DE102006042538A1 - Composite glass used as safety glass comprises a first thick glass made from hardened soda-lime glass and a first thin glass having a functionalized surface - Google Patents

Composite glass used as safety glass comprises a first thick glass made from hardened soda-lime glass and a first thin glass having a functionalized surface Download PDF

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Publication number
DE102006042538A1
DE102006042538A1 DE200610042538 DE102006042538A DE102006042538A1 DE 102006042538 A1 DE102006042538 A1 DE 102006042538A1 DE 200610042538 DE200610042538 DE 200610042538 DE 102006042538 A DE102006042538 A DE 102006042538A DE 102006042538 A1 DE102006042538 A1 DE 102006042538A1
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glass
thin
composite
thick
laminated glass
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DE102006042538B4 (en
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Steffen Jäger
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JAEGER, STEFFEN, DR., DE
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FUTECH GmbH
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10036Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10036Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet
    • B32B17/10045Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet at least one intermediate layer consisting of a glass sheet
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10036Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet
    • B32B17/10045Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet at least one intermediate layer consisting of a glass sheet
    • B32B17/10055Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets comprising two outer glass sheet at least one intermediate layer consisting of a glass sheet at least one intermediate air space
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10091Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets thermally hardened
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10009Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the number, the constitution or treatment of glass sheets
    • B32B17/10128Treatment of at least one glass sheet
    • B32B17/10137Chemical strengthening
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10165Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin particular functional features of the laminated glazing
    • B32B17/10174Coatings of a metallic or dielectric material on a constituent layer of glass or polymer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/1055Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin characterized by the resin layer, i.e. interlayer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10807Making layered products containing glass and synthetic resin layers; apparatus therefor
    • B32B17/10889Making layered products containing glass and synthetic resin layers; apparatus therefor shaping the sheets, e.g. by using a mould
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B17/00Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres
    • B32B17/06Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material
    • B32B17/10Layered products essentially comprising sheet glass, or glass, slag, or like fibres comprising glass as the main or only constituent of a layer, next to another layer of a specific material of synthetic resin
    • B32B17/10807Making layered products containing glass and synthetic resin layers; apparatus therefor
    • B32B17/10981Pre-treatment of the layers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C17/00Surface treatment of glass, not in the form of fibres or filaments, by coating
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C27/00Joining pieces of glass to pieces of other inorganic material; Joining glass to glass other than by fusing
    • C03C27/06Joining glass to glass by processes other than fusing
    • C03C27/10Joining glass to glass by processes other than fusing with the aid of adhesive specially adapted for that purpose

Abstract

Composite glass (10) comprises a first thick glass (1, 5) made from hardened soda-lime glass and a first thin glass (3) having a thickness of not more than 1.5 mm and a functionalized surface. Independent claims are also included for the following: (1) Glazing element made from the composite glass; and (2) Production of the composite glass or glazing element.

Description

  • The The invention relates to a laminated glass with a composition of Thick and thin glasses, in particular a laminated glass having the features of the preamble of claim 1, a glazing element containing such a laminated glass, and method for producing the laminated glass and the glazing element and their use.
  • laminated glass (or: safety glass, composite element) of several glass plates with intermediate layers of composite material reduces hazards splintering of the glass or breakage of fractured fragments. Even if one of the glass plates is damaged, the overall composite is due to the adhesive effect between the respective intermediate layer and the glass pieces still some residual power on, so it continues a sealing function of z. B. spaces, escape routes, etc. can meet. laminated glass are also because of their burglary, bombardment or explosion-inhibiting Effect of interest. laminated glass are therefore preferred at elevated Security requirements used, such as. B. in transport vehicles or in construction engineering.
  • Depending on the application, in addition to the safety requirements, laminated glass also has to meet special stability requirements with regard to external mechanical forces (eg wind, suction or snow loads), which can amount to a few kPa. Especially in maritime applications (ship glazing, sub-water facilities, etc.) with pressure loads of typically at least about 15 kPa (about 1.5 m water column or a load of about 1.5 to / m 2 ) or even up to ten times This value places extremely high demands on the mechanical properties of composite safety glass systems. According to existing safety regulations, laminated glass has to withstand four times the practically occurring loads and thus values of up to 60 to / m 2 and above. High mechanical stability is achieved with tempered glass plates provided by a thermal treatment (thermally toughened / tempered or partially tempered glass), ion exchange on the glass surface (chemically tempered / tempered glass), or other known methods.
  • A Another important requirement for laminated glass is the temperature and temperature change stability, z. B. at seasonal temperature differences between the outer and the inner surface of the component, when heated of the component by the absorption of solar energy, and / or at locally acting thermal stresses due to shading, Rain, snow, splash or other cooling effects. Especially the combination of local temperature gradients and high mechanical loads results in practice often to a failure of the laminated glass, such as. B. cracking, a break or a delamination. The simultaneous working of mechanical and thermal factors in the prior art not or only very insufficiently taken into account, what with the known laminated glass especially problematic is when relatively thick glasses used which are many times thicker than the composite material. That's how you get for example a conventional one Laminate with the construction "thick glass 4mm / laminated foil 1,52 mm / thick glass 4 mm "a thickness ratio of about 2,6. This ratio increases even using a value of, for example, 19 mm thick glasses 12.5.
  • A Another requirement of laminated glass is that modern high-performance laminated glass in their use in a component or, as such, a number of complex ones functional requirements in addition should be fair. Although from the prior art are techniques for the functionalization of laminated glass, but these are especially for Laminated glass with chemically hardened glass or for bent laminated glass, not sufficient, the whole complex high demands in terms of high mechanical and thermal Strength, safety, reliability and long-term stability in sufficient Dimensions just to become.
  • DE 103 37 701 describes a solar control laminated glass in which color pigments for absorbing sunlight are incorporated in the adhesive or composite layer between the glasses. This results in the disadvantage that the absorbed sunlight is converted directly into heat, so that high temperatures arise in the laminated glass. Furthermore, it is problematic that diffusion and agglomeration of the color pigments result in "clouding" and thus impairment of the aesthetic effect of the laminated glass Finally, there are restrictions on the reflection color and the provision of selective reflection (eg IR reflection ) outward.
  • In DE 196 32 788 For providing functionalized curved glasses, it is proposed to first coat a plane glass and then to bend the coated glass at temperatures in excess of 550 ° C. Finally, hardening is achieved by shock cooling. Several glasses thus produced are laminated to a laminated glass.
  • Due to the high bending temperature, this technique is limited to a few temperature-stable coating types and materials and therefore not suitable for practical requirements. Another disadvantage is that the optical properties of the coating can change at the bending temperature, so that unacceptable color shifts occur. Another disadvantage of the method according to DE 196 32 788 is that it is not possible to evenly cure the bent glasses on the entire glass surface. In practice, pronounced stress inhomogeneities occur, especially in the area of the edges, bores, etc., which then lead to premature failure of the glass composite.
  • Out In practice, attempts are known to later coat functional glasses functionally. This is technically possible, because of the practically occurring diverse and varied glass formats, shapes and bending radii but already for a single task (z. As ship glazing, specific building glazings, etc.) enormous expensive and therefore uneconomical. The subsequent functionalization is on mass production with very few coating types on small Glass dimensions limited.
  • For the automotive industry will be in DE 195 29 943 and DE 601 10 548 Laminated glasses described with IR-reflective or sunscreen effect, in which a transparent carrier film (consisting of polyethylene terephthalate - PET), which contains an IR-reflecting surface layer, is arranged between two glass panes. However, such laminated glasses may, especially at oblique incidence of light, show optically disturbing phenomena in that the IR-reflecting surface does not appear uniformly uniform with respect to the reflection color impression. It reveals a phenomenon known as "orange peel" in which, as in a hammer blow effect, the surface is not homogeneous to the eye but structured. It even local discoloration can be perceived. It is known that these visual impairments are caused by shrinkage processes of the carrier film and / or the adhesive material.
  • At the DE 195 29 943 known laminated glass is proposed to avoid the "orange peel" effect that the adhesive layer between the carrier film and the glass has a thickness of at most 50 microns, thereby producing a relatively strong and hardly deformable compound to the glass. However, even in practice, this method is not applicable to large disks with an area of about one square meter and larger. In the case of large flat disks, deformations occur when exposed to external mechanical stresses, which in the case of such an extremely thin adhesive bed easily leads to local delamination or delamination phenomena. Furthermore, in particular in the case of thermally toughened or curved discs, as a result of the production, undulations and tolerances always occur, which can not be sufficiently compensated by such a thin adhesive layer. A further disadvantage of such plastic-based carrier films is a weakening of the composite effect, so that the laminated glass is not suitable for sufficiently withstanding the high shear forces occurring in practice within the laminated glass and in practical use delamination and delamination phenomena occur.
  • The Problems in the prior art occur in particular in laminated glass with chemically toughened or hardened glasses, as in these a Functionalization is possible only after curing. This results for the practical use big Restrictions, especially with bent composite units, in terms of flexibility, quality and cost.
  • Specific Problems arise with laminated glass based on soda lime float glass, there during these or after coating light atoms or molecules from the Glass can diffuse out directly into the coating. Thereby it can be a change the material properties, to Schichtenthaftungen or other negative Degradation phenomena come. This can eventually even for Total failure of the desired functionality and thus complete uselessness lead the entire component. By diffusion-inhibiting coating materials (diffusion barriers) although a reduction of the diffusion processes can be achieved, but because of the production-related pinholes or holes in the coatings and in particular thermally toughened Glass, which increased one microscopic surface roughness has, only limited is effective.
  • The The object of the invention is to provide an improved laminated glass, with the disadvantages of conventional laminated glass be avoided. The object of the invention is furthermore an improved glazing element with such a laminated glass and methods for producing the laminated glass and the glazing element provide.
  • These Tasks are performed by a laminated glass, a glazing element and Method solved with the features of the independent claims. advantageous embodiments and applications of the invention will be apparent from the dependent claims.
  • According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a laminated glass comprising at least one thick glass and at least one thin glass bonded together by a composite material, wherein the thick glass comprises hardened soda-lime glass and has a thickness greater than the thin glass and the thin glass has a thickness less than or equal to 1.5 mm and at least one functionalized surface. The combination of the thick glass with the functionalized thin glass according to the invention advantageously provides a laminated glass which reliably fulfills at least one additional function without impairing the mechanical and thermal stability and the safety-relevant aspects. Surprisingly, it has been found that with inventive laminated glass large-sized components with geometric dimensions of up to 4 m 2 and even above can be produced without adverse property losses.
  • In extensive experiments were in particular different types of glass with different glass thicknesses, different composite materials with different thicknesses as well as different coating types below investigated different practical conditions. It has shown that the combination of the invention of thick and thin glasses, functionalized laminated glass produce without the mechanical and thermal stability of the entire component impaired becomes.
  • in the Within the scope of the present description, the term "laminated glass" (or: safety glass, Composite element) an arrangement of several at least partially transparent panels (of glass, possibly also in combination with other materials, such as As plastics, especially polycarbonate, polyurethanes, Acrylates, etc.) denoted by intermediate layers of composite material connected to each other. A component, which is the laminated glass in a version, such. B. a frame is referred to as "glazing element". By "composite material" is meant a substance, with the glasses the laminated glass surface and strong can be connected to each other. The composite material forms an adhesive or laminate layer of one tough, firmly adhering to the glass plastic material.
  • With "thick glass" becomes a level or arched plate or disc of hardened Soda lime glass called. Thick glass has a thickness in the range of at least 2.1 mm, in particular at least 4 mm, preferably at least 6 mm, until z. B. 19 mm or more. With "thin glass" becomes a flat or vaulted plate or glass pane with a thickness of less than or equal to 1.5 mm.
  • With "functionalized Surface "becomes a surface of a Glass, which carries a coating and / or structural and / or has chemical modification, so that properties changed the glass and / or imprinting new properties on the glass. Such properties (Functions) are for example the sun and / or heat protection, the glare and / or privacy screen, a protection against icing and fogging the surfaces, reflection reducing or increasing Effects, protection against electromagnetic radiation, special Designs (see, for example, shapes, colors, imprints, lighting, optical effects based on z. B. holography, surface structuring and / or light steering), radiation energy absorbing and / or changing effects, a picture display or projection or display, or combinations of these. The term "functionalized surface" also includes for the User selectively changeable Features, such as an adjustable or controllable Sun, glare and / or privacy and / or electronic or electrically active coatings or structures. These can be, for example switchable electrochromic or liquid crystal based, photovoltaic active, temperature changing, etc. coatings or the like.
  • According to one second aspect of the invention is a glazing element provided comprising at least one inventive laminated glass. The Glazing element preferably has a predetermined installation direction with an inside and an outside on which is a loading attack side of the glazing element forms.
  • According to one Third aspect of the invention is a method of manufacture a laminated glass or a glazing element provided where the steps are provided: providing at least a thick glass and the at least one functionalized thin glass, education a layer structure in which the thick and thin glass respectively by composite material are separated, formation of a Vorverbundes by a pressure and Temperaturbeaufschlagung the layer structure, and final production of Laminated glass by an autoclave process or a vacuum lamination process. Advantageously, this method becomes one for the user simple procedural rule created after a production the laminated glass according to the invention below Industrial conditions easily and in a simple and reproducible Way possible is.
  • In practice, there is a general interest in keeping the glass thickness and thus the weight of safety laminated glass as low as possible in order to complex and costly sub to avoid constructions and installations.
  • According to one preferred embodiment of Invention has the first thin glass a thickness between 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm, so that appropriate Benefits for result in a weight reduction.
  • By the inventor has been found that it is advantageously possible to set the thickness d composite of directly adjacent to the thin glass composite materials as a function of the thickness d dG and the solar absorption A dG, solar of the thin glass so that the thin glass-containing laminated glass having an excellent mechanical and thermal stability can be produced. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the composite material directly adjacent to the first thin glass contains organic materials, and further has a thickness d composite (in mm) as a function of the thickness d dG (in mm) of the thin glass according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.15 3.64 x exp (- (d dG + 0.068) / 1.32))] (in mm).
  • When the first thin glass has a mean solar absorption A dG, solar ranging between greater than 30% and 60%, the composite directly adjacent to the first thin glass most preferably has a thickness d composite (in mm) according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.15-6.6 · exp (- (d dG + 0.53) / 0.994))]. When the first thin glass has an average solar absorption A dG, solar ranging between 10% and 30%, the composite directly adjacent to the first thin glass more preferably has a thickness d composite (in mm) according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.2-8.3 x exp (- (d dG + 0.4) / 0.68))]. Surprisingly, it has been found that - for a given thickness of the thin glasses d dG and their solar absorption A dG, solar - especially the characteristics of the directly adjacent to the thin glass composite materials is decisive for whether the such a, absorbent thin glass containing composite element for the practice suitable is. It has been found that - depending on the size of the solar absorption of the thin glasses A dG, solar - primarily the thicknesses d of the composite directly adjacent to the thin glasses composites are of importance. This result was not expected due to the complexity of the properties of laminated glass described below. It was particularly surprising that the specific material properties of different composite materials are of secondary importance. The physical properties of the thin glass and of the surrounding composite materials are so different that the comparatively much smaller differences between the individual investigated composite materials themselves no longer have a decisive effect on the overall system.
  • According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the first thin glass is partially uncured, and it is particularly preferably made of a low-alkali and / or alkali-free glass. Surprisingly, it has been found that according to the invention even uncured glasses can be used as the base material for thin glass in the laminated glass. This was therefore not to be expected because such uncured glasses have only very low bending-tensile strengths of less than about 50 N / mm 2 . Advantageously, this disadvantage is compensated by favorable thermal properties, in particular the thermal conductivity, the temperature difference resistance and / or the low mean thermal expansion coefficient.
  • Unhardened low-alkali or alkali-free, boron-containing silicate glass having an alkali oxide content of less than or equal to about 8% by weight proved to be particularly suitable. This uncured thin glass, in particular floated borosilicate glass with a boric acid content (B 2 O 3 content) of at least 7 % and a proportion of silica (SiO 2 content) of at least 70%, is particularly advantageous because it can be brought without restrictions to the desired geometric dimensions and shapes or provided with holes, cutouts, etc. In contrast to tempered glasses, damage to the thin glass during further mechanical processing is avoided. Advantageously, it is possible to carry out the functionalization on standard industrial dimensions independently of the production and processing of the thick glasses. Thus, for example, the coating of the thin glasses in the form of larger standard measuring panels can take place in conventional industrial plants, which results in addition to the simplification of the manufacturing process, moreover, a high productivity and lower costs.
  • Especially It is also advantageous that when using uncured thin glasses no high processing temperatures of about 450 ° C and above are required, such as this during hardening and / or Bending the case is. Thus, you can especially for the formation of functionalized surfaces also temperature-sensitive or less-stable coatings, materials or the like, which are otherwise unusable, applied and for a variety of Applications processed further.
  • According to further preferred variants of the invention, the functionalized surface of the first thin glass is adapted to at least one of sunshade, thermal insulation, anti-glare, privacy, anti-icing and fogging, reflection reduction, reflection enhancement Protection against ultraviolet radiation, protection against electromagnetic radiation, a design function, a conversion of solar energy into electrical energy, and a display function include. Particularly preferably, the function of the functionalized surface of the first thin glass is variable by applying an electrical voltage to the surface or on these provided electrodes.
  • The used according to the invention Contains composite material preferably at least one plastic selected from the group of Materials selected is the polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyurethane (PU), polypropylene (PP), polyacrylate, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene, polycarbonate, Polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polyacetate resin, Silicone systems, copolymers, from z. As vinyl chloride or ethylene or acrylates, casting resins and UV, thermally or air curable adhesives. Advantageously, these substances are at least partially transparent and easy to process as adhesive or composite materials.
  • The Composite material can according to a Another preferred variant of the invention with additional Filling and / or Aggregates, such. As with inorganic and / or organic Pigments, other radiation-absorbing and / or -reflecting Materials or particles, textiles or other fabric-like Substances with catalysts or plasticizers, metal-containing compounds, with z. B. by applying an external voltage influenceable materials, with ceramics etc. or combinations be provided from these.
  • In other special designs can also be used with heating wires, provided with electromagnetic protective effect and / or also controllable electrical or electronic components (such as lighting devices using light-emitting diodes, electroluminescent elements, detectors, etc.) use preconcentrated films.
  • additional Benefits for the effective production of the laminated glass according to the invention results, when the composite material comprises a prefabricated laminating film. Particularly suitable are prefabricated, commercial available Composite films, in particular produced on the basis of PVB, PU or EVA Laminate films that are mass-produced in common thicknesses such. B. 0.38, 0.51, 0.76 or 1.52 mm or even thicker are available. Alternatively, pre-coated coatings can be used in certain applications or by other methods functionalized thin PET films or the like laminated in the composite materials, if the above Disadvantages, such as the appearance of an "orange peel" are not critical.
  • From Another advantage is when the composite material in the visible spectral range has a refractive index between 1.47 and about 1.52, so that optimal optical matching between composite material and glass is achieved.
  • If according to a preferred variant of the method according to the invention in the formation of the Layer the composite material a temperature smaller or smaller equal to 200 ° C has advantages for a gentle treatment of the thin glass achieved.
  • According to one Another variant of the invention, the laminated glass a second Thick glass with a larger thickness as the first thin glass have, whereby the mechanical properties of the laminated glass can be improved. Advantageously, numerous variants of the mutual connection the thick and thin glasses with one or several composite materials available. For example, that can first thin glass between the first and second thick glass or the second thick glass be arranged between the first thick glass and the first thin glass. Of Another can be a second thin glass with a smaller thickness than the first and the second thick glass be provided, wherein the first and second thin glasses between the first and second second thick glasses, are arranged in particular on an inner side of the laminated glass. The first and the second thin glass can in particular arranged directly next to one another and by a Bonded composite layer, which is thinner than the composite material between the thick and thin glasses.
  • If according to a another embodiment the invention of at least one of the thick glasses of chemically toughened Glass exists, with the penetration depth of potassium ions in the chemical tempered glass at least 10 μm, preferably at least 20 microns is, can There are more benefits for you the stability of the laminated glass against external forces.
  • One Another advantage of the invention is that the plane or domed Plate of the thick glass does not necessarily consist of a single material got to. A special stability, in particular burglar resistance can be achieved, for example, if at least one of the thick glasses from a conventional one or a laminated glass according to the invention consists.
  • Furthermore, the invention makes it possible to provide curved or curved components with additional functions and properties for the highest safety and quality standards. Preferably, the laminated glass is formed with a curvature to the outside of the above two ten aspect of the invention provided glazing element is directed. The laminated glass is outwards, z. B. cylindrically or similarly curved, ie it is provided a convex curved surface which is directed towards the outside. Preference, the curvature of the first thin glass of the laminated glass is formed by mechanical deformation without heat treatment, so that an impairment of the functionalization of the thin glass is avoided.
  • According to one further advantageous embodiment According to the invention, the first thick glass of the laminated glass has a tin-containing one surface on the outside the glazing element is directed. By this special arrangement is it possible, both the mechanical as well as thermal properties of the whole Laminated glass still further increase and moreover spontaneous break as far as possible to avoid. Especially with curved laminated glass also owns the first thin glass preferably a tin-containing surface which, in addition to being outwardly oriented Arrangement of the tin side of the first thick glass - now to the inside of the Glazing element is directed. That way you can a further increase of the stability and thus the serviceability of the Reach laminated glass.
  • The Laminated glass according to the invention or a glazing element formed therewith is preferably in a transport vehicle (such as automobiles, trains, missiles or Ships), into a building (eg in roofs or overhead glazing, windows, doors, parapets, Walk-through glass structures, etc.), or in a technical device or a Built-in utility.
  • Further Details and advantages of the invention will become apparent below Reference to the attached Drawings described. Show it:
  • 1 and 2 FIG. 2: schematic sectional views of embodiments of a laminated glass according to the invention, FIG.
  • 3 and 4 : Illustrations describing the selection of parameters of laminated glass according to the invention and its testing,
  • 5 to 8th : schematic sectional views of further embodiments of a laminated glass according to the invention, and
  • 9 : A schematic sectional view of an embodiment of a glazing element according to the invention.
  • Selection of parameters laminated glass according to the invention
  • The 1 and 2 show a first embodiment of a laminated glass according to the invention 10 with a first thick glass 1 , a first absorbent thin glass 3 and a second thick glass 5 that through composite materials 2 . 4 connected to each other. According to 1 exist the thick glasses 1 . 5 with a thickness of z. B. 6 mm of hardened soda-lime glass, while the first thin glass 3 with a thickness of 1.1 mm made of borosilicate glass and carries a pigment coating. The latter causes a solar absorption of at least 10%.
  • The 1 and 2 serve to illustrate the invention in the laminated glass 10 occurring phenomena with simultaneous exposure to external mechanical and thermal loads. The mechanical and / or thermal resistance of the laminated glass 10 is influenced by the fact that the parts of the laminated glass are mechanically coupled to each other and run between the parts heat transfer kinetics processes. The invention is based on the utilization of the mechanical coupling and the heat transport kinetics processes, as will be explained below. Details of the shown and further embodiments of the laminated glass according to the invention 10 be down with respect to the 5 to 9 described.
  • Upon exposure to an external force F on the laminated glass 10 ( 1 ), compressive stresses p D are caused on the surfaces oriented towards the force attack side, while the remote glass surfaces are subject to an increased tensile stress p Z. For larger loads, this leads to a bending or curvature of the laminated glass 10 , In particular at the respective interfaces first thick glass 1 / Composite material 2 , Composite material 2 / first thin glass 3 , first thin glass 3 / Composite material 4 , Composite material 4 / second thick glass 5 additional shear forces occur. The composite materials 2 . 4 of the laminated glass according to the invention are chosen to compensate for these forces so that no delamination or delaminations occur at the interface glass composite material. Such delamination phenomena could occur, in particular, if the thickness of the composite material were too small. However, the thickness of the composite material can not be increased arbitrarily. If the thicknesses are too great, the external forces acting on them result in compression of the glass material which is softer than the glass and usually based on polymer, as a result of which it can flow or is irreversibly deformed. As a result, there is a considerable reduction of the composite effect and the associated mechanical strength of the Verbundgla ses.
  • The phenomena that occur when an additional thermal load occurs are correspondingly in FIG 2 shown. The on the laminated glass 10 impinging solar radiation I 0 is here exemplarily predominantly in thin glass 3 absorbs and leads there to one opposite the thick glasses 1 . 5 elevated temperature T 3 with T 3 > T 1 and T 3 > T 2 . The in the thin glass 3 dissipatively converted energy is on the one hand by heat conduction through the composite material 2 respectively. 4 to the thick glass 1 respectively. 5 and then further transported to the outside or inside. It is important that there is good heat transfer at the interface of glass composite foil. If the composite material 2 would be a poor conductor of heat, it could lead to a heat accumulation at a too large thickness of the composite film, so that the on the surface of the thin glass 3 increased temperature T 3 'can not be reduced fast enough. This increases in the event that in addition a higher outside temperature T a is present. In addition, an external force (see 1 ), both the flow behavior and the irreversible deformations of the composite material increase 2 ,
  • On the other hand, there is an exchange of energy to the inside with the temperature T i out by heat conduction, radiation and convection, resulting in the other surface of the thin glass 3 a temperature T 3 '' sets. The two surface temperatures T 3 'and T 3 ''are very different in practice due to the different heat transport mechanisms and heat transfer kinetics, which is why the thickness of the thin glass 3 can sometimes form a large temperature gradient, the additionally thermally induced stresses in the thin glass 3 causes. As is known, this can lead to a spontaneous breakage of the glass in conventional laminated glass and thus to a failure of the entire component. The propensity for such spontaneous breakage behavior is further enhanced by the above-described presence of temperature gradients along the glass surface caused by, for example, shadows and so forth. Of particular importance are these processes, when in a large-sized and mechanically highly durable laminated glass according to the invention, the thin glasses 3 have only small thicknesses of less than or equal to 1.5 mm and in practice due to their optical absorption additionally even with a sometimes locally acting heating within such a laminated glass 10 is to be expected. It should also be noted in particular that in such a thin glass-containing laminated glass significantly smaller thickness ratios between the thin glass 3 and the surrounding composites 2 . 4 present than is the case with the conventional laminates. This results, for example, in a thickness of the thin glass 3 of 1.1 mm and a thickness of the composite materials 2 . 4 of about 1.5 mm even thickness ratios less than 1 (in the example here: 0.73). As a result, there is a completely different situation than the conventional laminated glass.
  • The relationships obtained from the load tests carried out are in 3 shown graphically. How out 3 is apparent, the composite material thickness d composite is limited both upwards and downwards, depending on the thickness of the absorbent thin glasses d dG . The upper limit curve results from the results of the experiments carried out at different solar radiation absorption A dG, solar and has a relative experimental fluctuation range of about 10%.
  • It has been found that it is possible to predetermine the thickness d composite of directly adjacent to the thin glass composite materials as a function of the thickness d dG and the solar absorption A dG, solar in the thin glass that is provided with functions absorbent thin glasses containing composite glasses with excellent mechanical and thermal stability can be produced. The term solar absorption A dG, solar of the thin glass is understood to mean the internationally standardized size of the radiation absorption in the wavelength range between 250 and 2500 nm according to the EN 410 standard. It is thus referred exclusively to the solar absorption of the respective thin glasses and not the radiation absorption of the finished laminated glass or the like.
  • In terms of a simple, practical handling, the following three areas were selected for solar absorption:
    • (a) range of high absorptions with A dG, solar >60%;
    • (b) range of mean absorptions with A dG, solar greater than 30% to 60%; and
    • (c) Low absorption range with A dG, solar from 10% to 30%.
  • The lower limit curve corresponds to a minimum constant thickness of 0.25 mm, which has been found to be necessary in terms of manufacturing to obtain a high quality and bubble free large size composite element. The thickness of the adjoining the thin glass composites d composite can be for a predetermined thickness d of the thin glass dG and a predetermined solar absorption A dG, solar immediately as follows from the single graph in 3 read off. It clearly shows that with increasing solar absorptions A dG, solar the maximum possible composite film thickness d composite monotonically decreases.
  • For the upper limit at a solar absorption A dG, solar greater than 60% accordingly 3 can the experimental curve f (d dG ) be approximated very well by an exponential fit, from which the following mathematical condition can be derived according to the invention: 0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ f (i dG ) (in mm) (1) With f (d dG ) = 3.15 - 3.64 * exp (- (d dG + 0.068) / 1.32) (in mm) (1a)
  • at the calculation of the thickness of the composite according to the equation (1) and the following equations, the individual parameters are dimensionless to use.
  • The inventive feature according to Equations (1) and (1a) is on all, absorbing Containing thin glasses Laminated glass applicable and therefore independent of how big in the end is the solar absorption of the thin glasses.
  • The other upper limit curves off 3 can be similarly described using mathematical relationships as follows:
    For A dG, solar in the range between 10% and 30% applies: f (d dG ) = 3.2 - 8.3 · exp (- (d dG +0.4) /0.68) (in mm) (1b), For A dG, solar in the range between greater than 30% and 60%, the following applies: f (d dG ) = 3.15 - 6.6 · exp (- (d dG + 0.53) / 0.994) (in mm) (1c).
  • Thereby is it for the user even possible the production of laminated glass according to the invention by means of simple rules or procedures according to the equations (1) and (1a-1c) easy and simple to do.
  • For the absorbent thin glasses can be used thermally or chemically, at least partially hardened soda-lime glass as the base material. However, it is then preferred that the compressive stresses introduced by the hardening process on the glass surface are so large that at least values of greater than or equal to 120 N / mm 2 are achieved for the bending-tensile strength of the glass.
  • Process for the preparation of the laminated glass
  • For the production of laminated glass 10 z. B. according to 5A (see below), the following procedure is provided. First, a provided with a functionalizing coating, z. B. absorbent thin glass or prepared directly. Thereafter, the thin glass is cut to the desired dimensions according to the thick glass used. Edge damage (eg, cracks, scallops, and the like) that may occur during cutting and fracturing are removed by suitable methods, such as hemming and / or grinding and / or polishing and / or bracing by means of adhesions. It has proven to be of particular advantage when the cutting of the thin glass is carried out by means of laser radiation, because damage is avoided and post-processing of the edges can be dispensed with.
  • Then be the roughly same thick glass and thin glass plates alternately combined with composite material to form a composite sandwich. The thickness of the thin glass adjacent composite material is selected according to equation (1).
  • Prefers the composite material at temperatures less than or equal to 200 ° C, preferably in the temperature range below approx. 160 ° C, processed. However, you can The invention also composite materials are used in the Temperatures above 200 ° C and thus also above the processing temperatures for the conventional Composite materials can be applied. The to higher temperatures Limiting factors are only the temperature stability of the used Coatings as well as the tempered glasses.
  • The Composite sandwich will be in the next step compressed, vented and using heat assembled into a pre-bond. It is an advantage if for this step, a pressure of less than 2.5 bar and a temperature chosen which is at least 10 K to about 50 K below the maximum at Endverbund applied temperature is. The pre-bonding process can be with the techniques known per se from the manufacture of laminated glass such as lip prebonding, pre-composite or using the vacuum bag method.
  • Finally, it will the precompound at elevated Temperature and high pressure, z. In the so-called autoclave process, end-bonded to the finished laminated glass. This process will be particular at a temperature of about 110 ° C up to 150 ° C and an elevated one Pressure of up to 15 bar.
  • Alternatively, the manufacture of the laminated glass may be accomplished by the industry-established vacuum lamination process. Here is the La minierprozess under reduced pressures of typically 0.01 mbar to about 850 mbar and temperatures of about 90 ° C to 160 ° C carried out. Furthermore, parts of the final composite can be produced individually (prefabricated) and only laminated together at the end to form the composite element according to the invention.
  • The finished laminated glass 10 can for the production of the glazing element according to the invention 20 in a version 21 or a frame, as exemplified in FIG 9 is shown. The installation and assembly can be done by known from the prior art bonding or bonding techniques, by means of clamps or the like, with or without frame structures or otherwise constructive elements.
  • Method of testing the laminated glass
  • Normally, standardized test methods are used to test the mechanical strength of glasses. In the method according to the standard DIN ISO 614 (application for example in shipbuilding), the force acting on a test specimen by a specially shaped test stamp with a diameter of approx. 12.5 mm produced. The test specimen has a typical diameter of approx. 250 mm to 300 mm only very small geometric dimensions. Another disadvantage is that the test stamp acts almost punctiform on the specimen and thereby results in a very non-uniform, location-dependent load on the glass surface. For these reasons alone, the results obtained with this or similar test methods can not be applied to larger format glasses with surface areas of 1 m 2 to 2 m 2 and larger, nor can they be applied to real-world conditions. Further problems occur when, in addition to the mechanical loading of the specimen at the same time a thermal load is taken into account. There are no standardized test methods for this case.
  • For checking and for demonstrating the mechanical and / or thermal stability / loading capacity of the laminated glass according to the invention, a test device is used accordingly 4 used. The test device consists of a container in which a relation to the external atmosphere increased pressure p test is generated. As pressure-transmitting media, various liquids such as water, oils and the like, because they can not be compressed and the pressure in them isotropic and thus spread evenly. The container has a top with a sturdy frame 401 on, as the test specimen a laminated glass 404 can be attached. The attachment of the laminated glass 404 can by a bonding 402 z. B. with a polyurethane-based one or two-component adhesive, silicone-based polymer o. The like. Will take place, with the required tightness is ensured. Depending on the size and weight of the specimen, the bond width between approx. 15 mm and approx. 40 mm and the adhesive thickness between approx. 5 mm and approx. 15 mm selected. The laminated glass to be tested 404 can also be on the top of the frame 401 attached or attached by means of mechanical clamping or the like.
  • To the additional thermal resistance of the laminated glass 404 To test, several radiation sources (eg halogen lamps, radiant heaters, etc.) are placed above the test equipment so that the laminated glass 404 uniformly and over the entire surface with an irradiation power I 0 of up to about 1250 W / m 2 can be applied. By the at least partial absorption of this radiation in the laminated glass 404 There is a warming inside, as it occurs in practical use. By attaching additional screens, masks or the like (see 403 ) can simulate occurring in practice local Ver and shadows and so on close to reality. In addition, it is possible to thermostate the medium (eg the liquid) within the container at temperatures T F1 of up to about 60 ° C and above in order to be able to investigate the influence of different outside temperatures in this way.
  • With this test device, the mechanical and / or thermal capacity of large-sized test specimens with glass surfaces of about 1 m 2 to about 5 m 2 and above it is determined. When testing the laminated glass according to the invention - while specifying the corresponding specific test parameters - the pressure p test in the container increases until the test specimen is damaged, for example, by breakage, cracking, delamination or the like partially or completely and thus there is a failure of the component.
  • In the experiments, in a first step, predetermined reference standards were prepared and tested. These were conventional symmetrical laminated glasses that do not contain a thin glass plate. The typical structure was "thick glass / thick glass." The thick glasses comprised tempered soda-lime glasses bonded to a PVB, PU, or EVA-based composite, which was cured by both known thermal tempering (Ein Slab-safety glass, ESG) as well as by an ion exchange on the glass surface (Chemically Strengthened Glass, CSG) or also another well-known procedure.There were different glass thicknesses for the reference group "thick glass / thick glass" as for example 6mm / 6mm, 8mm / 8mm, 10mm / 10mm, etc. used. As in Preliminary tests with variation of the thickness of the composite material layer between approx. 0.7 mm to approx. 3 mm did not show any significant influence on the mechanical strength, the thickness of the composite material layer was reduced to a fixed value of approx. 1.5 mm set.
  • At least three identical samples were tested to detect variations and tolerances. The averages of the pressure p test failing the respective laminate were used as the reference values for further consideration. Such variations can range up to and including 20%. This is due to the fact that micro-defects and the like are present on glass edges, the surfaces or in the interior of the glass as a result of the production, and these can cause premature failure of the component in the event of load.
  • The following test parameters were used for the experiments (cf. 4 ):
    Irradiation power I 0 : 0 ... about 1250 W / m 2 ;
    Solar absorption A dG, solar of thin glasses ( 3 ): 0 ... 100%
    Temperature T F1 : 15 ... 60 ° C;

    Temperature T 0 : up to about 40 ° C;
    Pressure increase in the test device Δp Test / Δt: rd. 1 to 20 kPa / s;
    Typical geometric dimensions of the laminated glass: 1200mm × 1600mm and 1800mm × 2500mm
    Pressure range (min, max.): P test , min = 5 kN / m 2 ; p test , max = 1.0 10 3 kN / m 2
  • The exams or pressure tests on the laminated glass were evaluated as positive only if average for the composite glasses according to the invention Compressive loads of at least 90% of the respective value of the Reference laminated glasses ("Resilience criterion from 90% ").
  • It is according to the invention possible, both plane and curved laminated glass or parts of these almost without affecting the mechanical and at the same time thermal stability characteristics with versatile additional to provide, extend and / or combine functional properties.
  • embodiment Group 1
  • The laminated glasses produced for a first group of embodiments have the structure "thick glass plate or package ( 1 ) / Composite foil ( 2 ) / Thin glass or package ( 3 ) / Composite foil ( 4 ) / Thick glass plate or package ( 5 ) "(especially from outside to inside, see 5A - 5D ) on. For the experiments carried out, a symmetrical glass structure was chosen as follows:
    ESG / composite material / absorbent thin glass (with thickness d dG 0.5mm, 0.8mm, 0.9mm, 1.1mm, 1.5mm) / composite / tempered or CSG / composite / absorbent thin glass (with thickness d dG) 0.5mm, 0.8mm, 0.9mm, 1.1mm, 1.5mm) / composite material / CSG
  • The plan thick glasses 1 . 5 include hardened soda-lime glasses with commercial glass thicknesses 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 19 mm. The hardening of the thick glasses 1 . 5 was carried out by means of the known thermal toughening (single-pane safety glass, ESG) or by an ion exchange on the glass surface (Chemically Strengthened Glass, CSG). The thick glasses 1 . 5 can also have different thicknesses. But it is also possible that in place of the thick glasses 1 . 5 in each case a further laminated glass or the like, also in combination with other, at least partially transparent plates of z. Ex. Polycarbonate etc. is used.
  • As adhesive or composite material 2 . 4 For example, a film of polyurethane and / or polyvinyl butyral and / or ethylene-vinyl acetate is used. In this case, the composite materials used in each case 2 . 4 not be identical. In this case, it has proved advantageous to use a combination of polyvinyl butyral and polyurethane, since these two materials can be processed under very similar conditions.
  • The laminated glasses according to the invention were prepared according to the method described above. The geometry of the absorbent thin glass 3 is the same, but at least approximately equal to the thick glasses 1 . 5 , The laminated glass was used for the thin glass 3 different types of glass, each with different thicknesses in the range between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm used. In addition, the thin glass was 3 either on one of the surfaces 3-1 . 3-2 or on both at the same time provided with a functional coating, whereby the thin glasses had an absorption. The thin glasses 3 in this case had a solar absorption A dG, solar in the wavelength range of 250 nm to 2500 nm (according to DIN EN 410, measured in air) of at least 10%. A defined solar absorption can be obtained in very different ways. As very simple and well-suited to the application of metals or metal compounds containing thin layers or layer systems, in which z. B. by changing the layer thickness or the like, the size of the absorption can be set almost arbitrarily.
  • The laminated glasses thus produced were then subjected to the described test with and without Be subjected to radiation, the test conditions were completely identical to the tests on the reference laminated glass.
  • The experiments have shown that at a thickness d composite accordingly 3 for the composites directly surrounding the absorbent thin glass 2 . 4 the specified load criterion of 90% could always be met. This means that compliance with the condition according to the invention according to equation (1) makes it possible to achieve an average compressive strength of the laminated glass of at least 90%, based on the values of the respective reference laminate. This is true for all such composite glasses, their composite thicknesses for the thin glasses, as explained below with two examples 3 or the conditions (1-1c) according to the invention are derived:
    + Thin glass 3 : Glass type: low alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3) = 0.5 mm (I) or 1.1 mm (II) and A solar (3a) = 15% (I) or 70% (II ) (see range 10% and 30% or greater 60% according to equation 1b or 1a)
    + Thick glasses 1 . 5 hardened soda-lime glass with a thickness between 4 mm and 19 mm; the surfaces may be functionalized or coated
  • The composite material thicknesses result 3 as follows:
    Thickness of the composite material ( 2 ): 0.25 mm to about 1.00 mm (I) or 0.25 mm to about 1.66 mm (II).
    Thickness of the composite material ( 4 ): 0.25 mm to about 1.00 mm (I) or 0.25 mm to about 1.66 mm (II).
  • Especially noteworthy was the finding that the mechanical compressive strengths of the reference laminates are already at low film thicknesses ( 2 . 4 ) of at least 0.38 mm to 0.76 mm, which means that less film material is needed in the production of the laminated glass and costs can be saved.
  • If one chooses for the composite materials 2 . 4 however, the thicknesses d bond so that these are correspondingly above the upper limit curves 3 it can be stated that these laminated glasses are not or can only be used to a very limited extent and fail much earlier in the printing tests. With these laminated glasses, the load criterion of 90% can not be achieved by simultaneously acting on mechanical and thermal loads. The resulting load capacities were typically only about 40% to a maximum of about 80% of the values of the corresponding reference laminates. Presumably lead to too large thicknesses of the composite materials 2 . 4 the very complex heat-kinetic processes cause, especially at the interface between the thin glass 3 and the composite materials 2 . 4 local overheating or the like appear and thereby possibly the final relevant for the mechanical coupling of the individual glasses in the composite and thus ultimately for the strength / stability of the laminated glass internal shear forces are significantly reduced. The analysis of cross-sections of damaged or damaged test specimens confirmed this thesis, because in most cases the failure of the laminated glass could be attributed to the delamination at the interface between the absorbing thin glass 3 and the composite materials 2 . 4 traced.
  • It has been found that for the functionalization of at least one of the surfaces of the thin glasses, depending on the intended use and the aesthetics desired by the user, almost all inorganic and / or organic coatings known to the person skilled in the art can be used for partial or complete printing or other surface modifications , However, in order to meet the required load criterion of 90%, it is absolutely necessary to ensure that, on the one hand, the thicknesses of the composite materials 2 . 4 selected according to the invention in accordance with the conditions formulated in equation (1-1c) and, on the other hand, by the coatings, the adhesive bond between the absorbing thin glass ( 3 ) and the composite materials 2 . 4 not or only slightly affected.
  • such Coatings can be exemplary: pyrolytic layers or layer systems, containing one or more silver layers and / or coatings based on metals, metal mixtures, oxides, nitrides, oxynitrides, Carbides, sulfides, fluorides, organic polymers, etc. or combinations it. The preparation of these coatings can by means of the State of the art known vacuum-assisted methods and techniques such as thermal evaporation, sputtering and / or plasma coating respectively. But also different wet chemical methods by means of Sol-gel technique, dip-coating, painting or spraying etc. are usable. Such coatings can depending on the materials used and the specific application criteria be thick up to a few tens of microns and above.
  • In addition to the surfaces of the thin glass, the surfaces of the thick glasses ( 1-1 . 1-2 . 5-1 . 5-2 ) are functionalized by coatings or the like. These may include, for example, coatings with water and / or dirt-repellent effects, coatings for solar and / or thermal protection, coatings or printings for design, on ti-slip effect or markings, etc. The functionalizable surfaces possible in this embodiment are in 5B depicted pictorially.
  • In a slight modification of this variant, the surfaces ( 3-1 . 3-2 ) provided with at least one coating in which by applying an external voltage and a heating of the laminated glass was possible. In 5C This modification is shown schematically.
  • To ensure the mechanical and thermal resilience of this composite glass version, the thicknesses of the composites were increased 2 . 4 according to the invention 3 established. Composite materials which have been commercially available inexpensively on the market based on polyvinyl butyral and / or polyurethane have proven to be excellent. As heatable coatings ( 501 ) are known from the prior art materials and layer systems, such as transparent conductive oxide layers or coatings containing these substances, layer packages based on silver (see, for example, layer systems based on embedded between dielectric layers metallic silver layers) or of It is crucial that the area-related ohmic resistance is less than or equal to approximately 35 ohms / square, preferably less than or equal to approximately 20 ohms / square, and that the layer system has a light transmittance of at least 20%. having. This is depending on the material used at layer thicknesses in the range between approx. 10 nm to approx. 2 μm achieved. Since such layers can sometimes have a certain sun protection effect at the same time, it is now also possible to combine the heating of the laminated glass according to the invention simultaneously with a reduction of the solar radiation passing through in only a single coating.
  • The technical adaptation of the coated absorbent glass to the externally applied voltage and the temperatures to be achieved by structuring the coating by means of a laser or the like. The basic electrotechnical design of the overall system is known from the prior art. It must first be made at least two electrically isolated points of the coating contacts. This can be z. B. by the application of solderable traces or local solder joints ( 502 ) or the like happened. At ( 502 ) can then be the electrical cables ( 503 ) and thus the electrical connection to the external power supply ( 504 ). It is advantageous if by one or more temperature sensors ( 505 ), which can be arranged, for example, directly on the coating or in its immediate vicinity, the temperature of the component is monitored in a defined manner and controlled by a control unit ( 506 ) is controlled.
  • With this variant, it is now possible next to the setting of the desired radiation parameters in addition Allow the laminated glass to heat up in this way undesirable Water condensation on the glass surfaces and / or icing the outside directed glass surface to avoid and / or the composite element as transparent or at least partially transparent heating device to use.
  • In another modification of this embodiment, the thin glass was 3 provided with at least one switchable coating, based on which the optical properties (for example, the color, the transmission in the visible and infrared spectral range, the light scattering, etc.) can be selectively and reversibly adjusted, switched or controlled by applying a voltage. Such functional coatings can be, for example, electrochromic or other electro-optical systems known from the prior art or derivable therefrom, or the like. It is known that such modifiable, electronically active coatings and the laminated glasses made therefrom are extremely sensitive to possible contaminants. Such impurities may be, for example, certain material components of the substrate, which then penetrate (in particular at higher processing and / or service temperatures, etc.) by diffusion processes into the coating, form there, for example, electronically active defects and thereby affect the intended operation quite considerably can. These difficulties mainly occur with the alkaline standard glasses, and especially when their tin-containing surfaces are coated. Even more problematic is when these alkaline glasses have been previously thermally toughened or partially pre-stressed.
  • The problems mentioned can be at least partially eliminated by providing for the absorbent thin-glass plate to be provided with the electrochromic layer package ( 3 ) a chemically tempered soda-lime thin glass is used. A further improvement of this embodiment can be achieved by the highly sensitive electronically active coating is preferably applied to the respective tin-free glass surface, because thereby the possibly caused by diffusion of tin corrosive influences on the electronically effective coating can be tied.
  • As particularly suitable and advantageous has been found, however, if for the absorbent thin glasses 3 uncured alkali-free or alkali-free boron-containing silicate glasses are used. Especially when using such glass materials with a low alkali oxide content of less than or equal to about 8 wt.% Has been found that the impurities of the functional coating can be largely avoided by slightly diffusible substrate components. However, this is not attributable solely to the lower alkali oxide content compared to the usual soda-lime glasses, but certainly to be sought in the advantageous combination with the very good chemical and microstructural crosslinking of the silicate glasses. Similar to the soda-lime glass, it is also advantageous for the float-produced silicate glasses, if the coating is preferably carried out on the respective tin-free glass surface. However, due to the lower tin concentration and the better microstructure, the positive effect which can be achieved thereby is significantly lower for the silicate glasses than for the soda-lime glass.
  • As a particularly advantageous embodiment (see 5D ) has been proven when the variable electronically active coating 508 on the inward facing surface 3-2 is applied and in addition the outward surface 3-1 by applying a thin layer 509 is functionalized so that at least a portion of the incoming radiation from the outside is filtered by absorption and / or reflection. For this purpose, the known and available on the market sunscreen coatings with layer thicknesses depending on the material used from about 10 nm to 1 micron can be used. Due to this special variant can now be on the surface 3-2 located coating 508 even better protected against possible degradation phenomena and the like. Such protection can also be achieved by additionally directly into the composite material 2 introduced coated films of polyethylene terephthalate and / or radiation-absorbing or -reflective additives or the like, but also by a corresponding radiation-selective coating of the further outwardly facing glass surfaces ( 1-1 . 1-2 ) happen. The electrical contact 502 can be done in a similar way to the previous variant 5C also done by solderable traces or solder joints. By means of Verbindungsungska bel 503 the electrical connection of the power supply takes place 504 together with the control unit 506 , Through an optical or thermal sensor 505 the light intensity, illuminance or a comparable physical size can be measured and the signal is sent directly to the control unit 506 for active provision directly. The sensor can be directly connected to the glazing element or arranged arbitrarily in space. But also a monitoring or control by a higher-level control and command system 507 (Bus system) can be implemented easily.
  • There are also electrochromic systems consisting of several (but mostly two) subsystems, wherein each of the subsystems to be mounted ion-conducting layer consists of a thicker ion-conducting polymer layer. According to the invention, in this case, either the surface 3-1 or the surface 3-2 with the first subcomponent of the overall electrochromic system and either the surface 1-2 or the surface 5-1 provided with the corresponding complementary second subcomponent (see 5B ). The ion conductor layer can then be directly through either the composite material 2 or 4 train yourself. For such an ion conductor layer z. B. composite materials based on polyvinyl butyral or the like are used.
  • For the specific variants and modifications shown in this exemplary embodiment, if the conditions according to the invention are observed in accordance with equations (1-1c), no restrictions on the mechanical and / or thermal loading capacity of the laminated glass can be determined. In the experiments, it has even been shown that in the use of thin glasses according to the invention 3 in some cases even a certain increase in mechanical properties is possible, indicating an improved thrust effect between the thick glasses 1 and 5 can be returned.
  • embodiment Group 2
  • The laminated glasses produced for a second group of embodiments have the same arrangement as in exemplary embodiment group 1. However, it is now a cylindrical or similar curved laminated glass in which the convexly curved side is typically directed outwards. Also in this example, the thin glasses 3 have different sized solar absorptions in the range of at least 10% to greater than 60%.
  • In the manufacture of curved laminated glass is first of a plane thin glass 3 which may consist of either hardened soda-lime glass or also of an unhardened glass type. As a particularly preferred uncured glass material can be in analogy to Embodiment Group 1 again low-alkali or alkali-free boron-containing silicate glass deploy.
  • The initially flat thin glass 3 is then between the two outer, already in advance by heat treatment curved thick glasses 1 . 5 placed and mechanically pressed by these. In this way, the thin glass becomes 3 so deformed that now accept all the glasses of the sandwich almost the same shape or contour. The for the deformation of the thin glass 3 required contact pressure can in the simplest case by the weight of the above-laid thick glass 1 respectively. 5 be achieved. If the weight of the thick glass or glass package lying on top is insufficient, the required force can be mechanically impressed by a simple device. According to the invention, the thicknesses of the composite materials 2 . 4 according to the conditions given in equations (1-1c) and then the glass packet thus pre-assembled is finally laminated to the final composite element.
  • In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the thick glasses exist 1 . 5 made of soda-lime-soda glass with a penetration of potassium ions of at least 10 microns. Such chemically hardened glasses have compared to the thermally cured a significantly better homogeneity of the impressed by the hardening process compressive stresses as well as an improved surface quality, which is ultimately reflected in a higher mechanical and thermal stability of the laminated glass.
  • During the pressure tests, it was found that the curved laminated glass compared to the flat reference laminates of comparable size and geometry have a significantly higher strength and rigidity, so that the "loadability criterion of 90%" could be easily met. The mechanical load capacity could even be increased by up to 30%, depending on the radius of curvature. This now makes it even possible that in applications in which on the one hand the curved laminated glass small dimensions of about 1 m 2 and below and on the other hand, only small external pressure loads of a maximum of about 10 kPa (including the security factors to be considered) to meet are, the thickness of the thick glasses 1 . 5 preferably even to values of up to about 2.1 mm can be reduced.
  • embodiment Group 3
  • The laminated glasses produced for a third group of embodiments have the structure according to the 6A to 6E on (especially from outside to inside): "thick glass or package ( 1 ) / Composite foil ( 2 ) / Thin glass ( 3a ) / Composite foil ( 6 ) / Thin glass ( 3b ) / Composite foil ( 4 ) / Thick glass or package ( 5 ) "For the thick glasses 1 . 5 , which may be flat or curved, it is hardened soda lime glasses, which may be selected in analogy to the embodiments of Group 1 and 2.
  • In this embodiment, in the laminated glass at least two, directly opposite arranged thin glasses 3a . 3b contain. This arrangement is particularly advantageous for those applications in which z. B. the coatings are protected from external environmental influences and / or additional surfaces for an even more complex functionalization (see 6B ) are needed. By way of example, such protection is important for electrochromic and / or other electronically effective coatings or the like. A particularly advantageous variant is exemplified in 6C shown. The electrochromic layer system 601 is on the inward thin glass on the position ( 3B-1 ) (please refer 6B ) applied. In addition, on one of the surfaces of the thin glass 3a at least one coating provided with radiation-selective filtering action 602 for example, a sunscreen, a coloring or the like can be applied. However, such a coating can also consist of a geometric pattern or other design and applied by means of screen printing or painting. From the perspective of production quality, it is advantageous if, for example, the filtering coating 602 on the position ( 3a-2 ) is applied. The required electrical connection of the electronically effective functional coating 601 as well as their control / regulation can then in an analogous manner to the embodiment variant accordingly 5D happen. However, this variant is basically also applicable to other surface functionalizations such as heatable coatings and the like (see 5C ).
  • For the thin glasses 3a . 3b is preferably uncured silicate glass with an alkali oxide content of less than or equal to approx. 8 wt.% And a thickness between 0.5 mm to approx. 1.5 mm, preferably between 0.5 mm and approx. 0.9 mm used. The thin glasses 3a . 3b can be different thicknesses, but the overall thickness of the absorbent glasses should be 3a . 3b d dG, (3a) + (3b) should not exceed about 2.2 mm for curved laminated glass. In compliance with this limitation, the subassemblies thin glass 3a / Composite material 6 / Thin glass 3b still very good mechanical deformation, which is particularly important for the production of heavy-duty bent laminated glass. In this embodiment, too, it proved to be advantageous for the composite materials surrounding the thin glasses 2 . 4 . 6 Polyvinyl butyral and / or polyurethane and / or ethyl vinyl acetate or comparable, consisting mainly of organic substances Materials are used. These composite materials are available at low cost and can also be combined and processed very well in this embodiment variant.
  • The thicknesses of composite materials 2 . 4 can be dependent on the thickness and the respective size of the solar absorptions of the thin glass plates 3a . 3b according to the invention 3 remove. The thickness of the composite material layer 6 between the individual thin glasses 3a . 3b can be - as in the case of composite materials 2 . 4 - also off 3 read off. As has been shown in the stress experiments carried out, the "load-carrying criterion of 90%" at the thickness according to the invention for composite material can be 6 according to the conditions (1-1c). However, in the experiments, the tendency was that the mechanical stability of the overall composite in choosing the lowest possible thicknesses for composite material 6 even improving, while with too large thicknesses of the composite layer 6 due to the reduced thrust between the thin glasses 3a . 3b leads to a significant reduction in the mechanical and / or thermal load capacity of the laminated glass.
  • For this particular embodiment of at least two thin glasses arranged directly opposite one another, it has proved to be particularly advantageous experimentally in the stress tests if, independent of the size of the absorption, the thickness d composite (6) of the composite material 6 the following conditions (a-c) are satisfied simultaneously:
    • (a) The composite (6) is always approximately the same thickness, more preferably slightly thinner than the thickness of the composite materials 2 . 4 .
    • (b) The composite (6) is less than or equal to about 1.6 times the thickness of the thinnest thin glasses 3a . 3b , and
    • (c) the maximum value for d composite (6) is always less than or equal to the maximum value derived from the conditions (1-1c).
  • On the other hand, it was advantageously found that the lower limit for the composite material thickness 6 even to values down to approximately 0.1 mm, without a deterioration of the load capacity of the entire component.
  • For the composite material 6 Thus, according to the invention, particularly optimal thickness ranges result according to the conditions d Composite (6) ≤ d Composite (2.4) (2a) and 0.1 mm ≤ d Composite (6) ≤ 1.6 · d dG * (2 B) (d dG * ... respective thickness of the thinnest thin glass 3a . 3b and d Composite (6) ≤ d Composite (6) according to condition (1-1c) (2c).
  • According to the invention, such an embodiment is constructed by way of example as follows:
    + Thin glass 3a provided with, for example, an at least partially transparent sunscreen coating 602 ; Glass type: low-alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3a) = 0.8 mm and A solar (3a) = 21% (see range 10% and 30% according to equation 1b),
    + Thin glass 3b provided with, for example, an electrochromic coating 601 ; Glass type: low alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3b) = 0.5 mm and A solar (3b) = 55% in the dark connected state (see range between greater than 30% and 60% according to Equation 1c), and
    + Thick glasses 1 . 5 hardened soda-lime glass with a thickness between 4 mm and 19 mm; the surfaces may be functionalized or coated.
  • The composite thicknesses can be out 3 and condition (2) as follows:
    + Thickness of the composite material 2 : 0.25 mm to about 1.7 mm,
    + Thickness of the composite material 4 From 0.25 mm to about 0.81 mm,
    + Thickness of the composite material 6 : approx. 0.1 mm to approx. 0.8 mm.
  • In the production of bent laminated glasses according to this embodiment, it is recommended, especially the thicknesses of the composite material layers adjacent to the thin glasses 2 . 4 according to the conditions accordingly 3 to choose as large as possible, so that any production-related ripples occurring under heat affected thick glasses 1 . 5 can be better compensated.
  • In particular, in the case of the curved laminated glass, it is also advantageous if the individual thicknesses of the thin glass 3a . 3b total glass thickness (d dG (3a) + d dG (3b) ) formed overall does not exceed a value of 2.2 mm, because due to the increased rigidity at larger thicknesses, increasingly quality problems arise in the production and also in the practical use of the laminated glass.
  • That from the plates 3a . 3b existing partial composite system can be produced completely separately due to this special structure of the laminated glass. As a result, in this case, the coatings on the thin glass plates 3a . 3b inside the partial composite system, these are protected and can therefore be used for long periods of time with exclusion be stored by external environmental influences before the production of the final laminated glass takes place. The entire manufacturing process can be simplified and costs can be saved.
  • The preparation can be carried out, for example, in the following process chain: a) application of the corresponding coatings to large-format thin-glass sheets 3a . 3b b) Production of a Finished Partial Composite System or a Pre-Bond from These Thin Glass Panels (Preproduct I; 6C ), c) production of the corresponding thick glasses or packages ( 1 ) and ( 5 (Precursor II), d) cutting etc. of the precursor I to the desired shapes and geometries, e) assembly of the final laminated glass sandwich consisting of the precursors I and II, f) final lamination and thus production of the final product.
  • This embodiment variant is particularly suitable for the production of electrochromic and / or similar electrically switchable or changeable systems consisting of several (usually two) subsystems. The schematic structure of such an electrochromic system goes out 6D out. First, the thin glasses 3a . 3b transparent conductive coatings 603 . 604 applied, which also serve as electrodes. Suitable materials for this purpose are known from the prior art and can be, for example, transparent conductive oxides (TCO) such as indium tin oxide, doped tin or zinc oxide, silver-containing layer systems, combinations thereof or the like. At least on one of the coatings 603 . 604 are then electrochromic materials or layer systems formed therefrom 605 . 606 applied. It is of great advantage if on the two electrodes 603 . 604 At the same time materials with complementary electrochromic properties can be applied, because this can significantly improve the efficiency of the electrochromic function. From the prior art, different materials and mixtures are useful for electrochromic coatings, such as various transition metal oxide compounds (for example, based on W, Mo, Ir, Ni, Nb, Rh, Co, Mn, Ru, Ti, Cr, etc.) inorganic and organic pigments, polymers and / or gels (for example Prussian blue, polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene) etc. Between the coatings 605 and 606 becomes the polymer-containing composite material 607 attached, which is used simultaneously for the ion conduction (for example on the basis of H + or Li + ions) and thus the charge transport within the electrochromic Bauelemen TES. The thickness of the ion-conductive composite layer 607 can be adjusted by the user depending on the thickness of the thin glasses 3a . 3b and their solar absorption in a simple manner from the conditions (1-1c) and (2) determine.
  • In order to at least partially protect this electrochromic system from radiation-induced degradation as well, at least one of the further outwardly directed surfaces, preferably the surface, becomes 3a-1 provided with a radiation-filtering coating.
  • For other application variants of this embodiment (see 6E ) become, for example, the surfaces 3a-2 and 3B-1 each with a transparent conductive coating 603 . 604 provided, which in turn serve as electrodes. Between the electrodes 603 . 604 then becomes an at least partially transparent, polymer-containing material 608 attached, in which the properties when applying an electric field between 603 and 604 let change. Such materials disposed between the two electrodes may be similar to liquid crystal effective polarizable or electroluminescent or otherwise light emitting or radiating properties or combinations of properties. But it is also possible that these properties directly or in combination with additionally stored material components 609 be generated.
  • The examples shown are only to be understood as examples. Rather, according to the invention, more than two thin glasses can also be incorporated into a composite element and / or thin and thick glasses can be alternately combined with one another and / or other or further surfaces of such a laminated glass with a wide variety of functional layers (see 5B and 6B ), Imprints or the like provided. The electrical contact and the electrical or electronic control can be analogous to those in the 5C and 5D accomplish exemplary examples.
  • embodiment Group 4
  • In a fourth group of embodiments of the laminated glass according to the invention according to the 7A and 7B is advantageously at least one non-hardened thin glass 3 on the inward side with a flat or curved laminated glass consisting of at least one thick glass 1 . 5 together. The thin glass 3 is in turn on at least one of the surfaces 3-1 . 3-2 provided with a functional coating and has a solar absorption of at least 10%.
  • The particular advantage of this design is mainly to be seen in that by the inside arrangement of the thin glasses 3 . 3a . 3b the mechanically loadable composite "thick glass 1 / Thick glass 5 "be its structural design remains completely unchanged and thus does not impair the mechanical strength, but is even improved somewhat.
  • Of particular interest is this arrangement for applications in which the inside of the laminated glass is to be equipped with, for example, a heating function, for example, to avoid condensation or the formation of fogging, without significantly increasing the thickness or the weight of the overall system and the mechanical and thermal stability of the component are preserved. For this purpose, it is advantageous if the at least partially transparent and conductive coating on the upper surface 3-1 is located on the one hand, the layer is protected in this arrangement immediately before a possible corrosion or the like and on the other hand can pose no danger to humans from the acted upon by an electrical voltage coating. With this special structure can be - due to the small thickness of the thin glass 3 of preferably less than or equal to 1.5 mm, more preferably between 0.7 mm and 1.1 mm and the associated low heat capacity - the inner surface of the laminated glass almost inertia and in a very short time at the same time significantly reduced energy consumption to the desired Heat the temperature.
  • Is now on one of the surfaces 5-1 . 5-2 . 3-2 a conventional mirror coating, this design variant can even be used to obtain a heatable mirror for applications in the sanitary sector, for example. According to the invention, such an embodiment variant (cf. 7A ) constructed as follows:
    + Thin glass 3 provided with, for example, an at least partially transparent heatable coating 3-1 ; Glass type: low alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3) = 0.9 mm and A solar (3) = 32% (see range between greater than 30% and 60% according to Equation 1c), and
    + Thick glass 1 . 5 hardened soda-lime glass with a thickness between 4 mm and 19 mm; the surfaces may be functionalized or coated.
  • The composite thicknesses can be out 3 derive as follows:
    + Thickness of the composite material 2 : 0.38 mm to 3.5 mm, and
    + Thickness of the composite material 4 : 0.25 mm to about 1.57 mm.
  • This special design makes it possible to increase the heating power to values of up to 12 W per square decimeter and even more, which means heating up the surface 3-2 can be done even faster. In compliance with the present invention given conditions according to (1-1c), the sometimes high temperature gradients in the interior of the thin glass can be 3 and at the interface composite layer 4 / Thin glass 3 completely compensate, so that no impairment of the mechanical and thermal stability of the entire component is given. It is especially surprising that the laminated glass according to the invention even have sufficient for practical use strength against shock and impact from the inside.
  • According to the embodiment 7A It is also possible to process a solar cell (thin-film solar cell) which is applied to a thin glass and completely absorbs the sunlight into a composite element. According to the invention results in the following structural design:
    + Thin glass 3 : provided with thin-film solar cell on the surface 3-1 ; Glass type: low alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3) = 1.1 mm and A solar (3) = 100% (see range greater than 60% according to equation 1a), and
    + Thick glass 1 . 5 hardened soda-lime glass with a thickness between 4 mm and 19 mm; the surfaces may be functionalized or coated.
  • The composite thicknesses can be out 3 derive as follows:
    + Thickness of the composite material 2 : 0.38 mm to about 3.5 mm,
    + Thickness of the composite material 4 : 0.25 mm to about 1.66 mm.
  • With the execution accordingly 7A It is possible by a slightly modified design variant, heated mirrors even easier and cheaper to produce. This will be on the surface 3-1 of the thin glass 3 applied a nearly opaque, metallically reflective coating. The reflectivity should have a value of at least 30%. For such coatings, pure metal layers or layer systems containing them (for example based on Ag, Cr, Ti, Mo, Cu, Al, Ni, Cr-Ni alloys, etc.) could be used, in which the total layer thickness of the metal layer is at least one Value of approx. 10 nm. The coating 3-1 In addition to the desired reflective effect, it can now also be used for heating at the same time by forcing a current flow (electrical resistance heating) by applying a voltage to at least part of the surface. The electrical contact and the control / regulation can be exemplified according to 5C be performed. The adjustment of the resistance value can be achieved either by the adaptation of the sheet resistance (for example by the layer thickness) or by a suitable geometric structuring of the coating 3-1 respectively. This embodiment is mainly due to the low heat capacity of the thin glass 3 particularly energy-saving. If necessary can additionally on the surface 3-2 For example, a hydrophilic coating may be applied, which may somewhat improve the aesthetic feel of the user due to more uniform wetting. On the other hand, the application of a hydrophobic coating known from the prior art can be used 3-2 simplify the cleaning of the surface by the user.
  • In other cases, the surface can be 3-2 also additionally provided with a known from the prior art low-emitting layer or layer system (low-E coating). In this way, an improvement of the heat-insulating effect of the laminated glass is achieved.
  • For other applications turn, at least on the surface 3-2 reflection-reducing layers or layer systems applied. This makes it possible to eliminate or at least reduce unwanted reflections and reflections on the inside of the laminated glass.
  • In further embodiments accordingly 7B can be analogously 7A also at least two thin glasses 3a . 3b integrate into the laminated glass. The essential details as well as some exemplary applications have already been grouped in the exemplary embodiment 3 described in more detail. These are also completely transferable to this version. According to the invention, such an embodiment is now constructed by way of example as follows:
    + Thin glass 3a provided with, for example, an at least partially transparent sunscreen coating on the surface 3a-2 ; Glass type: low alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3a) = 0.8 mm and A solar (3a) = 15% (see range 10% and 30% according to equation 1b),
    + Thin glass 3b : provided with, for example, an electrochromic coating on the surface 3B-1 with A solar (3b-1) = 55% in the dark switched state and a heat protection coating on 3b-2 with A solar (3b-2) = 15% (A solar (3b) = 70%); Type of glass: low alkali / free uncured glass with d dG (3b) = 1,1 mm, and
    + Thick glasses 1 . 5 hardened soda-lime glass with a thickness between 4 mm and 19 mm; the surfaces may be functionalized or coated.
  • The composite thicknesses can be out 3 and condition (2) as follows:
    + Thickness of the composite material 2 : 0.38 mm to about 3.5 mm,
    + Thickness of the composite material 4 From 0.25 mm to about 1.70 mm,
    + Thickness of the composite material 6 : approx. 0.1 mm to approx. 1.28 mm (upper limit for 6: d composite (6) = 1.65 mm according to condition (1a); d composite (6) = 0.8 mm × 1.6 = 1.28 mm according to condition (2) of which always the smaller value).
  • These execution includes also combinations and extensions with those in the other embodiments explained Coatings and design variants or with others glass or at least partially transparent plates and so on.
  • embodiment Group 5
  • It has proven to be a particular advantage if the hardened thick glasses or glass packages which are particularly relevant for the mechanical stability of the overall system 1 . 5 are arranged so that their tin surfaces - but at least the outer thick glass plate (see 1-1 corresponding 5B ) - are directed to the outside, the load attack side. As a result, the lower tensile strengths always present on the tin-containing glass surface (due to microscopic surface defects and / or damage) are put under a certain compressive stress under load and thus made "harmless" as far as possible the thick glasses 1 . 5 of particular advantage. This is explained by the fact that these glasses always have a lower surface compressive stress and thus a reduced tensile strength on their tin-containing surface due to a reduced ion exchange.
  • Due to this special arrangement of the tin-containing surfaces (see 1-1 . 5-1 corresponding 5B ) of the thick glasses 1 . 5 It has become possible to further increase both the mechanical and thermal properties of the entire laminated glass and, moreover, to avoid spontaneous breakage as far as possible. As the investigations have shown, it is possible to achieve an additional increase of at least 30% in mechanical and / or thermal capacity compared to the corresponding reference laminates.
  • As it has been shown, it is the case for bent or curved laminated glass for the thin glass 3 . 3a . 3b exactly reversed. Preferably, in this case, the thin glasses are positioned with their tin side towards the inside. Since it is provided according to the invention, the thin glasses purely mechanical, that is to bend without heat, form on their typically outwardly directed convex surfaces 3-1 . 3a-1 . 3B-1 Alone by this mechanical deformation unwanted tensile stresses, while the inside is subjected to a completely uncritical compressive stress. The tensile stresses on the outer surface of the curved thin glasses may under certain circumstances tend to cracking too strong curvatures of the laminated glass without the action of external loads and thus ultimately lead to unfavorable conditions for breakage. Since now the low-alkali or alkali-free glasses are produced in a float process, these also have a tin-containing surface. It has been shown that it is in principle also advantageous in these types of glass to carry out such a special arrangement of the tin-containing or tin-free surfaces. However, here the influencing of the mechanical and thermal stability of the laminated glass is significantly lower than is the case with the use of thermally or chemically hardened soda-lime glasses. Since now advantageously the surfaces of the thin glasses with the higher tensile strength (tin-free surfaces) to the outside (see surfaces 3-1 . 3a-1 . 3B-1 ) can be arranged, this phenomenon can be counteracted so that in practical use of the component no impairment of the stability and the load capacities can be determined.
  • embodiment Group 6
  • In further embodiments, glazing elements are also possible in which a plurality of the laminated glasses according to the invention are arranged at a distance from one another at the same time. Such a component is in 8th shown. Will that between the subelements 7 . 8th located room 10 by z. B. spacers 9 sealed in combination with known sealants and filled with dry air and / or noble gases, etc., can also be obtained from the prior art double insulating glass unit with heat insulating effect. In this case, one of the two sub-elements 7 . 8th also from a single glass, a vacuum insulating glass or the like, which in turn may also be provided with coatings exist. If such a glazing element corresponding to another sub-element 7 . 8th extended, we obtain a triple insulating glass unit, in which an even better thermal insulation can be achieved.
  • The in the foregoing description, drawings and claims Features of the invention can both individually and in any combination for the realization the invention in its various embodiments of importance be.

Claims (32)

  1. Laminated glass ( 10 ) comprising: - a first thick glass ( 1 . 5 ), - a first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), the first thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) has a greater thickness than the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), and - composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ), with which the first thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) and the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), characterized in that - the first thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) comprises hardened soda lime glass, - the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) has a thickness of less than or equal to 1.5 mm, and - the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) at least one functionalized surface ( 3-1 . 3-2 . 3a-1 . 3a-2 . 3B-1 . 3b-2 ) having.
  2. Laminated glass according to claim 1, in which the first thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) has a thickness of at least 4 mm, preferably at least 6 mm.
  3. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) has a thickness between 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm.
  4. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the composite material ( 2 . 5 . 6 ) attached to the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) directly adjacent, contains organic materials and has a thickness d compound (in mm) as a function of the thickness d dG (in mm) of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.15-3.64 * exp (- (d dG + 0.068) / 1.32))] (in mm).
  5. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which - the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) has a mean solar absorption A dG, solar in the range between greater than 30% and 60%, and - the composite material ( 2 . 5 . 6 ) attached to the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) directly adjacent, contains organic materials and a thickness d compound (in mm) as a function of the thickness d dG of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.15-6.6 · exp (- (d dG + 0.53) / 0.994))] (in mm).
  6. Laminated glass according to at least one of claims 1 to 3, in which - the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) has a mean solar absorption A dG, solar in the range between 10% and 30%, and - the composite material ( 2 . 5 . 6 ) attached to the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) directly adjacent, contains organic materials and has a thickness d compound (in mm) as a function of the thickness d dG (in mm) of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) according to [0.25 ≤ d composite ≤ (3.2-8.3 * exp (- (d dG + 0.4) / 0.68))].
  7. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding Claims, where the first thin glass partially uncured is and from a low-alkali and / or alkali-free glass material consists.
  8. Laminated glass according to claim 8, wherein the first thin glass has a Alkali oxide content less than or equal to 8 wt.% Has.
  9. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) floated borosilicate glass having a content of boric acid (B 2 O 3 content) of at least 7% and a content of silica (SiO 2 content) of at least 70%.
  10. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the functionalized surface ( 3-1 . 3-2 . 3a-1 . 3a-2 . 3B-1 . 3b-2 ) of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) is set up for at least one of the functions providing sun protection, thermal insulation, glare protection, privacy screening, anti-icing and fogging, reflection reduction, reflection enhancement, ultraviolet radiation protection, electromagnetic radiation protection, design function, a conversion of solar energy into electrical energy, and a display function include.
  11. Laminated glass according to Claim 10, in which the function of the functionalised surface ( 3-1 . 3-2 . 3a-1 . 3a-2 . 3B-1 . 3b-2 ) of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) is variable by applying an electrical voltage.
  12. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, in which the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) contains at least one plastic selected from the group of materials comprising polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polyurethane (PU), polypropylene (PP), polyacrylate, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polyacetate resin, Silicone systems, copolymers, from z. As vinyl chloride or ethylene, casting resins or acrylates, and UV, thermally or air-curable adhesives.
  13. Laminated glass according to claim 12, in which the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) prefabricated laminating film comprises.
  14. Laminated glass according to claim 12 or 13, wherein the composite material ( 2 . 4 . 6 ) Contains additives or foils.
  15. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, comprising a second thick glass with a greater thickness than the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), wherein the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) between the first and second thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) is arranged and firmly connected to these on both sides by composite materials.
  16. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 14, comprising a second thick glass with a greater thickness than the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), wherein the second thick glass ( 5 ) between the first thick glass ( 1 ) and the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) is arranged and firmly connected to these on both sides by composite materials.
  17. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 14, comprising a second thick glass with a greater thickness than the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) and a second thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) with a smaller thickness than the first and the second thick glass ( 1 . 5 ), wherein the first and second thin glasses ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) between the first and second thick glasses ( 1 . 5 ) are arranged and firmly connected to each other by composite materials.
  18. Laminated glass according to at least one of claims 1 to 14, comprising a second thick glass with a greater thickness than the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) and a second thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) with a smaller thickness than the first and the second thick glass ( 1 . 5 ), wherein the first and second thin glasses ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) are arranged on an inner side of the laminated glass and firmly connected to each other by composite materials.
  19. Laminated glass according to at least one of claims 15 to 18, wherein at least one of the thick glasses ( 1 . 5 ) consists of chemically toughened glass, wherein the penetration depth of potassium ions in the chemically tempered glass is at least 10 microns.
  20. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding claims, comprising a second thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) with a smaller thickness than the first thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) having.
  21. Laminated glass according to Claim 20, in which the first and the second thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) are arranged directly next to each other and through a composite material layer ( 6 ), which is thinner than the composite material ( 2 . 4 ) between the thick and thin glasses.
  22. Laminated glass according to at least one of the preceding Claims, in which the thick glass consists of a laminated glass.
  23. Glazing element ( 20 ), which is a laminated glass ( 10 ) According to at least one of the preceding claims and a predetermined installation direction with an inner side and an outer side has, which forms a load application side of the glazing element, wherein the laminated glass is formed with a curvature which is directed to the outside.
  24. Glazing element according to Claim 23, in which the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) of the laminated glass has a tin-containing surface and is directed towards the inside.
  25. Laminated glass according to Claim 23 or 24, in which the first thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) of the laminated glass has a tin-containing surface facing the outside.
  26. Glazing element according to at least one of claims 23 to 25, in which the curvature of the first thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ) of the laminated glass is formed by mechanical deformation without heat treatment.
  27. Laminated glass according to at least one of claims 23 to 26, wherein a plurality of thin glasses are provided, wherein a total thickness of the thin glasses ( 3a . 3b ) d dG, (3a) + (3b) does not exceed a value of 2.2 mm.
  28. Use of a laminated glass ( 10 ) or a glazing element ( 20 ) as part of a building (eg in roofs or overhead glazing, windows, doors), as part of a transport vehicle (such as in automobiles, trains, missiles or ships), Parapets, walk-in glass structures, etc.), or - as part of a technical device or commodity.
  29. Method for producing a laminated glass ( 10 ) or a glazing element ( 20 ) according to at least one of the preceding claims, comprising the steps: - providing the at least one thick glass ( 1 . 5 ) and the at least one functionalized thin glass ( 3 . 3a . 3b ), - formation of a layer structure in which the thick and thin glasses ( 1 . 5 . 3 . 3a . 3b ) each by a layer of the at least one composite material ( 2 . 4 ) are separated, - formation of a pre-bond by a pressure and Temperaturbeaufschlagung the layer structure, and - finishing of the laminated glass ( 10 ) by an autoclave process or a vacuum lamination process to which the precoat is subjected.
  30. A method according to claim 29, wherein in the formation of the laminar structure the composite material is a temperature smaller or smaller equal to 200 ° C having.
  31. The method of claim 29 or 30, wherein at the formation of the pre-bond pressure of less than 2.5 bar and a Temperature selected which are at least 10 K below the maximum at final production set temperature is.
  32. Process according to at least one of Claims 29 to 31, in which for the production of the glazing element ( 20 ), the laminated glass ( 10 ) into a version ( 21 ) is mounted.
DE200610042538 2006-09-11 2006-09-11 Laminated glass, glazing element and method of making the same, and use of the laminated glass Expired - Fee Related DE102006042538B4 (en)

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US10782585B2 (en) 2017-08-01 2020-09-22 Continental Automotive Gmbh Method for determining a temperature of a variable-transparency, switchable pane and control apparatus for the pane and motor vehicle
DE102017213302B3 (en) 2017-08-01 2018-07-05 Continental Automotive Gmbh Method for determining a temperature of a variable-transparency switchable disk and control device for the disk and motor vehicle
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