DE102006008333B4 - Apparatus and method for training the movement of a racket for hitting a ball, in particular for the game of golf, for baseball, for tennis and for ice hockey - Google Patents

Apparatus and method for training the movement of a racket for hitting a ball, in particular for the game of golf, for baseball, for tennis and for ice hockey

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Publication number
DE102006008333B4
DE102006008333B4 DE200610008333 DE102006008333A DE102006008333B4 DE 102006008333 B4 DE102006008333 B4 DE 102006008333B4 DE 200610008333 DE200610008333 DE 200610008333 DE 102006008333 A DE102006008333 A DE 102006008333A DE 102006008333 B4 DE102006008333 B4 DE 102006008333B4
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characterized
means
acceleration
device according
preceding
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DE102006008333A1 (en
Inventor
David Kühling
Uwe Richter
Uwe Wielsch
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FRONTIER SEMICONDUCTOR
Frontier Semiconductor San Jose
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FRONTIER SEMICONDUCTOR
Frontier Semiconductor San Jose
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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B69/00Training appliances or apparatus for special sports
    • A63B69/36Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for golf
    • A63B69/3623Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for golf for driving
    • A63B69/3632Clubs or attachments on clubs, e.g. for measuring, aligning
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B24/00Electric or electronic controls for exercising apparatus of preceding groups; Controlling or monitoring of exercises, sportive games, training or athletic performances
    • A63B24/0003Analysing the course of a movement or motion sequences during an exercise or trainings sequence, e.g. swing for golf or tennis
    • A63B24/0006Computerised comparison for qualitative assessment of motion sequences or the course of a movement
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B24/00Electric or electronic controls for exercising apparatus of preceding groups; Controlling or monitoring of exercises, sportive games, training or athletic performances
    • A63B24/0003Analysing the course of a movement or motion sequences during an exercise or trainings sequence, e.g. swing for golf or tennis
    • A63B24/0006Computerised comparison for qualitative assessment of motion sequences or the course of a movement
    • A63B2024/0009Computerised real time comparison with previous movements or motion sequences of the user
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B2220/00Measuring of physical parameters relating to sporting activity
    • A63B2220/40Acceleration
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B69/00Training appliances or apparatus for special sports
    • A63B69/0002Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for baseball
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B69/00Training appliances or apparatus for special sports
    • A63B69/0024Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for hockey
    • A63B69/0026Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for hockey for ice-hockey
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B69/00Training appliances or apparatus for special sports
    • A63B69/36Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for golf
    • A63B69/3623Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for golf for driving
    • A63B69/3632Clubs or attachments on clubs, e.g. for measuring, aligning
    • A63B69/3635Clubs or attachments on clubs, e.g. for measuring, aligning with sound-emitting source
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B69/00Training appliances or apparatus for special sports
    • A63B69/36Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for golf
    • A63B69/3623Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for golf for driving
    • A63B69/3632Clubs or attachments on clubs, e.g. for measuring, aligning
    • A63B69/3638Normal golf clubs with directly attached weights
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B69/00Training appliances or apparatus for special sports
    • A63B69/36Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for golf
    • A63B69/3658Means associated with the ball for indicating or measuring, e.g. speed, direction
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B69/00Training appliances or apparatus for special sports
    • A63B69/38Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for tennis

Abstract

Apparatus for training the movement of a racket on an excellent swinging track for hitting a ball comprising a racket with handle (2), racket shaft (1) and club head (3), in particular a golf club, baseball bat, hockey stick or tennis racket,
marked by
a) a first means (12) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft (1),
b) second means (7) for detecting the angle of rotation of the two-dimensional acceleration vector about the axis of the club shaft (1) since the beginning of the stroke,
c) at least one computing means (8)
d) at least one signal generator (9)
e) at least one data memory (10)
f) at least one mechanical fastening device (11) for fastening the first means (12) and the second means (7) during the impact on the racket,
wherein the first means (12) and the second means (7) respectively emit in a known relationship with the measured quantities signals suitable for signal processing, which are output by a calculating means.

Description

  • The The invention relates to a device according to the preamble of the claim 1, uses according to claims 29-33 and a method according to claim 34 ff.
  • For many Ball sports with rackets it is known an advantage, the bat while of taking out and while to hit the beat on an excellent swing track. Otherwise, This can lead to significant deviations from the intended trajectory lead the ball. The To lead the bat on an excellent track you can learn and train. For this it is necessary to identify the excellent swinging track and the deviation of the racket from this excellent swing track. If this happens in real time, it can produce an error signal for the deviation of the bat from the excellent swing track directly at the execution of the Generated and fed back to the exercising person become. If the data is recorded, the determination of the Path deviation after execution of impact and take this information into account for execution of the next stroke become.
  • A full Measuring the position of a racket in the room is possible in principle, but also technically complex, since the determination of 6 degrees of freedom is necessary. According to the current state Technique (Helmut Appel, Physical Aspects of Golfing, Physical leaves 56 (2000), No. 10) are also the theoretical models for description the momentum of a golf swing is not enough, of one Robot executed turns with those performed by a human body in accordance (Gloria J. Wiens, Eric A. Hunt, "Design and Analysis of Parallel mechanism for the golf industry ", 10 th International Congress on sound and vibration, ICSV 10, 7-10 July 2003, Stockholm, Sweden). Coleman and Raukin even question the hitherto generally accepted approach that the excellent Flywalk through a plane (Simon G.S. Coleman, Andrew J. Raukin, "A Three-dimensional examination of the Planar nature of the golf swing. "Journal of Sports Sciences, March 2005 23 (3); 227-234). Complex systems for analyzing the golf swing are expensive. A Signaling of error signals in real time follows from the exact Position measurement of the racket not necessarily in the room. Biometric, computationally intensive Analyzes can only with powerful computing technology carried out are and therefore are only partially portable and require one certain installation effort. Such systems are in the amateur Popular sports until today not accessible and reserved for the professional sports science sector or belong to the equipment from trainers or training centers.
  • Under The methods of video analysis (Racquel Urtasun, David Fleet, Pascal Fua, "Monocular 3-D Tracking of the Golf Swing, Technical Report No: IC / 2004/90) known. For simpler implementations z. B. a camera with Looking towards the target or parallel to the batting person, recorded a movie sequence with a high frame rate and then in Computer played at slow speed and with a Reference momentum compared. More complex systems use more than a camera. Such are the juxtaposition with movie sequences from professional players or the drawing possible from ideal lines. The disadvantage here are the complex Installation, the inaccuracies due to distortions of the optics or by setting up in the field and that no information in real time, d. H. while of the momentum there is no signaling of the error and there is no immediate feedback the error of deviation from the excellent swing path to Person hitting the ball.
  • Swing training equipment, the to solve the task try to feedback in real time the deviation of the blow from an excellent swing plane to the beating person and thus to allow a correction are known.
  • Known training devices that are intended to signal deviations from the swing plane in real time, try this task to solve the fact that the real racket used in the ball game is replaced by a replica with special properties. So z. B. clubs, which have one or two mechanical joints, which should simply bend when too strong deviation from the swing plane ( US 5,277,427 A ). However, this type of exercise equipment is insensitive to a number of flywheel errors. The disadvantage is that there is no information about the course of a blow for a subsequent error analysis and only momentary errors lead to signaling. Furthermore, errors in various phases of the swing are indistinguishable, and even with an "acceptable punch, the racket can bend without understanding the cause." Another disadvantage of this solution is that the weight of the joints falsifies the racket feel and the clubhead is heavy It is also not possible to use a personal club or racket set, and it is also disadvantageous that training for different club lengths or different swinging levels (eg different golf angle angles) requires several training rackets.
  • In the US 3,945,646 A a racket with acceleration sensors is exposed in the club head of a golf club. The disadvantage of this solution is that the rotation around the club axis of the measurement coordinate system spanned by the sensors during impact and the coupling of position and acceleration in the output signal of the acceleration sensors are disregarded and thus ambiguous interpretation possibilities exist.
  • In the WO 2005/094949 A1 a positioner is revealed, which can be used in particular for golf training. The locator is attached to the racket and receives or sends signals to determine the position of the racket in space. The disadvantage of this solution is that the position determination requires the installation of a stationary remote site. It is also disadvantageous that the position sensor, which is attached to the club shaft, turns away during the golf swing from the remote station and removed. The use of ultrasound to determine the position from runtime differences to 3 different transmitters or receivers is also disadvantageous because obstacles in the environment of the training device can reflect and negatively influence the position determination. The mentioned disadvantages are not eliminated by coupling the position sensor with acceleration sensors.
  • Another possible solution offer z. B. so-called laser trainer, which at the lower and upper end of the club shaft each have a laser which points in both directions of the axis of the club shaft ( US 2005/0009616 A1 ; US 5,692,965 A ). These lasers can be temporarily mounted on existing clubs, such as those used directly in ball games. The club feeling is not affected. A disadvantage of this arrangement is that tracking the laser on a line on the ground or on a mat with the eyes during the swing forces head and eye movement away from the ball. Furthermore, such a training device is completely insensitive to rotations of the club shaft around the axis of the club shaft, z. B. by turning the wrist. So it is z. For example, it is possible to move the laser along a line indicating the swing plane without the stroke being performed correctly. In addition, there is a dead zone when neither laser points to the ground. The disadvantage here is that no information for the course of a blow are available.
  • Another possible solution is the temporary attachment of inclination or position sensors to the club shaft ( US 5,911,635 A Ogden, Golf Swing Training Device). The disadvantage of this solution is that the distortion of the position information is disregarded by acceleration forces and a deviation from the swing plane can be compensated with different dynamics of the momentum, the signaling of a deviation is thus ambiguous or wrong. In addition, the influence of a possible or even intended rotation of the club shaft during the swing is disregarded. From the golf swing is z. For example, it is known that the right wrist (right-handed person) rotates the racket about the axis of the shaft. In addition, from the disclosed solution, the referencing of the excellent swing plane and the adaptation to the respective Liewinkel of the individual racquet are not recognizable. A similar solution is in the US 6,739,981 B1 described.
  • Another approach to determining the motion and impact parameters for real-time beat analysis is described in US 2005/0288119 A1 disclosed. Magnetic field sensors measure the position of the racquet with respect to the vector of the Earth's magnetic field. The measured data is recorded time-dependent. The disadvantage of this solution. The disadvantage here is that the immediate measurement data can not be compared reliably from beat to beat or between different golfers. This is caused, inter alia, by the fact that the geomagnetic field is location-dependent, is subject to temporal fluctuations and the beating person can assume an arbitrary orientation to the geomagnetic field vector. Magnetic or magnetic objects or electromagnetic fields can lead to the falsification of the measured data.
  • Swing training equipment, the to solve the task try to swing parameters or deviations of the blow from one excellent swing plane over record an entire beat and thus the analysis temporally courses to enable are also known.
  • In the US 15,700,205 A is z. B. recorded the deflection of the racket during the blow. A disadvantage of the disclosed solution is that no error signaling takes place in real time and that the interpretation of the recorded curves with regard to the presence of momentum errors is not unambiguous. Acceleration, position, weight and length of the racket go into the curve and are not separable.
  • Another solution to the aforementioned problems is to force the movement of the racket purely mechanically to an excellent swing plane. For this purpose, z. B. built a superman-high guide frame for the racket around the body of the beating person. The disadvantage here is the complex installation. Because the rotation disregarding ambiguity and indistinguishability of good and bad turns can not be excluded.
  • Another solution to the problem based on a purely mechanical system is in the US 6,530,845 B1 disclosed. A mounted on the rack gyro signaled immediately errors in the swing. The disadvantage is that no measurement or error data arise that could be analyzed or transmitted in any form by third parties, stored, compared or further processed.
  • The present invention solves the problem, deviations of any racket from one Excellent swing track to determine this in real time while the blow clearly as a fault signal as well as a subsequent To allow evaluation of the complete temporal stroke course. The object of the present invention is to provide a flexible, portable and inexpensive Device as well as a method for training the movement of a Racket up to find an excellent swing track.
  • According to the invention, this object is achieved in that a means for determining the two-dimensional acceleration vector ( 12 ) perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) as well as a means ( 7 ) for determining its rotation, relative to the beginning of the stroke, with the club shaft ( 1 ) via a fastening device ( 11 ) get connected. The means ( 7 . 12 ) for determining the two-dimensional acceleration vector and for determining the angle of rotation ( 7 ) provide output signals which are connected to a computing means ( 8th ) are processed according to one or more methods described herein to an error size, which the beating person with a signal generator ( 9 ) is signaled. The data provided by the device is stored on a data memory ( 10 ) recorded.
  • The recorded data will be recorded during and after the performance of the stroke according to one or more of the procedures for momentum analysis and error correction ( 52 ) processed with a computer program.
  • The advantages achieved by the invention are, in particular,
    • That an error signal for the deviation of the movement of a racket from an excellent swinging track is obtained and output in real time and there is therefore the possibility of immediate correction of the swing,
    • • By recording the momentum data, it is possible to analyze the time course of a beat as well as to archive data of a momentum,
    • • that the rotation of the racket about its own axis and the neglected in certain solutions coupling of position and inclination of the racket and acceleration of the racket are considered and therefore the error signals are more accurate,
    • • that installation costs and costs remain low compared to more complex swing analysis systems,
    • That the device does not require any modification of rackets or is limited to special rackets but can be used with the game rackets or the personal rackets, thereby providing the possibility of achieving a more realistic training feel and thus improving the relationship between training and practice Performance in the ball game is possible.
    • • Other benefits include eliminating the ambiguity of the error signal from certain exercise equipment when performing sweeps related to the location and acceleration information coupling.
    • • Another advantage is the portable and flexible use of the device according to the invention with different clubs.
    • • Another advantage is the generation of measurement data. The presence of measurement data enables their transmission, recording and further processing (eg correction, filtering, analysis) and the additional possible evaluation of the kinetics of a momentum by evaluating the recorded time course.
    • • It is also advantageous that the resulting measurement data for different impacts and different persons and different locations are comparable with each other and thus allow a relatively independent of the respective environmental conditions interpretation.
  • advantageous Embodiments of the invention are specified in the subclaims.
  • The Invention will be described below with reference to the figures of Drawings on several embodiments explained in more detail. It demonstrate:
  • 1a Golfer with golf club and device in the response position, representation of the side view in the direction of ball flight and representation of a section through the club shaft. Marking the excellent swing track and measurement coordinate system;
  • 1b Representation of a section through the axis of the club shaft with identification of Messkoordinatensystems, the rotation angle and the rotated coordinate system;
  • 1c Front view of a golfer in the response position with marking of the measuring coordinate system;
  • 2 Different phases A, B, C, D of the golf swing, illustrating the rotation of the measuring coordinate system about the axis of the club shaft;
  • 3 Block diagram of electronics with accelerometers and gyroscope sensor, microprocessor, interfaces, memory, signaling;
  • 6 Data flow diagram for measurement with the device and for determining an error signal for real-time training information and for recording;
  • 7 Timing of the method for the determination of real-time training information and recording of time courses of swing parameters;
  • 8th Output signals (raw data) of the acceleration and angular velocity sensors during a beat;
  • 9 Recording the time course of rotation angles, rotated and unrotated acceleration values over time during a strike;
  • 10 Representation of the chronological sequence of recorded data for different beats marked with backswing A and downturn B, showing in detail:
    • a) Good and better hit of a golfer with a low handicap
    • b) Fast and slow strike of a low handicap golfer
    • c) Two turns of a high handicap golfer with early and late bending of the right wrist
    • d) Influence of the shoulder rotation on the rotation angle, golfers with a high handicap
    • e) Wrist each normal and palmar bent
    • f) Strong and weak grip
    • g) Comparison of two reduced turns
    • h) rotation angle and acceleration for reduced momentum
    • i) Starting angle for two turns, inwards and outwards
    • j) accelerations, normal beat, high handicap
    • k) Comparison of the angles of rotation of two golfers with high and low handicap
    • l) Fast and slow blow of a low handicap golfer;
  • 11 Illustration of the problem to the method of data processing when using a vibration motor on the racket
    • a) Influence of the vibrations of the signal transmitter on rotation angle
    • b) Influence of the vibrations of the signal generator on acceleration values and application of a 30 Hz low-pass filter on the acceleration values
    • c) influence of the vibrations of the signal generator on the radial acceleration;
  • 12 Approach used for the time course of the angles around the axes of rotation of a double pendulum;
  • 13 Illustration of the position of the racket on the excellent swing track
    • a) in the response position and
    • b) when calling for a normal strike;
  • 14 From the excellent swing track deviating position of the racket
    • c) in the response position and
    • d) when striking out for an outward strike;
  • 15 Method for determining the error signal Representation of simple and double integration of the acceleration from the swing plane
    • a) good shot, high handicap
    • b) blow started to the outside, high handicap.
  • With reference to a first embodiment ( 1a C) essential elements of the device according to the invention are described.
  • at the first embodiment the device according to the invention it is the use as a golf practice device. The disclosure of the invention using the example of a golf practice device no restriction for others Uses for Ball sports with rackets is for illustrative purposes only.
  • Part of the embodiment of the device according to the invention is a conventional golf club with handle ( 2 ), Shank ( 1 ) and clubhead ( 3 ).
  • Based on 1a C shows the structure of the device according to the invention using the example of a golf training device. On the racket, the shaft ( 1 ), Handle ( 2 ) and head ( 3 ), a first means ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) and a second means ( 7 ) for detecting the rotation angle of the two-dimensional acceleration vector the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) since the beginning of the blow on the fastening device ( 11 ) assembled.
  • Before the start of the stroke, in the rest position or in the so-called response position, the golf club forms with the bottom the angle θ (see also 2a ). This angle is called the Liew angle and is steeper for shorter clubs (iron) and smaller for longer clubs (woods). The Liew angle θ ranges from 50 degrees for a driver to 64 degrees for a wedge.
  • The golfer endeavors during the backswing and downswing to keep the bat parallel to the plane ( 14 ) pointing in the direction of the target and lying parallel to the axis of the club shaft, that is to say inclined by the angle of refraction relative to the gravitational vector. This swing plane should completely contain the desired excellent swing path.
  • The embodiment of the device according to the invention solves, inter alia, the problem of training the guidance of the golf club on this swing plane ( 14 ) to improve. The aim is to signal a fault in real time during the golf swing of the batting person in the event of a deviation from this plane, and to subsequently provide easily interpretable measurement data for evaluating the golf swing.
  • 1a -C serve to illustrate the location of the sensor coordinate system with respect to the beating person. If the bat moves exactly on the swing plane ( 14 ), should no acceleration forces occur out of the swing plane.
  • For clarification: indicates the means ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector, an acceleration sensor ( 6 ) perpendicular or normal to this swing plane (FIG. 14 ) on the club shaft ( 1 ), then it measures all accelerations a ' y in the direction y → from this plane. Would the accelerometer ( 6 ), which is sensitive in the y → direction, but with respect to the normal vector of the swing plane ( 14 ) in the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ), it also absorbs accelerations that are not to be signaled within the swing plane ( 14 true. For the static case, in the rest position or the response position, this problem could be solved according to the invention, for example, by using the means ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) a further acceleration sensor ( 5 ), which is sensitive in the x → direction and supplies the acceleration signals a ' x . The direction is in the swing plane ( 14 ) and is perpendicular to the club shaft ( 1 ) and perpendicular to the y → direction sensitive acceleration sensor ( 6 ). The middle ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) provides the output signals a ' x and a' y . Now, the acceleration sensor coordinate system, which is spanned by the vectors x → and y →, about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ), the angle ρ between the normal vector N → on the plane and the coordinate system y → in the rest position can be determined, since the distance from the center ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) measured projection of the gravitational vector g → in the measurement plane x → and y → the same direction as the normal vector N → has.
  • However, if now the bat is moved, on the one hand changes the from the middle ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) measured static acceleration (projections of g → on x → and y →) and on the other hand add up the respective dynamic acceleration components for x → and y →. From the two available measuring signals a ' x and a' y , it is no longer possible at the same time in the dynamic case to distort the rotation of the sensor coordinate system x → y → about the axis of the club shaft, as shown in FIG 2 is illustrated for different phases of a swing, as well as determine the acceleration components in the normal direction.
  • This problem is solved according to the invention by using a means independent of a ' x and a' y for detecting the rotation φ of the x → y → coordinate system about the axis of the club shaft since the beginning of the stroke, ie in relation to the rest position or the response position of the racquet ( 2c ). Thus, the measured quantities a ' x and a' y can be mathematically rotated back to the rest position at each point in time of the impact, so that the resulting output signals a x * and a y * only with the acceleration components N and T in the plane perpendicular to Axle of the club shaft ( 1 ).
  • The means for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector ( 12 ) perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) can for example consist of two sensors sensitive in a single axis ( 5 . 6 ), but these are advantageously adjusted perpendicular to each other. These acceleration sensors for the x and y components ( 5 . 6 ) have, for example, a measuring range of 10 g.
  • A 2-axis accelerometer, the factory has two perpendicular to each other sensitive axes in a housing, is advantageous. During impact, the means for determining the two-dimensional acceleration vector ( 12 ) perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) with the club shaft ( 1 ) firmly connected.
  • The acceleration sensor supplies to the acceleration components of the acceleration vector
    Figure 00120001
    in the plane perpendicular to the direction of the axis of the club shaft z → and with the inclination with respect to the gravitational vector g → coherent output signals. Advantageously, the means for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector ( 12 ) perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) as close as possible to this.
  • In the embodiment of the device according to the invention shown here, the means ( 7 ) for detecting the angle of rotation φ since t = 0 (response position) via a gyrosensor ( 13 ) with the ability to measure the angular velocity φ. around the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) to eat.
  • An advantageous embodiment of the invention uses MEMS designs of gyro sensors ( 13 ). The gyrosensor ( 13 ) has, for example, a measuring range of 300 ° / s.
  • In the first variant of the embodiment, an agent ( 7 ) with the ability to measure the angle of rotation φ about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) since the beginning of the stroke with the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) firmly connected. This means ( 7 ) emits analog or digital output signals upon rotation of the racket about its shaft axis.
  • In a second, cost-saving variant of the embodiment for the agent ( 7 ) for detecting the angle of rotation φ about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ), the angle of rotation φ in dependence on the time t without sensor, z. B. determined from a mathematical model, from experience or another method. For this purpose, the time profile of the angle of rotation, for example, from one of 10 to be approximated and approximated by a polynomial, so as to be reconstructed taking into account the continuity approximately from the acceleration signals a x and a y in terms of width (duration) and amplitude (rotation angle).
  • The device according to the invention may advantageously be provided with a means ( 4 ) for the detection of the radial acceleration in the z → direction, ie parallel to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ). The measuring range for acceleration sensor ( 4 ) of the radial (z-direction) component can be determined by the position of the sensor along the shaft ( 1 ) are varied within limits. This makes use of the fact that the acceleration signals with increasing distance from the center of rotation, including the handle ( 2 ), increase. The dimensioning of the sensor can be done for example between 10 g and 100 g. In an advantageous variant of the embodiment, several means ( 4 ) for detecting the radial acceleration in the z → direction, each with a different distance to the handle ( 2 ) or different dimensioning of the measuring range can be used. This creates the opportunity to achieve a correspondingly high resolution of the measurement signal both at high and low beat speeds.
  • A further advantageous embodiment of the device according to the invention uses more than one means ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) with different distances to the handle ( 2 ). With this arrangement, both differential accelerations can be measured and the measuring range and sensitivity of the acceleration sensors can be adapted to the respective conditions. The particular circumstances include both the characteristics of available acceleration sensors and the particularities of the individual ball sports with more or less strongly accelerated strokes.
  • A advantageous embodiment of the invention uses MEMS - versions of acceleration sensors.
  • In 3 are the other components of the embodiment of the device according to the invention shown. For this belongs as a means of calculation ( 8th a microcontroller capable of further processing the output signals provided by the sensors after amplification and digitization. Part of the memory ( 10 ) is non-volatile and keeps the firmware, another part of the memory ( 10 ) is used for program execution. Another part of the memory ( 10 ) is used to record time-dependent data of complete beats. The use of a flash memory card allows the easy exchange of data with PCs or other peripherals. On the so-called IO module are further interfaces and provisions for the corresponding signaling of flywheel errors with a signal generator ( 9 ) (LED, loudspeakers, headphones, control for vibration motor, display etc.).
  • In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the device with the sensors, the Microprocessor, computer interface, power supply and signaling in a compact package ( 16 ) and housed in a simple way mechanically at one point of the club shaft ( 1 ) with a fastening device ( 11 ) can be attached. The attachment can be done by means of a clamping device. The clamping device can, for. B. have two cheeks, which are around the club shaft ( 1 ) in a suitable manner. This can be z. B. be realized when the cheeks at the thin, lower end of the club near the club head ( 3 ) and along the thickening shaft towards the handle ( 2 ) pushes upwards.
  • The described embodiment the device according to the invention can be used advantageously as a game input device for golf software. For this Use, the device has corresponding interfaces.
  • A further advantageous embodiment of the invention has other sensors on, the accelerations or rotations of the golfer proves. These sensors can to the body the golfer z. B. by housing in the clothing in a certain relationship be brought. It is beneficial to rotate or acceleration forces in the shoulder, back, hip, Upper arm and forearm area to measure.
  • In addition to the advantages mentioned, a number of further advantages can be achieved with the described embodiments:
    • • The use of MEMS acceleration sensors and MEMS gyro sensors as semiconductor-based microsystems is advantageous because of their small dimensions and weights for portability and flexibility and little impact on the club feeling during the swing.
    • • In addition, the use of MEMS accelerometers and MEMS gyro sensors allows low cost and the ability to electronically process the digital or analog output signals.
    • • Indicates the means of calculation ( 8th For example, a USB controller has the advantage of performing real-time calculations with the firmware while supporting a popular, low-cost computer interface.
    • The output of the error signal by transmitting vibrations across the club shaft ( 1 ) on the beating person allows the use of the training device, without disturbing other people in the immediate vicinity.
    • • The use of a memory allows the recording of the measured data and / or further processed data from one or more beats, in order to be able to subsequently transfer them to a more powerful PC. If flash memory is used, the data can be obtained without power supply.
  • in the Following is an embodiment of the inventive method according to the claims 34 ff. For the use described as golf practice device.
  • 6 shows the data flow diagram for the described embodiment of the method with the described embodiment ( 3 ) of the device according to the invention according to claim 1.
  • As part of a measurement ( 60 ) provides the means ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) the measured accelerations a → 'in the x → y → measurement plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ).
  • In another part of the measurement ( 60 ) the gyrosensor ( 13 ) as part of the remedy ( 7 ) for determining the angle of rotation about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) an output signal which is at the angular velocity φ. of the shaft is related.
  • Assuming that the club at the beginning of the stroke, in the so-called response position, has an angle of φ = 0, one can calculate the rotation φ about its own axis by integration ( 63 ) of the measured angular velocity from the beginning of the stroke (time t = 0).
  • Exemplary are the temporal courses of the unprocessed output signals ( 61 ) of the agent ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) or the two acceleration sensors ( 5 . 6 ) as well as the agent ( 7 ) for determining the angle of rotation during a given stroke in 8th shown.
  • For further processing of the output signals of the means ( 7 . 12 ) are calibrations and determinations of corrections ( 50 - 52 ) necessary:
    Target of a first calibration for the agent ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector is to measure the acceleration a → in units of g. The so-called offset is the non-zero output when the means ( 12 ) is at rest and the x → y → measurement plane is perpendicular to g →.
  • Offset of the agent ( 12 ) for the sensitivity axis in x → direction: a Offset / x
  • Offset of the agent ( 12 ) for the sensitivity axis in y → direction: a Offset / y
  • The offsets are used as part of preprocessing ( 62 ) deducted from the unprocessed output signals: a x = a ' x - a offset x a y = a ' y - a offset y
  • The gyrosensor ( 13 ) as part of the remedy ( 7 ) to verify the rotation angle must also be calibrated. The determination of the offsets of the angular velocity φ. Offset takes place as a measurement of the output signal of the gyro sensor ( 13 ) in the rest position of the device according to the invention. As another part of preprocessing ( 62 ), the offset is determined by the output signal of the gyro sensor ( 13 ) deducted.
  • The determination of the rotation angle according to the invention according to the following method: The output signal of the gyrosensor ( 13 ) is sampled, for example, at a frequency of 1 kHz. The output signal of the gyro sensor ( 13 ) is related to the angular velocity of the bat. Temporal integration ( 63 ) of the output signal of the gyro sensor ( 13 ) provides an angle. To calibrate this angle in degrees, one determines the integral I for a known rotation angle γ, wherein the position of its sensitive axis is not changed in space. This procedure can be performed both at the factory and in the field. In the field, for example, the club shaft with the attached device can be rotated about its axis by a known angle γ. If you turn around a whole round, the integral corresponds to a rotation angle of γ = 360 °. It is also possible, for example, to keep the bat horizontally with the attached device and to rotate it slowly (avoiding acceleration) by a certain angle γ. This angle γ can be measured directly with the two-dimensional acceleration sensor. The corresponding integral must then be related only to this particular angle γ.
  • γ
    - known rotation angle
    T
    - Total time required to rotate by a certain angle of rotation
    I γ
    Integral for a certain angle of rotation γ
    φ
    desired angle of rotation
    Figure 00180001
    φ [grad] = I φ / I γ · γ
  • The integrals are approximated by summing the output signals measured at a certain sampling rate:
    Measured values φ (t i ), time t i = t · i at equidistant measuring intervals,
    Figure 00180002
  • In the rest position (response position, time t = 0), the determination of the excellent swing path ( 57 ), on which the racket should move for an ideal swing:
    As an excellent swing track, lay a plane parallel to the target and axis of the club shaft ( 1 ), inclined to the Liewinkel θ fixed to the earth's surface. An acceleration sensor inclined by θ with respect to the gravitational axis then sees a signal N 0 .
  • In a process ( 57 ) the Liew angle θ is determined from the inclination of the x → y → plane of the sensor coordinate system with respect to the gravitational vector g →, ie from the magnitude of the measured projection of the gravitational vector g →: cos (θ) = | a → t = 0 |
  • For the interpretation of the acceleration signals, it is necessary to determine the rotation ρ of the sensitivity axes x → and y → in the response position (t = 0) with respect to the normal vector N → ( 54 ). arctan (a x , a y ) = ρ (where ρ is the rotation of the board for measuring a → in relation to the ideal position a y || N → at t = 0 about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) is twisted).
  • Thus, the position of the normal vector on the excellent flywheel in the response position with respect to the outputs of the agent ( 12 ) for determining the two-dimensional acceleration vector.
  • In order to are essential steps for calibration for the illustrated embodiment to carry out the method according to the invention completed. In this or other embodiments of the method according to the invention can more Calibration steps required or advantageous.
  • In 7 the time sequence of the method according to the invention for determining real-time training information and for recording time profiles of momentum parameters is shown.
  • A factory calibration ( 50 ) is used to determine individual hardware parameters of the device according to the invention as a necessary condition for the operation of the method according to the invention. At a certain time before the execution of a shock, for example after switching on, the device is initialized. For example, the program code is loaded into the memory and created the conditions for proper operation. Subsequently, the calibration ( 71 ) of the device, for example, the offsets of the agent ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector and the agent ( 7 ) for determining the angle of rotation and the Liewinkel determined. In the further course of the process according to the invention, a process ( 72 ) for determining the time t = 0, ie the beginning of the stroke when the bat is at rest, carried out. An embodiment of the method ( 72 ) may be based, for example, on detection of the triggering of a switch. Another embodiment of method ( 72 ) advantageously uses the output signals of the first means ( 12 ) and the second agent ( 7 ) to determine whether the club is in the vicinity of a certain position and whether the output signals of the means ( 7 ) and ( 12 ) do not change for a certain amount of time in a certain range. Once the rest position has been determined, the determination of Liewinkel, excellent swing path and torsion ( 54 - 57 ) carried out. Subsequently, the measurements are successively taken in a loop ( 60 ), Preprocessing ( 62 ), Integration ( 63 ) the angular velocity, rotational transformation ( 65 ) and the determination of the acceleration components in the direction of the normal vector of the plane in which the excellent flywheel runs and the determination of the error signal and its signaling is performed.
  • As already stated in the description of the calibration, the determination of the current rotation angle φ is effected by integration (FIG. 63 Assuming that the club at the beginning of the stroke, in the so-called response position, has an angle of φ = 0, one can make the rotation φ about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) by integration ( 63 ) of the measured angular velocity φ. from the beginning of the beat (t = 0). φ n + 1 = φ n + φ. n + 1 · (T n + 1 - t n ).
  • A precise Time measurement since the beginning of the beat can be derived from the clock for the microcontroller become.
  • After saving ( 73 ) of the timestamped results is determined by a method ( 74 ) determines whether the stroke is completed or aborted. After a complete hit, the time-dependent data is available and stands for post-processing ( 75 ) to disposal.
  • During the beat, the measured values a x and a y of the mean ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector dependent on φ, but since φ is now known, one can simply turn it back (2D rotation transformation 65 ). A rotation of a x and a y by the angle of rotation φ and by the rotation ρ then gives the magnitudes of the acceleration in the direction of the normal vector and in the direction of the tangential vector standing perpendicular thereto.
  • The two-dimensional rotation matrix is:
    Figure 00200001
  • The rotation ( 65 ) is done by multiplying the two-dimensional acceleration vector with the matrix R.
  • Figure 00200002
  • One then obtains measured values a normal = a * Y and a tangential = a * x , which correspond exactly to the measured values that would be recorded if the device was equipped with the means (FIG. 12 ) is not rotated by ρ and φ constant = 0 over the entire beat ( 67 ). In 9 By way of example, the angle of rotation, the unrotated and the values of rotation rotated about the angle of rotation, as they occur during a beat, are recorded. With the illustrated embodiment, one no longer measures position information but only accelerations.
  • If one has measured values a normal for φ = 0, then the measured values for a normal = cos (θ) · g are constant, as long as all movements of the stick are within the plane with Liewinkel θ (no acceleration components perpendicular to this plane). Any deviation from a normal to the measured value at the beginning of the measurement then indicates acceleration from the swing plane.
  • The problem of determining an error size E ( 69 ) can be solved by various methods, the position information of the excellent flywheel ( 57 ) and parameters for the maximum permissible deviation ( 58 ) of which:
    In a first variant, a training signal is derived directly from the size of the deviation from a normal from the swing plane out, the direct to alert the golfer during the swing can be heard, felt (vibration) or made visible. Volume, pitch, vibration frequency or light intensity can be correlated with the amplitude of the deviation. The golfer can break the momentum with appropriate signal strength. An advantageous embodiment of the invention provides for this range limits that allow a classification of the momentum in several categories (excellent, good, satisfactory, bad, etc.).
  • In a second variant, the deviation from a normal is scaled by the size of the acceleration component in the direction of the club axis a z . Since a z is approximately equal to the radial acceleration a radial and thus approximately proportional to the speed of the racket, the fact would advantageously be taken into account that deviations from a normal are not weighted higher in faster beats than in slow beats. Thus, a better consistency in the perception of the training signal is given for both fast and slow turns.
  • In a third variant is the current time course of the rotated Acceleration components compared with a reference momentum. The reference momentum is inventively from a mathematical Model, from experience or from the record of measured and / or further processed data for a golf swing.
  • In a fourth variant is the third variant to the inclusion the angle of rotation φ in extended the rating or the comparison.
  • A fifth variant uses a method for adapting the parameters of a computer model to the data supplied by the training device. For this purpose, for example, the so-called double pendulum model, the in 12 is illustrated. In this model of a golf swing there are two centers of rotation (shoulders and wrists), with the arms around the angle α 1 (t) and the club shaft ( 1 ) by the angle α 2 (t). If you continue to assume that the club ( 1 ), as in 14b shown in erroneous turns moves approximately on the surface of an imaginary cone, the cone angle or the associated opening angle between excellent swing plane ( 14 ) and faulty swing plane ( 15 ) are determined as a measure of the deviation from the fit of the measured and subsequently rotated acceleration values to the acceleration values calculated via the model approach.
  • Another variant derives the error signal from the evaluation of the speed at which the club moves out of the swing plane or from the evaluation of the distance of the sensors from the excellent swing path. The speed is derived from the simple and the distance from the double integration of the acceleration signal a Normal . The results of the double integration of the temporal courses of the accelerations are for a good and bad impact in 15a -B shown.
  • In An advantageous embodiment of the invention, the data of acceleration and angle of rotation during a complete swing a memory recorded. This can also happen for a certain number of turns. This allows the subsequent Evaluation of a golf swing with the aim of further training information to win.
  • additional Information can are obtained from the comparison of turns, especially the comparison with the recorded data of a reference turn of a professional or with data derived from a model.
  • From the time course of the rotation angle of the shaft axis, the dynamics of the wrist rotation and wrist release, which can be significant sources of faulty golf swings, evaluate. 10 shows a number of examples. For better comparability of beats with different dynamics, the time axis in the presentation has been shifted so that the count starts at 0 at the moment of impact. The time at which the ball gets in contact with the racket (impact moment) can be identified according to the invention from the maximum acceleration values of the acceleration sensors (shock).
  • According to the invention, the backswing phase A and the downswing phase B have been identified and represented over time. A method for determining the inversion point between backswing (sweep out) and downswing (hitting) is based on the interpretation of a tangent (t). This acceleration component has a minimum at the reversal point. At sufficiently high temporal resolution of the measurement, the radial acceleration is zero at the reversal point.
  • Another method for determining the reversal point is based on the determination of the minimum or zero crossing of the acceleration component a z parallel to the shaft axis (called a radial in the following) before the impact moment.
  • One Another method is based on the integration of the tangential acceleration component. This gives the velocity in the tangential direction. their Zero crossing marks the reversal point.
  • In 10a For example, the acceleration components a normal (t) and a radial (t) are plotted against time for a good and a better swing of a low handicap golfer. The maximum of the acceleration component a radial is for a good golfer, as expected, in the impact moment, which is identifiable here by the strong deflection of the acceleration sensors. The acceleration a Radial reaches even full rash of 15 g at impact (saturation). In principle, one could use a sensor with a larger measuring range, since the radial acceleration is related to the speed and the distance from the center of rotation, however, the acceleration sensor according to the invention can also attach closer to the handle (in the present case, the entire structure was mounted very close to the club head 10a can be seen that an inward (with respect to the excellent swing track down) started swing according to the invention is recognizable from the fact that the acceleration component deviates a normal in phase A from the zero line down. The acceleration component a Normal is smaller for a better swing.
  • In 10b The accelerations over time are shown for a quick and a slow run of a low handicap golfer. Both times the same bat was used. The respective reversal points (Ausholen / hitting) are marked (minima of the radial acceleration). Since the radial acceleration is proportional to the speed, according to the invention, both the height of the acceleration value a radial in the impact moment and the distance reversal point to impact moment for evaluating or comparing speeds of a momentum can be used. The associated angles of rotation for both turns are in 10l shown. The absolute rotation remains almost untouched by the speed of execution of the beat.
  • 10c shows the measured angle of rotation over time for two turns. A high-handicap golfer deliberately angles his right wrist at various times during the swing. The angle of rotation also shows the "choppy" phases of the angle of rotation that are typical for a golfer with a high handicap 10k to see where the timing of the angle of rotation for a golfer with high and low handicap are compared. The angle of rotation of the better golfer is much more symmetrical and smoother.
  • The beginning of the wrist rotation and the timely release of the wrist up to the impact moment (rotation angle = 0, otherwise slice or hook) can be read according to the invention from the course of the rotation angle during the swing. In 10d Further features of a swing can be read according to the invention from the time course of the rotation angle. Here are angles of rotation for differently twisted shoulders of a golfer with a high handicap. The training device according to the invention can be used for targeted training of shoulder rotation.
  • 10e shows the influence of a normal and palmar bent wrist on the rotation angle and the acceleration components. These turns are distinguishable and each identifiable with the training device. A strong and a weak grip are as in 10f to see, also differentiable. A stronger grip on this golfer results in less acceleration a normal from the excellent swing plane. 10g shows the acceleration components for two reduced turns that were not fully exhausted. The same racket was used, both turns were carried out successively and are hardly distinguishable. Even with the reduced momentum, the maximum of the radial acceleration is at impact. The course of the rotation angle for a reduced momentum is in 10h shown. The absolute rotation angle is smaller than for a full swing.
  • To understand the 10i it is necessary to explain the concepts of an inward and outward momentum: 13a is the position of the racket for an ideal swing in the response position and in 13b when taking off on the excellent swing track in the plane ( 14 ). A so-called momentum to the outside deviates from the ideal level ( 14 ) and starts up from the excellent swing plane ( 14 ) out. The clubhead then moves on a path in the faulty swing plane ( 15 ) above the swing plane ( 14 ). These relationships are in 14a -B shown on the basis of the club positions in the response position and during the recovery. Accordingly, the clubhead would travel on a lane within a faulty swing plane (FIG. 15 ) below the swing plane ( 14 ) for an inward swing.
  • 10i can be seen that according to the invention, the course of the rotation angle is characteristic of an inward or outward started momentum. This is mainly due to the projection of the actual axis of rotation on the sensitive axis of the gyrosensor ( 13 ) caused.
  • 10j shows the recorded acceleration components for a sweep of a high handicap golfer. Here is an anomaly recognizable: The maximum of the radial acceleration is before the impact moment, from which a delay of the momentum before the impact of the club can be read on the ball. The momentum is not effective because it is decelerated.
  • The subsequent Evaluation for the discussion of corrections for the following golf strokes takes place advantageously at one with higher Computing power and better capabilities PC equipped for graphic evaluation. advantageously, has the device according to the invention for data exchange with the PC via a wired or wireless interface (eg USB, IRDA, Bluetooth) or the data is stored on a portable flash memory card accommodated.
  • A execution the method according to the invention provides the control of computer games or ball flight simulations Both real-time error signal and recorded data can used to control computer games or ball flight simulations become.
  • If a vibration motor as a signal generator ( 9 ) and this vibration motor on the club shaft ( 1 ), the vibrations are transmitted to the club shaft ( 1 ), the handle ( 2 ) and on the hands and thus signal the beating person a mistake. An embodiment of the method according to the invention solves the problem that the vibrations on the output signals of the means ( 12 . 7 ) to prove the acceleration and the angle of rotation. In 11b are those by a on the racket shaft ( 1 ) mounted unbalanced motor malfunctioned output signals of the acceleration signals and the result of the application of a low-pass filter to eliminate the disturbance. Out 11a It can be seen that the angle of rotation remains relatively undisturbed. In addition will be out 11c clearly that for the implementation of the method according to the invention, the influence of the vibrations on the radial acceleration can be neglected.
  • 1
    club shaft
    2
    Handle
    3
    clubhead
    4
    medium to prove the acceleration z (radial)
    5
    medium to prove the acceleration x
    6
    medium for detecting the acceleration y
    7
    medium for detecting the angle of rotation of the axis of the club shaft
    8th
    computing means
    9
    signaler
    10
    data storage
    11
    mechanical fastening device
    12
    medium for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the Plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft
    13
    gyro sensor for detecting the angular velocity
    14
    swing plane
    15
    faulty swing plane
    16
    Housing of contraption
    50
    Factory calibration
    51
    consideration the ambient temperature
    52
    correction methods
    54
    determination the rotation of the x → y → sensor coordinate system
    55
    determination of the normal vector
    56
    determination of the tangential vector
    57
    determination the excellent swing track
    58
    determination the comparison means
    59
    consideration the radial acceleration
    60
    Measurement
    61
    unprocessed Output signals of the measurement
    62
    preprocessing
    63
    integration methods for determining the angle of rotation
    64
    processed output signals
    65
    rotation the acceleration values
    66
    arithmetic operation
    67
    Normal-, Tangential acceleration in g and rotation angle in degrees
    68
    arithmetic operation
    69
    determination an error signal

Claims (63)

  1. Apparatus for training the movement of a racket on an excellent swinging track for hitting a ball which has a racket handle ( 2 ), Club ( 1 ) and clubhead ( 3 ), in particular a golf club, baseball bat, hockey stick or tennis racket, characterized by a) a first means ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ), b) a second means ( 7 ) for detecting the angle of rotation of the two-dimensional acceleration vector about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) since the beginning of the stroke, c) at least one computing means ( 8th ) d) at least one signal generator ( 9 ) e) at least one data memory ( 10 ) f) at least one mechanical fastening device ( 11 ) for the attachment of the first agent ( 12 ) and the second agent ( 7 ) while striking the bat, the first means ( 12 ) and the second ( 7 ) in each case with the measured variables in a known relationship emit standing, suitable for signal processing output signals, which are provided by a computing means ( 8th ) are processed to at least one value for a fault during hitting, which is used for alarming via a signal generator ( 9 ) and recording on a data memory ( 10 ) can be used.
  2. Device according to claim 2, characterized in that a first means ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) a means ( 5 ) for detecting the acceleration in a first axis of sensitivity and a means ( 6 ) for detecting acceleration in a second perpendicular axis of sensitivity.
  3. Apparatus according to claim 1 and 2, characterized in that at least one further means for detecting the acceleration ( 4 () 5 () 6 ) of the racquet, in particular a means ( 4 ) in the axis perpendicular to the sensitivity axes of the first means ( 12 ) is sensitive to detecting the acceleration is used.
  4. Apparatus according to claim 3, characterized in that at least two means for detecting the acceleration of the racket over the club shaft ( 1 ) at different distances to the handle ( 2 ) are distributed.
  5. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that at least one further means of detection used by accelerations, not stuck with the racket but in particular on the body or clothing of the beating person is attached.
  6. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the second means ( 7 ) for detecting the angle of rotation means for detecting the angular velocity about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) and has a means for measuring time since the beginning of the stroke.
  7. Apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that it comprises at least one computing means ( 8th ) for determining the angle of rotation since the beginning of the stroke from the output signal of the means for detecting the angular velocity and the time measurement.
  8. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it comprises at least one computing means ( 8th ) for rotational transformation of the output signals of the agent ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector.
  9. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises at least one computing means ( 8th ) for determining the time profile of the angle of rotation since the beginning of the stroke according to a particular method, in particular by calculation from a mathematical model or by using a recorded time profile of the angle of rotation.
  10. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the data memory ( 10 ) has at least such a storage capacity that the data supplied by the device according to claim 1 can be recorded for at least one complete beat and at least one reference beat.
  11. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that with the computing means ( 8th ) a method for determining the excellent swing track and a method for determining the actual deviation of the racket from the excellent swing track in real time are executable.
  12. Device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the first means ( 12 ) and / or at least one means for detecting accelerations ( 4 () 5 () 6 ) has an electronic acceleration sensor based on microsystems technology.
  13. Apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that at least one means for detecting the angular velocity about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) an electronic gyrosensor ( 13 ) based on microsystem technology.
  14. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one computing means ( 8th ) has a microprocessor.
  15. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized by an operating unit, in particular for switching on and off, to switch between different functions and to select from Type and type of racquet, Sensitivity ranges or skill level of the batting person.
  16. Apparatus according to claim 15, characterized by an operating unit which comprises at least the first means ( 12 ) or one of the means ( 5 . 6 . 4 ) for the detection of accelerations or the second means ( 7 ) used to detect the angle of rotation for operation, in particular certain rotational or up and down movements or sideways movements of the racket in the programming mode to trigger certain functions on the basis of Output signals are interpreted and used.
  17. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the signal generator ( 9 a) has an acoustic signal generator and is variable in volume and pitch, b) and / or has a visual signal generator which can be observed by the beating person without affecting the blow, in particular a projection goggles, c) and / or one for the Golfer has tactile signal generator, in particular a vibration motor or unbalance motor.
  18. Device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the signal transmitter ( 9 ) is attached to the racket, body or clothing of the golfer.
  19. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it has a wireless interface for data transmission to a signal generator ( 9 ) and / or to a personal computer and / or to other devices for further processing the data of the device according to one of the preceding claims, in particular according to one of the standards IRDA, Wireless USB, Bluetooth or Zigbee.
  20. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the signal generator ( 9 ) has a mobile phone with polyphonic ring tones, vibration alarm, display and a wireless or wired interface for data exchange with the device according to one of the preceding claims.
  21. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized by at least one means of proving its position with respect to the Magnetic field vector of the earth, both with the bat as also with the body or the clothing of the beating person is connected.
  22. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the arrangement of a first means ( 12 ) and a second agent ( 7 ) forms an electrical and mechanical unit, in a housing ( 16 ) and with a fastening device ( 11 ) can be mounted on different clubs and removed from them, without changing the respective bat in its properties.
  23. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that the power supply with the club shaft associated means with portable energy storage, in particular with Batteries done.
  24. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the device is provided with a wireless or wired interface equipped to a personal computer, especially after one the standards like RS232, IRDA, USB, WLAN, Bluetooth, Zigbee.
  25. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the data memory ( 10 ), the computing means ( 8th ) and / or the signal generator ( 9 ) Have interfaces which allow the data generated by the device according to one of the preceding claims to be transmitted wirelessly to a terminal, in particular to a personal computer, a PDA or a mobile telephone.
  26. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the data memory ( 10 ) has a memory card which is designed as flash memory, in particular as SD / MMC, CompactFlash, memory stick.
  27. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized that they are equipped with other devices for training the movement of a bat or sensors can be combined, the devices with appropriate interfaces for data transmission are provided to to merge the data of the various devices and relationship, in particular through software, be further evaluated on a personal computer.
  28. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it has other means of detection acceleration, magnetic field or angular velocity are and on the body or the clothing of the beating person, in particular on wrists, Forearms, upper arms, shoulder girdles and back are attached.
  29. Use of the device according to one of the previous claims for the Delivery of input parameters for computer games or computer simulations.
  30. Use of the device after at least one the previous claims as a golf training device.
  31. Use of the device according to one of the previous claims as a baseball coach.
  32. Use of the device according to one of the previous claims as a tennis training device.
  33. Use of the device according to one of previous claims as ice hockey training device.
  34. Method for training the movement of a racket on an excellent swinging track for hitting a ball by means of a device according to at least one of the preceding claims, comprising a racket with handle ( 2 ), Shank ( 1 ) and head ( 3 ), in particular a golf club, baseball bat, hockey stick or tennis racket, characterized in that a) a first means ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) suitable for signal processing, from the acceleration in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) dependent output signals ( 61 ), b) a second means ( 7 ) for determining the angle of rotation of the two-dimensional acceleration vector about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) suitable for signal processing, by a rotational movement about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) dependent output signals ( 61 ), c) at least one computing means ( 8th ) the output signals ( 61 ) of a first agent ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector and a second agent ( 7 ) for detecting the angle of rotation about the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) further processed according to one or more specific methods, d) a signal generator ( 9 ) signals, during the strike, an error quantity determined according to one or more specific methods as an indicator for leaving an excellent swinging path, e) during the movement of the racket, the output signals of a first means ( 12 ) and a second agent ( 7 ) or with a computing means ( 8th ) processed data on a data memory ( 10 ) to be recorded.
  35. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the club shaft ( 1 ) one agent each ( 5 ) for detecting the acceleration in a first axis of sensitivity and a means ( 6 ) emit output signals in a second perpendicular axis of sensitivity.
  36. Method according to claim 35, characterized in that at least one further agent ( 4 () 5 () 6 ) to demonstrate the acceleration of the racket, in particular a means ( 4 ) which is perpendicular in the axis to the means ( 5 () 6 ) is sensitive to detecting the acceleration, outputs an output signal.
  37. Method according to Claim 36, characterized that at least two means for demonstrating the acceleration of the racket, the above the shaft are distributed at different distances to the handle, Output signals, the amplitude of the output signals be varied at the same acceleration with the distance to the handle can.
  38. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that at least one further means of detection of accelerations provides output signals that does not match the bat firmly connected, but especially on the body or clothing of the beating person is attached.
  39. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a means for detecting the angular velocity as part of the means ( 7 ) emits output signals to detect the angle of rotation about the axis of the club shaft and the time since the beginning of the stroke is measured.
  40. Method according to claim 39, characterized in that a computing means ( 8th ) determines the angle of rotation since the beginning of the beating from the output signal of the means for detecting the angular velocity and the time measurement, wherein the rotation angle is determined by temporal integration of the angular velocity.
  41. Method according to claim 40, characterized in that that by temporal integration of an angular velocity certain angles of rotation on known Winkeleinhei th, in particular in units of degrees, is calibrated by a calibration procedure the temporal integral of the angular velocity for a exactly known rotation angle determined and the calculated temporal Integrals of the angular velocity for unknown angles of rotation and multiplied by the known rotation angle.
  42. A method according to claim 41, characterized in that the required for the calibration known rotation angle from the means ( 12 ) is detected for the two-dimensional acceleration vector.
  43. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a computing means ( 8th ) a rotational transformation of the output signals of the agent ( 12 ) for detecting the two-dimensional acceleration vector about the 7 ) performs proven rotation angle.
  44. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that a computing means ( 8th ) to determine the time course of the angle of rotation since the beginning of the strike a calculation with a mathematical model or processes and uses the values of a recorded time curve of the rotation angle.
  45. Method according to claim 34, characterized in that on the data memory ( 10 ) the data provided by the device according to previous claims for at least one complete beat and at least one reference beat are recorded.
  46. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that the time course of the data of the medium ( 12 ) detected two-dimensional acceleration vector and that with means ( 7 ) for a series of club speeds and tilt angles of the excellent swing path, or predicted assuming a physical model and stored on the data memory (FIG. 10 ) is stored.
  47. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that before the start of the stroke, in the rest position, an excellent swing track from the position of the with the club shaft ( 1 ) ( 12 ) is determined to detect the two-dimensional acceleration vector.
  48. A method according to claim 34, characterized that an excellent swing from experience or by a physical model is determined, in particular by recording or calculation of values for the two-dimensional acceleration vector and the rotation angle or the angular velocity of a reference momentum.
  49. A method according to claim 34, characterized in that before the start of the stroke, in the rest position of the racket, with a computing means ( 8th ) the rotation of the two-dimensional acceleration vector with respect to the normal vector on the excellent swing plane using the output signals of the agent ( 12 ) is determined to determine the two-dimensional acceleration vector.
  50. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that an error signal for evaluating the deviation of the actual flywheel from the excellent flywheel from the rotary transformation of the medium ( 12 ) two-dimensional acceleration vector around that of the medium ( 7 ) and the rotation determined according to claim 49 determined certain acceleration component in the direction of the normal vector to the excellent swing path.
  51. A method according to claim 34, characterized that an error signal is determined, which is for immediate alerting the golfer during the swing audible, palpable (Vibration) or can be visualized, with volume, pitch, vibration frequency or light intensity be correlated with the amplitude of the deviation.
  52. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that the error signal with the size of the acceleration component in club axis direction (Radial acceleration) is scaled.
  53. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the error signal from the comparison of the current time course of the means ( 12 ) values of the two-dimensional acceleration vector detected around the 7 ) and the rotation determined according to claim 49 have been rotationally transformed, with the time characteristic of these values being determined for a reference turn, the reference turn being determined in particular from a mathematical model, from experience or from recording one or more data for a beat in which, taking into account the course and / or the instantaneous value of the measured radial acceleration, the appropriate curve of the predicted or recorded reference momentum data can be selected.
  54. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized characterized in that the error signal is derived from the evaluation of the speed, with the racket moved out of the swing plane or from the evaluation of the removal of the Sensors are derived from the excellent swing track, taking the speed from the simple and the distance from the double integration of the acceleration component normal to the excellent Be determined swing plane.
  55. A method according to claim 34, characterized that the error signal through a method for adjusting the parameters a computational model to the delivered by the training device Data is determined.
  56. Method according to claim 34, characterized in that the output signals of a first means ( 12 ) and a second agent ( 7 ) or thereof according to a specific method with the computing means ( 8th ) are transmitted during the swing and displayed on a display during the swing or recorded on an external storage medium.
  57. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that by the computing means ( 8th ) programs and procedures to be upgraded via a portable flash memory card.
  58. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that after execution of the complete shock subsequently one or more methods for evaluating the impact on the in the data memory ( 10 ) recorded time course of the data are applied.
  59. A method of assessing a strike according to claim 58, characterized in that the individual phases of a shock be identified for striking and hitting the ball, a) wherein for determining the reversal point between backswing (Ausholen) and downswing (hitting) the tangential acceleration component is used, which has a minimum at the turning point, b) where the speed in the tangential direction, resulting from integration the tangential component of the acceleration gives, by their Zero crossing marks the reversal point, c) by the last one Minimum of the radial acceleration components before the impact moment, which in turn is the highest Acceleration values (shock) for all acceleration components are marked.
  60. A method of assessing a strike according to claim 58, characterized in that on the different signs the time course of the normal component of the acceleration in the outward movement a swing outward from a momentum to can be differentiated in.
  61. A method of assessing a strike according to claim 58, characterized in that over the time course The radial acceleration component distinguished faster from slower turns can be where both the maximum of the radial acceleration and the temporal Distance between minimum (zero) and moment of impact during backswing (Hitting) can be used.
  62. A method of assessing a strike according to claim 58, characterized in that from the time course of angle of rotation a) an early one from a late Bending the wrists can be distinguished b) a inside and outside started swing can be distinguished c) from the symmetry a worse one is distinguishable from a better one d) At the moment of impact can be deduced whether the wrists completely unlocked were, e) can be derived at the moment of impact, whether the bat obliquely through the ball went.
  63. A method of assessing a strike according to claim 58-62, characterized in that the data is transmitted to a service and a remote evaluation takes place.
DE200610008333 2006-02-20 2006-02-20 Apparatus and method for training the movement of a racket for hitting a ball, in particular for the game of golf, for baseball, for tennis and for ice hockey Active DE102006008333B4 (en)

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DE200610008333 DE102006008333B4 (en) 2006-02-20 2006-02-20 Apparatus and method for training the movement of a racket for hitting a ball, in particular for the game of golf, for baseball, for tennis and for ice hockey
PCT/EP2007/001170 WO2007096069A2 (en) 2006-02-20 2007-02-12 Apparatus and method for training the movement of a hitting implement for hitting a ball, in particular for golf, for baseball, for tennis and for ice hockey

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DE102009021253A1 (en) * 2009-05-14 2010-11-25 Thorsten Knebusch Laser-controlled plane control system for golf swing, has multiple laser units generating controllable laser plane, where signaling is carried out during penetration of laser plane with club head
DE102012003765B3 (en) * 2012-02-24 2013-07-11 Völk Maschinenbau GmbH Golf backswing controller for use by golfer, has housing that is provided with vibration motor and toggle switch which is equipped with the hammer weight and delay relay
DE102012224321A1 (en) 2012-12-21 2014-07-10 Applejack 199 L.P. Measuring device for detecting a striking movement of a racket, training device and method for training a striking movement
DE102016007903A1 (en) 2016-06-28 2017-12-28 Arnulf Deinzer Device for detecting the positions of limbs and devices and for teaching coordinated motion patterns in the guidance of devices
DE102017003937A1 (en) 2017-04-22 2018-10-25 Arnulf Deinzer Sensor finger ring

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DE102009021253A1 (en) * 2009-05-14 2010-11-25 Thorsten Knebusch Laser-controlled plane control system for golf swing, has multiple laser units generating controllable laser plane, where signaling is carried out during penetration of laser plane with club head
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DE102016007903A1 (en) 2016-06-28 2017-12-28 Arnulf Deinzer Device for detecting the positions of limbs and devices and for teaching coordinated motion patterns in the guidance of devices
DE102017003937A1 (en) 2017-04-22 2018-10-25 Arnulf Deinzer Sensor finger ring

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