting of a second material, characterized in that the first layer structure ( 2 ) is under a tensile or compressive stress and the second layer structure at least partially compensates for this stress by a compressive or tensile stress.
  2. Semiconductor wafer according to claim 1, characterized in that the second layer structure via a Bond interface connected to a second semiconductor wafer is.
  3. Semiconductor wafer according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the second layer structure contains at least two tensile or compressive stress layers, which are chosen so that the sum of the tensile and compressive stresses is suitable to the tensile or compressive stress of first layer structure ( 2 ) at least partially compensate.
  4. Semiconductor wafer according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the substrate material is silicon, that the first layer structure ( 2 ) is under a tensile stress and that the second layer structure at least one layer ( 3 ) consisting of a pressurized silicon oxide or silicon oxynitride.
  5. Semiconductor wafer according to claim 4, characterized in that the standing under a compressive stress Silica is a non-stoichiometric PECVD generated Silica is.
  6. Semiconductor wafer according to one of Claims 4 or 5, characterized in that the first layer structure ( 2 ) a tensioned silicon germanium layer ( 21 . 22 ) contains.
  7. Semiconductor wafer according to claim 6, characterized in that the first layer structure directly adjoins the silicon-germanium layer ( 21 . 22 ) adjacent first layer ( 23 ) consisting of strained silicon.
  8. Semiconductor wafer according to one of Claims 4 or 5, characterized in that the first layer structure ( 2 ) contains a germanium layer under tension.
  9. Semiconductor wafer according to one of Claims 4 or 5, characterized in that the first layer structure ( 2 ) contains a gallium arsenide layer under tension.
  10. Semiconductor wafer according to one of Claims 4 or 5, characterized in that the first layer structure ( 2 ) contains a germanium layer under tension and a gallium arsenide layer under tension.
  11. Semiconductor wafer according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the substrate material is silicon, that the first layer structure ( 2 ) is under a compressive stress and that the second layer structure ( 3 ) contains at least one layer consisting of a stressed silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride or silicon nitride.
  12. A process for the production of a semiconductor wafer, which comprises a carrier wafer, a first layer consisting of a first material and a second layer lying between the carrier wafer and the first layer consisting of a second material, the process comprising the following steps in the stated order: a) Providing a donor wafer using as a donor wafer a semiconductor wafer according to claim 1, b) bonding the surface of the second layer structure of the donor wafer to a carrier wafer to form a bond interface and c) thermal treatment of the bonded donor wafer and carrier wafer Shearing forces occurring at the bond interface smaller are the bond forces acting across the bond interface between the donor disk and the carrier disk.
  13. A method according to claim 12, characterized characterized in that during the thermal treatment the Bond forces between donor disc and carrier disc increase.
  14. Method according to one of the claims 12 or 13, characterized in that during the thermal Treat the donor disc along a predefined cleavage plane is split.
  15. Method according to one of the claims 12 to 14, characterized in that the second layer structure at least two layers under tensile or compressive stress contains, which are chosen so that the sum of the Tensile and compressive stresses is suitable to the tensile or compressive stress of the first layer structure at least partially compensate.
  16. Semiconductor wafer according to a of claims 12 to 15, characterized in that the Substrate material silicon is that the first layer structure under is a tensile stress and that the second layer structure at least contains a layer that consists of a under compressive stress standing silicon oxide or silicon oxynitride.
  17. Semiconductor wafer according to claim 16, characterized in that the standing under a compressive stress Silica is a non-stoichiometric PECVD generated Silica is.
  18. Semiconductor wafer according to a of claims 16 or 17, characterized in that the first layer structure is a tensile silicon-germanium layer contains.
  19. Semiconductor wafer according to claim 18, characterized in that the first layer structure a directly consisting of the silicon-germanium layer adjacent first layer made of strained silicon.
  20. Semiconductor wafer according to a of claims 16 or 17, characterized in that the first layer structure is a germanium layer under tension contains.
  21. Semiconductor wafer according to a of claims 16 or 17, characterized in that the first layer structure is a gallium arsenide layer under tension contains.
  22. Semiconductor wafer according to a of claims 16 or 17, characterized in that the first layer structure is a germanium layer under tension and a gallium arsenide layer under tension.
  23. Semiconductor wafer according to a of claims 12 to 15, characterized in that the Substrate material silicon is that the first layer structure under a compressive stress is and that the second layer structure at least contains a layer consisting of a tensioned Silica, silicon oxynitride or silicon nitride.
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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040031979A1 (en) * 2002-06-07 2004-02-19 Amberwave Systems Corporation Strained-semiconductor-on-insulator device structures
US20040173790A1 (en) * 2003-03-05 2004-09-09 Yee-Chia Yeo Method of forming strained silicon on insulator substrate
US6790747B2 (en) * 1997-05-12 2004-09-14 Silicon Genesis Corporation Method and device for controlled cleaving process
US20050070070A1 (en) 2003-09-29 2005-03-31 International Business Machines Method of forming strained silicon on insulator

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6790747B2 (en) * 1997-05-12 2004-09-14 Silicon Genesis Corporation Method and device for controlled cleaving process
US20040031979A1 (en) * 2002-06-07 2004-02-19 Amberwave Systems Corporation Strained-semiconductor-on-insulator device structures
US20040173790A1 (en) * 2003-03-05 2004-09-09 Yee-Chia Yeo Method of forming strained silicon on insulator substrate
US20050070070A1 (en) 2003-09-29 2005-03-31 International Business Machines Method of forming strained silicon on insulator

Non-Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
SEMI-Norm MF534
Tong,Gösele: Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999, S. 10-11
Tong,Gösele: Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999, S. 10-11; *

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