DE102007023323A1 - Use of an Al-Mn alloy for high-temperature products - Google Patents

Use of an Al-Mn alloy for high-temperature products Download PDF

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Publication number
DE102007023323A1
DE102007023323A1 DE200710023323 DE102007023323A DE102007023323A1 DE 102007023323 A1 DE102007023323 A1 DE 102007023323A1 DE 200710023323 DE200710023323 DE 200710023323 DE 102007023323 A DE102007023323 A DE 102007023323A DE 102007023323 A1 DE102007023323 A1 DE 102007023323A1
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alloy
aluminum
manganese
weight
temperature
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DE102007023323B4 (en
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Carsten Dipl.-Ing. Reeb
Babette Prof. Dr.-Ing. Tonn
Hennadiy Dr.-Ing. Zak
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Technische Universitat Clausthal
Technische Universitaet Clausthal
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Technische Universitat Clausthal
Technische Universitaet Clausthal
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/06Alloys based on aluminium with magnesium as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/047Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys with magnesium as the next major constituent

Abstract

For the production of thermally highly resilient and heat-resistant products, namely for machine elements, engine, turbine and engine components, pistons, cylinder heads, crankcases, liners, connecting rods, camshafts, turbine blades, as well as for components in the foundry or high-temperature conveyor technology is proposed an aluminum-manganese alloy with high thermal stability and high thermal load in operation, the aluminum as a main component at least 2.1 wt .-% manganese, 0 to 4 wt .-% iron and 0 to 4 wt .-% of other alloying secondary constituents contains.

Description

  • The The invention relates to the use of an aluminum-manganese alloy with aluminum as the main constituent and at least 2.1% by weight of manganese for thermally heavy-duty and heat-resistant products, one special alloy for this purpose as well as the Products themselves. More specifically, the invention relates to heat-resistant and wear-resistant cast aluminum alloys, in particular needed for engine, turbine and engine components be, with manganese as a second alloying ingredient.
  • The continuous increase in engine power in conjunction with higher Power densities is constantly increasing technical requirements to the engine components made of aluminum alloys such as cylinder heads, Cylinder crankcases, pistons, liners and connecting rods. This is especially true in terms of strength, thermo-mechanical Chipping resistance, thermal shock and creep resistance at temperatures up to 350 ° C. For piston alloys Operating temperatures of up to 430 ° C in the coming years expected for passenger car diesel engines.
  • Al-cast alloys are state of the art in motor construction, they find due to their low specific weight, easy shaping and easy processability versatile use. Even complicated engine parts can be with these alloys via different casting methods produce.
  • A proven alloy group for the production of engine components are Al-Si alloys. These materials are typically used with Silicon contents between 6 and 18 wt .-%, in individual cases also up to 24 wt .-%, and with admixtures of 1 to 1.5 wt .-% Magnesium, between 1 and 4 wt .-% copper and often also between 1 and 3% by weight of nickel (catalog "Aluminum casting alloys", VAW-IMCO). The improvement of the mechanical strength but stand in this case, a deterioration of the thermo-mechanical resistance to change and corrosion resistance. For the alloys based on Al-Cu and Al-Mg-Si, which are used for Cylinder heads and crankcase used be the same.
  • In all of the abovementioned Al casting alloys, strength-enhancing Mg 2 Si and Al 2 Cu precipitates form via heat treatment, but these are not stable above 150 ° C. and therefore can not cope with the thermo-mechanical stresses of modern engines. By contrast, the intermetallic phases, such as Al 6 Mn, Al 3 Fe, Al 7 Cr, Al 3 Ni, Al 8 Fe 2 Si, Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, Al 15 Mn 3 Si 2 , Al 5 FeSi, Al 3 Ti and Al 3 Zr is not affected by thermal long-term stress and, given a favorable design (quantity, size, shape and distribution), can make a considerable contribution to increasing the mechanical properties of the Al-Si alloys for engine construction. It is of particular importance to ensure the homogeneous distribution and fine formation of the intermetallic phases in the cast structure in order not to impair the ductility of the alloy and its casting properties.
  • From the US 2003/0152478 A1 are Al-Ni-Mn alloys containing 0.5-6 wt.% nickel, 1-3 wt.% manganese, less than 1 wt.% iron, less than 1 wt.% silicon, less than 0 , 3 wt .-% titanium and less than 0.06 wt .-% boron, which were developed for the production of structural parts for automobiles and aerospace engineering. These alloys have a low tendency to crack cracking, have a very high ductility already in the cast state, but have the disadvantage of insufficient strength, heat resistance and wear resistance and are therefore suitable for the production of engine components, such as. As cylinder crankcase, cylinder heads, pistons, connecting rods and liners, unsuitable. In addition, the high nickel content is a non-negligible cost driver.
  • The patent DE 1533297 discloses aluminum alloy having a high tensile strength and hardness and a method for its heat treatment. This alloy contains 0.3-1.2 wt .-% zirconium and 6-25 cm 3 of hydrogen per 100 g alloy weight, balance aluminum. In addition, this alloy may contain one or more of the other alloying elements, namely, 1-3 wt% manganese, 0.1-1.5 wt% silicon, 0.3-2 wt% magnesium, 0.5-3 Wt .-% nickel and 1-4 wt .-% copper. The improvement of the mechanical properties is attributed to this patent exclusively to a high hydrogen content in combination with zirconium. Subject of the patent DE 1533297 are also two variants of the method for heat treatment of a wrought alloy and a casting alloy. For a casting alloy, hydrogen contents mentioned in this patent are not acceptable for quality reasons. It has proved very important in the foundry practice to keep the hydrogen content in aluminum melts as low as possible by appropriate degassing measures in order to avoid the formation of defects such as voids and pores. The guideline for the hydrogen content in the aluminum casting alloys is less than 5 cm 3 / 100g.
  • Of the Invention is based on the object, one for the production in particular to provide alloys suitable for engine components, which has a high heat resistance and thus one at the melting point The aluminum alloy measured high thermal resistance in the Operation possible. The alloy should be for the Use suitable mechanical properties, such as high strength, Creep resistance and wear resistance as well as sufficient Ductility, with low susceptibility to corrosion own and inexpensive to produce. Furthermore the alloy should have good casting properties have to ensure proper production of the most demanding components to ensure.
  • These The object is achieved by the targeted Setting of preferred concentrations at selected Alloy elements dissolved in the Al-Mn alloys. By The proportion of manganese ensures the high heat resistance and achieved good corrosion properties. For the permanent Obtaining these properties is important for a given manganese-to-iron ratio not fallen below. The invention sees this solution for Al-Mn cast and wrought alloys.
  • in principle Is the solution of the invention task, the use of a Aluminum-manganese alloy (preferably an Al-Mn cast or Wrought alloy) with aluminum as the main component, at least 2.1 Wt .-% manganese and 0 to 4 wt .-% each of iron and other alloying secondary constituents for thermally heavy-duty and heat-resistant products, namely for machine elements, in particular engine, Turbine and engine components, pistons, cylinder heads, Cylinder blocks, liners, connecting rods, camshafts, Turbine blades, as well as for components in the foundry or high-temperature conveyor technology, provided. Preferably At the same time, the condition Mn: Fe ≥ 2 is satisfied.
  • Of the By definition, "hot strength" is the same to understand that a product made from the alloy or component at temperatures of 0.6-0.8 solidus temperature is resilient. For checking the heat resistance For example, the compressive strength, the tensile strength and / or the hardness at elevated temperature and / or after longer thermal stress determined.
  • From "thermal heavy-duty "can be used for a component made of an aluminum alloy then speak if this at operating temperatures of up to 430 ° C over longer periods without the exchange or complete Failure can be used.
  • Especially the use according to the invention is preferred for machine elements, in particular engine, turbine and Engine components. Generally, the alloy is for all products, components or machine elements suitable, be exposed to high temperatures during operation.
  • The contains alloy used in the invention Accordingly, 2.1 to 5 wt .-% manganese, optionally individually from 0 to 4% by weight of the following alloy constituents: iron, magnesium, Silicon, chromium, cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel, vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, Tungsten, beryllium, lead, yttrium, cerium, scandium, hafnium, silver, Zirconium, titanium, boron, strontium, sodium, calcium, antimony, bismuth, Carbon, wherein these alloy minor components in sum preferably not more than 10% by weight, and the balance being aluminum and unavoidable impurities.
  • Next Aluminum as the main ingredient and manganese as meaning second alloying component so the alloy can be subordinate Amount of other alloying ancillary components and also unavoidable Contain impurities.
  • Of the Aluminum content will preferably not be below 80 wt .-%. The manganese content is preferably from 2.1 to 5% by weight. and the alloy minor components preferably do not sum up more than 10% by weight, more preferably not more than 6% by weight, and in particular not more than 4% by weight.
  • in the Individuals may prefer the alloy secondary components iron, magnesium, silicon, chromium, cobalt, Copper, zinc, nickel, vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, Beryllium, lead, yttrium, cerium, scandium, hafnium, silver, zirconium, Titanium, boron, strontium, sodium, calcium, antimony, bismuth, carbon.
  • The following contents appear particularly suitable:
    Iron: 0.1 to 2.0 wt .-%, in particular 0.5 to 1.5 wt .-%;
    Magnesium: 0.01 to 1.5 wt .-%, in particular 0.2 to 1.0 wt .-%;
    Silicon: 0.01 to 2.0 wt .-%, in particular 0.3 to 1.6 wt .-%;
    Chrome: 0.001 to 1.0 wt .-%, in particular 0.1 to 0.6 wt .-%;
    Cobalt: 0.001 to 0.5 wt .-%, in particular 0.1 to 0.4 wt .-%;
    Copper: 0.001 to 2.0 wt .-%, in particular 0.3 to 1.0 wt .-%;
    Zinc: 0.001 to 2.0 wt .-%, in particular 0.1 to 1.5 wt .-%;
    Nickel: 0.001 to 0.5 wt .-%, in particular 0.3 to 0.5 wt .-%;
    vanadium: 0.001 to 0.4 wt .-%, in particular 0.05 to 0.2 wt .-%;
    Niobium: 0.0001 to 0.6% by weight, especially 0.005 to 0.4% by weight;
    Molybdenum: 0.0001 to 0.6% by weight, especially 0.005 to 0.4% by weight;
    Tungsten: 0.0001 to 0.6% by weight, especially 0.005 to 0.4% by weight;
    Beryllium: 0.0001 to 0.2% by weight, especially 0.005 to 0.3% by weight;
    Lead: 0.0001 to 0.4% by weight, especially 0.005 to 0.2% by weight;
    Yttrium: 0.0001 to 0.4% by weight, especially 0.05 to 0.3% by weight;
    Cerium: 0.0001 to 0.4% by weight, especially 0.05 to 0.3% by weight;
    scandium: 0.0001 to 0.6% by weight, especially 0.05 to 0.3% by weight;
    Hafnium: 0.0001 to 0.6% by weight, especially 0.05 to 0.3% by weight;
    Silver: 0.0001 to 1.0 wt%, especially 0.4 to 1.0 wt%;
    Zirconium: 0.001 to 1.2 wt .-%, in particular 0.3 to 0.9 wt .-%;
    Titanium: 0.001 to 0.8% by weight, especially 0.15 to 0.6% by weight;
    Boron: 0.0001 to 0.08 wt%, especially 0.01 to 0.06 wt%;
    Strontium: 0.0001 to 0.08 wt%, especially 0.005 to 0.04 wt%;
    Sodium: 0.0001 to 0.2 wt%, especially 0.002 to 0.02 wt%;
    calcium: 0.0001 to 0.006 wt%, especially 0.002 to 0.004 wt%;
    Antimony: 0.001 to 0.5 wt .-%, in particular 0.1 to 0.3 wt .-%;
    Bismuth: 0.001 to 1.0 wt .-%, in particular 0.1 to 0.8 wt .-%;
    Carbon: 0.0007 to 0.1 wt .-%, in particular 0.0015 to 0.006 wt .-%.
  • With Help of the elements silicon, magnesium, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, Nickel, vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, beryllium, Lead, yttrium, cerium, scandium, hafnium, antimony, silver, zirconium, Titanium, boron, strontium, sodium, calcium, carbon it is possible the properties of the alloy according to the invention on the respective manufacturing process and the intended use specially adapted. For example, the additions of transition elements the casting a high structural strength at elevated temperature.
  • to Improvement of the formability, the inventive Alloy the elements iron, cobalt, chromium, cerium individually or in Combination included. The contents of these elements are matched to the requirements of the casting.
  • to Achieving a low heat crack tendency and a good combination the mechanical properties is essential that the iron content with the manganese content is adjusted so that a Ratio of Mn / Fe greater or equal two is.
  • It In addition, it has been shown by an addition of the elements molybdenum, niobium, chromium, scandium, hafnium, Vanadium, yttrium, cerium, tungsten, zirconium, titanium, antimony, silver, Zinc, copper, nickel, magnesium and silicon the strength properties the alloy according to the invention both at room temperature as well as significantly improved at higher temperatures can.
  • Of the alloy according to the invention may additionally Lead, carbon, strontium, sodium, calcium and beryllium individually or in combination with each other. These elements support the transformation of the intermetallic Phases into small, spherical particles, which are homogeneous in the structure are distributed and in this way the mechanical properties less affect.
  • The Elements vanadium and beryllium significantly reduce the tendency to oxidation the alloy of the invention, the particular Increased occurs at maximum magnesium levels.
  • A certain amount of boron and / or carbon associated with titanium is needed for grain refining, with the addition of these elements to aluminum boron, aluminum-titanium-boron and aluminum-titanium-carbon master alloys. A good grain refining contributes significantly to the improvement of mecha niche properties and the castability of the alloy according to the invention.
  • zircon improves both the strength properties and the casting technology Properties of the alloy according to the invention by grain refining. Besides, it is possible through Zirconium additions a dispersion hardening effect to achieve in the alloy of the invention. The mechanism for increasing heat resistance and creep resistance is in the formation of the fine zirconium-containing Aluminides to see that a great stability even at temperatures above 300 ° C have. It is also advantageous that the dispersion hardening either by special heat treatment or without Heat treatment by thermal stress at the operating temperatures from 300 to 430 ° C can be caused.
  • The The invention further comprises a special aluminum-manganese alloy (preferably an aluminum-manganese cast or wrought alloy), for the purpose intended for the purposes of the invention is particularly suitable. This aluminum-manganese alloy has aluminum as the main component, at least 2.1% by weight of manganese, less than 0.5 wt .-% nickel and 0 to 4 wt .-% each of iron and other alloying secondary constituents, which in total do not make up more than 10% by weight. Especially it is preferred if the manganese to iron ratio the Condition Mn: Fe ≥ 2 satisfied. Furthermore, the Alloy as above based on the invention Use specified to be specified.
  • to Processing of the alloy of the invention are Basically all casting methods are suitable. For this belong u. a. Sand casting, gravity gravity casting, low pressure die casting, Differential pressure chill casting, thixocasting, squeeze casting, die casting and vacuum die casting. The biggest benefits found in casting processes with high cooling rates expire, such as the die casting process. The production of pistons, liners and connecting rods from the invention Alloying can be done inter alia by forging semi-finished products.
  • in this connection is particularly the use of extruded products or cast strands of the invention Alloy on.
  • The Bushings of the alloy according to the invention can according to this invention also with the extrusion process getting produced.
  • Around to ensure a sufficient melt quality can melt through purge gas, purge gas tablets or be degassed by vacuum.
  • Although good mechanical values are already present in the casting state, castings produced from the alloy according to the invention can be subjected to all known heat treatments. A heat treatment is preferred which comprises the following steps:
    • 1) annealing at a temperature between 300 and 350 ° C for half an hour to five hours,
    • 2) annealing at a temperature between 350 and 500 ° C for half an hour to five hours,
    • 3) cooling in air.
  • For adjusting the maximum strength properties in alloys according to the invention having zirconium contents of up to 0.3% by weight, the following heat treatment is suitable:
    • 1st step: annealing at 300-350 ° C for 0.5-5 h,
    • 2nd step: annealing at 450-500 ° C for 0.5-5 h,
    • 3rd step: cooling in the air
  • With zirconium contents of 0.3 to 1.2% by weight, the following heat treatment was found to be particularly advantageous:
    • 1st step: annealing at 300-350 ° C for 0.5-5 h,
    • 2nd step: annealing at 350-450 ° C for 0.5-5 h,
    • 3rd step: cooling in the air
  • The The invention further comprises high temperature resistant products from the alloys according to this invention. These are preferably machine elements and in particular engine, turbine or engine elements.
  • Generally is the invention for the following products and components particularly suitable: pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder crankcases, Liners, connecting rods, camshafts, turbine blades, components in the foundry or high-temperature conveying technology.
  • Under Reference to the figures, the invention by way of examples to be explained in more detail without the invention is limited to the examples.
  • It demonstrate:
  • 1 : Yield strength as a function of the pre-storage temperature, determined in a hot tensile test after 100 h of preliminary storage
  • 2 : Hardness depending on the pre-storage temperature, determined at room temperature
  • 3 : Flow curves as a function of the pre-storage temperature, determined in the cylinder compression test. Test at storage temperature.
  • Example 1. Tensile tests at elevated temperatures
  • The following materials were used as reference alloys:
    Alloy AlSi17Cu4Mg. Application: Cylinder crankcases, pistons.
    Alloy AlCu5Ni1,5CoSbZr. Application: highly stressed cylinder heads.
  • The chemical composition of the reference alloys is shown in Table 1. Table 1. Chemical composition of the reference alloys and the alloy according to the invention
    Si Mn Zr Cr Cu Fe mg sb Ni Co
    Erfg. alloy 0.1 3.2 0.8 0.6 - 0.2 - - 0.2 -
    AlSi17Cu4Mg 17.2 - - - 4.13 0.4 0.58 - - -
    AlCu5Ni1,5CoSbZr 0.1 0.25 0.22 - 4.8 0.1 0.01 0.3 1.54 0.2
  • Melting took place in a resistance-heated crucible furnace with a crucible capacity of 3 kg. The melt and pour temperature was set at 100 ° C above the liquidus temperature. For the investigation of the mechanical properties, the above alloys were post-mold DIN 29531 poured off and test bars with the sample diameter of 6 mm after DIN 50125 mechanically manufactured. The alloy AlSi17Cu4Mg was investigated in state T6 and the alloy AlCu5Ni1.5CoSbZr in state T7. The alloy AlMn3Zr0.8Cr0.6 according to the invention was annealed at 400 ° C for 5 hours. Subsequently, the samples of this alloy were cooled in air and in this state showed the following mechanical properties: R m 214 MPa, R p0.2 210 MPa, A 5 0.4%. The results of the hot tensile tests after the preliminary storage 100 h at the test temperature are in 1 shown.
  • Example 2. Hardness depending from the pre-storage temperature
  • In order to determine the influence of thermal stress on the properties of the Al alloys over a longer period of time, the cast test bars were additionally stored for 500 hours at 250 ° C, 350 ° C and 400 ° C for all three alloys. The results of these experiments are 2 again. It can be seen that the AlMn3Zr0.8Cr0.6 alloy according to the invention is clearly superior to the reference alloys. While in the known alloys an increasing pre-storage temperature reduces the hardness values, in the case of the alloy according to the invention in the temperature interval from 250 ° C. to 350 ° C. it even increases the hardness, which is explained by the hardening effects of the Al matrix by zirconium-containing precipitates. Thus, for Al-Mn cast alloys after a long thermal stress, a significantly better wear resistance than for reference alloys is to be expected.
  • Example 3. Cylinder compression tests for Determination of the flow curve at high temperatures
  • In addition to good tensile strength properties in the tensile test, the Al alloys for engine construction also require good hot compressive strength properties. An important criterion for the evaluation of the thermal behavior under compressive stress is the flow curve of the alloy at the appropriate temperature. The cylinder upsetting tests to determine the flow curve were carried out with a Umformdilatometer. A cylindrical sample (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm), equipped with a thermocouple, is compressed between two flat parallel tool surfaces and can be inductive under inert gas atmosphere be be heated. The servohydraulically operated punches are connected to two LVDTs and measure the change in length of the sample with a resolution of 0.05 μm. The flow curve determination was carried out without consideration of friction losses, since only comparative values under identical conditions are required.
  • Out 3 It can be seen that the flow limit of the alloy according to the invention in the temperature range 350-450 ° C after 100 h of preliminary storage at test temperature is twice as high as that of the piston and engine block alloy AlSi17Cu4Mg.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list The documents listed by the applicant have been automated generated and is solely for better information recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • US 2003/0152478 A1 [0006]
    • - DE 1533297 [0007, 0007]
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • - DIN 29531 [0044]
    • - DIN 50125 [0044]

Claims (10)

  1. Use of an aluminum-manganese alloy with Aluminum as the main constituent, at least 2.1% by weight of manganese, 0 to 4 wt .-% iron and 0 to 4 wt .-% of other alloying secondary constituents for thermally heavy-duty and heat-resistant products, namely for machine elements, in particular engine, turbine and engine components, pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder crankcases, Liners, connecting rods, camshafts, turbine blades, as well as for Components in foundry or high-temperature conveyor technology.
  2. Use according to claim 1, wherein the condition Mn: Fe ≥ 2 is satisfied.
  3. Aluminum-manganese alloy with aluminum as main component, at least 2.1 weight percent manganese, less than 0.5 weight percent nickel, each 0 to 4% by weight of iron and other alloying constituents, which in total not more than 10 wt .-% make up and in addition the condition Mn: Fe ≥ 2 is satisfied for the use according to claim 1 or 2.
  4. Aluminum-manganese alloy according to claim 3, characterized characterized in that the manganese content is from 2.1 to 5 wt .-%.
  5. Aluminum-manganese alloy according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the alloying minor components in Sum not more than 6% by weight, preferably not more than 4% by weight turn off.
  6. Aluminum-manganese alloy according to one of the claims 3 to 5, characterized in that the alloy secondary components iron, magnesium, silicon, chromium, cobalt, Copper, zinc, nickel, vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, Beryllium, lead, yttrium, cerium, scandium, hafnium, silver, zirconium, Titanium, boron, strontium, sodium, calcium, antimony, bismuth, carbon.
  7. Aluminum-manganese alloy according to one of the claims 3 to 6, characterized in that they undergo a heat treatment subjected to the following steps: 1) a glow at a temperature between 300 and 350 ° C for half an hour to 5 hours, 2) annealing at a temperature between 350 and 500 ° C for a half an hour to 5 hours, 3) cooling in air.
  8. Heat resisting product of an alloy according to a of claims 3 to 7.
  9. High-temperature product according to claim 8, characterized characterized in that it is an engine, turbine or engine element is.
  10. High-temperature product according to claim 8 or 9, characterized in that it is one of the following components is: piston, cylinder head, cylinder crankcase, liner, Connecting rod, camshaft, turbine blade, component in the foundry or high-temperature conveyor technology.
DE200710023323 2007-05-16 2007-05-16 Use of an Al-Mn alloy for high-temperature products Expired - Fee Related DE102007023323B4 (en)

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WO2010142266A1 (en) 2009-06-10 2010-12-16 Neumayer Tekfor Holding Gmbh Method for producing a camshaft and corresponding camshaft
CN103725939A (en) * 2013-12-17 2014-04-16 芜湖万润机械有限责任公司 Preparation method of aluminium alloy section for hot roller of duplicator
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EP3047043A4 (en) * 2013-09-19 2017-04-26 United Technologies Corporation Age hardenable dispersion strengthened aluminum alloys

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