The invention relates to the use of a milk fat-milk protein composition
to improve calcium absorption in the human body.
Supplying the human body with calcium is one thing
the most important goals of the present time, since calcium deficiency states
responsible for some typical lifestyle diseases
Sufficient supply of calcium is during the day
entire life necessary. Calcium is not already in the early
Youth in sufficient quantities fed to the body,
Thus, a shortage of bone occur relatively early
and at a later age the so-called osteoporosis.
The lack of calcium intake causes a reduction in bone density.
However, before it comes to the disease osteoporosis, leads
Calcium deficiency leads to numerous disorders of metabolism.
Symptoms are increased excitability of the nerves and muscles,
that can lead to muscle cramps.
It has long been known that milk is one of the most important sources
for the body's supply of calcium.
Since milk contains relatively much calcium, the regular
Diet with milk or milk products in all relevant
Nutritionists for the supply of calcium
recommended. So far, however, the fat in the milk is rather undesirable
inter alia, through targeted information from industry,
which has an interest in the consumption of vegetable fat, the milk fat
as a source of those associated with negative characteristics
Substances like cholesterol and saturated fat
is associated. Now by recent scientific
Findings the role of cholesterol in food quite differentiated
to look at and it is now widely accepted that one
moderate intake of cholesterol with food
quite as meaningful, since a significant part
of cholesterol in the body made by this self
the saturated fatty acids with a chain length
from 12 to 16 C atoms are negative effects in particular in relation
not on the development of blood vessel diseases
controversial. That's why milk fat (as the source of these fatty acids)
still regarded as less recommended fat.
Prior art has hitherto been little appreciated the fact
that milk fat naturally contains structures that are in
Vegetable fats do not occur and by appropriate modifications
(Transesterification) only with considerable effort from the vegetable fats
purposefully manufactured: the so-called "structured
Lipids "are fats and oils that have the structure
the triglycerides is deliberately changed so that the
three fatty acids bound to the glycerol molecule
according to their position (this is called sn-1, sn-2
and sn-3, where sn-1 and sn-3 are virtually identical because they are outside,
while sn-2 always denotes the middle position)
so transesterified that certain fatty acids mainly Lich
occur in the sn-2 position. There are several methods for this
and also corresponding products: z. B. BETAPOL the company Loders
Croklaan B.V. Wormerveer, Netherlands. The latter product that made
Vegetable oils is obtained by enzymatic transesterification,
is specifically for the nutrition of infants
has been developed and demonstrably leads to over
30% improved uptake of calcium in infants.
The product is characterized by the fact that the palmitic acid
(C-16) which are normally found in vegetable fats
in the sn1 / sn3 position, by transesterification in this product
to about 45% in the sn-2 position is present.
In contrast, vegetable fats and oils are so composed that palmitic acid just is not in the favorable sn-2 position (but predominantly in sn-1 / sn-3) (Porsgaard, T. and Hoy, CE, J. Nutr., 130: 1619-1624 (2000); Weber, N. et al., J. Nutr. 133: 435-441 (2003)).
These mechanisms now lead to an (undesired) very adverse situation for the calcium supply in the human diet: because of the "disadvantages" of milk fat described above, most health-conscious people today consume vegetable fat instead of milk fat and preserving the bones, calcium (for example, as a salt in dietary supplements) is added, but the calcium is only taken in about 60% in the body because of the Kalkseifenbildung in the intestine under these conditions in the somewhat more favorable case However, low-fat dairy products are preferred, but the rather unfavorable combination occurs time and time again, especially with diet-conscious people consuming calcium and vegetable fats (with palmitic acid in the sn-1 / sn-3 position) take this comm Bination prevents a significant proportion of absorbed calcium from being absorbed by the body.
Although the principle of avoiding lime soap formation in the gut has been known in specialist circles of infant nutrition for many years ( Lucas, A. et al. Arch. Dis. Child 77: F178-F184 (1997 ); Nelson, CM and Innis SM. At the. J. Clin. Nutr. 70: 6-69 (1999) ; Ostrom KM. et al. J. Am Coll. Nutr. 21: 564-569 (2002) ), this principle has found virtually no application in the daily human diet. It is well described in the literature that calcium prevents the absorption of fats by the formation of lime soaps in the intestine and thus leads to a lower absorption of fat from the intestine ( Jacobsen, R .; Lorenzen, JK; Toubro, S .; Krog-Mikkelsen, I .; Astrup, A .; Intern. J. Obesity 29: 292-301 (2005) ).
It is also always pointed out in the literature that calcium
always be given together with dairy products if one
better calcium intake should be achieved. That milk fat (out
Cow's milk and not just human milk!)
Contribution is, however, so far neither in the prior art
has been specifically studied and described, nor has it been included in
found the practical nutrition of man.
the present invention is therefore to develop a product
that to optimize the absorption of calcium in the human body
can be used.
The present invention is the use of a composition
containing at least one milk fat for the preparation of an agent
for improved absorption of calcium.
Invention is characterized by the fact that it by the presentation
This composition is possible intake of calcium
increase significantly in the human body. hereby
An additional calcium intake can be avoided.
Milk fat consists of a physically separated portion of milk fat,
such as As the butter, or a milk fat-rich milk fraction,
such as B. the cream. Preferably, this is milk fat,
what was separated from cow's milk. Alternatively, however, according to the invention
also milk fat of other animal species, such. Goat, sheep,
Camel u. Ä., Are used. In addition, can
this milk fat component nutritionally by
appropriate measures can be improved
the cows are genetically selected, targeted
be fed and / or the milk fat of a fractionation
(by targeted crystallization) are subjected.
for the invention to be used
Milk fat can be used either milk fat already in one
Milk component is included (eg cream, etc.) or with the help
physical separation process was obtained from the milk (eg
Milk fat is preferably a physically separated milk fraction.
This also learns no chemical
Changes, such as B. Transesterification.
The milk fat can be modified by appropriate natural measures so that the fatty acid spectrum and / or the distribution of the fatty acids in the triglyceride structures receives a physiologically superior character. This is the case when there is less total palmitic acid in the triglyceride and / or when the palmitic acid present is in the sn-2 position. Thus, by choosing the cow's stock (Holstein, Jersey, Frisian, etc.), a change in these parameters can already be achieved. Much more effective, however, is a targeted feeding with plants that already contain the desired fatty acids, as in the milk practically many of the dietary fatty acids are directly incorporated. There are extensive investigations ( Palmquist, DL et al. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 1753-1771 (1993) ; DePeters EJ et al. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 929-936 (2001) ; Bell, JA et al. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 733-748 (2006) ; Allred SL et al. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 234-248 (2006) ; Nielsen, TS et al. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 46: 699-712 (2006) ). Conveniently, for example, the use of oilseed rape, soy and hybrid sunflowers as feeds to change the fatty acid spectrum so that the nutritionally less favorable saturated fatty acids (C12 to C16) are reduced and z. B. the conjugated linoleic acids are significantly increased. The palmitic acid (C16), which in absolute terms is present to a lesser extent in the milk fat, is incorporated into the milk fat mainly in the sn-2 position. Again, there are already studies ( DePeters EJ et al. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 929-936 (2001) ; Porsgaard, T. and Hoy, CE, J. Nutr. 130: 1619-1624 (2000) ).
An entirely different technique is the milk fat fractionation by targeted crystallization ( Lai, HC. et al. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 794-803 (1995) ). Through this technique, it is possible to produce a liquid milk fat fraction, which is characterized by a significantly lower palmitic acid content. Even such a fraction is nutritionally beneficial for humans.
let the aforementioned changes of milk fat
all the disadvantages of a wide use of milk fat
in healthy foods stand in the way, avoid and get the benefits
the "structured lipid properties" of milk for
health promoting products with improved calcium intake
Milk fat of the invention to be used
Composition preferably contains 10 to 50% esterified
Palmitic acid (weight percent based on the milk fat).
Preferably, from 18 to 35 wt .-%, most preferably
22 to 28 wt .-% palmintinic acid used in the invention
Triglyceride. This palmintinic acid is at 20 to
75% in the sn-2 position of glycerol (based on the total
palinic acid present in the triglyceride). Preferably
are 35 to 50%, more preferably 40 to 45% of palmitic acid
in the sn-2 position.
In order to
is achieved in the intestine (where primarily the fatty acids
split off from the sn-1 / sn-3 position) the palmitic acid
esterified on glycerol (sn-2) remains and thus not set free,
but is taken as monoglyceride. Because free palmitic acid
forms with calcium in the gut the so-called lime soaps that are not
absorbed by the body and cause
that a significant proportion (over 30%) of calcium does not
taken from food in the body. This principle
avoiding the formation of lime soap is the human breast milk
in which the palmitic acid is up to 80% in
is bound to the sn-2 position and from this fatty structure is known
that it significantly contributes to the calcium out
breastmilk is well received.
Principle is also realized in the milk of other animals.
For cow's milk, about 35 to 55% of palmitic acid is as well
contained in the sn-2 position. Unfortunately, this property was the
Cow's milk to date (unlike human milk) from the
Science almost ignored. Animal milk (whereby cow's milk
also for the European-influenced populations
most important) contains significant amounts of calcium,
the most effective for the young
must be made and so nature has succeeded by a
targeted introduction of palmitic acid into the sn-2 position
of milk fat, a naturally produced textured
To produce lipid, which contributes to the calcium from the milk
to record well.
was also found that the inventive
Composition a much better absorption of calcium in the
Body (over 20% more) results when this
Milk proteins (and / or their subfractions) in addition to milk fat
be presented simultaneously compared to the case that only
Calcium, calcium plus only milk protein or calcium plus only fat
be offered as a source of food. In addition, it has proven to be essential
cheaper for the acceptance of the products
Consumers exposed when milk fat combined with milk proteins
In a preferred embodiment, therefore, a composition according to the invention containing
used to prepare an agent for improved uptake of calcium.
- - at least one milk fat and
- At least one milk protein and / or at least one hydrolysis product of a milk protein
Milk protein is obtained by separating the proteins of the milk
become. As simple fractions (by isoelectric precipitation)
For example, caseins, glycomacropetides and / or
Whey proteins as milk proteins according to the invention
to be used.
In terms of
The milk protein component can be next to the isolated
Casein fraction and / or the isolated whey protein fraction also
Subfractions of these milk proteins or the corresponding products
Hydrolysis of the proteins are used.
Caseins are naturally occurring proteins and are part of the milk proteins, which consist of about 20% whey protein and about 80% casein. The caseins are mainly bound to the calcium of the milk. These are able to bind large amounts of calcium. As a result, the calcium is evenly distributed in the liquid and does not settle on the ground in the form of a sediment. The Ca but have the disadvantage that they precipitate at acidic pH, so that bound casein calcium is unsuitable for acidic products.
scientific research groups have in recent years
investigated the binding of calcium to casein
while discovering the principle of calcium-binding peptides. It presented
It turns out that certain sections of the caseins calcium are particularly good
bind and that these sections are protein-bound
Have phosphate groups. If caseins are hydrolyzed,
so arise u. a. Caseinophosphopeptides (CPP), the calcium especially
bind well. Chemically, CPP is a group
of peptides from caseins or fragments of caseins
are derived and contain at least one Phopshatgruppe.
Through the use of caseinophosphopeptides one can today largely
achieve clear calcium solutions. Such caseinophosphopeptides
are commercially available today (eg CPP DMV).
(GMP) is used in the production of cheese by the action
of the rennet released from the caseins and is after
the cheese production in the so-called whey fraction.
Chemically, glycomacropeptide is the hydrophilic part of κ-casein
a fragment of the κ-casein with the amino acid sequence
106 to 169. It is therefore also called caseinoglycomacropeptide
or caseinomacropeptide. Glycomacropeptide comes in 11 different
genetic variants, with A and B the most common
genetic variants are. In addition, you can
Glycomacropeptides also glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains
contain. As a rule, about 30-50% of GMP contains glycosidic
bound carbohydrate chains. Contains glycomacropeptide
no aromatic amino acid and beyond
a phosphate group through which calcium can be bound.
Casein of milk forms stable structures with calcium (the so-called
Casein micelles). From the casein can be hydrolytic
Processes the caseinophosphopeptides (CPP) and the glycomacropeptide
(GMP) are released.
For example, the components CPP and / or GMP according to the patent application no. DE 10 2005 033 630.2
, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference to this application, may be used for the purpose of the invention. For these, extensive calcium availability and calcium-binding properties have already been demonstrated in extensive studies. In extensive tests, it was also checked which protein amounts are most favorable for the particular milk protein fraction. These findings then lead to the preferred amounts of protein and the corresponding ratios to the milk fat. Thereafter, the following proteins are preferred (given is the recommended daily amount for an adult): GMP (5 to 10 g) and / or CPP (2 to 10 g) and / or caseins (20 to 40 g) and / or GMP-rich (Sweet) whey proteins (40 to 60 g)
has now also turned out that alternatively or in addition
also whey proteins and their hydrolysis products for calcium binding
are suitable. The binding is not as effective as
those of the aforementioned caseins and their hydrolysis products. at
a sufficiently large ratio
However, the whey proteins and their hydrolysis products can
as effectively used for calcium binding; it will
only larger quantities than from the caseins
needed. For many products, the amount of protein is
but less critical and thus may alternatively ever
after desired application the caseins (and / or their
Hydrolysis products) or in larger quantities
whey proteins to be used (and / or their hydrolysis products)
can use whey proteins and their hydrolysates as they are commercial
offered to be used as milk proteins. Here is
but usually about 2 to 4 times the amount compared with
the necessary caseins necessary to a good calcium binding
to achieve. Not all whey proteins and their hydrolysates are included
equally well suited. It has turned out in practice that
the so-called acidic fractions (their isoelectric point
below pH 6.0) are most suitable.
Weight ratio between the milk fat and the milk protein
should in the composition of the invention
between 0.0625 and 5, preferably between 0.5 and 4 and completely
particularly preferably between 1 and 3. It depends in each case
on the type of protein and the ready-to-eat product.
The proportions of milk fat and optionally milk protein in the composition according to the invention for improving the calcium intake may well be within the ranges known from normal milk products which have not been produced by recombination of individual milk components. The invention, however, are always compositions consisting of rekom Combined products that are produced from different physically derived fractions of milk.
Recombinant milk is defined as a liquid milk, which is obtained from the addition of water to skimmed milk powder and separate addition of milk fat to the extent that the desired fat content is set (see. Handbook of Dairy and Dairy Technology, Verlag Th. Mann GmbH & Co. KG, 45894 Gelsenkirchen, 2003, p.412 ). Similarly, recombinant dairy products (eg, ice cream) are prepared from the previously separated ingredients.
it is even more advantageous a combination of milk fat, milk protein
and calcium together in one preparation
to provide the safest because an optimal relation of the components
can be chosen, which is an optimal calcium intake
can guarantee. However, the calcium can also be in shape
supplied with appropriate dietary supplements
In another preferred embodiment, the invention
Composition therefore together with calcium in the form of at least
a food and / or pharmaceutical approved
Salt added. It should be for every 1000 mg of calcium
(at the same time as the recommended daily amount for
an adult) about 60 to about 400 g of the invention
Milk fat milk protein composition are included. Prefers
For example, on 1000 mg of calcium, about 80 to about 150 g, and more particularly
preferably about 100 g of the composition according to the invention
added. The at least one calcium salt can either
in the same product, d. H. in the same dosage form as the invention
Composition, be included or it will be possible
timely to the composition of the invention
taken from milk fat and possibly milk protein.
Principle should be the calcium source and its daily amount
for daily intake of milk fat milk protein composition
stand in a certain relationship. As calcium source
can all be food and / or pharmaceutical
approved calcium-containing salts find use. Without restriction
The general public should be mentioned here, for example: calcium carbonate,
Calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium glycerophosphate,
Calcium lactate, calcium orthophosphate, calcium oxide and / or calcium hydroxide.
an embodiment of the invention
is the addition of minerals and / or trace elements to the
inventive composition conceivable.
Without limitation of generality are here as possible
Minerals or trace elements to name: magnesium, copper,
Iron, selenium, fluorine, iodine, manganese. To problems of deposit of
Calcium in the blood vessels can be avoided
the composition of the invention, for example
In addition magnesium be added. Everyone can do it
magnesium salts permitted under food law.
The daily amount recommended is a maximum of 250 mg of magnesium
(for an adult).
are the composition used in the invention
also added vitamins, particularly preferably vitamin D, which
is responsible for the absorption of calcium in the small intestine.
As possible further vitamins can for example
the B vitamins (B1, B6, B12), Vitamin E, A or K are used.
the addition of soluble fiber, such as
Oligofructose, galactooligosaccharides and / or phytosterols
a preferred embodiment of the invention
Use of the composition.
Stabilization of the composition according to the invention
can the usual emulsifiers such. B. lecithins,
Mono- or diglycerides or others in the production of food
approved emulsifiers are used.
Composition according to the invention can be used both as
Additive in food or food as well as a dietary supplement
or used as a pharmaceutical preparation.
can the composition of the invention for
Production of products or products in liquid, solid,
powdery, compacted or any other state of aggregation
be used. The physical state of the product results
also the application form. The oral application is preferred.
Equally possible is also the intragastrale (direct
in the stomach), the nasogastric (via a probe through
the nose in the stomach), the parenteral (directly into the body
bypassing the gastrointestinal tract) or intravenous
(directly into a blood vein) application.
Products can be produced as normal foods
or in the dietetic food sector.
But it can also be made products that the
Range of pharmaceutical products or self-medication
composition of the invention is versatile
used. Without limitation of generality is particular
suitable for use as milk-like products in the form of emulsions
(including baby food), yoghurt preparation, candy,
Powder, tablet, compacted form, bar, jelly or emulsion.
Application examples are the use in dairy products, baby foods,
Quark and yoghurt dishes, whey drinks, desserts, ice cream, fruit bars,
Tablets, capsules, sprays or single-dose powder packaging.
complete disclosure of all listed above and below
Registrations, patents and publications are by
Reference is introduced in this application.
without further explanation it is assumed that
a person skilled in the art can make the most of the above description.
The preferred embodiments and examples are therefore only
as descriptive, by no means as limiting in any way
To understand the revelation.
The composition intended for use according to the invention may contain the ingredients according to the following Table 1 (for example, the recommended daily dose for the adult human is given). Table 1: possible composition of the composition intended for use according to the invention
Single component weight ratio Example (daily dose *)
as a milk fat component: - butterfat
approx. 1 40.0 g
as a milk protein component: - whey proteins - caseinophosphopeptide - glycomacropeptide
about 1 about 0.06 about 0.12 40.0 g 2.5 g 5.0 g
- *) This daily amount should be taken in an amount of 1000 mg calcium.
From the following formulation components an adult beverage intended for use according to the invention is prepared:
208.5 g skimmed milk
81 g sweet whey powder
37 g cream
3.45 g CPP
Product already contains enough due to its raw materials
Calcium, so that no more calcium compound can be added
Consumption is 330 ml per serving and should be maximum
800 ml per day.
From the following formulation components an intended for use according infant formula according to the invention is prepared (the ingredients are given per 100 ml of finished infant beginning food):
70.5 g Water (demineralized)
21 g skimmed milk
5.2 g Whey powder (demineralised)
1.8 g vegetable oils
2.5 g lactose
1.7 g butter
170 mg GMP (glycomacropeptide)
90 mg CPP (caseinophosphopeptides)
- other ingredients: emulsifiers, minerals and vitamins in accordance with the statutory provisions of the EC guidelines for infant formulas and the dietary regulation
The amount of consumption depends on the age of the baby
and is about 1 liter per day.
QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
The documents listed by the applicant have been automated
generated and is solely for better information
recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German
Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over
no liability for any errors or omissions.
Cited patent literature
Cited non-patent literature
- (but predominantly in sn-1 / sn-3) (Porsgaard, T. and Hoy, CE, J. Nutr., 130: 1619-1624 (2000); Weber, N. et al., J. Nutr 133: 435-441 (2003)). 
- Lucas, A. et al. Arch. Dis. Child 77: F178-F184 (1997 )
- - Nelson, CM and Innis SM. At the. J. Clin. Nutr. 70: 6-69 (1999) 
- - Ostrom KM. et al. J. Am Coll. Nutr. 21: 564-569 (2002) 
- Jacobsen, R .; Lorenzen, JK; Toubro, S .; Krog-Mikkelsen, I .; Astrup, A .; Intern. J. Obesity 29: 292-301 (2005) 
- Palmquist, DL et al. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 1753-1771 (1993) 
- - DePeters EJ et al. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 929-936 (2001) 
- - Bell, JA et al. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 733-748 (2006) 
- Allred SL et al. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 234-248 (2006) 
- Nielsen, TS et al. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 46: 699-712 (2006) 
- - DePeters EJ et al. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 929-936 (2001) 
- Porsgaard, T. and Hoy, CE, J. Nutr. 130: 1619-1624 (2000) 
- - Lai, HC. et al. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 794-803 (1995) 
- - Handbook of Dairy and Dairy Technology, Verlag Th. Mann GmbH & Co. KG, 45894 Gelsenkirchen, 2003, p.412