DE102006011881A1 - Mixing apparatus for nano dispersion, from liquid and at least one liquid/solid additive, has closed housing with inner tube to take dispersion by suction in circular rotary recirculation - Google Patents

Mixing apparatus for nano dispersion, from liquid and at least one liquid/solid additive, has closed housing with inner tube to take dispersion by suction in circular rotary recirculation

Info

Publication number
DE102006011881A1
DE102006011881A1 DE102006011881A DE102006011881A DE102006011881A1 DE 102006011881 A1 DE102006011881 A1 DE 102006011881A1 DE 102006011881 A DE102006011881 A DE 102006011881A DE 102006011881 A DE102006011881 A DE 102006011881A DE 102006011881 A1 DE102006011881 A1 DE 102006011881A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
dispersion
characterized
carrier liquid
nm
particles
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE102006011881A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Werner Dipl.-Geol. Dr. Kriele
Karl-Heinz Dipl.-Ing. Parras
Johanna Schewe
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
H.C. CARBON GMBH, 90461 NUERNBERG, DE
Original Assignee
VORTEX NANOFLUID GMBH
VORTEX-NANOFLUID GMBH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by VORTEX NANOFLUID GMBH, VORTEX-NANOFLUID GMBH filed Critical VORTEX NANOFLUID GMBH
Priority to DE102006011881A priority Critical patent/DE102006011881A1/en
Priority claimed from PCT/EP2006/010803 external-priority patent/WO2007054336A1/en
Publication of DE102006011881A1 publication Critical patent/DE102006011881A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F3/00Mixing, e.g. dispersing, emulsifying, according to the phases to be mixed
    • B01F3/08Mixing, e.g. dispersing, emulsifying, according to the phases to be mixed liquids with liquids; Emulsifying
    • B01F3/0853Mixing liquids using driven stirrers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A23B - A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L29/00Foods or foodstuffs containing additives; Preparation or treatment thereof
    • A23L29/10Foods or foodstuffs containing additives; Preparation or treatment thereof containing emulsifiers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/02Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K8/04Dispersions; Emulsions
    • A61K8/06Emulsions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/92Oils, fats or waxes; Derivatives thereof, e.g. hydrogenation products thereof
    • A61K8/922Oils, fats or waxes; Derivatives thereof, e.g. hydrogenation products thereof of vegetable origin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61QSPECIFIC USE OF COSMETICS OR SIMILAR TOILET PREPARATIONS
    • A61Q19/00Preparations for care of the skin
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F15/00Accessories for mixers ; Auxiliary operations or auxiliary devices; Parts or details of general application
    • B01F15/00824Receptacles
    • B01F15/00876Configuration of the interior
    • B01F15/00883Configuration of the interior provided with baffles, plates or bars on the wall or the bottom
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F3/00Mixing, e.g. dispersing, emulsifying, according to the phases to be mixed
    • B01F3/12Mixing, e.g. dispersing, emulsifying, according to the phases to be mixed liquids with solids
    • B01F3/1221Mixing, e.g. dispersing, emulsifying, according to the phases to be mixed liquids with solids using driven stirrers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F5/00Flow mixers; Mixers for falling materials, e.g. solid particles
    • B01F5/10Circulation mixers, e.g. at least part of the mixture being discharged from, and reintroduced into, a receptacle, e.g. with rotary stirrer
    • B01F5/104Circulation mixers, e.g. at least part of the mixture being discharged from, and reintroduced into, a receptacle, e.g. with rotary stirrer provided with rotary stirrer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F7/00Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders
    • B01F7/00008Stirrers, i.e. rotary stirring devices
    • B01F7/00233Configuration of the rotating mixing element
    • B01F7/00625Multistage systems, i.e. with a plurality of mixing elements mounted in sequence on the same axis
    • B01F7/00641Multistage systems, i.e. with a plurality of mixing elements mounted in sequence on the same axis provided with a plurality of dissimilar elements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F7/00Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders
    • B01F7/16Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders with stirrers rotating about a substantially vertical axis
    • B01F7/18Mixers with rotary stirring devices in fixed receptacles, i.e. movement of the receptacle not being meant to effect the mixing; Kneaders with stirrers rotating about a substantially vertical axis with paddles or arms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y5/00Nanobiotechnology or nanomedicine, e.g. protein engineering or drug delivery
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D11/00Inks
    • C09D11/30Inkjet printing inks
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L1/00Liquid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10L1/32Liquid carbonaceous fuels consisting of coal-oil suspensions or aqueous emulsions or oil emulsions
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L1/00Liquid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10L1/32Liquid carbonaceous fuels consisting of coal-oil suspensions or aqueous emulsions or oil emulsions
    • C10L1/328Oil emulsions containing water or any other hydrophilic phase
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M173/00Lubricating compositions containing more than 10% water
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K2800/00Properties of cosmetic compositions or active ingredients thereof or formulation aids used therein and process related aspects
    • A61K2800/20Chemical, physico-chemical or functional or structural properties of the composition as a whole
    • A61K2800/21Emulsions characterized by droplet sizes below 1 micron
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K2800/00Properties of cosmetic compositions or active ingredients thereof or formulation aids used therein and process related aspects
    • A61K2800/40Chemical, physico-chemical or functional or structural properties of particular ingredients
    • A61K2800/41Particular ingredients further characterized by their size
    • A61K2800/413Nanosized, i.e. having sizes below 100 nm
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F13/00Other mixers; Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers
    • B01F13/10Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers
    • B01F2013/1075Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers combining mixing with other treatments
    • B01F2013/1077Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers combining mixing with other treatments with disintegrating
    • B01F2013/1083Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers combining mixing with other treatments with disintegrating by crushing or breaking
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2207/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds containing hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2207/40Fatty vegetable or animal oils
    • C10M2207/401Fatty vegetable or animal oils used as base material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2230/00Specified physical or chemical properties of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2230/24Emulsion properties
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2240/00Specified uses or applications of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2240/20Electrical or magnetic applications
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2240/00Specified uses or applications of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2240/20Electrical or magnetic applications
    • C10N2240/204Magnetic recording mediums
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2240/00Specified uses or applications of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2240/20Electrical or magnetic applications
    • C10N2240/205Magnetic fluids

Abstract

It is a dispersion formed from a carrier liquid and one in the carrier liquid not soluble Component described. The dispersion is in a cycle process under Applying vacuum homogenized in a first rotating vortex (30i) and in a second opposite to the first vertebra rotating second Vortex (30a), which surrounds the first vortex, is rolled up and the cluster structures in the carrier fluid not soluble Component at the end of the first vortex (30i) are replaced by rotor blades (14b, 14k) of a rotor rotating counter to the first vortex occurring cavitation broken up into nano-particles. Next will the use of the dispersion described.

Description

  • The The invention relates to a long-term stable dispersion, the use the dispersion and a method for producing the dispersion.
  • at a dispersion is a mixture of at least two Substances that do not or hardly dissolve into each other or chemically with each other connect. A dispersion of two or more liquids is also referred to as emulsion, a dispersion of liquid and solid as a suspension.
  • If it is the liquid When it comes to water, the additive also acts as a hydrophobic component designated. In the preparation of the emulsion are increasing Particle size measurements or droplet sizes of hydrophobic component in the nanometer range, preferably distribute very finely in the dispersion. Nevertheless, conventionally, in particular for long-term stable Dispersions not on stabilizers, such as surfactants or emulsifiers, which particles or droplets of the hydrophobic component are dispensed with enclose or dock on them and so the mutual attraction of the particles or droplets due to the interfacial tension prevent or at least delay very much.
  • vicarious for the diverse Applications of water-based emulsions are fuel and / or Called fuel emulsions. Such with water up to 50% share offset fuels and / or fuels represent attempts on the one hand the fuel consumption and on the other hand the Pollutant emissions too reduce.
  • DE 103 34 897 A1 describes a so-called microemulsion and its use as fuel, which is a ternary mixture which, in addition to the water and the fuel, has a mixture of nonionic surfactants, ionic surfactants and cosurfactants.
  • Especially in cosmetics and medicine can Surfactants unwanted Cause side effects.
  • task The present invention is an improved stable, preferably long-term stable dispersion and a process for the preparation of the dispersion specify.
  • According to the invention this Task with a dispersion of a carrier liquid, for example water and one in the carrier liquid not soluble Component, which is distributed as evenly droplet and / or particles is present, dissolved, it being provided that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 68% of the droplets and / or particles is between 1 nm to 300 nm, and that the droplets and / or Particles are embedded in the structure of the carrier liquid, that to Stabilization, preferably long-term stabilization of the dispersion no further component as stabilizer component required is. It is intended in this regard that the Dispersion contains no such stabilizer component or that the Dispersion contains such a stabilizer component, however, in a concentration that is so low that it makes no significant contribution to the stability provides the dispersion.
  • The The object is further achieved by a process for producing a dispersion from a carrier liquid, for example, water and a non-soluble in the carrier liquid Component, which is distributed as evenly droplet or particles is present, dissolved. It is provided that the Dispersion under vacuum by means of a first rotating Vertebrae and / or a second rotating vortex, the first Vortex surrounds, is homogenized, and that cluster structures of in the carrier liquid not soluble Component to be broken by cavitation.
  • Further is a method for producing a nano-dispersion of a liquid and at least one solid or liquid additive. The Nano-dispersion can be designed like the preceding dispersion according to the invention. at solid or liquid Additive is the component which is not soluble in the carrier liquid. The manufacturing process provides that during the manufacturing process the dispersion formed in a closed rotationally symmetric Casing, having a rotationally symmetrical inner tube, with a formed with a rotor circulation device in a circuit in the interior of the inner tube in a rotating vortex from above flowing downstairs and in the space between the outer wall the inner tube and inner wall of the housing in a rotating vortex with reversed direction of rotation is circulated from bottom to top, it being provided that the Dispersion in a first cycle section, in which they with a first portion of the rotor cooperates, is homogenized the speed of the rotor is set so that the cluster structures of Additive and / or the carrier liquid are broken up by cavitation that the direction of rotation the dispersion in a downstream the following second cycle section is reversed, and that the additive in the first cycle section or in the upstream adjacent cycle section sprayed under pressure becomes.
  • The dispersion of the invention is characterized in that the droplets or particles size of at least 68% of the droplets and / or particles of the non-soluble in the carrier liquid component in the lower third of the nanometer range between 1 nm and 300 nm. If water is provided as the carrier liquid, the component which is not soluble in the carrier liquid is a hydrophobic component. The interface forces occurring at the droplets and / or particles are reduced on the one hand by the small droplet or particle size, and on the other hand, the droplets and / or particles are optimally integrated into the structure of the carrier liquid, for example into the water structure. It is therefore not necessary to add a further substance as stabilizer component to the dispersion according to the invention in order to be able to prepare the dispersion and / or to render it stable over the long term. If the carrier liquid is water, the further substance acting as stabilizer component is also referred to as amphiphilic substance. The amphiphilic substances, which are also referred to as surfactants or emulsifiers, generally consist of a hydrophobic, water-repellent hydrocarbon radical and a hydrophilic, water-soluble moiety. If they come into contact with water, the individual molecules of the amphiphilic substance align themselves so that the water-repellent part is combined with the molecules of the hydrophobic component of the dispersion and the water-soluble radical is solubilized in the water, ie dissolves in the water.
  • By The waiver of the stabilizer component can be used in particular in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and medical field new use cases are tapped. Cosmetics and / or Drugs that act as a dispersion according to the invention without any additive are formed, i. only from the cosmetic and / or pharmaceutical Active ingredient and water are free of any side effects may be caused by the stabilizer component. If no Stabilizer component is provided, resulting in a shortening of Approval process, if for the cosmetic and / or pharmaceutical active ingredient already a Approval is granted.
  • The inventive method is characterized by the fact that a special vortex formation and the use of cavitation forces at the Mixing the dispersion spent energy on the breaking of the Cluster of in the carrier liquid not soluble Component of the dispersion is concentrated and the droplets and / or Particles in the carrier liquid not soluble Component are integrated into the matrix of the carrier liquid, that the Dispersion is long-term stable. As long-term stable in general Denotes dispersions which are stable for one year or more, i. in This period essentially maintains the characteristics that they had immediately after their production. The period can but also shorter be, if in this time the dispersion filled, circulated and / or stored and used. For example, such a shorter period of time for dispersions be provided, which contain a pharmaceutical agent and those after medical Prescription manufactured and used. For the demarcation of this over more or less for a long time at least until the scheduled time their use stable dispersions are dispersions to see the exclusively while their formation, so to speak only "in situ" resistant.
  • Of the Rotor of for provided the preparation of the dispersion of the invention Device rotates counter to the direction of rotation of the swirling Dispersion, so that the Relative speed between the dispersion and the edges of the rotor blades very much is high and preferably occurs supercavitation. Cavitation is an effect in moving liquids is observed when the hydrostatic pressure in the moving liquid locally drops to a value which is approximately the vapor pressure of the liquid equivalent. It then forms small bubbles filled with steam, the with the flowing liquid after all in areas higher Pressure come and collapse there. In the bladder implosion arise inside the bubble and in their immediate vicinity high pressure peaks, the breaking up of the clusters of the insoluble in the carrier liquid Effect component. Under the method according to the invention preferred supercavitation will be the formation of a coherent Cavitation area behind the impinged rotor blades understood. By applying vacuum, the onset of cavitation in influenced certain limits become. Another positive effect is the fact that the dispersion is degassed. The cluster structures of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component can formed for example by the agglomeration of solid particles or it can be big related Act liquid droplets. soot can for example thread-like clusters form in a conventional Stirring process not can be broken sufficiently, which is why in conventional Method, a surfactant or emulsifier is added.
  • By providing two separate vortices that rotate in the opposite direction, the method is optimized for both effectively breaking the clusters of non-soluble component in the carrier liquid and promoting the dispersion. The circulation rate of the dispersion can be adapted to the viscosity of the dispersion and to the rotational speed of the rotor. Further, advantageously, the vortex velocity of the inner and of the outer vortex are changed relatively independently of each other, thus influencing the optimum distribution of the nano-droplets and / or nano-particles obtained from the non-soluble component in the carrier liquid component in the carrier liquid. The nano-droplets and / or nano-particles can be incorporated by the method according to the invention in the matrix of the carrier liquid so that a particularly durable and long-term stable dispersion is formed.
  • Further advantageous embodiments are designated in further subclaims.
  • It can be provided that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 68% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 1 nm to 100 nm.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment can be provided that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 68% of the droplets and / or Particles in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 10 nm to 50 nm.
  • Further can be provided that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 80% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 1 nm to 100 nm.
  • Yet Furthermore, it can be provided that the droplet or particle size of at least 95% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 1 nm to 100 nm.
  • One for preparing the dispersion of the invention in the water given solid should have approximately the particle size, which he in the Dispersion should have. Clusters of solids, their particles through adhesion and / or their surface finish Can form clusters be broken up by the specified method so that in the Dispersion only evenly distributed single, not further divisible by cavitation or supercavitation Particles are present.
  • The droplet of liquids however, you can by the method according to the invention up to the desired Size broken up be, the viscosity the liquid and / or the molecular size of the liquid determine the bottom droplet size can and / or a lower limit of the droplet size for the breaking up of the liquid droplets Cavitation or supercavitation can set.
  • In Further advantageous embodiments can be provided that the droplet or particle size of at least 68% of the droplets and / or Particles in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 10 nm to 50 nm.
  • Further can be provided that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 80% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 10 nm to 50 nm.
  • Yet Furthermore, it can be provided that the droplet or particle size of at least 95% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 10 nm to 50 nm.
  • The Droplet- and / or particle size is in the above training courses according to a Gaussian distribution normal have been accepted or at least as approximately normally distributed. But it can also not normally distributed droplet and / or particle sizes are present. In such a case can be used to characterize the distribution the mean droplet and / or particle size be, then between manufacturers and consumers of the dispersion Agreements can be made which method of averaging is chosen to determine the mean droplet and / or particle size of in the carrier liquid not soluble Determine component of the dispersion.
  • It can in the event that it in the carrier liquid is water, provided that the stabilizer component an amphiphilic material component which in addition to hydrophobic component of the dispersion is added. In the stabilizer component it can also be a material component that is primarily another Function fulfilled, For example, causes the formation of a pleasant smell. This substance may for example be designed so that it with appropriate Concentration at the same time is able to stabilize the dispersion.
  • It can be provided that the Stabilizer component has a surfactant or formed as a surfactant is.
  • Further Embodiments relate to the formation of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component of the dispersion according to the invention.
  • It can be provided that the component which is not soluble in the carrier liquid can be used at least as fuel or fuel Substance or a mixture of such substances. The admixture of water to fuels or fuels has been tested for years, but so far the addition of a surfactant or emulsifier is indispensable, unless the direct injection of water is provided in the combustion chamber. Although in such a dispersion, the proportion of the hydrophobic component may be higher than the proportion of the carrier liquid water, it is in any case a dispersion of the type described above. The selection of a suitable surfactant or emulsifier is associated with a high research effort and combustion of the surfactant added to the fuel or fuel can be ecologically questionable. The dispersion according to the invention avoids the disadvantages mentioned by providing a dual-substance mixture of water and fuel or fuel which, like the untreated fuel or fuel, can be stored, distributed and used. For example, a fuel or fuel-containing dispersion having a water content of 50% can be produced.
  • Further advantageous embodiments relate to the nature of the admixed Fuels or fuels.
  • It can be provided that it At least one of the fuels or fuels is petrol or diesel fuel or kerosene or heavy oil or fuel oil.
  • As Experiments have shown, it can also be provided that it is at least one of the fuels or fuels to a fixed Fuel or fuel. For example, it has been successful made a long-term stable flame black dispersion. A conventional on the other hand, macroscale turbulent flute-black dispersion Clumps of soot particles on and formed at rest very quickly Sedimentablagerungen. The flame black dispersion according to the invention On the other hand, it turned out to be a homogeneously colored liquid containing the soot particles are perceptible only under the electron microscope.
  • Further can be provided that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component contains at least one fuel or mineral oil-based fuel.
  • It can also be provided that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Komponete at least one of vegetable oils and / or fats and / or animal oils and / or fats formed fuel or fuel. These variant Amongst others, it distinguishes itself by the spectrum of possible Starting materials for the production of renewable, i. non-fossil fuels or Fuels on so far not for it Exploitable starting materials extended.
  • In An advantageous embodiment may be provided that it is at least one of the fuels or fuels around rapeseed oil methyl ester or at least one of the fuels or fuels contains rapeseed oil methyl ester.
  • Further can be provided that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is a pharmaceutical agent. A series of pharmaceutical Active ingredients can not be administered intravenously or must be in substances solved or dispersed, which have undesirable side effects can. The dispersion according to the invention does not have this disadvantage and is without the addition of surfactants or emulsifiers produced. The finely divided nano-droplets and / or Nano-particles of pharmaceutical active ingredients can be particularly well of the human or animal body become. It is also possible in this way, specially designed nano-active ingredients in the dispersion insert, i.e. Active substances that can not be prepared in a chemical process are. For example, they may be nano-structures that analogous to blood cells To absorb and release oxygen. It may be further provided be that it at the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is an active ingredient combination, i. a combination of more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient.
  • It can also be provided that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is a cosmetic agent. By renouncing the Surfactant or the emulsifier and the use of nano-particles and / or nanodroplets becomes the dispersion according to the invention especially well absorbed by the skin. An avocado oil emulsion according to the invention leaves, for example no oily residues the skin and is absorbed by the skin immediately upon application and unfolds its cosmetic effect almost instantly.
  • In A further advantageous embodiment provides that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component a food or a food additive (for example a flavoring or substitute for fat or oil) or a technological excipient for the production of food is. Emulsions are used to produce foods in a wide range Used dimensions but so far the use of emulsifiers is provided. Where it but not on the taste peculiarity or other properties the emulsifier arrives, the dispersion of the invention of particular Be an advantage. It is particularly advantageous if a suitable Emulsifier not available yet is.
  • Further can be provided that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is a pigment or a color pigment, for example gold or Aluminum or other. Often Today, such metallic pigments, such as gold or aluminum used in paints to produce lightfast colors or effect colors. It is also known gold for refinement of food, such as Liqueurs ("Gdansk Goldwasser ") or To use chocolates.
  • In another embodiment is provided that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component a technological excipient or starting material or an intermediate for the production of a final product is. It can be at the dispersion For example, to deal with Bohrmilch or an emulsion from the a surface coating is deposited. It can be provided that the hydrophobic Component forms the coating and water as a carrier liquid causes a technological effect, such as a heated one Quenched workpiece surface.
  • Further advantageous embodiments are directed to the use of the dispersion of the invention.
  • It may be the use of the dispersion as fuel or fuel be provided as an energy source by chemical reaction with Release oxygen energy. The insert comes in for example Internal combustion engines or thrusters or combustion plants in question. The benefits of such a fuel or fuel are detailed above described. It can be used in particular for drives of trucks, Locomotives, large equipment, like For example, excavators, and ships be provided, the dispersion of the invention to produce fuel on site when water is in place can be provided. Also for heating systems of buildings can be provided to generate the dispersion according to the invention on site, because in this way the transport costs for the water are avoided. Of particular importance is the use of the dispersion for engines and / or turbines in airplanes, because with it the environmental compatibility the aircraft increased can be.
  • In further versions is the use of the dispersion as a drug or as a drug or as a cosmetic preparation intended. The advantages are already mentioned above.
  • It can continue the use of the dispersion as food or be provided as a food additive. So, for example novel drinks are produced, the additives are not soluble in water. As above For example, the food additive may be described also a replacement for Fat or oil act to produce especially "light" foods.
  • Further may be the use of the dispersion as ink for printers and / or plotters and / or writing instruments be provided. The use of such inks in inkjet printers allows, for example, a further reduction of the droplet size and thus finer prints with decreasing ink consumption.
  • When Further use may be the dispersion as a printable material be provided. The extremely low Size of in The particles or droplets contained in the dispersion allow the training to be particularly more homogeneous and thinner Layers on arbitrary surfaces.
  • It It is also possible to use the dispersion as a coolant or lubricant be. Also in this use are the low production costs and the small droplet size and / or Particle size of particular Advantage.
  • Further advantageous embodiments relate to the method for Preparation of the dispersion.
  • It can be provided that the Cluster structures in the carrier fluid not soluble Component at the end of a vortex through rear rotor blades of a in the other vertebra opposite to this vortex rotating rotor occurring cavitation are broken.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment can be provided that the droplet and / or particles by cavitation to at least 68% to nano-droplets and / or Nano-particles <300 nm are broken.
  • It may further be provided that the droplets and / or Particles due to cavitation at least 68% to nano-droplets and / or Nano-particles <100 nm are broken.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment can be provided that the droplet and / or particles by cavitation to at least 68% to nano-droplets and / or Nano-particles <50 nm are broken.
  • It can be provided that the cavitation is supercavitation. In supercavitation occurs a contiguous range of cavitation vapor bubbles, which releases a particularly large amount of energy in fractions of a second in its implosion, which the Aufbre Chen causes the encountered in this area cluster of the hydrophobic component.
  • It can be provided that the rotor blades of the rotor ( 14 ) have an average peripheral speed of> 50 m / s. The leading edges of the rotor blades can be dimensioned so that they have a small flow resistance, because they do not contribute to the shattering of the clusters, which, as described above, by the effect of entering behind the rotor blades cavitation, in particular supercavitation broken.
  • It can be provided that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component in the lower section of the first vertebra in the center of the first vortex or in the second vortex is sprayed under pressure.
  • It can be further provided that the speed of the rotor and / or the gas pressure over the dispersion and / or the temperature of the dispersion can be adjusted and / or regulated or will.
  • Further can be provided that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component provided with a metering device and then by means of an overpressure sprayed standing propellant gas becomes.
  • In a further embodiment may be provided that as a propellant gas an inert gas is used. The inert gas is a gas that is chemically inert, i. not at all or only very slowly with others Substances chemical compounds.
  • Preferably can be provided that that the propellant gas Nitrogen is. Preference may be given to technical nitrogen, even further preferably pure nitrogen be provided as an inert gas. As an inert gas can Next noble gases, such as helium, argon, krypton or xenon provided be. The promotion the hydrophobic component by means of a propellant gas is therefore preferred because the volume of sprayed into the carrier liquid in the carrier liquid not soluble Component i.a. much smaller than the volume of the connection line between the sprayer and the reservoir. After completion of the Dosage can be a non-negligible when dispensing with the propellant gas Rest of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component remain in the connection line.
  • In a further advantageous embodiment can be provided that it in the carrier liquid Water is distilled water at low temperature. Such Water is especially good for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.
  • Further can be provided that the Dispersion during dispersing a magnetic field and / or an electrostatic Field and / or an electromagnetic field is exposed. Insbeondere can be provided to carry out the dispersion in a device, which provides such fields whose strength exceeds those of the natural fields goes. water molecules are formed as dipoles, which are in magnetic and / or electrical Align fields. The properties of the fields must be determined empirically due to lack of certain theories. The targeted Influence of the water molecules especially for the production of dispersions of importance for cosmetic and / or medical applications are provided.
  • In An advantageous embodiment may be provided that the axes of the inner and / or outer vortex be aligned to the magnetic field of the earth. This way you can for example, an additional Device for influencing the water molecules are dispensed with.
  • The Invention will now be explained in more detail with reference to the drawings.
  • It demonstrate
  • 1 a schematic compilation of a particular for the execution of the method according to the invention device and associated with it;
  • 2 a sectional view of the device in 1 ;
  • 3 a schematic representation of the flow conditions in the device in 1 ;
  • 4 a sectional view of the device in 1 with modified spray device;
  • 5 a perspective sectional view of the lower portion of a slightly modified embodiment of the device 1 ;
  • 6 a perspective view of the rotor of the device in 5 ;
  • 7a an electron micrograph as a cross section through a droplet of a first embodiment of a dispersion according to the invention;
  • 7b a further electron micrograph of the dispersion in 7a ;
  • 7c an exemplary distribution of the particle sizes of the dispersion in 7a ;
  • 8th an electron micrograph of a second embodiment of a dispersion according to the invention.
  • The 1 shows a device 1 for intensive mixing of a liquid and at least one liquid or solid additive to form a dispersion, preferably for producing the dispersion according to the invention, and for carrying out the method according to the invention. The 2 shows the device 1 in enlarged and detailed representation.
  • The device 1 has a closed rotationally symmetrical housing 10 in which a rotationally symmetrical inner tube 11 is arranged centrically. In the area of the lower dome-shaped section of the open at both ends of the inner tube 11 is a rotor 14 arranged. The rotor 14 has rotor blades in its radially inner section 14b and rotor blades at its radially outer portion 14s on, which extend perpendicular to the radial plane. The rotor 14 is arranged so that the rotor blades extend radially and the dome-shaped portion of the inner tube 11 embrace so that the rotor blades 14s in the area between the inner wall of the housing 10 and the outer wall of the dome-shaped portion of the inner tube 11 engage while the rotor blades 14b in the interior of the dome-shaped section of the inner tube 11 are arranged.
  • A preferred embodiment of the rotor is in 6 shown in more detail and will be described in detail in the present description.
  • As in the 1 and 2 recognizable, is the rotor 14 with the output shaft of an engine 15 connected. It may advantageously be a variable speed electric motor.
  • The housing 10 is in the in 1 and 2 illustrated embodiment, three parts executed and in a main section 10h , a head section 10k and a foot section 10f divided. The end sections of the sections 10k . 10h . 10f are connected with ring flanges, the distributed around the circumference releasable connections 10v exhibit. In the in 1 and 2 illustrated embodiment, the releasable connections are performed with cylinder screws. However, it may be advantageously provided to perform the compounds as quick-release connections to the housing 10 easy to open for maintenance. As in 1 and 2 indicated, the annular flanges are screwed together via an annular sealing disc, so that the housing 10 is designed as a liquid-tight and gas-tight housing.
  • The head section 10k is formed substantially dome-shaped. It has a centric connection piece 10kv for connecting a vacuum pump 12 on. Into the supply line to the vacuum pump 12 is a three-way valve 12v inserted, which in one position, the vacuum pump with the interior of the housing 10 connects, and in the other position the interior of the housing 10 connects with the outside air. The vacuum pump 12 Can set a negative pressure in the gas space above the liquid, which can favor the occurrence of the cavitation described below. Before emptying the housing 10 is the three-way valve 12v to adjust so that the interior of the housing 10 is connected to the outside air, ie the negative pressure is released.
  • The head section 10k furthermore has a filler neck 10ke on that with the exit of a distillation plant 13 connected is. The distillation unit may be, for example, a low-pressure distillation unit. The in the 1 schematically illustrated distillation plant includes all the facilities that are needed to at the exit of the distillation plant 13 To provide a liquid with a predetermined temperature. The liquid may preferably be water, from which an emulsion is prepared by admixing a liquid additive or a suspension by admixing a solid additive. As a generic term "dispersion" is used in the following.
  • Into the supply line from the distillation unit 13 is a shut-off valve 13v inserted.
  • Inside the head section 10k are stationary turning vanes 10u arranged, whose training and function will be explained in more detail below.
  • The main section 10h is formed as a slightly constricted in the middle section circular cylinder. The exact course of its lateral surface is suitably determined by experiments. It is inter alia dependent on the design of the lateral surface of the housing 10 and to be such that the flow pattern of the dispersion in the annulus between the outer wall of the Innentubus 11 and the inner wall of the housing 10 is optimized.
  • The foot section 10f of the housing 10 is formed substantially toroidal with the interior of the toroid for receiving the bearing of the rotor 14 and for fixing the engine 15 is determined. The execution of this constructive detail is in the 2 only hinted. It is essentially dependent on the embodiment of the Motors 15 , It is necessary to provide at least one gas- and liquid-tight rotor bearing.
  • The foot section 10f is with a drain pipe 10fa provided, which is arranged approximately at the lowest portion of the foot section, so that the finished dispersion can flow freely and completely.
  • The drain pipe 10fa is with interposition of a shut-off valve 16v with a collection container 16 connected to the intermediate storage of the housing 10 taken dispersion is determined.
  • The device 1 is on with a storage container 17 connected to provide the additive. The storage tank 17 has at its output via a metering pump 17d , with the interposition of a three-way valve 17v with a spraying device 18 connected is. The connecting pipe between three-way valve 17v and spray device 18 passes through the wall of the housing 10 ,
  • The spraying device 18 is in the in 1 and 2 illustrated embodiment designed as an annular nozzle, which at the upper edge of origin of the bell-shaped portion of the inner tube 11 is arranged. Alternatively or additionally, one or more spray devices may be provided elsewhere. For example, the spray device may be formed as a spray head and over the center of the rotor 14 be arranged. There may also be other spraying devices 18 be designed as annular nozzles and / or as spray heads, upstream of the bell-shaped portion of the inner tube 11 are arranged.
  • The three-way valve 17v is further with a compressed gas tank 19 connected, whose output via a gas pressure regulator 19r is guided. At the gas pressure regulator 19r For example, it can also be a reducing valve designed as a needle valve. The compressed gas tank 19 is provided to the means of an inert gas under pressure, such as nitrogen, or by means of a noble gas with the metering pump 17d supplied additive of the spray device 18 supply and completely empty the supply line. Since the additive is a small amount, it must be ensured that no residues of the additive remain in the feed line. It may also be provided to use a different compressed gas, but the compressed gas must not chemically react with either the dispersant or with the additive or form a solution. The pressurized gas CO 2 used for beverages, for example, is both chemically and physically soluble in water and therefore unsuitable as a pressurized gas.
  • 3 now shows a schematic representation of the flow conditions in the apparatus described above 1 , in the following description also in in 2 shown positions.
  • The dispersion is in the inner tube 11 from top to bottom through the rotor 14 sucked in and out into the annulus between inner tube 11 and inner wall of the housing 10 promoted. The rotor blades 14s promote the dispersion in the designated annulus from bottom to top, passing through the turning vanes 10u deflected flows back into the inner tube.
  • The dispersion forms in the device 1 an internal fluid swirl 30i and a centrally disposed around this outer fluid vortex 30a , Both vortexes are helical circular vortexes with opposite directions of flow. The two fluid swirls 30i . 30a are through the wall of the inner tube 11 separated from each other. The outer fluid vortex 30a is through the rotor blades 14s Viewed from above on the fluid vortex in the illustrated embodiment in a clockwise direction in a rotating movement. In 3 is just a rotor blade 14s shown at an extension at the end of the rotor blade 14b is arranged. As in 2 To recognize the formation of Wirbelströmumg by a on the inner wall of the housing 10 arranged guide 10l supported, which runs in a helical line.
  • One on the outside wall of the inner tube 11 arranged outer guide 11La is also helical, but with a gear direction opposite to the direction of the guide described above 10l is trained. In this way, the rising outer fluid swirl becomes 30a from the outer wall of the inner container 11 detached, this effect is supported by the centrifugal force acting on the fluid vortex.
  • The outer fluid vortex 30a meets in the upper section of the case 10 on the turning vanes 10u - in 3 only one turning vane is shown - and is offset by these in an opposite direction of rotation, whereby the internal fluid vortex 30i is trained. The inner fluid vortex 30i therefore rotates counterclockwise. For the formation of the inner fluid vortex 30i is an inner guide 111i provided on the inner wall of the inner container 11 is arranged and which is formed with the same direction of movement as the arranged on the inner wall of the housing guide 10l ,
  • The guiding devices 10l . 11La . 11Li are in the in 2 illustrated embodiment of a helically coiled strip material formed, for example, a sheet metal strip, with the wall of the housing 10 or with the inner wall or with the outer wall of the inner tube 11 connected is. The guide devices can also be integral with the wall of the housing 10 and / or with the inner wall or with the outer wall of the inner tube 11 be formed, for example, be embossed. When the diffusers into the wall of the inner tube 11 can be embossed, advantageously a double wall for the inner tube 11 be provided so that overlaps between the guide devices 11a and 11i are avoided.
  • The cross section of the guiding devices 10l . 11La . 11Li is not limited to the band-shaped cross-section. The cross section may be selected for manufacturing reasons, but it may also be designed according to functional aspects.
  • A further design options is through the pitch and / or the flight depth of the helical guide, reducing the number of superimposed rotating vortex and / or the depth of action of the guide variable are.
  • The inner fluid vortex meets in the bell-shaped lower portion of the inner tube 11 on the rotating with opposite direction of rotation rotor blades 14b of the rotor 14 , This is due to the high relative speed between the rotor blade 14b and the internal fluid swirl 30i behind the rotor blade 14b a cavitation zone 14k out. Cavitation is an effect observed in moving liquids when the hydrostatic pressure in the moving liquid drops locally to a value approximately equal to the vapor pressure of the liquid. It then forms small bubbles filled with vapor, which eventually reach the areas of higher pressure with the flowing liquid and collapse there. Bladder implosion creates high pressure spikes inside the bladder and in its immediate vicinity, which significantly aids in disrupting the clusters of the additive. The rotor blade 14b is due to a low flow resistance and the occurrence of cavitation only at the rear edge of the rotor blade 14b , the so-called tear-off edge, optimized. An essential goal of the optimization is the occurrence of supercavitation behind the rotor blade 14b , causing the clusters to break up mainly. The blade-shaped leading edge of the rotor blade 14b has only a small share in breaking up the clusters.
  • As in 3 to recognize, is behind the cavitation zone 14k the direction of rotation of the fluid vortex 30i The dispersion is then deflected, as described above, through the rotor blades 14s is set in rotation again.
  • By reversing the direction of rotation twice in fluid vortices 30a . 30i As a result of agitated dispersion and the breaking up of the clusters of the additive by supercavitation, a particularly homogeneous and long-term stable dispersion is obtained, which is further characterized by a low scattering value of the particle size of the additive.
  • In 1 and 2 is an example of a level sensor 20 shown, the level in the housing 10 with the rotor at rest 14 displays. It is in this embodiment, a commercially available float level sensor. When the control and regulation of the device 1 and the components connected to it can be further in the 1 and 2 not shown sensors may be provided, for example, pressure, temperature, flow and quantity sensors.
  • The 4 now shows a device 1 as they are in 1 and 2 is shown with a modified spray device 18 ' , At the spraying device 18 ' it is a capillary tube, which has a low internal volume because of its small inner diameter and is so well adapted to the small volume of the additive to be dosed. The central axis of the spray device 18 ' coincides with the central axis of the inner tube 11 together. It is thus arranged in the "eye" of the fluid swirl, ie, the additive is metered into a region of low flow velocity in this exemplary embodiment, the upper section of the spray device passing through the head section 10k , wherein it can be provided that it is angled there and therefore adjacent to the connecting piece 10kv for the vacuum pump, the wall of the head section 10k be upheld. The spraying device 18 ' opens at the lower end of the upper third of the inner tube 11 ,
  • The 5 and 6 Now show a second embodiment of the device according to the invention, which differs from the device 1 in execution details of the rotor and the lower portion of the inner tube differs.
  • 5 shows the lower portion of the device 1 that have a modified inner tube 51 has, whose lower portion is formed as a truncated cone, which merges into a circular cylinder. Otherwise, the inner tube is 51 in again 1 and 2 illustrated inner tube 11 executed. The inner tube 51 can be easier to manufacture because its lower section is composed of simple geometric bodies.
  • In 5 the guide devices and the metering device are not shown. However, it may be provided on one or more of the above-mentioned guide devices 10l . 11La . 11Li to dispense, but the metering device is indispensable.
  • 6 shows the rotor 14 , its rotor blades 14b form a four-bladed propeller. In the in 6 illustrated embodiment, the leading edge of the rotor blade 14b slightly rounded. But it can also be provided that it is designed as a blade-shaped edge. When designing the leading edge of the rotor blade 14b is to find a compromise between optimum cavitation and service life of the rotor blades.
  • The rotor blades 14s are formed as rectangular plates whose front in one of radius vector and axis of rotation of the rotor 14 spanned level runs.
  • The rotor blade 14s penetrates the recording 14a , which is about the recording 14a protruding portions of the rotor blade 14s in the 4 illustrated embodiment are about the same size. The recording 14a is penetrated by two threaded holes, in each of which retractable mounting screws are screwed, between the rotor blade 14s and the recording 14a make a positive connection. Such an arrangement is particularly advantageous when the replacement of the rotor blades is provided. In this way, for example, the formation of the rotor blades can be optimized by trial series. But it can also be provided a one-piece design of the rotor.
  • When sizing the rotor 14 It should be noted that it is a mechanically highly stressed component. In the illustrated embodiment, about 7 kW of power is introduced into the dispersion via the rotor, which has a volume of about 35 l.
  • Preferably when the dispersant is water, the molecules are formed as dipoles and in a magnetic and / or can align electric field and / or electromagnetic field, means for Generating such fields be provided, preferably in the field of the bell-shaped Section of the inner tube can be arranged. Then can advantageously be further provided, the housing and the inner tube of nonconductive and / or nonmagnetizable To train material. It may alternatively be provided on means to forego field generation and the device in the terrestrial Align the magnetic field.
  • 7a now shows an electron micrograph of a first embodiment of the dispersion according to the invention, which is prepared with the device and method described above. The photograph shows a cross-section through a droplet of a micromilled quartz sand particles 71 and water 72 existing dispersion. The silica sand particles 71 have an average particle size between 30 nm and 80 nm. As in 7a can be seen, are the quartz sand particles 71 very evenly in the water 72 distributed.
  • 7b shows an enlarged section of the in 7a represented dispersion. In the 7b highlighted quartz sand particles 71 have particle sizes between 33 nm and 71 nm.
  • 7c shows in a diagram the quantity distribution of the quartz sand particles 72 , The quantity distribution follows the Gaussian normal distribution in this application example. More than 68% of the silica sand particles have a particle size between 30 nm and 80 nm, the average particle size is 55 nm. However, it can also be a not normally distributed amount of particles, but it should be noted that a average particle size is selected which is within the designated range. The smaller the scattering of the particle size, the more uniform the particles can be distributed in the dispersion.
  • The Influencing the particle size and quantity distribution is in this embodiment in essentially by the treatment of the quartz sand before the addition possible in the water, i.e. by crushing the quartz sand and then fractionating by sieving the ground quartz sand.
  • 8th shows an electron micrograph of a second embodiment of the dispersion according to the invention, which is also prepared with the device and method described above. The ones with the same magnification as in 7b The photograph shows soot particles 73 that with the water 72 form a dispersion, wherein the in 8a highlighted soot particles 73 have a particle size between 22 nm and 47 nm. With the soot particles 73 it is Flammruß, in which the soot particles are chained in the delivery state to form large thread-like clusters. These clusters are broken up by the process according to the invention so that the soot particles are evenly distributed in the water. The soot particles are nano-particles having a particle size of less than 50 nm. In this embodiment, the particle size is essentially determined by a chemical-physical process. A fractionation by sieving is not possible, because the soot particles join together to form the filamentary clusters described above and are not present as a mixture of individual, separate particles.
  • 1
    contraption for mixing
    10
    casing
    10f
    foot section
    10h
    main section
    10k
    head section
    10ke
    filler pipe
    10kv
    connecting branch for vacuum pump
    10l
    guide
    10u
    turning vane
    10v
    connection
    11
    inner tube
    11La
    outer guide
    11Li
    inner guide
    12
    vacuum pump
    12v
    Three-way valve
    13
    distillation plant
    13v
    shut-off valve
    14
    rotor
    14a
    Mounting for rotor blade 14s
    14b
    rotor blade
    14k
    cavitation zone
    14s
    rotor blade
    14v
    connecting element
    15
    engine
    16
    Clippings
    16v
    shut-off valve
    17
    reservoir
    17d
    metering
    17v
     Three-way valve
    18
    sprayer
    18 '
    sprayer
    19
    Compressed gas containers
    19r
    Gas pressure regulator
    20
    level sensor
    30a
    external fluid swirl
    30i
    internal liquid vortex
    51
    inner tube
    71
    Quartz sand particles
    72
    water
    73
    Soot particles

Claims (45)

  1. Dispersion of a carrier liquid, for example water and a non-soluble in the carrier liquid component, which is present as uniformly distributed droplets and / or particles, characterized in that the droplet or particle size of at least 68% of the droplets and / or particles between 1 nm to 300 nm, and that the droplets and / or particles are involved in the structure of the carrier liquid, that for stabilization, preferably long-term stabilization of the dispersion, no further component is required as a stabilizer component, it being provided that the dispersion no such Stabilizer component contains or that the dispersion contains such a stabilizer component, but in a concentration which is so low that it does not provide a significant contribution to the stability of the dispersion.
  2. Dispersion according to claim 1, characterized, that it is is a dispersion, the under application of vacuum in Homogenized a first and / or second rotating vortex and / or their cluster structures that are not soluble in the carrier liquid Component by cavitation, preferably by supercavitation, to nano-droplets and / or nano-particles are broken up.
  3. Dispersion according to claim 1 or 2, characterized that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 68% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid insoluble component is between 1 nm to 100 nm.
  4. Dispersion according to claim 3, characterized in that that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 80% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 1 nm to 100 nm.
  5. Dispersion according to claim 4, characterized in that that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 95% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid non-soluble component between 1 nm to 100 nm.
  6. Dispersion according to claim 3, characterized in that that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 68% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 10 nm to 50 nm.
  7. Dispersion according to claim 6, characterized in that that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 80% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 10 nm to 50 nm.
  8. Dispersion according to claim 7, characterized in that that the Droplet- or particle size of at least 95% of the droplets and / or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 10 nm to 50 nm.
  9. Dispersion according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the average droplet or Particle size of the droplet or particles of the non-soluble in the carrier liquid component is between 1 nm to 100 nm.
  10. Dispersion according to claim 9, characterized in that the middle one Droplet- or particle size of the droplet or particles of the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is between 10 nm to 50 nm.
  11. Dispersion according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that Stabilizer component is an amphiphilic material component, the additional not in the carrier liquid soluble Component of the dispersion is added.
  12. Dispersion according to claim 11, characterized in that that the Stabilizer component has a surfactant or formed as a surfactant is.
  13. Dispersion according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that in the carrier liquid not soluble Component at least one usable as a fuel or fuel substance or a mixture of such substances.
  14. Dispersion according to Claim 13, characterized that it At least one of the fuels or fuels is petrol or diesel fuel or kerosene or heavy oil or fuel oil.
  15. Dispersion according to Claim 13 or 14, characterized that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component contains at least one fuel or mineral oil-based fuel.
  16. Dispersion according to Claim 13 or 14, characterized that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Komponete at least one of vegetable oils and / or fats and / or animal oils and / or fats formed fuel or fuel.
  17. Dispersion according to claim 15, characterized in that that it at least one of the fuels or fuels is rapeseed oil methyl ester or at least one of the fuels or fuels contains rapeseed oil methyl ester.
  18. Dispersion according to one of Claims 1 to 12, characterized that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is a pharmaceutical agent.
  19. Dispersion according to one of Claims 1 to 12, characterized that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is a cosmetic agent.
  20. Dispersion according to one of Claims 1 to 12, characterized that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component of a food or a food additive or is a technological excipient for the production of food.
  21. Dispersion according to one of Claims 1 to 12, characterized that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component is a pigment or a color pigment.
  22. Dispersion according to one of Claims 1 to 12, characterized that the in the carrier liquid not soluble Component a technological excipient, e.g. a drilling emulsion, or a starting material or an intermediate for the production of an end product.
  23. Use of the dispersion according to one of claims 13 to 17 as fuel or fuel in internal combustion engines or thrusters or combustion plants.
  24. Use of the dispersion according to claim 18 as a medicament or as a medicinal agent.
  25. Use of the dispersion according to claim 19 as a cosmetic Preparation.
  26. Use of the dispersion according to claim 20 as food or as a food additive.
  27. Use of the dispersion of claim 21 as an ink for printers and / or plotters and / or writing instruments.
  28. Use of the dispersion according to claim 21 as printable Material.
  29. Use of the dispersion according to claim 22 as a coolant or lubricant.
  30. A method for producing a preferably after one of the claims 1 to 22 trained dispersion of a carrier liquid, for example water and one in the carrier liquid not soluble Component, which as evenly distributed droplets or Particle is present, characterized, that the dispersion applying vacuum by means of a first rotating vortex and / or a second rotating vortex surrounding the first vortex, is homogenized, and that cluster structures not in the carrier liquid soluble Component to be broken by cavitation.
  31. A method according to claim 30, characterized ge indicates that the cluster structures of the non-soluble in the carrier liquid component at the end of a vortex by rear rotor blades of a rotating in the other vertebra opposite to this vortex rotor ( 14 ) occurring cavitation are broken.
  32. Method according to one of claims 30 or 31, characterized that the At least 68% of cavitation structures are nano-droplets and / or cluster structures Nano-particles <300 nm are broken.
  33. Method according to claim 32, characterized in that that the At least 68% of cavitation structures are nano-droplets and / or cluster structures Nano-particles <100 nm are broken.
  34. Method according to claim 33, characterized that the At least 68% of cavitation structures are nano-droplets and / or cluster structures Nano-particles <50 nm are broken.
  35. Method according to one of claims 30 to 34, characterized that it Cavitation is supercavitation.
  36. Method according to one of claims 30 to 35, characterized in that the rotor blades of the rotor ( 14 ) have an average peripheral speed of> 50 m / s.
  37. Method according to one of claims 30 to 36, characterized that the not in the carrier liquid soluble Component in the lower section of the first vertebra in the center of the first vortex or in the second vortex is sprayed under pressure.
  38. Method according to one of Claims 30 to 37, characterized in that the rotational speed of the rotor ( 14 ) and / or the gas pressure over the dispersion and / or the temperature of the dispersion can be adjusted and / or regulated.
  39. Method according to one of claims 30 to 38, characterized that the not in the carrier liquid soluble Component provided with a metering device and then by means of an overpressure standing propellant gas is sprayed.
  40. Method according to claim 40, characterized in that that as Propellant gas, an inert gas is used.
  41. Method according to claim 40, characterized in that that this Propellant is nitrogen.
  42. Method according to one of claims 30 to 41, characterized that it in the carrier liquid is distilled water at low temperature.
  43. Method according to one of claims 30 to 42, characterized that the Dispersion during dispersing a magnetic field and / or an electrostatic Field and / or an electromagnetic field is exposed.
  44. Method according to claim 43, characterized in that that the Axis of the first and / or second vortex to the magnetic field of Earth is aligned.
  45. Process for producing a nano-dispersion of a liquid and at least one solid or liquid additive, which is preferably designed according to one of Claims 1 to 22, the dispersion thus formed being in a closed, rotationally symmetrical housing ( 10 ), which has a rotationally symmetrical inner tube ( 11 . 51 ), one with a rotor ( 14 ) circulating in a circuit inside the inner tube ( 11 . 51 ) flowing in a rotating vortex from top to bottom and in the space between the outer wall of the inner tube ( 11 . 51 ) and inner wall of the housing ( 10 ) in a rotating vortex with reverse direction of rotation is circulated from bottom to top, characterized in that the dispersion in a first cycle section, in which it with a first portion of the rotor ( 14 ) is homogenized, wherein the rotational speed of the rotor ( 14 ) is set so that the cluster structures of the additive and / or the carrier liquid are substantially broken by cavitation, that the direction of rotation of the dispersion in a downstream second cycle section is reversed, and that the additive in the first cycle section or in the upstream adjacent Circulation section is sprayed under pressure.
DE102006011881A 2006-03-09 2006-03-09 Mixing apparatus for nano dispersion, from liquid and at least one liquid/solid additive, has closed housing with inner tube to take dispersion by suction in circular rotary recirculation Withdrawn DE102006011881A1 (en)

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DE102006011881A DE102006011881A1 (en) 2006-03-09 2006-03-09 Mixing apparatus for nano dispersion, from liquid and at least one liquid/solid additive, has closed housing with inner tube to take dispersion by suction in circular rotary recirculation

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DE102006011881A DE102006011881A1 (en) 2006-03-09 2006-03-09 Mixing apparatus for nano dispersion, from liquid and at least one liquid/solid additive, has closed housing with inner tube to take dispersion by suction in circular rotary recirculation
PCT/EP2006/010803 WO2007054336A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2006-11-10 Device and method for producing dispersions
PCT/EP2006/010804 WO2007054337A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2006-11-10 Device and method for water treatment and for producing dispersions
PCT/EP2006/010807 WO2007054340A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2006-11-10 Device comprising guiding devices and method for producing nanodispersions
PCT/EP2006/010806 WO2007054339A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2006-11-10 Dispersion that remains stable over a long period and method for producing said dispersion
PCT/EP2006/010772 WO2007054323A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2006-11-10 Device comprising a spray device, and method for spraying nanodispersions
PCT/EP2006/010805 WO2007054338A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2006-11-10 Device comprising an encompassing rotor and method for producing nanodispersions
EP06818473.8A EP1945340B1 (en) 2005-11-10 2006-11-10 Dispersion that remains stable over a long period and method for producing said dispersion
PCT/EP2006/010808 WO2007054341A1 (en) 2005-11-10 2006-11-10 Device and method for producing nanodispersions

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WO2011153982A1 (en) 2010-06-10 2011-12-15 Sig Technology Ag Device and method for storing products
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