DE102006042538B4 - Laminated glass, glazing element and method of making the same, and use of the laminated glass - Google Patents

Laminated glass, glazing element and method of making the same, and use of the laminated glass

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Publication number
DE102006042538B4
DE102006042538B4 DE200610042538 DE102006042538A DE102006042538B4 DE 102006042538 B4 DE102006042538 B4 DE 102006042538B4 DE 200610042538 DE200610042538 DE 200610042538 DE 102006042538 A DE102006042538 A DE 102006042538A DE 102006042538 B4 DE102006042538 B4 DE 102006042538B4
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
glass
composite
laminated glass
thin
thick
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Expired - Fee Related
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DE200610042538
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German (de)
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DE102006042538A1 (en
Inventor
Steffen 38122 Jäger
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JAEGER, STEFFEN, DR., DE
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Futech 39124 GmbH
FUTECH GmbH
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10036Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10036Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet
    • B32B17/10045Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet at least one intermediate layer consisting of a glass sheet
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10036Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet
    • B32B17/10045Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet at least one intermediate layer consisting of a glass sheet
    • B32B17/10055Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet at least one intermediate layer consisting of a glass sheet at least one intermediate air space
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10091Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets thermally hardened
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10128Treatment of at least one glass sheet
    • B32B17/10137Chemical strengthening
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10165Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin particular functional features of the laminated glazing
    • B32B17/10174Coatings of a metallic or dielectric material on a constituent layer of glass or polymer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/1055Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the resin layer, i.e. interlayer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10807Making layered products containing glass and synthetic resin layers; apparatus therefor
    • B32B17/10889Making layered products containing glass and synthetic resin layers; apparatus therefor shaping the sheets, e.g. by using a mould
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10807Making layered products containing glass and synthetic resin layers; apparatus therefor
    • B32B17/10981Pre-treatment of the layers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C17/00Surface treatment of glass, not in the form of fibres or filaments, by coating
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C27/00Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material; Joining glass to glass other than by fusing
    • C03C27/06Joining glass to glass by processes other than fusing
    • C03C27/10Joining glass to glass by processes other than fusing with the aid of adhesive specially adapted for that purpose

Abstract

Laminated glass (10), comprising: - a first thick glass (1), which has a thickness of at least 2.1 mm, - a second thick glass (5), which has a thickness of at least 2.1 mm, - a first thin glass (3, 3a, 3b), which has a thickness less than or equal to 1.5 mm, and - composite material (2, 4, 6), with which the first thick glass (1), the second thick glass (5) and the first thin glass (3, 3a, 3b) are connected to one another, wherein - the first thick glass (1) comprises hardened soda-lime glass, and - the first thin glass (3, 3a, 3b) has at least one functionalized surface (3-1, 3- 2, 3a-1, 3a-2, 3b-1, 3b-2), which carries a coating and / or has a structural and / or chemical modification, characterized in that - the first thin glass (3, 3a, 3b ) is arranged between the first and second thick glass (1, 5).

Description

  • The invention relates to a laminated glass with a composition of thick and thin glasses, in particular a laminated glass having the features of the preamble of claim 1, a glazing element containing such a laminated glass, and methods for producing the laminated glass and the glazing element and their use.
  • Laminated glass (or: safety glass, composite element) consisting of several glass plates with intermediate layers of composite material reduces the risk of splintering of the glass or breakage of fracture fragments. Even if one of the glass plates is damaged, the composite due to the adhesive effect between the respective intermediate layer and the glass pieces still has a certain residual stability, so that it further has a sealing function of z. B. spaces, escape routes, etc. can meet. Laminated glasses are also of interest because of their burglary, bombardment or explosion-inhibiting effect. Laminated glasses are therefore preferably used in increased safety requirements, such. B. in transport vehicles or in construction.
  • Depending on the application, in addition to the safety requirements, laminated glass also has to meet special stability requirements with regard to external mechanical forces (eg wind, suction or snow loads), which can amount to a few kPa. In particular, in maritime applications (ship glazing, sub-water facilities, etc.) with pressure loads of typically at least about 15 kPa (load of about 1.5 t / m 2 ) or even up to ten times this value are extremely high demands on the mechanical Properties of composite safety glazing systems. According to existing safety regulations, laminated glass even has to withstand four times the practically occurring loads and thus values of up to 60 t / m 2 and above. High mechanical stability is achieved with tempered glass plates provided by a thermal treatment (thermally toughened / tempered or partially tempered glass), ion exchange on the glass surface (chemically tempered / tempered glass) or other known methods.
  • Another important requirement of laminated glass is the temperature and thermal shock stability, eg. As in seasonal temperature differences between the outer and inner surface of the component, in a heating of the component by the absorption of solar energy, and / or locally acting thermal stresses by shading, rain, snow, spray or other cooling effects. Especially the combination of local temperature gradients and high mechanical loads often leads in practice to a failure of the laminated glass, such. As to cracking, breakage or delamination. The simultaneous action of mechanical and thermal influencing factors has not or only very insufficiently taken into account in the prior art, which is particularly problematic in the known laminated glasses when relatively thick glasses are used, which are many times thicker than the composite material. Thus, for example, for a conventional laminate with the structure "thick glass 4 mm / composite film 1.52 mm / thick glass 4 mm", a thickness ratio of about 2.6. This ratio even increases to a value of 12.5 when using, for example, 19 mm thick glasses.
  • Another requirement of laminated glass is that modern high performance laminated glass, when used in a component or as such, should additionally meet a number of complex functional requirements. Techniques for functionalizing laminated glass are known in the prior art, but these, especially for laminated glass with chemically tempered glasses or bent laminated glass, are not sufficient, the high complex requirements in terms of high mechanical and thermal resistance, safety, reliability and long-term stability to a sufficient extent.
  • DE 103 37 701 A1 describes a solar control laminated glass in which color pigments for absorbing sunlight are incorporated in the adhesive or composite layer between the glasses. This results in the disadvantage that the absorbed sunlight is converted directly into heat, so that high temperatures arise in the laminated glass. Another problem is that diffusion and agglomeration of the color pigments leads to "clouding" and thus impairment of the aesthetic effect of the laminated glass. Finally, there are limitations to the reflection color and the provision of selective reflection (eg, IR reflection) to the outside.
  • In DE 196 32 788 A1 For providing functionalized curved glasses, it is proposed to first coat a plane glass and then to bend the coated glass at temperatures in excess of 550 ° C. Finally, hardening is achieved by shock cooling. Several glasses thus produced are laminated to a laminated glass.
  • Due to the high bending temperature, this technique is limited to a few temperature-stable coating types and materials and therefore not suitable for practical requirements. Another disadvantage is that the optical properties of the coating can change at the bending temperature, so that unacceptable color shifts occur. Another disadvantage of the method according to DE 196 32 788 A1 is that it is not possible to evenly cure the bent glasses on the entire glass surface. In practice, pronounced stress inhomogeneities occur, especially in the area of the edges, bores, etc., which then lead to premature failure of the glass composite.
  • From practice, attempts are known to later coat functional glasses functionally. Although this is technically possible because of the virtually different and diverse glass formats, shapes and bending radii that occur in practice, it is enormously costly and therefore uneconomical for a single task (eg ship glazing, specific building glazings, etc.). The subsequent functionalization is limited to mass production with very few coating types on small glass dimensions.
  • For the automotive industry will be in DE 195 29 943 C1 and DE 601 10 548 T2 Laminated glasses described with IR-reflective or sunscreen effect, in which a transparent carrier film (consisting of polyethylene terephthalate - PET), which contains an IR-reflecting surface layer, is arranged between two glass panes. However, such laminated glasses may, especially at oblique incidence of light, show optically disturbing phenomena in that the IR-reflecting surface does not appear uniformly uniform with respect to the reflection color impression. It reveals a phenomenon known as "orange peel" in which, as in a hammer blow effect, the surface is not homogeneous to the eye but structured. It even local discoloration can be perceived. It is known that these visual impairments are caused by shrinkage processes of the carrier film and / or the adhesive material.
  • At the DE 195 29 943 C1 known laminated glass is proposed to avoid the "orange peel" effect that the adhesive layer between the carrier film and the glass has a thickness of at most 50 microns, thereby producing a relatively strong and hardly deformable compound to the glass. However, even in practice, this method is not applicable to large disks with an area of about one square meter and larger. In the case of large flat disks, deformations occur when exposed to external mechanical stresses, which in the case of such an extremely thin adhesive bed easily leads to local delamination or delamination phenomena. Furthermore, in particular in the case of thermally toughened or curved discs, as a result of the production, undulations and tolerances always occur, which can not be sufficiently compensated by such a thin adhesive layer. A further disadvantage of such plastic-based carrier films is a weakening of the composite effect, so that the laminated glass is not suitable for sufficiently withstanding the high shear forces occurring in practice within the laminated glass and in practical use delamination and delamination phenomena occur.
  • The problems in the prior art occur in particular in laminated glass with chemically tempered or tempered glasses, as in these functionalization is possible only after curing. This results in great restrictions for practical use, especially in curved composite units, in terms of flexibility, quality and cost.
  • Special problems occur in laminated glass based on soda-lime float glass, since during or after the coating, light atoms or molecules can diffuse out of the glass directly into the coating. This can lead to a change in the material properties, to Schichtenthaftungen or other negative Degradationserscheinungen. This can ultimately even lead to total failure of the desired functionality and thus complete uselessness of the entire component. By diffusion-inhibiting coating materials (diffusion barriers) Although a reduction of the diffusion processes can be achieved, but due to the production-related pinholes or holes in the coatings and especially in thermally toughened glass having an increased microscopic surface roughness, is only partially effective.
  • DE 202 02 223 U1 discloses a spill-proof glass construction consisting of a composite of several glasses comprising thick glass or thin glass. There may be a single thin glass or a stack of thin glasses connected to at least one thick glass. In any case, it is provided that a thin glass is provided as the inner layer, ie as a layer to be protected to a room to be protected.
  • EP 0 137 613 B1 discloses a glass composite consisting of several thick glasses (thickness> 2 mm) and a thin glass (thickness 1.5 mm or less) is made. Also in this glass composite it is provided that the thin glass is arranged on the side facing the room to be protected.
  • US Pat. No. 4,625,077 discloses a solar cell module with a thick glass substrate (thickness 3.3 mm) on which a photovoltaic structure is fixed by a composite material, which in turn is covered by a thin glass (thickness 0.35 mm-2 mm).
  • Further safety glazing is off GB 1 576 847 A and EP 0 630 322 B1 discloses the features of manufacture and structural properties of glazing elements.
  • The object of the invention is to provide an improved laminated glass with which disadvantages of conventional laminated glass are avoided. The object of the invention is furthermore to provide an improved glazing element comprising such a laminated glass and methods for producing the laminated glass and the glazing element.
  • These objects are achieved by a laminated glass, a glazing element and method having the features of the independent claims. Advantageous embodiments and applications of the invention will become apparent from the dependent claims.
  • According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided a laminated glass comprising two thick glasses and between them a thin glass interconnected by a composite material, in particular the thick glass comprising hardened soda-lime glass and having a thickness greater than the thin glass and the Thin glass has a thickness of less than or equal to 1.5 mm and at least one functionalized surface. The combination of the thick glass with the functionalized thin glass according to the invention advantageously provides a laminated glass which reliably fulfills at least one additional function without impairing the mechanical and thermal stability and the safety-relevant aspects. Surprisingly, it has been found that with inventive laminated glass large-sized components with geometric dimensions of up to 4 m 2 and even above can be produced without adverse property losses.
  • Extensive experiments were carried out in particular on different glass types with different glass thicknesses, different composite materials with different thicknesses as well as different coating types under different practical conditions. It has been found that the inventive combination of thick and thin glasses makes it possible to produce functionalized laminated glass without impairing the mechanical and thermal stability of the overall component.
  • In the context of the present description, the term "laminated glass" (or: safety glass, composite element) is an arrangement of a plurality of at least partially transparent plates (of glass, possibly also in combination with other substances, such as plastics, in particular polycarbonate, Polyurethanes, acrylates, etc.) interconnected by intermediate layers of composite material. A component which the laminated glass in a socket, such. B. a frame is referred to as "glazing element". "Composite material" refers to a substance with which the glass of the laminated glass can be connected to one another in a flat and non-positive manner. The composite material forms an adhesive or laminate layer of a tough, firmly adhering to the glass plastic material.
  • By "thick glass" is meant a flat or curved plate or disc of hardened soda-lime glass. Thick glass has a thickness in the range of at least 2.1 mm, in particular at least 4 mm, preferably at least 6 mm, to z. B. 19 mm or more. By "thin glass" is meant a flat or curved plate or glass sheet with a thickness of less than or equal to 1.5 mm.
  • By "functionalized surface" is meant a surface of a glass which carries a coating and / or has structural and / or chemical modification such that properties of the glass are changed and / or new properties imparted to the glass. Such properties (functions) are, for example, the sun and / or heat protection, glare and / or visual protection, protection against icing and fogging of surfaces, reflection-reducing or -erhöhende effects, protection against electromagnetic radiation, special designs (see Example forms, colors, imprints, lighting, optical effects based on, for example, holography, surface structuring and / or light guidance), radiation energy absorbing and / or converting effects, image reproduction or display, or combinations thereof. The term "functionalized surface" also includes properties that can be specifically modified by the user, such as, for example, adjustable or controllable solar, glare and / or visual protection and / or electronically or electrically active coatings or structures. These may include, for example, switchable electrochromic or liquid crystal based, photovoltaic active, temperature changing, etc. coatings or the like.
  • According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided a glazing element comprising at least one laminated glass according to the invention. The glazing element preferably has a predetermined installation direction with an inner side and an outer side, which forms a load application side of the glazing element.
  • According to a third aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of manufacturing a laminated glass or glazing element, comprising the steps of: providing first and second thick glass and a first functionalized thin glass, forming a layer structure in which the thick and thin glasses each separated by composite material, forming a Vorverbundes by pressure and Temperaturbeaufschlagung the layer structure, and finishing of the laminated glass by an autoclave process or a vacuum lamination process. Advantageously, this method provides a simple procedure for the user, according to which a production of the laminated glass according to the invention under industrial conditions is possible without problems and in a simple and reproducible manner.
  • In practice, there is a general interest in keeping the glass thicknesses and thus the weight of safety laminated glass as low as possible in order to avoid costly and expensive substructures and installations. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first thin glass has a thickness between 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm, resulting in corresponding advantages for a weight reduction.
  • By the inventor has been found that it is advantageously possible to set the thickness d composite of directly adjacent to the thin glass composite materials as a function of the thickness d dG and the solar absorption A dG, solar of the thin glass so that the thin glass-containing laminated glass having an excellent mechanical and thermal stability can be produced. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the composite material directly adjacent to the first thin glass contains organic materials, and further has a thickness d composite (in mm) as a function of the thickness d dG (in mm) of the thin glass according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.15 - 3.64 · exp (- (d dG + 0.068) / 1.32))] (in mm).
  • When the first thin glass has a mean solar absorption A dG, solar ranging between greater than 30% and 60%, the composite directly adjacent to the first thin glass most preferably has a thickness d composite (in mm) according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.15 - 6.6 · exp (- (d dG + 0.53) / 0.994))].
  • When the first thin glass has a solar absorption A dG, solar ranging between 10% and 30%, the composite directly adjacent to the first thin glass more preferably has a thickness d composite (in mm)
    [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.2 - 8.3 · exp (- (d dG + 0.4) / 0.68))]. Surprisingly, it has been found that - for a given thickness of the thin glasses d dG and their solar absorption A dG, solar - especially the characteristics of the directly adjacent to the thin glass composite materials is decisive for whether the such a, absorbent thin glass containing composite element for the practice suitable is. It has been found that - depending on the size of the solar absorption of the thin glasses A dG, solar - primarily the thicknesses d of the composite directly adjacent to the thin glasses composites are of importance. This result was not expected due to the complexity of the properties of laminated glass described below. It was particularly surprising that the specific material properties of different composite materials are of secondary importance. The physical properties of the thin glass and of the surrounding composite materials are so different that the comparatively much smaller differences between the individual investigated composite materials themselves no longer have a decisive effect on the overall system.
  • According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the first thin glass is partially uncured, and it is particularly preferably made of a low-alkali and / or alkali-free glass. Surprisingly, it has been found that according to the invention even uncured glasses can be used as the base material for thin glass in the laminated glass. This was therefore not to be expected because such uncured glasses have only very low bending-tensile strengths of less than about 50 N / mm 2 . Advantageously, this disadvantage is compensated by favorable thermal properties, in particular the thermal conductivity, the temperature difference resistance and / or the low mean thermal expansion coefficient.
  • Uncured alkali-poor or alkali-free, boron-containing silicate glass with an alkali oxide content of less than or equal to about 8% by weight proved to be particularly suitable. This uncured thin glass, in particular floated borosilicate glass with a proportion of boric acid (B 2 O 3 content) of at least 7% and a proportion of silica (SiO 2 content) of at least 70%, is of particular advantage since it without restrictions on the desired geometric dimensions and shapes brought or can be provided with holes, cutouts, etc. Unlike hardened ones Glasses damage of the thin glass is avoided in a further mechanical processing. Advantageously, it is possible to carry out the functionalization on standard industrial dimensions independently of the production and processing of the thick glasses. Thus, for example, the coating of the thin glasses in the form of larger standard measuring panels can take place in conventional industrial plants, which results in addition to the simplification of the manufacturing process, moreover, a high productivity and lower costs.
  • It is also particularly advantageous that when using uncured thin glass, no high processing temperatures of about 450 ° C. and above are required, as is the case with hardening and / or bending. Thus, in particular for the formation of functionalized surfaces, it is also possible to apply temperature-sensitive or less stable coatings, materials or the like which are otherwise unusable and to process them further for a very wide variety of applications.
  • According to further preferred variants of the invention, the functionalized surface of the first thin glass is adapted to at least one of sun protection, thermal insulation, anti-glare, privacy, anti-icing and fogging, reflection reduction, reflection enhancement, ultraviolet protection Radiation, protection from electromagnetic radiation, a design function, a conversion of solar energy into electrical energy, and a display function include. Particularly preferably, the function of the functionalized surface of the first thin glass is variable by applying an electrical voltage to the surface or on these provided electrodes.
  • The composite material used in the invention preferably contains at least one plastic selected from the group of materials comprising polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyurethane (PU), polypropylene (PP), polyacrylate, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, Polyethylene terephthalate, polyacetate resin, silicone systems, copolymers, from e.g. As vinyl chloride or ethylene or acrylates, casting resins and UV, thermally or air-curable adhesives. Advantageously, these substances are at least partially transparent and easy to process as adhesive or composite materials.
  • The composite material according to a further preferred variant of the invention with additional fillers and / or additives, such. As with inorganic and / or organic pigments, other radiation-absorbing and / or -reflecting materials or particles, textiles or other fabric-like materials, with catalysts or plasticizers, metal-containing compounds, with z. B. by applying an external voltage modifiable materials, with ceramics, etc. or combinations thereof may be provided.
  • In further specific embodiments, it is also possible to use preconcentrated films with heating wires, electrical and / or electronic components provided with electromagnetic protective effect and / or which can also be controlled (such as, for example, lighting devices using light-emitting diodes, electroluminescent elements, detectors, etc.).
  • Additional advantages for the effective production of the laminated glass according to the invention arise when the composite material comprises a prefabricated laminating film. Particularly suitable are prefabricated, commercially available composite films, in particular PVB-, PU- or EVA-based laminate films produced as a mass product in conventional thicknesses such. B. 0.38, 0.51, 0.76 or 1.52 mm or thicker are available. Alternatively, in certain applications, pre-coated or otherwise functionalized thin PET films or the like can be laminated into the composites if the above-noted disadvantages such as the appearance of an "orange peel" are not critical.
  • It is further advantageous if the composite material in the visible spectral range has a refractive index between 1.47 and 1.52, so that an optimal optical matching between composite material and glass is achieved.
  • If according to a preferred variant of the method according to the invention in the formation of the layer structure, the composite material has a temperature less than or equal to 200 ° C, advantages for a gentle treatment of the thin glass are achieved.
  • According to the invention, the laminated glass has a second thick glass having a greater thickness than the first thin glass, whereby the mechanical properties of the laminated glass can be improved. Advantageously, numerous variants of the interconnection of the thick and thin glasses with one or several composite materials are available. According to the invention, the first thin glass is arranged between the first and second thick glass. Furthermore, a second thin glass with a smaller thickness than the first and the second thick glass can be provided, wherein the first and second thin glass are arranged between the first and second thick glass, in particular on an inner side of the laminated glass.
  • In particular, the first and second thin glass can be arranged directly next to one another and connected by a composite material layer which is thinner than the composite material between the thick and thin glasses.
  • If, according to a further embodiment of the invention, at least one of the thick glasses consists of chemically toughened glass, wherein the penetration depth of potassium ions in the chemically tempered glass is at least 10 μm, preferably at least 20 μm, further advantages for the stability of the laminated glass against external forces can result.
  • Another advantage of the invention is that the flat or curved plate of the thick glass does not necessarily have to consist of a single material. A particular stability, in particular burglar resistance can be achieved, for example, if at least one of the thick glasses per se consists of a conventional or of a laminated glass according to the invention.
  • Furthermore, the invention makes it possible to provide curved or curved components with additional functions and properties for the highest safety and quality standards. Preferably, the laminated glass is formed with a curvature, which leads to the outside of the according to the o. second aspect of the invention provided glazing element is directed. The laminated glass is outwards, z. B. cylindrical or similarly curved, d. H. it is provided a convex curved surface, which is directed to the outside. Preferably, the curvature of the first thin glass of the laminated glass is formed by mechanical deformation without heat treatment, so that deterioration of the functionalization of the thin glass is avoided.
  • According to a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, the first thick glass of the laminated glass has a tin-containing surface, which is directed to the outside of the glazing element. By this particular arrangement, it is possible to further increase both the mechanical and thermal properties of the entire laminated glass and moreover to avoid spontaneous breakage as far as possible. Especially with curved laminated glass and the first thin glass preferably has a tin-containing surface, which - in addition to the outwardly oriented arrangement of the tin side of the first thick glass - is now directed to the inside of the glazing element. In this way, a further increase in the stability and thus the usability of the laminated glass can be achieved.
  • The laminated glass according to the invention or a glazing element formed therewith is preferably mounted in a transport vehicle (such as automobiles, trains, missiles or ships), in a building (eg in roofs or overhead glazing, windows, doors, Parapets, walk-in glass structures, etc.), or installed in a technical device or a commodity.
  • Further details and advantages of the invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings. Show it:
  • 1 and 2 FIG. 2: schematic sectional views of embodiments of a laminated glass according to the invention, FIG.
  • 3 and 4 : Illustrations describing the selection of parameters of laminated glass according to the invention and its testing,
  • 5 to 7 : schematic sectional views of further embodiments of a laminated glass according to the invention, and
  • 8th : A schematic sectional view of an embodiment of a glazing element according to the invention.
  • Selection of parameters laminated glass according to the invention
  • The 1 and 2 show a first embodiment of a laminated glass according to the invention 10 with a first thick glass 1 , a first absorbent thin glass 3 and a second thick glass 5 that through composite materials 2 . 4 connected to each other. According to 1 exist the thick glasses 1 . 5 with a thickness of z. B. 6 mm of hardened soda-lime glass, while the first thin glass 3 with a thickness of 1.1 mm made of borosilicate glass and carries a pigment coating. The latter causes a solar absorption of at least 10%.
  • The 1 and 2 serve to illustrate the invention in the laminated glass 10 occurring phenomena with simultaneous exposure to external mechanical and thermal loads. The mechanical and / or thermal resistance of the laminated glass 10 is influenced by the fact that the parts of the laminated glass are mechanically coupled to one another and heat transfer kinetics processes take place between the parts. The invention is based on the utilization of the mechanical coupling and the heat transport kinetics processes, as will be explained below. Details of the shown and further embodiments of the invention laminated glass 10 be down with respect to the 5 to 8th described.
  • Upon exposure to an external force F on the laminated glass 10 ( 1 ), compressive stresses pD are caused on the surfaces oriented towards the force attack side, while the remote glass surfaces are subject to an increased tensile stress pZ. For larger loads, this leads to a bending or curvature of the laminated glass 10 , In particular at the respective interfaces first thick glass 1 / Composite material 2 , Composite material 2 / first thin glass 3 , first thin glass 3 / Composite material 4 , Composite material 4 / second thick glass 5 additional shear forces occur. The composite materials 2 . 4 of the laminated glass according to the invention are chosen to compensate for these forces so that no delamination or delaminations occur at the interface glass composite material. Such delamination phenomena could occur, in particular, if the thickness of the composite material were too small. However, the thickness of the composite material can not be increased arbitrarily. If the thicknesses are too great, the external forces acting on them result in compression of the glass material which is softer than the glass and usually based on polymer, as a result of which it can flow or is irreversibly deformed. As a result, there is a considerable reduction of the composite effect and the associated mechanical strength of the laminated glass.
  • The phenomena that occur when an additional thermal load occurs are correspondingly in FIG 2 shown. The on the laminated glass 10 impinging solar radiation I 0 is here exemplarily predominantly in thin glass 3 absorbs and leads there to one opposite the thick glasses 1 . 5 elevated temperature T 3 with T 3 > T 1 and T 3 > T 2 . The in the thin glass 3 dissipatively converted energy is on the one hand by heat conduction through the composite material 2 respectively. 4 to the thick glass 1 respectively. 5 and then further transported to the outside or inside. It is important that there is good heat transfer at the interface of glass composite foil. If the composite material 2 would be a poor conductor of heat, it could lead to a heat accumulation at a too large thickness of the composite film, so that the on the surface of the thin glass 3 increased temperature T 3 'can not be reduced fast enough. This increases in the event that in addition a higher outside temperature T a is present. In addition, an external force (see 1 ), both the flow behavior and the irreversible deformations of the composite material increase 2 ,
  • On the other hand, there is an exchange of energy to the inside with the temperature T i out by heat conduction, radiation and convection, resulting in the other surface of the thin glass 3 a temperature T 3 '' sets. The two surface temperatures T 3 'and T 3 ''are very different in practice due to the different heat transport mechanisms and heat transfer kinetics, which is why the thickness of the thin glass 3 can sometimes form a large temperature gradient, the additionally thermally induced stresses in the thin glass 3 causes. As is known, this can lead to a spontaneous breakage of the glass in conventional laminated glass and thus to a failure of the entire component. The propensity for such spontaneous breakage behavior is further enhanced by the above-described presence of temperature gradients along the glass surface caused by, for example, shadows and so forth. Of particular importance are these processes, when in a large-sized and mechanically highly durable laminated glass according to the invention, the thin glasses 3 have only small thicknesses of less than or equal to 1.5 mm and in practice due to their optical absorption additionally even with a sometimes locally acting heating within such a laminated glass 10 is to be expected. It should also be noted in particular that in such a thin glass-containing laminated glass significantly smaller thickness ratios between the thin glass 3 and the surrounding composites 2 . 4 present than is the case with the conventional laminates. This results, for example, in a thickness of the thin glass 3 of 1.1 mm and a thickness of the composite materials 2 . 4 of about 1.5 mm even thickness ratios less than 1 (in the example here: 0.73). As a result, there is a completely different situation than the conventional laminated glass.
  • The relationships obtained from the load tests carried out are in 3 shown graphically. How out 3 is apparent, the composite material thickness d composite is limited both upwards and downwards, depending on the thickness of the absorbent thin glasses d dG . The upper limit curve results from the results of the experiments carried out at different solar radiation absorption A dG, solar and has a relative experimental fluctuation range of about 10%.
  • It has been found that it is possible to predetermine the thickness d composite of directly adjacent to the thin glass composite materials as a function of the thickness d dG and the solar absorption A dG, solar in the thin glass that is provided with functions absorbent thin glasses containing composite glasses with excellent mechanical and thermal stability can be produced. Under the concept of solar absorption A dG, solar of the thin glasses is the corresponding to understand the standard EN 410 internationally standardized size of the radiation absorption in the wavelength range between 250 and 2500 nm. It is thus referred exclusively to the solar absorption of the respective thin glasses and not the radiation absorption of the finished laminated glass or the like.
  • In terms of a simple, practical handling, the following three areas were selected for solar absorption:
    • (a) range of high absorptions with A dG, solar >60%;
    • (b) range of mean absorptions with A dG, solar greater than 30% to 60%; and
    • (c) Low absorption range with A dG, solar from 10% to 30%.
  • The lower limit curve corresponds to a minimum constant thickness of 0.25 mm, which has been found to be necessary in terms of manufacturing to obtain a high quality and bubble free large size composite element. The thickness of the adjoining the thin glass composites d composite can be for a predetermined thickness d of the thin glass dG and a predetermined solar absorption A dG, solar immediately as follows from the single graph in 3 read off. It clearly shows that with increasing solar absorptions A dG, solar the maximum possible composite film thickness d composite monotonically decreases.
  • For the upper limit at a solar absorption A dG, solar greater than 60% accordingly 3 can the experimental curve f (d dG ) be approximated very well by an exponential fit, from which the following mathematical condition can be derived according to the invention: 0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ f (d dG ) (in mm) (1) With f ( ddG ) = 3.15-3.64xexp (- ( ddG + 0.068) /1.32) (in mm) (1a)
  • When calculating the thickness of the composite according to equation (1) and the following equations, the individual parameters are to be used dimensionless.
  • The feature according to the invention corresponding to equations (1) and (1a) is applicable to all laminated glasses containing absorbent thin glasses and thus also irrespective of how large ultimately the solar absorption of the thin glasses is.
  • The other upper limit curves off 3 can be similarly described using mathematical relationships as follows:
    For A dG, solar in the range between 10% and 30% applies: f (d dG ) = 3.2 - 8.3 x exp (- (d dG + 0.4) / 0.68) (in mm) (1b) , For A dG, solar in the range between greater than 30% and 60%, the following applies: f (d dG ) = 3.15 - 6.6 x exp (- (d dG + 0.53) / 0.994) (in mm) (1c).
  • As a result, it is even possible for the user to easily and simply carry out the production of laminated glass according to the invention by means of simple rules or procedures according to equations (1) and (1a-1c).
  • For the absorbent thin glasses can be used thermally or chemically, at least partially hardened soda-lime glass as the base material. However, it is then preferred that the compressive stresses introduced by the hardening process on the glass surface are so large that at least values of greater than or equal to 120 N / mm 2 are achieved for the bending-tensile strength of the glass.
  • Process for producing the laminated glass
  • For the production of laminated glass 10 z. B. according to 5A (see below), the following procedure is provided. First, a provided with a functionalizing coating, z. B. absorbent thin glass or prepared directly. Thereafter, the thin glass is cut to the desired dimensions according to the thick glass used. Edge damage (eg, cracks, scallops, and the like) that may occur during cutting and fracturing are removed by suitable methods, such as hemming and / or grinding and / or polishing and / or bracing by means of adhesions. It has proven to be of particular advantage when the cutting of the thin glass is carried out by means of laser radiation, because damage is avoided and post-processing of the edges can be dispensed with.
  • Subsequently, the approximately the same thickness glass and thin glass plates are alternately combined with composite material to form a composite sandwich. The thickness of the thin glass adjacent composite material is selected according to equation (1).
  • Preferably, the composite material at temperatures less than or equal to 200 ° C, preferably in the temperature range below about 160 ° C, processed. However, the invention can also be used composite materials that can be applied at temperatures above 200 ° C and thus also above the processing temperatures for the conventional composite materials. The limiting factors to higher temperatures are merely the temperature stability of the coatings used and the biased glasses.
  • In the next step, the composite sandwich is pressed, deaerated and combined with heat to form a pre-bond. It is advantageous if a pressure of less than 2.5 bar and a temperature is selected for this step, which is at least 10 K to about 50 K below the maximum applied at the final composite temperature. The precompounding process can be carried out with the techniques known per se from the manufacture of laminated glass, such as lip pre-bonding process, pre-composite rolls or with the vacuum bag method.
  • Finally, the pre-bond at elevated temperature and high pressure, z. B. in the so-called autoclave process, endverbunden to the finished laminated glass. This process is carried out in particular at a temperature of about 110 ° C to 150 ° C and an elevated pressure of up to about 15 bar.
  • Alternatively, the manufacture of the laminated glass may be accomplished by the industry-established vacuum lamination process. Here, the lamination process under reduced pressures of typically 0.01 mbar to about 850 mbar and temperatures of about 90 ° C to 160 ° C is performed. Furthermore, parts of the final composite can be produced individually (prefabricated) and only laminated together at the end to form the composite element according to the invention.
  • The finished laminated glass 10 can for the production of the glazing element according to the invention 20 in a version 21 or a frame, as exemplified in FIG 8th is shown. The installation and assembly can be done by known from the prior art bonding or bonding techniques, by means of clamps or the like, with or without frame structures or otherwise constructive elements.
  • Method for testing the laminated glass
  • Normally, standardized test methods are used to test the mechanical strength of glasses. In the method according to the standard DIN ISO 614 (application for example in shipbuilding), the force acting on a test specimen by a specially shaped test stamp with a diameter of approx. 12.5 mm produced. The test specimen has a typical diameter of approx. 250 mm to 300 mm only very small geometric dimensions. Another disadvantage is that the test stamp acts almost punctiform on the specimen and thereby results in a very non-uniform, location-dependent load on the glass surface. For these reasons alone, the results obtained with this or similar test methods can not be applied to larger format glasses with surface areas of 1 m 2 to 2 m 2 and larger, nor can they be applied to real-world conditions. Further problems occur when, in addition to the mechanical loading of the specimen at the same time a thermal load is taken into account. There are no standardized test methods for this case.
  • For checking and for demonstrating the mechanical and / or thermal stability / loading capacity of the laminated glass according to the invention, a test device is used accordingly 4 used. The test device consists of a container in which a relation to the external atmosphere increased pressure p test is generated. As pressure-transmitting media, various liquids such as water, oils and the like, because they can not be compressed and the pressure in them isotropic and thus spread evenly. The container has a top with a sturdy frame 401 on, as the test specimen a laminated glass 404 can be attached. The attachment of the laminated glass 404 can by a bonding 402 z. B. with a polyurethane-based one or two-component adhesive, silicone-based polymer o. The like. Will take place, with the required tightness is ensured. Depending on the size and weight of the specimen, the bond width between approx. 15 mm and approx. 40 mm and the adhesive thickness between approx. 5 mm and approx. 15 mm selected. The laminated glass to be tested 404 can also be on the top of the frame 401 attached or attached by means of mechanical clamping or the like.
  • To the additional thermal resistance of the laminated glass 404 To test, several radiation sources (eg halogen lamps, radiant heaters, etc.) are placed above the test equipment so that the laminated glass 404 uniformly and over the entire surface with an irradiation power I 0 of up to about 1250 W / m 2 can be applied. By the at least partial absorption of this radiation in the laminated glass 404 There is a warming inside, as it occurs in practical use. By attaching additional screens, masks or the like (see 403 ) can simulate occurring in practice local Ver and shadows and so on close to reality. In addition, it is possible to remove the medium (eg the liquid) within the To thermostate container to temperatures T Fl of up to about 60 ° C and above, in order to investigate in this way, the influence of different ambient temperatures can.
  • With this test device, the mechanical and / or thermal capacity of large-sized test specimens with glass surfaces of about 1 m 2 to about 5 m 2 and above it is determined. When testing the laminated glass according to the invention - while specifying the corresponding specific test parameters - the pressure p test in the container increases until the test specimen is damaged, for example, by breakage, cracking, delamination or the like partially or completely and thus there is a failure of the component.
  • In the experiments, in a first step, predetermined reference standards were prepared and tested. These were conventional symmetrical laminated glasses that do not contain a thin glass plate. The typical structure was: "thick glass / thick glass". The thick glasses included tempered soda-lime glasses bonded to a PVB, PU or EVA composite material. The curing was carried out both by means of the known thermal toughening (single-pane safety glass, ESG) and by an ion exchange on the glass surface (Chemically Strengthened Glass, CSG) or by another known method. Different glass thicknesses were used for the reference composite "thick glass / thick glass" such as 6 mm / 6 mm, 8 mm / 8 mm, 10 mm / 10 mm etc. Since in preliminary tests with variation of the thickness of the composite material layer between approx. 0.7 mm to approx. 3 mm did not show any significant influence on the mechanical strength, the thickness of the composite material layer was reduced to a fixed value of approx. 1.5 mm set.
  • At least three identical samples were tested to detect variations and tolerances. The averages of the pressure p test failing the respective laminate were used as the reference values for further consideration. Such variations can range up to and including 20%. This is due to the fact that micro-defects and the like are present on glass edges, the surfaces or in the interior of the glass as a result of the production, and these can cause premature failure of the component in the event of load.
  • The following test parameters were used for the experiments (cf. 4 ):
    Irradiation power I 0 : 0 ... about 1250 W / m 2 ;
    Solar absorption A dG, solar of thin glasses (3): 0 ... 100%
    Temperature T Fl : 15 ... 60 ° C;
    Temperature T 0 : up to about 40 ° C;
    Pressure increase in the test device Δp Test / Δt: rd. 1 to 20 kPa / s;
    Typical geometric dimensions of the laminated glass: 1200 mm × 1600 mm and 1800 mm × 2500 mm
    Pressure range (min, max.): P test, min = 5 kN / m 2 ; p test, max = 1.0 x 10 3 kN / m 2
  • The tests or pressure tests on the laminated glass were only rated as positive if average compressive strengths of at least 90% of the respective value of the reference laminated glass were achieved for the laminated glass according to the invention ("loadability criterion of 90%").
  • According to the invention, it is possible to provide, expand and / or combine both planar and curved composite glasses or parts thereof with virtually no impairment of the mechanical and simultaneously thermal stability characteristics with versatile additional functional properties.
  • Exemplary embodiment group 1
  • The laminated glasses produced for a first group of embodiments have the structure "thick glass plate or package ( 1 ) / Composite foil ( 2 ) / Thin glass or package ( 3 ) / Composite foil ( 4 ) / Thick glass plate or package ( 5 ) "(Especially from outside to inside, see 5A - 5D ) on. For the experiments carried out, a symmetrical glass structure was chosen as follows:
    ESG / composite material / absorbent thin glass (with thickness d dG 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, 0.9 mm, 1.1 mm, 1.5 mm) / Composite material / ESG or CSG / Composite material / Absorbent thin glass ( with thicknesses d dg 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, 0.9 mm, 1.1 mm, 1.5 mm) / composite material / CSG
  • The plan thick glasses 1 . 5 include hardened soda-lime glasses with commercial glass thicknesses 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 19 mm. The hardening of the thick glasses 1 . 5 was carried out by means of the known thermal toughening (single-pane safety glass, ESG) or by an ion exchange on the glass surface (Chemically Strengthened Glass, CSG). The thick glasses 1 . 5 can also have different thicknesses. But it is also possible that in place of the thick glasses 1 . 5 in each case a further laminated glass or the like, also in combination with other, at least partially transparent plates of z. Ex. Polycarbonate, etc. is used.
  • As adhesive or composite material 2 . 4 For example, a film of polyurethane and / or polyvinyl butyral and / or ethylene-vinyl acetate is used. Each one has to be set composite materials 2 . 4 not be identical. In this case, it has proved advantageous to use a combination of polyvinyl butyral and polyurethane, since these two materials can be processed under very similar conditions.
  • The laminated glasses according to the invention were prepared according to the method described above. The geometry of the absorbent thin glass 3 is the same, but at least approximately equal to the thick glasses 1 . 5 , The laminated glass was used for the thin glass 3 different types of glass, each with different thicknesses in the range between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm used. In addition, the thin glass was 3 either on one of the surfaces 3-1 . 3-2 or on both at the same time provided with a functional coating, whereby the thin glasses had an absorption. The thin glasses 3 in this case had a solar absorption A dG, solar in the wavelength range of 250 nm to 2500 nm (according to DIN EN 410, measured in air) of at least 10%. A defined solar absorption can be obtained in very different ways. As very simple and well-suited to the application of metals or metal compounds containing thin layers or layer systems, in which z. B. by changing the layer thickness or the like, the size of the absorption can be set almost arbitrarily.
  • The laminated glasses thus produced were then subjected to the described test with and without irradiation, the test conditions being completely identical to the tests on the reference composite glasses.
  • The experiments have shown that at a thickness d composite accordingly 3 for the composites directly surrounding the absorbent thin glass 2 . 4 the specified load criterion of 90% could always be met. This means that compliance with the condition according to the invention according to equation (1) makes it possible to achieve an average compressive strength of the laminated glass of at least 90%, based on the values of the respective reference laminate. This is true for all such composite glasses, their composite thicknesses for the thin glasses, as explained below with two examples 3 or the conditions (1-1c) according to the invention are derived:
    • - thin glass 3 : Glass type: low alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3) = 0.5 mm (I) or 1.1 mm (II) and A solar (3a) = 15% (I) or 70% (II ) (see range 10% and 30% or greater 60% according to equation 1b or 1a)
    • - thick glasses 1 . 5 hardened soda-lime glass with a thickness between 4 mm and 19 mm; the surfaces may be functionalized or coated
  • The composite material thicknesses result 3 as follows:
    Thickness of the composite material ( 2 ): 0.25 mm to about 1.00 mm (I) or 0.25 mm to about 1.66 mm (II).
    Thickness of the composite material ( 4 ): 0.25 mm to about 1.00 mm (I) or 0.25 mm to about 1.66 mm (II).
  • Especially noteworthy was the finding that the mechanical compressive strengths of the reference laminates are already at low film thicknesses ( 2 . 4 ) of at least 0.38 mm to 0.76 mm, which means that less film material is needed in the production of the laminated glass and costs can be saved.
  • If one chooses for the composite materials 2 . 4 however, the thicknesses d bond so that these are correspondingly above the upper limit curves 3 lie, it can be seen that these laminated glasses are not or only very limited usable and fail in the pressure tests much earlier. With these laminated glasses, the load criterion of 90% can not be achieved by simultaneously acting on mechanical and thermal loads. The resulting load capacities were typically only about 40% to a maximum of about 80% of the values of the corresponding reference laminates. Presumably lead to too large thicknesses of the composite materials 2 . 4 the very complex heat-kinetic processes cause, especially at the interface between the thin glass 3 and the composite materials 2 . 4 local overheating or the like appear and thereby possibly the final relevant for the mechanical coupling of the individual glasses in the composite and thus ultimately for the strength / stability of the laminated glass internal shear forces are significantly reduced. The analysis of cross-sections of damaged or damaged test specimens confirmed this thesis, because in most cases the failure of the laminated glass could be attributed to the delamination at the interface between the absorbing thin glass 3 and the composite materials 2 . 4 traced.
  • It has been found that for the functionalization of at least one of the surfaces of the thin glasses, depending on the intended use and the aesthetics desired by the user, almost all inorganic and / or organic coatings known to the person skilled in the art can be used for partial or complete printing or other surface modifications , However, in order to meet the required load criterion of 90%, it is absolutely necessary to ensure that, on the one hand, the thicknesses of the composite materials 2 . 4 are selected according to the invention formulated in equation (1-1c) and on the other hand, through the coatings, the adhesive bond between the absorbent thin glass ( 3 ) and the composite materials 2 . 4 not or only slightly affected.
  • Such coatings may be exemplary: pyrolytic layers or layer systems containing one or more silver layers and / or coatings based on metals, metal mixtures, oxides, nitrides, oxynitrides, carbides, sulfides, fluorides, organic polymers, etc. or combinations thereof. The preparation of these coatings can be carried out by means of vacuum-assisted processes known from the prior art and techniques such as thermal evaporation, sputtering and / or plasma coating. But also various wet chemical methods by sol-gel technique, dip-coating, painting or spraying, etc. are usable. Such coatings can be up to tens of microns thick and over depending on the materials used and the specific application criteria.
  • In addition to the surfaces of the thin glass, the surfaces of the thick glasses ( 1-1 . 1-2 . 5-1 . 5-2 ) are functionalized by coatings or the like. These may be, for example, coatings with water and / or dirt repellent effects, coatings for solar and / or thermal protection, coatings or prints for design, anti-slip effect or markings, etc. The functionalizable surfaces possible in this embodiment are in 5B depicted pictorially.
  • In a slight modification of this variant, the surfaces ( 3-1 . 3-2 ) provided with at least one coating in which by applying an external voltage and a heating of the laminated glass was possible. In 5C This modification is shown schematically. To ensure the mechanical and thermal resilience of this composite glass version, the thicknesses of the composites were increased 2 . 4 according to the invention 3 established. Composite materials which have been commercially available inexpensively on the market based on polyvinyl butyral and / or polyurethane have proven to be excellent. As heatable coatings ( 501 ) are known from the prior art materials and layer systems, such as transparent conductive oxide layers or coatings containing these substances, layer packages based on silver (see, for example, layer systems based on embedded between dielectric layers metallic silver layers) or of It is crucial that the surface-related ohmic resistance is less than or equal to approximately 35 ohms / □, preferably less than or equal to approximately 20 ohms / sec and that the layer system has a light transmittance of at least 20%. having. This is depending on the material used at layer thicknesses in the range between approx. 10 nm to approx. 2 μm achieved. Since such layers can sometimes have a certain sun protection effect at the same time, it is now also possible to combine the heating of the laminated glass according to the invention simultaneously with a reduction of the solar radiation passing through in only a single coating.
  • The technical adaptation of the coated absorbent glass to the externally applied voltage and the temperatures to be achieved by structuring the coating by means of a laser or the like. The basic electrotechnical design of the overall system is known from the prior art. It must first be made at least two electrically isolated points of the coating contacts. This can be z. B. by the application of solderable traces or local solder joints ( 502 ) or the like happened. At ( 502 ) can then be the electrical cables ( 503 ) and thus the electrical connection to the external power supply ( 504 ) produce. It is advantageous if by one or more temperature sensors ( 505 ), which can be arranged, for example, directly on the coating or in its immediate vicinity, the temperature of the component is monitored in a defined manner and controlled by a control unit ( 506 ) is controlled.
  • With this variant, it is now possible, in addition to the setting of the desired radiation parameters, additionally to allow the laminated glass to be heated, in order to avoid unwanted water condensation on the glass surfaces and / or icing of the outwardly directed glass surface and / or the composite element to be used as a transparent or at least partially transparent heating device.
  • In another modification of this embodiment, the thin glass was 3 provided with at least one switchable coating, based on which the optical properties (for example, the color, the transmission in the visible and infrared spectral range, the light scattering, etc.) can be selectively and reversibly adjusted, switched or controlled by applying a voltage. Such functional coatings can be, for example, electrochromic or other electro-optical systems known from the prior art or derivable therefrom, or the like. It is known that such changeable, electronically active coatings and the products produced therefrom Laminated glass extremely sensitive to possible contamination react. Such impurities may be, for example, certain material components of the substrate, which then penetrate (especially at higher processing and / or service temperatures, etc.) by diffusion processes in the coating, there form, for example, electronically active defects and thereby affect the intended operation quite considerably , These difficulties mainly occur with the alkaline standard glasses, and especially when their tin-containing surfaces are coated. Even more problematic is when these alkaline glasses have been previously thermally toughened or partially pre-stressed.
  • The problems mentioned can be at least partially eliminated by providing for the absorbent thin-glass plate to be provided with the electrochromic layer package ( 3 ) a chemically tempered soda-lime thin glass is used. A further improvement of this embodiment can be achieved by applying the very sensitive electronically active coating preferably on the respective tin-free glass surface, because this can prevent the possibly caused by diffusion of tin corrosive influences on the electronically effective coating.
  • As particularly suitable and advantageous has been found, however, if for the absorbent thin glasses 3 uncured alkali-free or alkali-free boron-containing silicate glasses are used. Especially when using such glass materials with a low alkali oxide content of less than or equal to about 8 wt .-% has been found that the impurities of the functional coating can be largely avoided by easily diffusible substrate components. However, this is not solely attributable to the lower alkali oxide content compared to the usual soda lime glasses, but certainly to be sought in the advantageous combination with the very good chemical and microstructural crosslinking of the silicate glasses. Similar to the soda-lime glass, it is also advantageous for the float-produced silicate glasses, if the coating is preferably carried out on the respective tin-free glass surface. However, due to the lower tin concentration and the better microstructure, the positive effect which can be achieved thereby is significantly lower for the silicate glasses than for the soda-lime glass.
  • As a particularly advantageous embodiment (see 5D ) has been proven when the variable electronically active coating 508 on the inward facing surface 3-2 is applied and in addition the outward surface 3-1 by applying a thin layer 509 is functionalized so that at least a portion of the incoming radiation from the outside is filtered by absorption and / or reflection. For this purpose, the known and available on the market sunscreen coatings with layer thicknesses depending on the material used, from about 10 nm to 1 micron use. Due to this special variant can now be on the surface 3-2 located coating 508 even better protected against possible degradation phenomena and the like. Such protection can also be achieved by additionally directly into the composite material 2 introduced coated films of polyethylene terephthalate and / or radiation-absorbing or -reflective additives or the like, but also by a corresponding radiation-selective coating of the further outwardly facing glass surfaces ( 1-1 . 1-2 ) happen. The electrical contact 502 can be done in a similar way to the previous variant 5C also done by solderable traces or solder joints. By means of the connection cable 503 the electrical connection of the power supply takes place 504 together with the control unit 506 , Through an optical or thermal sensor 505 the light intensity, illuminance or a comparable physical size can be measured and the signal is sent directly to the control unit 506 directly for active regulation. The sensor can be directly connected to the glazing element or arranged arbitrarily in space. But also a monitoring or control by a higher-level control and command system 507 (Bus system) can be implemented easily.
  • There are also electrochromic systems consisting of several (but mostly two) subsystems, wherein each of the subsystems to be mounted ion-conducting layer consists of a thicker ion-conducting polymer layer. According to the invention, in this case, either the surface 3-1 or the surface 3-2 with the first subcomponent of the overall electrochromic system and either the surface 1-2 or the surface 5-1 provided with the corresponding complementary second subcomponent (see 5B ). The ion conductor layer can then be directly through either the composite material 2 or 4 train yourself. For such an ion conductor layer z. B. composite materials based on polyvinyl butyral or the like are used.
  • For the specific variants and modifications shown in this exemplary embodiment, if the conditions according to the invention are observed in accordance with equations (1-1c), no restrictions on the mechanical and / or thermal loading capacity of the laminated glass can be determined.
  • In the experiments, it has even been shown that in the use of thin glasses according to the invention 3 in some cases even a certain increase in mechanical properties is possible, indicating an improved thrust effect between the thick glasses 1 and 5 can be returned.
  • Exemplary Group 2
  • The laminated glasses produced for a second group of embodiments have the same arrangement as in exemplary embodiment group 1. However, it is now a cylindrical or similar curved laminated glass in which the convexly curved side is typically directed outwards. Also in this example, the thin glasses 3 have different sized solar absorptions in the range of at least 10% to greater than 60%.
  • In the manufacture of curved laminated glass is first of a plane thin glass 3 which may consist of either hardened soda-lime glass or also of an unhardened glass type. As a particularly preferred uncured glass material can be used in analogy to Example Group 1 again low-alkali or alkali-free boron-containing silicate glass.
  • The initially flat thin glass 3 is then between the two outer, already in advance by heat treatment curved thick glasses 1 . 5 placed and mechanically pressed by these. In this way, the thin glass becomes 3 so deformed that now accept all the glasses of the sandwich almost the same shape or contour. The for the deformation of the thin glass 3 required contact pressure can in the simplest case by the weight of the above-laid thick glass 1 respectively. 5 be achieved. If the weight of the thick glass or glass package lying on top is insufficient, the required force can be mechanically impressed by a simple device. According to the invention, the thicknesses of the composite materials 2 . 4 according to the conditions given in equations (1-1c) and then the glass packet thus pre-assembled is finally laminated to the final composite element.
  • In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the thick glasses exist 1 . 5 made of soda-lime-soda glass with a penetration of potassium ions of at least 10 microns. Such chemically hardened glasses have compared to the thermally cured a significantly better homogeneity of the impressed by the hardening process compressive stresses as well as an improved surface quality, which is ultimately reflected in a higher mechanical and thermal stability of the laminated glass.
  • During the pressure tests, it was found that the curved laminated glass compared to the flat reference laminates of comparable size and geometry have a significantly higher strength and rigidity, so that the "loadability criterion of 90%" could be easily met. The mechanical load capacity could even be increased by up to 30%, depending on the radius of curvature. This now makes it even possible that in applications in which on the one hand the curved laminated glass small dimensions of about 1 m 2 and below and on the other hand, only small external pressure loads of a maximum of about 10 kPa (including the security factors to be considered) to meet are, the thickness of the thick glasses 1 . 5 preferably even to values of up to about 2.1 mm can be reduced.
  • Exemplary Group 3
  • The laminated glasses produced for a third group of embodiments have the structure according to the 6A to 6E on (especially from outside to inside): "thick glass or package ( 1 ) / Composite foil ( 2 ) / Thin glass ( 3a ) / Composite foil ( 6 ) / Thin glass ( 3b ) / Composite foil ( 4 ) / Thick glass or package ( 5 ) ". With the thick glasses 1 . 5 , which may be flat or curved, it is hardened soda lime glasses, which may be selected in analogy to the embodiments of Group 1 and 2.
  • In this embodiment, in the laminated glass at least two, directly opposite arranged thin glasses 3a . 3b contain. This arrangement is particularly advantageous for those applications in which z. B. the coatings are protected from external environmental influences and / or additional surfaces for an even more complex functionalization (see 6B ) are needed. By way of example, such protection is important for electrochromic and / or other electronically effective coatings or the like. A particularly advantageous variant is exemplified in 6C shown. The electrochromic layer system 601 is on the inward thin glass on the position ( 3B-1 ) (please refer 6B ) applied. In addition, on one of the surfaces of the thin glass 3a at least one coating provided with radiation-selective filtering action 602 for example, a sunscreen, a coloring or the like can be applied. However, such a coating can also consist of a geometric pattern or other design and applied by means of screen printing or painting. From the perspective of production quality, it is advantageous if, for example, the filtering coating 602 on the position ( 3a-2 ) is applied. Of the required electrical connection of the electronically effective functional coating 601 as well as their control / regulation can then in an analogous manner to the embodiment variant accordingly 5D happen. However, this variant is basically also applicable to other surface functionalizations such as heatable coatings and the like (see 5C ).
  • For the thin glasses 3a . 3b is preferably uncured silicate glass with an alkali oxide content of less than or equal to approx. 8 wt .-% and a thickness between 0.5 mm to approx. 1.5 mm, preferably between 0.5 mm and approx. 0.9 mm used. The thin glasses 3a . 3b can be different thicknesses, but the overall thickness of the absorbent glasses should be 3a . 3b d dG, (3a) + (3b) should not exceed about 2.2 mm for curved laminated glass. In compliance with this limitation, the subassemblies thin glass 3a / Composite material 6 / Thin glass 3b still very good mechanical deformation, which is particularly important for the production of heavy-duty bent laminated glass. In this embodiment, too, it proved to be advantageous for the composite materials surrounding the thin glasses 2 . 4 . 6 Polyvinyl butyral and / or polyurethane and / or ethyl vinyl acetate or comparable, mainly consisting of organic materials materials are used. These composite materials are available at low cost and can also be combined and processed very well in this embodiment variant.
  • The thicknesses of composite materials 2 . 4 can be dependent on the thickness and the respective size of the solar absorptions of the thin glass plates 3a . 3b according to the invention 3 remove. The thickness of the composite material layer 6 between the individual thin glasses 3a . 3b can be - as in the case of composite materials 2 . 4 - also off 3 read off. As has been shown in the stress experiments carried out, the "load-carrying criterion of 90%" at the thickness according to the invention for composite material can be 6 according to the conditions (1-1c). However, in the experiments, the tendency was that the mechanical stability of the overall composite in choosing the lowest possible thicknesses for composite material 6 even improving, while with too large thicknesses of the composite layer 6 due to the reduced thrust between the thin glasses 3a . 3b leads to a significant reduction in the mechanical and / or thermal load capacity of the laminated glass.
  • For this particular embodiment of at least two thin glasses arranged directly opposite one another, it has proved to be particularly advantageous experimentally in the stress tests if, independent of the size of the absorption, the thickness d composite (6) of the composite material 6 the following conditions (a-c) are satisfied simultaneously:
    • (a) The composite (6) is always approximately the same thickness, more preferably slightly thinner than the thickness of the composite materials 2 . 4 .
    • (b) The composite (6) is less than or equal to about 1.6 times the thickness of the thinnest thin glasses 3a . 3b , and
    • (c) the maximum value for d composite (6) is always less than or equal to the maximum value derived from the conditions (1-1c).
  • On the other hand, it was advantageously found that the lower limit for the composite material thickness 6 even to values down to approximately 0.1 mm, without a deterioration of the load capacity of the entire component.
  • For the composite material 6 Thus, according to the invention, particularly optimal thickness ranges result according to the conditions d composite (6) ≤ d composite (2,4) (2a) and 0.1 mm ≤ d compound (6) ≤ 1.6 · d dG * (2b) (d dG * ... respective thickness of the thinnest thin glass 3a . 3b
    and d composite (6) ≤ d composite (6) according to condition (1-1c) (2c).
  • According to the invention, such an embodiment is constructed by way of example as follows:
    • - thin glass 3a provided with, for example, an at least partially transparent sunscreen coating 602 ; Glass type: low-alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3a) = 0.8 mm and A solar (3a) = 21% (see range 10% and 30% according to equation 1b),
    • - thin glass 3b provided with, for example, an electrochromic coating 601 ; Glass type: low alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3b) = 0.5 mm and A solar (3b) = 55% in the dark connected state (see range between greater than 30% and 60% according to Equation 1c), and
    • - thick glasses 1 . 5 hardened soda-lime glass with a thickness between 4 mm and 19 mm; the surfaces may be functionalized or coated.
  • The composite thicknesses can be out 3 and condition (2) as follows:
    • - Thickness of the composite material 2 : 0.25 mm to about 1.7 mm,
    • - Thickness of the composite material 4 From 0.25 mm to about 0.81 mm,
    • - Thickness of the composite material 6 : approx. 0.1 mm to approx. 0.8 mm.
  • In the production of bent laminated glasses according to this embodiment, it is recommended, especially the thicknesses of the composite material layers adjacent to the thin glasses 2 . 4 according to the conditions accordingly 3 to choose as large as possible, so that any production-related ripples occurring under heat affected thick glasses 1 . 5 can be better compensated.
  • In particular, in the case of the curved laminated glass, it is also advantageous if the individual thicknesses of the thin glass 3a . 3b total glass thickness (d dG (3a) + d dG (3b) ) formed overall does not exceed a value of 2.2 mm, because due to the increased rigidity at larger thicknesses, increasingly quality problems arise in the production and also in the practical use of the laminated glass.
  • That from the plates 3a . 3b existing partial composite system can be produced completely separately due to this special structure of the laminated glass. As a result, in this case, the coatings on the thin glass plates 3a . 3b in the partial composite system are inside, they are protected and can thus be stored for long periods of time under exclusion of external environmental influences, before the production of the final laminated glass takes place. The entire manufacturing process can be simplified and costs can be saved.
  • The preparation can be carried out, for example, in the following process chain: a) application of the corresponding coatings to large-format thin-glass sheets 3a . 3b b) Production of a Finished Partial Composite System or a Pre-Bond from These Thin Glass Panels (Preproduct I; 6C ), c) production of the corresponding thick glasses or packages ( 1 ) and ( 5 (Precursor II), d) cutting etc. of the precursor I to the desired shapes and geometries, e) assembly of the final laminated glass sandwich consisting of the precursors I and II, f) final lamination and thus production of the final product.
  • This embodiment variant is particularly suitable for the production of electrochromic and / or similar electrically switchable or changeable systems consisting of several (usually two) subsystems. The schematic structure of such an electrochromic system goes out 6D out. First, the thin glasses 3a . 3b transparent conductive coatings 603 . 604 applied, which also serve as electrodes. Suitable materials for this purpose are known from the prior art and can be, for example, transparent conductive oxides (TCO) such as indium tin oxide, doped tin or zinc oxide, silver-containing layer systems, combinations thereof or the like. At least on one of the coatings 603 . 604 are then electrochromic materials or layer systems formed therefrom 605 . 606 applied. It is of great advantage if on the two electrodes 603 . 604 At the same time materials with complementary electrochromic properties can be applied, because this can significantly improve the efficiency of the electrochromic function. From the prior art, different materials and mixtures are useful for electrochromic coatings, such as various transition metal oxide compounds (for example, based on W, Mo, Ir, Ni, Nb, Rh, Co, Mn, Ru, Ti, Cr, etc.). , and inorganic and organic pigments, polymers and / or gels (for example, Prussian blue, polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene), etc. Between the coatings 605 and 606 becomes the polymer-containing composite material 607 attached, which is used simultaneously for the ion conduction (for example on the basis of H + or Li + ions) and thus the charge transport within the electrochromic device. The thickness of the ion-conductive composite layer 607 can be adjusted by the user depending on the thickness of the thin glasses 3a . 3b and their solar absorption in a simple manner from the conditions (1-1c) and (2) determine.
  • In order to at least partially protect this electrochromic system from radiation-induced degradation as well, at least one of the further outwardly directed surfaces, preferably the surface, becomes 3a-1 provided with a radiation-filtering coating.
  • For other application variants of this embodiment (see 6E ) become, for example, the surfaces 3a-2 and 3B-1 each with a transparent conductive coating 603 . 604 provided, which in turn serve as electrodes. Between the electrodes 603 . 604 then becomes an at least partially transparent, polymer-containing material 608 attached, in which the properties when applying an electric field between 603 and 604 let change. Such materials disposed between the two electrodes may be similar to liquid crystal effective polarizable or electroluminescent or otherwise light emitting or radiating properties or combinations of properties. But it is also possible that these properties directly or in Combination with additionally stored material components 609 be generated.
  • The examples shown are only to be understood as examples. Rather, according to the invention, more than two thin glasses can also be incorporated into a composite element and / or thin and thick glasses can be alternately combined with one another and / or other or further surfaces of such a laminated glass with a wide variety of functional layers (see 5B and 6B ), Imprints or the like provided. The electrical contact and the electrical or electronic control can be analogous to those in the 5C and 5D accomplish exemplary examples.
  • Ausführun Example group 4
  • It has proven to be a particular advantage if the hardened thick glasses or glass packages which are particularly relevant for the mechanical stability of the overall system 1 . 5 are arranged so that their tin surfaces - but at least the outer thick glass plate (see 1-1 corresponding 5B ) - are directed to the outside, the load attack side. As a result, due to the production of tin-containing glass surface always present lower tensile strengths (due to microscopic surface defects and / or damage) in the case of load under a certain compressive stress and thus made as far as possible "harmless". This special arrangement is when using chemically toughened glass for the thick glasses 1 . 5 of particular advantage. This is explained by the fact that these glasses always have a lower surface compressive stress and thus a reduced tensile strength on their tin-containing surface due to a reduced ion exchange.
  • Due to this special arrangement of the tin-containing surfaces (see 1-1 . 5-1 corresponding 5B ) of the thick glasses 1 . 5 It has become possible to further increase both the mechanical and thermal properties of the entire laminated glass and, moreover, to avoid spontaneous breakage as far as possible. As the investigations have shown, it is possible to achieve an additional increase of at least 30% in mechanical and / or thermal capacity compared to the corresponding reference laminates.
  • As it has been shown, it is the case for bent or curved laminated glass for the thin glass 3 . 3a . 3b exactly reversed. Preferably, in this case, the thin glasses are positioned with their tin side towards the inside. Since it is provided according to the invention, the thin glasses purely mechanical, that is to bend without heat, form on their typically outwardly directed convex surfaces 3-1 . 3a-1 . 3B-1 Alone by this mechanical deformation undesirable tensile stresses, while the inside is subjected to a completely uncritical compressive stress. The tensile stresses on the outer surface of the curved thin glasses may under certain circumstances tend to cracking too strong curvatures of the laminated glass without the action of external loads and thus ultimately lead to unfavorable conditions for breakage. Since now the low-alkali or alkali-free glasses are produced in a float process, these also have a tin-containing surface. It has been shown that it is in principle also advantageous in these types of glass to carry out such a special arrangement of the tin-containing or tin-free surfaces. However, here the influencing of the mechanical and thermal stability of the laminated glass is significantly lower than is the case with the use of thermally or chemically hardened soda-lime glasses. Since now advantageously the surfaces of the thin glasses with the higher tensile strength (tin-free surfaces) to the outside (see surfaces 3-1 . 3a-1 . 3B-1 ) can be arranged, this phenomenon can be counteracted so that in practical use of the component no impairment of the stability and the load capacities can be determined.
  • Embodiment Group 5
  • In further embodiments, glazing elements are also possible in which a plurality of the laminated glasses according to the invention are arranged at a distance from one another at the same time. Such a component is in 7 shown. Will that between the subelements 7 . 8th located room 10 by z. B. spacers 9 sealed in combination with known sealants and filled with dry air and / or noble gases, etc., can also be obtained from the prior art double insulating glass unit with heat insulating effect. In this case, one of the two sub-elements 7 . 8th also from a single glass, a vacuum insulating glass or the like, which in turn may also be provided with coatings exist. If such a glazing element corresponding to another sub-element 7 . 8th extended, we obtain a triple insulating glass unit, in which an even better thermal insulation can be achieved.
  • The features of the invention disclosed in the foregoing description, drawings and claims may be significant to the realization of the invention in its various forms both individually and in any combination thereof.

Claims (27)

  1. Laminated glass ( 10 ) comprising: - a first thick glass ( 1 ), which has a thickness of at least 2.1 mm, - a second thick glass ( 5 ) having a thickness of at least 2.1 mm, - a first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) having a thickness of less than or equal to 1.5 mm, and - composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ), with which the first thick glass ( 1 ), the second thick glass ( 5 ) and the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), wherein - the first thick glass ( 1 ) comprises tempered soda lime glass, and - the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) at least one functionalized surface ( 3-1 . 3-2 . 3a-1 . 3a-2 . 3B-1 . 3b-2 ), which carries a coating and / or has a structural and / or chemical modification, characterized in that - the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) between the first and second thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) is arranged.
  2. Laminated glass according to claim 1, in which the first thick glass ( 1 ) has a thickness of at least 4 mm, preferably at least 6 mm.
  3. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) has a thickness between 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm.
  4. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) attached to the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) directly adjoins a thickness d compound (in mm) as a function of the thickness d dG (in mm) of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) according to [0,25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3,15 - 3,64 exp (- (d dG + 0,068) / 1,32))] (in mm), wherein the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) contains at least one plastic selected from the group of materials comprising polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyurethane (PU), polypropylene (PP), polyacrylate, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA); Polyethylene, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polyacetate resin, silicone systems, copolymers of vinyl chloride or ethylene or acrylates, casting resins and UV, thermally or air-curable adhesives.
  5. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which - the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) has a solar absorption A dG, solar in the range between 30% and 60%, and - the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) attached to the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) directly adjacent, a thickness d compound (in mm) as a function of the thickness d dG of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.15-6.6 exp (- (d dG + 0.53) / 0.994))] (in bin), said composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) contains at least one plastic selected from the group of materials comprising polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyurethane (PU), polypropylene (PP), polyacrylate, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polyacetate resin, Silicone systems, copolymers of vinyl chloride or ethylene or acrylates, casting resins and UV, thermally or air-curable adhesives.
  6. Laminated glass according to at least one of claims 1 to 3, in which - the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) has a solar absorption A dG, solar in the range between 10% and 30%, and - the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) attached to the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), a thickness d bond (in mm) as a function of the thickness d dG (in mm) of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.2-8.3 exp (- (d dG + 0.4) / 0.68))], said composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) contains at least one plastic selected from the group of materials comprising polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyurethane (PU), polypropylene (PP), polyacrylate, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polyacetate resin, Silicone systems, copolymers of vinyl chloride or ethylene, casting resins or acrylates, and UV, thermally or air-curable adhesives.
  7. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, wherein the first thin glass Is partially uncured and consists of a low-alkali and / or alkali-free glass material, wherein the low-alkali glass material has an alkali oxide content of less than or equal to 8 wt .-%, or - consists of a hardened soda lime glass.
  8. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) floated borosilicate glass having a content of boric acid (B 2 O 3 content) of at least 7% and a content of silica (SiO 2 content) of at least 70%.
  9. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the functionalized surface ( 3-1 . 3-2 . 3a-1 . 3a-2 . 3B-1 . 3b-2 ) of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) is set up for at least one of the functions that has a Sun protection, heat insulation, anti-glare, privacy, protection against icing and fogging, reflection reduction, reflection enhancement, protection against ultraviolet radiation, protection against electromagnetic radiation, a design function, conversion of solar energy into electrical energy, and a display function include.
  10. Laminated glass according to Claim 9, in which the function of the functionalised surface ( 3-1 . 3-2 . 3a-1 . 3a-2 . 3B-1 . 3b-2 ) of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) is variable by applying an electrical voltage.
  11. Laminated glass according to claim 1, in which the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) Films.
  12. Laminated glass according to claim 11, in which the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) prefabricated laminating film comprises.
  13. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) on both sides with the first and the second thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) is firmly connected by composite materials.
  14. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 11, comprising a second thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) with a smaller thickness than the first and the second thick glass ( 1 . 5 ), wherein the first and second thin glasses ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) between the first and second thick glasses ( 1 . 5 ) are arranged and firmly connected to each other by composite materials.
  15. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which at least one of the thick glasses ( 1 . 5 ) consists of chemically toughened glass, wherein the penetration depth of potassium ions in the chemically tempered glass is at least 10 microns.
  16. Laminated glass according to claim 14, in which the first and the second thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) are arranged directly next to each other and through a composite material layer ( 6 ), which is thinner than the composite material ( 2 . 4 ) between the thick and thin glasses.
  17. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the thick glass consists of a laminated glass.
  18. Glazing element ( 20 ), which is a laminated glass ( 10 ) according to at least one of the preceding claims and having a predetermined installation direction with an inner side and an outer side forming a load application side of the glazing element, wherein the laminated glass is formed with a curvature directed to the outside.
  19. Glazing element according to Claim 18, in which the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) of the laminated glass has a tin-containing surface facing the inside.
  20. Glazing element according to Claim 18 or 19, in which the first thick glass ( 1 ) of the laminated glass has a tin-containing surface facing the outside.
  21. Glazing element according to at least one of claims 18 to 20, in which a plurality of thin glasses are provided, wherein a total thickness of the thin glasses ( 3a . 3b ) d dG, (3a) + (3b) does not exceed a value of 2.2 mm.
  22. Use of a laminated glass ( 10 ) or a glazing element ( 20 ) according to at least one of the preceding - as part of a transport vehicle, in particular in automobiles, trains, missiles or ships, - as part of a building, especially in roofs or overhead glazing, windows, doors, parapets, walk-glass structures, or - as Part of a technical device or article of daily use.
  23. Method for producing a laminated glass ( 10 ) according to at least one of claims 1 to 17, comprising the steps of: - providing the first and the second thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) and the at least one functionalized thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), - formation of a layer structure in which the thick and thin glasses ( 1 . 5 . 3 . 3a . 3b ) each by a layer of the at least one composite material ( 2 . 4 ) are separated, - formation of a pre-bond by a pressure and Temperaturbeaufschlagung the layer structure, and - finishing of the laminated glass ( 10 ) by an autoclave process or a vacuum lamination process to which the precoat is subjected.
  24. The method of claim 23, wherein in the formation of the layer structure, a temperature of the composite material is selected to be equal to or less than 200 ° C.
  25. A method according to claim 23 or 24, wherein in the formation of the pre-bond a pressure of less than 2.5 bar and a temperature are selected which is at least 10 K below the maximum set at the final temperature.
  26. Method according to at least one of claims 23 to 25, in which for the production of the glazing element ( 20 ), the laminated glass ( 10 ) into a version ( 21 ) is mounted.
  27. Method according to at least one of claims 23 to 25, in which a curvature of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) of the laminated glass is formed by mechanical deformation without heat treatment.
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