DE102005063659B3 - Brake system with electric motor-driven piston-cylinder system - Google Patents

Brake system with electric motor-driven piston-cylinder system

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Publication number
DE102005063659B3
DE102005063659B3 DE102005063659.4A DE102005063659A DE102005063659B3 DE 102005063659 B3 DE102005063659 B3 DE 102005063659B3 DE 102005063659 A DE102005063659 A DE 102005063659A DE 102005063659 B3 DE102005063659 B3 DE 102005063659B3
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Prior art keywords
piston
brake
pressure
characterized
brake system
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DE102005063659.4A
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German (de)
Inventor
Heinz Leiber
Thomas Leiber
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IPGATE AG
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IPGATE AG
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T7/00Brake-action initiating means
    • B60T7/02Brake-action initiating means for personal initiation
    • B60T7/04Brake-action initiating means for personal initiation foot actuated
    • B60T7/042Brake-action initiating means for personal initiation foot actuated by electrical means, e.g. using travel or force sensors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T13/00Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/10Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with fluid assistance, drive, or release
    • B60T13/66Electrical control in fluid-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/662Electrical control in fluid-pressure brake systems characterised by specified functions of the control system components
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T13/00Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/10Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with fluid assistance, drive, or release
    • B60T13/66Electrical control in fluid-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/68Electrical control in fluid-pressure brake systems by electrically-controlled valves
    • B60T13/686Electrical control in fluid-pressure brake systems by electrically-controlled valves in hydraulic systems or parts thereof
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T13/00Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/74Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with electrical assistance or drive
    • B60T13/745Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with electrical assistance or drive acting on a hydraulic system, e.g. a master cylinder

Abstract

Brake system, an actuating device (30), namely a brake pedal, a pedal travel sensor (38) for detecting a pedal travel of the brake pedal and a control and regulating device (22), wherein the control and regulating device (22) taking into account the detected pedal travel, a drive device (5c, 6, 7, 7a) with an electric motor (8), wherein the drive device (5c, 6, 7, 7a) adjusts a piston (1, 1a) of a piston-cylinder system via a non-hydraulic transmission device, so that in the working space (4 ', 4a', 4b ') of the cylinder, a pressure is established, wherein the working space (4', 4a ', 4b') via a pressure line (13) with a wheel brake in conjunction, said in case of failure the drive device (5c, 6, 7, 7a) the actuating device adjusts the piston (1), characterized by: a current sensor (23) for measuring a current of the electric motor, wherein the control and regulating device (22) is designed according to a Amplifiers Characteristic curve to perform a current-proportional pressure control, wherein using the current sensor (23) a position of the piston is approached, which corresponds to a certain pressure.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a brake system, an actuating device, in particular a brake pedal, and having a control and regulating device, wherein the control and regulating device based on the movement and / or position of the actuating device controls an electric motor drive device, wherein the drive device comprises a piston of a piston Adjusted cylinder system via a non-hydraulic transmission device, so that sets in the working space of the cylinder, a pressure, wherein the working space via a pressure line with a wheel brake is in communication.
  • State of the art:
  • Modern brake systems consist of brake booster, d. H. Implementation of the pedal force in a corresponding increased braking torque at the wheel brakes and braking force control over open or closed control and control circuits. As a transfer means for generating the brake pressure from the pedal force, the hydraulic line is used with a few exceptions in the car area.
  • Widely used is a division into units between brake booster (BKV) or brake force control and braking force control in a hydraulic unit (HE). This configuration is mainly used in systems such as Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), Anti-Slip System (ASR), Electronic Stability Program (ESP) or Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB).
  • The hydraulic unit (HE) consists of solenoid valves, multi-piston pumps for 2-circuit brake systems, electric motor for pump drive, hydraulic accumulator and several pressure transmitters. The pressure control is carried out in such a way that for braking torque reduction pressure medium is discharged via solenoid valves from the wheel brakes in a memory and is pumped back from the pump in the master cylinder, causing a pedal movement. Both pressure increase and decrease is controlled by solenoid valves, where partial pressure transmitters are used for the solenoid valve control. Except for the EHB, the brake boosting takes place with the vacuum BKV, which partly includes switching means and sensors for the so-called brake assist function and also for the detection of the so-called control point. As an energy source for the vacuum gasoline engines of the internal combustion engine is used, but as a direct injection, especially at higher altitude, only a weak vacuum. In diesel engines, a mechanical or electrically driven vacuum pump is used. Latest ESP systems are able to achieve an additional brake boost by switching the solenoid valves and the pump or, if the BKV fails, to achieve a brake boost with a larger time constant. The description of these systems and functions is described in detail in the Brake Manual Vieweg Verlag, Edition 2003.
  • In the mid-1980s Teves used the so-called Mark II and Bosch the ABS3, which as integrated units included all components for brake booster and control with hydraulic BKV, s. Automotive Manual Bosch 1986, 20th edition. For cost reasons, these systems have not enforced, except for the use of special protection vehicles. The same applies to fully electric braking systems, so-called EMB, with electric motors on the wheel brakes, which were developed intensively in conjunction with the 42 V vehicle electrical system. In addition to the additional costs, a new redundant on-board network for the energy supply is necessary to ensure the braking capability of a brake circuit in the event of a fault.
  • The type of EMB systems also includes the wedge brake with electric motor drive. For this purpose, a redundant electrical system is also necessary despite the lower energy consumption. The constructive realization of the wedge brake, which requires additional roles for hysteresis reasons, which require integration into the caliper, is not solved at the moment. The wedge brake with its electromotive drives with sensors must withstand the harsh environmental conditions (dust, water, high temperatures).
  • The systems for BKV and HE are very well developed, especially the control and regulation functions for ABS up to ESP. For example, by the pressure-controlled control of the solenoid valves, a very fine dosing of the brake pressure is possible, with the variable braking force EBV is also possible. The pressure decay rate is not yet optimal because it is highly nonlinear. In addition, with a μ-jump or with a small coefficient of friction, the pressure drop sensitivity is determined by the relatively low pump power, which leads to large control deviations and thus results in a braking distance loss.
  • A generic brake system is from the DE 33 42 552 A1 known. In this brake system, the master cylinder is used to generate a pedal-dependent pressure, which is used as a reference variable for an electronic control and regulating device is used, which regulates the output pressure of an electrohydraulic servo device connected directly to the brake circuit to a value determined by the reference variable. In case of failure of the control device or the servo device itself, the pressure in the brake circuit is generated by the master cylinder. Instead of the reference variable generated in the normal mode by means of the master brake cylinder, it is possible for a reference variable generated as part of an anti-lock braking system or as part of a slip control of the drive control of the motor vehicle to act on the electronic control and regulating device and thus on the electrohydraulic servo device. The servo device has an electrically actuated hydraulic piston-cylinder unit whose working space communicates with the brake circuit and whose piston is axially adjustable by means of an electric motor. The rotational movement of the electric motor is thereby converted via a spindle connected to the piston in a longitudinal movement of the piston.
  • Out WO2004 / 005095 A1 a brake system is previously known, in which an electric motor drives the piston of a piston-cylinder system via a spindle drive. The pistons are not firmly coupled to the spindle, so that the maximum piston speed during retraction of the spindle and thus the maximum pressure reduction speed is determined by the strength of the compression springs in the piston-cylinder system. The brake pressure to be set in the wheel brakes is determined by means of a pressure sensor, wherein the pressure is the controlled variable of the brake pressure control.
  • The DE 3723916 A1 shows a brake system with a hydraulic brake booster, which also realizes the ABS function in addition to the pure brake boosting. In the pressure line, which connects the piston-cylinder system and the respective wheel brake only one valve is arranged in each case, which is open to change the pressure in the wheel brake and closed to hold the wheel brake pressure. Even with this brake pressure control, the pressure is the control variable.
  • Out DE 195 00544 A1 is an electronically controllable brake actuation system for anti-lock motor vehicle brake systems previously known, in which by means of a brake pedal, a master cylinder is actuated. By means of a sensor, the actuating travel of the brake pedal is determined, which represents an input variable for a control unit, which controls a plurality of brake pressure generator, to which the vehicle brakes are connected directly or via solenoid valves by means of hydraulic lines. The connection of the hydraulic lines to the master cylinder can be shut off by a valve device. In order to achieve an increase in functional reliability, in particular in the case of an electrical defect or failure of the vehicle electronics, the piston of the master brake cylinder can be adjusted in the fallback level directly by means of the brake pedal to build up pressure in the wheel brakes, for which purpose the valve device is opened. The brake pressure generators each have an electric drive, which adjusts a piston in a cylinder, so that a pressure is set in the brake circuit, which pressure is determined by means of a pressure sensor and fed to the control unit as an input variable. The pressure is also the control variable with this brake pressure control. A similarly working brake system is off DE 4239386 A1 previously known.
  • Out DE 4445975 A1 a brake system for motor vehicles is known in which the brake pressure is adjusted in a wheel brake by means of an electric motor-driven piston of a piston-cylinder system, wherein also in this brake system, a pressure sensor for measuring the controlled variable is provided. To hold the brake pressure in the wheel brake is a 2/2-way valve, by means of which the hydraulic line between the piston-cylinder system and the wheel brake is shut off.
  • DE 10318401 A1 discloses a motor-driven vehicle brake device, wherein the position of the brake pedal is determined by means of a displacement sensor and transmitted to a control unit. The control unit controls depending on the driving condition and the brake pedal position, an electric motor drive of a piston-cylinder system, which serves to build up pressure in the brake circuits. A mechanical connection between the piston of the piston-cylinder system and the brake pedal is not provided, so that in the fallback level no pressure in the wheel brakes can be built up by means of the brake pedal. By means of the respective wheel brakes associated intake and exhaust valves, the pressure in the wheel brakes is adjusted.
  • DE 19936433 A1 and DE 10057557 A1 disclose brake systems in which a supportive force can be applied to the brake pedal adjustable piston of the master cylinder by means of electromagnetic drives. Even in these brake systems, the pressure in the master cylinder is the control variable of the brake pressure control process.
  • Object of the invention
  • The present invention has the object to provide a novel brake system that is small and compact in size.
  • This object is advantageously achieved by a brake system with the features of claim 1. Further advantageous embodiments of the brake system according to claim 1 result from the features of the subclaims.
  • The brake system according to the invention is advantageously characterized in that it realizes the brake booster and the servo device in the smallest space per brake circuit by means of only one piston-cylinder unit. The piston-cylinder unit serves as it were for the brake pressure build-up and brake pressure reduction, to realize the ABS and traction control and in case of failure of the power supply or malfunction of the drive device. Thus, advantageously results in a small integrated and cost-effective assembly for the brake booster (BKV) and control, which is associated with a saving of space, installation costs and additional hydraulic and vacuum connecting lines. In addition, due to the short length, advantageously acts e.g. the spring dome in a frontal crash not on the master cylinder and the pedal unit.
  • By advantageously providing a sensor and a path simulator, a variable pedal characteristic such as brake-by-wire function, i. Brake pressure increase independent of pedal operation freely variable, also taking into account the braking effect of the generator with recuperable brakes, be adjusted.
  • Furthermore, in the corresponding embodiment, no adverse falling through of the brake pedal in case of failure of the drive, since the pedal acts directly on the piston of the system. Advantageously, this also results in lower pedal forces in case of failure of the power supply, since the pistons have a smaller effective area than conventional master cylinder. This is possible by separating the piston travel with intact and failed gain. This is referred to as a translation jump that reduces the pedal force by up to 40% for the same braking effect. By reducing the total effort including the electrical connections, also results in a favorable reduction of the failure rate.
  • By the electric motor drive an improvement of the ABS / ESP control by finely metered pressure control with variable pressure increase and in particular pressure drop rates is further feasible. Also, a pressure reduction below 1 bar in the range of the vacuum for function at the smallest Reibkraftbeiwerten, z. As wet ice, possible. Likewise, a rapid increase in pressure at the onset of braking, e.g. 0 - 100 bar achievable in less than 50 ms, which has a significant Bremswegverkürzung result.
  • Due to the advantageous provision of a 2/2-way valve for the brake booster and the control function, the brake system according to the invention requires considerably less energy.
  • It is also possible to provide for each brake circuit or each wheel brake its own piston-cylinder system with each associated drive. It is also possible to use a piston-cylinder system in which two pistons are arranged axially displaceably in a cylinder, wherein the cylinders are hydraulically coupled and only one piston is mechanically driven by the drive device by an electric motor.
  • Various embodiments of the brake system according to the invention will be explained in more detail with reference to drawings.
  • Show it:
    • 1 A first embodiment of a brake system with a brake circuit for two wheel brakes;
    • 2 a second embodiment of the brake system with two piston-cylinder systems for two brake circuits for each two wheel brakes;
    • 3 : a path simulator for the brake system according to the invention;
    • 4 : a piston-cylinder system with a cylinder and two pistons;
    • 5 and 5a : Connection between actuator and piston-cylinder systems;
    • 6 a side view of the integrated assembly with housing;
    • 7 : Characteristics of the braking system;
    • 8th and 8a : Piston drive via a rocker arm
    • 9 : Piston drive via a spindle
    • 10 : Piston actuation with superimposed pedal force
  • The 1 shows a section of the integrated unit, which is responsible for the pressure generation or brake booster. This is the piston 1 with the usual seals 2 and 3 in the cylinder housing 4 parallel to the piston via a specially designed rack 5a emotional. The seal 2 is designed to work well under negative pressure in the piston chamber 4 ' seals. This rack 5a transfers the force to the front crowned end of the piston 1 , This has a collar bolt at this point 1a over which the rack 5a with return spring 9 puts the piston in the starting position. Here is the rack on the cylinder housing 4a on. This external spring has the advantage that the cylinder builds short and has little dead space, which is advantageous for the vent. The rack has a storage in the rollers because of the lateral forces 10 and 11 with slider 12 , The 1 clearly shows that the parallel arrangement of the rack to the piston causes a short length. The unit must build very short to be outside the crash zone. The rack is through a in 5a illustrated H-profile very rigid. The arrangement of the rollers is chosen so that the rack in the end position 5b (shown in dashed lines) with the greatest bending force by the offset attacking compressive force has a relatively small bending length. The rack is about tooth profile 5a ' and gear 6 over the gear wheel 7 from the pinion of the engine 8th driven. This small time constant motor is preferably a brushless motor as a bell tower with an ironless winding or preferably a motor according to the PCT patent applications PCT / EP2005 / 002440 and PCT / EP2005 / 002441 , This one is from the power amplifiers 21 preferably over three strands of a microcontroller (MC) 22 controlled. For this a shunt measures 23 the current and a sensor signal 24 and indicates the position of the rotor and, via corresponding counters, the position of the piston. The current and position measurement is used in addition to the engine control for indirect pressure measurement, since the engine torque is proportional to the pressure force. For this purpose, a map must be created in the vehicle during commissioning and also during operation, in which the position of the piston is assigned to the different flow rates. In operation, a position of the piston is then approached in accordance with the amplifier characteristic curve described later, which corresponds to a specific pressure according to the map. The position and engine torque are not exactly the same. B. by temperature influence, the map is adapted during operation. As a result, the map is constantly adapted. The output map is formed from preferably pressure-volume curve of the wheel brake, engine characteristic, transmission efficiency and vehicle deceleration. With the latter, a pedalkraftproportionale vehicle deceleration can be achieved so that the driver does not have to adjust to different braking effects.
  • The piston 1 generated in the pipe 13 a corresponding pressure, which via the 2/2 solenoid valve (MV) 14 to the wheel brake 15 or via solenoid valve MV 16 to the wheel brake 17 arrives. This above-described arrangement has several advantages. Instead of the two inexpensive small solenoid valves, another piston engine unit could be used as in 4 is shown. However, this means considerably more cost, weight and space.
  • It is sufficient to use a piston motor unit for each brake circuit.
  • The second advantage is the very low energy requirement and the design of the motor only for pulsed operation. This is achieved by the solenoid valves are closed when the set value of the pressure or engine torque and the engine is then operated only with low amperage until the brake pedal is given a new setpoint. Thus, the energy requirement or the average power is extremely small. For example, in a conventional design with a full braking from 100 km / h of the engine 3 to absorb a high current. According to the invention, the motor requires only about 0.05 s of current for the piston travel, which is 1.7%. If the values are related to the power, then in the conventional case, the electrical system would be loaded with> 1000 W for at least 3 s and in the proposed pulse mode only about 50 W average power. An even greater energy saving results from a full braking of 250 km / h with braking times up to 10 s on a dry road. To relieve the pulse load of the electrical system can here a storage capacitor 27 be used in the power supply, which can also be used according to the line with arrow for the other electric motors.
  • In the pressure line 13 can be used before or after the solenoid pressure transducer, which are not shown, since these correspond to the prior art.
  • The piston 1 gets over the breather hole with liquid from the reservoir 18 provided. In this line is a solenoid valve 19 switched on. If a quick piston movement to reduce pressure, so could the seal 3 sniff out liquid from the reservoir, especially at low pressures, which is known to be detrimental. For this purpose, the low-pressure solenoid valve 19 switched on and the connection to the reservoir interrupted. With this circuit can also be negative pressure in the Radkreisen 15 / 17 be achieved what the wheel control at very low friction coefficients z. B. benefits on wet ice, since in the wheel brake no braking torque is generated. On the other hand, the Nachschnüffeln be used consciously in vapor bubble formation, in which the piston is already at the stop without the appropriate pressure is reached. Here, the pistons are controlled in accordance with the solenoid valves, so that the oscillating piston builds pressure. When dispensing with this feature may be in place of the solenoid valve 19 a sniff-proof seal 3 be used.
  • The solenoid valves 14 . 16 . 19 are about power amplifiers 28 from the microcontroller 22 controlled.
  • In case of failure of the power supply or the electric motor, the piston of a lever 26 the actuator moves. Between this and the piston, a clearance is built in, which prevents the lever from striking the piston during rapid pedaling, before the engine moves the piston.
  • The control function with respect to wheel speed and wheel pressure in ABS / ASR or yaw rate and wheel pressure in ESP has been presented in various publications, so that a renewed description is omitted. In a table the essential functions of the new system are shown: print print features electric motor Wheel brake 15 Solenoid valve 14 Wheel brake 17 Solenoid valve 15 1 1 BKV On construction 0 construction 0 teilbestromt P = constant 1 P = constant 1 teilbestromt reduction 0 reduction 0 brake control On construction 0 construction 0 teilbestromt P = constant 1 P = constant 0 On construction 0 P = constant 1 teilbestromt reduction 0 P = constant 1 teilbestromt reduction 0 reduction 0
  • The amount of partial energization depends on the desired pressure increase or decrease speed of the BKV or the brake control. Decisive for this is an extremely small time constant of the electric motor, d. H. a temporally rapid increase in torque and torque reduction over small moving masses of the entire drive, since the piston speed determines the pressure change rate. In addition, brake control requires fast and accurate position control of the pistons. In the case of rapid torque reduction, the compressive force resulting from the caliper also has a supporting effect, which is low at low pressures. But just here, the pressure drop speed should be large to large deviations from the wheel speed to z. As to avoid ice.
  • With this concept, there is a decisive advantage over the conventional pressure control via solenoid valves, since the piston speed determines the pressure change rate. For example, the flow and thus the pressure reduction rate is low at low differential pressure at the pressure-reducing outlet valve. As already mentioned, the piston unit can be used separately for each wheel with and without a solenoid valve. To take advantage of the low energy consumption, the electric motor would have to be extended with a fast electromagnetic brake, which is more complex. The embodiment shown with a piston unit and two solenoid valves is preferable from the installation space and the cost. Regulatory, however, the restriction applies here that at a Pressure reduction on a wheel the other wheel can not build up pressure. However, since the pressure reduction time is approximately <10% of the pressure build-up time in the control cycle, this limitation is without significant disadvantage. The control algorithms must be adjusted accordingly, for example, after a phase of constant pressure opening of the solenoid valve, the electric motor must be energized with a current to which the appropriate pressure in the wheel brake according to the BKV characteristic is assigned or eg 20% higher than the previous blocking pressure in control cycle. Alternatively, it is also possible to control an adaptive pressure level, for example, which is 20% higher than the highest blocking pressure of the axle or of the vehicle during regulation. As blocking pressure is the pressure at which the wheel runs unstable in greater slippage.
  • The concept also offers new control possibilities for pressure reduction. Control technology is that the pressure reduction and braking torque reduction are substantially proportional to the rotational acceleration of the wheel, the hysteresis of the seal and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of the wheel. From these values, in each case the amount of the required pressure reduction can be calculated and the piston can already provide the corresponding volume in the case of closed MV taking into account the characteristic map described. Then, when the MV opens, there is a very rapid pressure drop practically in the vacuum. This is based on the assumption that the MV has a smaller throttling effect by means of corresponding opening cross-sections, in contrast to today's solutions. In this case, the pressure reduction can be faster than conventional solutions via a specially provided chamber volume corresponding to the pressure volume curve. Alternatively, it is possible to lower the pressure in a chamber volume which is slightly larger than the necessary pressure reduction, e.g. by appropriate adjustment speed of the piston. For precise control of the pressure reduction is here a very small switching time for closing the solenoid valve necessary, which can be preferably achieved by pre-energizing and / or overexcitation. In addition, it is advantageous for special cases of the control to bring the armature of the 2/2 solenoid valve via known PWM method in an intermediate position to produce a throttle effect.
  • The very rapid pressure reduction may possibly produce pressure oscillations, which react on the wheel. To avoid this detrimental effect, the piston path may be further selected as a further alternative, e.g. 80% of the required pressure reduction are controlled (rapid pressure reduction). The remaining required 20% of the pressure reduction can then be done slowly by a subsequently controlled slow piston movement or in the alternative with the Druckabbausteuerung via solenoid valves by timing the solenoid valve and stepped degradation. This avoids harmful wheel vibrations. The slow pressure reduction can be continued until the wheel accelerates again in the ABS control.
  • This allows very small control deviations of the wheel speed. Analogously, the method described above can also be applied to the pressure build-up. The speeds of the pressure increase can be optimized according to control criteria. Thus, the goal can be achieved, that the wheel is braked in the immediate vicinity of the friction force maximum and so optimal braking effect is achieved with optimum driving stability.
  • In the above, special cases of the control were mentioned in which a throttling effect is advantageous. This is e.g. the case when both wheels at the same time a pressure reduction is necessary. Here, the throttling effect is advantageous until the actuating piston has provided such a large chamber volume, so that the pressure can then subsequently be reduced rapidly to a vacuum from a different pressure level. The same procedure can be followed, i. if the solenoid valves in the valve cross-section have a built-in throttle and pressure build-up is to take place simultaneously on both wheel circuits. However, the individual alternating pressure build-up is to be preferred because of the metered pressure build-up with evaluation of the characteristic diagram and controlled adjustment speed of the piston. The same alternating method may alternatively be described above. be applied with the throttle effect for the pressure reduction. As a further possibility, the piston can already be moved back with a control signal with a lower threshold than the control signal for the pressure reduction. In the prior art, this is the signal where the controller detects a tendency to lock and turns the MV on to hold pressure (see the Brake Manual, p. 52-53). This signal is output 5-10 ms before the pressure reduction signal. The proposed fast drive is able to provide a chamber volume for 10 bar pressure reduction within about 5 ms.
  • Based on the piston position for pressure reduction, the controller can decide whether enough chamber volume is available for the simultaneous pressure reduction for both wheel brakes.
  • These explanations show that the concept with the fast and variably controlled electromotive piston drive and the solenoid valve with the evaluation of the pressure and characteristic map represents a high potential for the controller, which enables additional braking distance shortening and driving stability.
  • The 2 shows the entire integrated unit for BKV and control functions. The unit consists of two piston units with associated electric motors and gearbox acc. 1 for two brake circuits and four wheel brakes. The piston units are in the housing 4 accommodated. This housing is on the front wall 29 attached.
  • The brake pedal 30 transfers the pedal force and movement over the bearing pin 31 on a fork 32 , which via a ball joint on the actuator 33 acts. This has a cylindrical extension 34 with a pole 35 ,
  • cylinder 34 and rod 35 are in a socket 37 stored. This takes the Wegsimulatorfedern 36 and 36a on, with one spring weak and the other spring strongly progressive in the increase in force acts. The path simulator can also be made up of even more springs or rubber elements. This specifies the pedal force characteristic. The pedal travel is from a sensor 38 detected, which is constructed in the illustrated example according to the eddy current principle, in which the rod 35 immersed with a target.
  • The pedal movement is on the elements 32 and 33 transferred, the piston 34 moves with the rod 35 in the socket 37 , On the actuator is a lever 26 rotatably mounted, which hits in case of failure of the power supply to the piston. The pedal travel sensor supplies the path signal to the electronic control unit, which corresponds to the BKV characteristic as shown in FIG 7 is described causes a movement of the piston via the electric motor. The parameters of this characteristic are displayed in 7 described in more detail. Between the lever 26 and the two pistons 1 is a game s o provided as in 1 shown. The actuator has over the bolt 39 , which is shown offset, a rotation and a return spring 40 which supports the unshown pedal return spring. Many Wegsimulatorlösungen known in the prior art, which are also partially hydraulically actuated by pistons and shut off via solenoid valves when the power supply fails. This solution is complex and hysteresis. Solutions are also known in which the Wegsimulatorweg received in case of failure of the power supply as a loss path upon actuation of the pistons for brake pressure generation.
  • The aim of the invention is a simple solution in which the path simulator is switched off in case of failure of the power supply. For this purpose is on the socket 37 with intact power supply via the anchor lever 41 with large gear ratio and the holding magnet 42 exerted a counterforce, which is eliminated when the electrical power supply fails. To reduce the magnet and two-stage lever can be used. In detail this will be in 3 described. In this case, the lever via the brake pedal with the two pistons after passing through the game in contact and thus can transmit the pedal force to the piston. The pistons are dimensioned so that they produce a pressure at full pedal stroke, which still gives a good braking effect, eg. 80%. However, the piston stroke is significantly greater than the pedal stroke and can produce much higher brake pressures with intact power supply and electric drive. However, the driver can not apply the corresponding pedaling force. One speaks in this interpretation of a jump in the ratio, which is possible with decoupling of the actuator with displacement simulator from the piston. In conventional construction, in which BKV and master cylinder with pistons are connected in series, the required pedal force increases in case of failure of the power supply to the factor 5 for the same wheel brake pressure. In the new interpretation z. B. the factor can be reduced to 3. This case is z. B. relevant when towing a vehicle with a failed battery.
  • The lever 26 is rotatably mounted so that it can take into account tolerances in the movement of the piston, for. B. due to different ventilation. This compensation can also be limited, leaving the lever on a stop 33a the actuator comes to rest.
  • However, further errors must be considered.
  • Failure of an electric motor.
  • In this case, the gain and control in the adjacent intact piston drive is fully effective. About the lever 26 brake pressure is generated in the failed circuit after it stops 33a is applied. Here, in addition, the amplifier characteristic of the second circle can be increased, which reduces the required pedal force. However, this can also be done without a stop.
  • Failure of a brake circuit.
  • Here, the piston moves to stop in the housing 4 , The intact second circle is fully effective. It does not arise as in conventional systems today a falling pedal, which is known to irritate the driver very much. The irritation can also lead to a full loss of braking effect if he does not pass the pedal.
  • The 3 describes the function of the Wegsimulatorarretierung. In the limit case, the driver can apply high pedal forces, what the locking over the anchor lever 41 must apply. To avoid the magnet 42 with excitation coil 43 has to apply these forces fully engages the upper crowned end 41a the lever is asymmetrical on the socket 37 on. Now the pedal is up to the impact of the rod 35 on the ground 37b deflected, this lever effect causes a slight rotation of the socket 37 , which creates friction in the guide, in addition to the nose 37a on the case 4 can support. Thus, the magnetic force can be kept relatively small. The magnet also acts as a magnet 42 designed so that a small holding power is necessary due to the small air gap. In case of failure of the power supply, the anchor lever 41 from the socket 37 in the dot-dash position 41 ' deflected. When the actuator 33 returns to its original position, brings the return spring 44 the anchor lever back to initial position.
  • The sensor 38 was at the end of the bore of the socket in the housing 4 which has advantages for contacting with the el. control unit, as in 6 is shown. The same applies to the brake light switch 46 , In this embodiment, the target is 45 drawn for the eddy current sensor.
  • The locking of the path simulator via the socket 37 can be changed to the in 7 described pedal reaction in ABS to avoid. For this purpose, the lever 41 with its storage and magnet 42 with recording 42a via an electric motor 60 to be moved, a spindle 60a via a gearbox 60b drives. At the extension of the spindle, the lever is mounted and the magnet housing attached.
  • The 4 shows a schematic representation of a solution with only one electric motor 7a , This description builds up 1 and 2 on. The drive pinion of the motor moves the rack 5c which are similar 1 can also be offset in parallel. This is with a piston 1a connected, which pressure in the brake circuit 13a builds up and at the same time on the pressure of the piston 1a that shifts in the brake circuit 13 Build up pressure. This piston assembly corresponds to a conventional master cylinder for the piston and seal designs many variants exist. In the brake circuits as in the preceding figures, the 2/2-way solenoid valves 14 . 14a . 15 . 15a arranged. The ABS pressure modulation takes place in the manner described above. The BKV function takes place via a parallel path simulation 36 and displacement sensor 38 , Again, between pistons 1a and brake pedal a game or Leerhub s 0 provided. The brake fluid comes from the reservoir 18 . 18a into the piston chambers. This arrangement is inexpensive. The dynamics of the BKV function in the pressure build-up is lower than in the variant with two engines, since the electric motor has to apply twice the torque. It also eliminates the redundancy function of the 2nd motor as in 7 including a failing pedal in the event of brake circuit failure.
  • The 5 shows the view from the end wall on the integrated unit whose flange 4b by means of screws 47 screwed to the front wall. You can see here the operating unit 33 , Lever 26 and a non-offset drawn bolt 39 as anti-twist device. For size comparison, the outline contour of a 10 "vacuum BKV is shown here, showing an important advantage in the overall height with the lid 48 of the storage container. According to the distance A, the end wall could be lowered, which the designers desire. On the left side of the flange is, with reference to 5a Dashed the drive of the rack 5 drawn. This detail is enlarged as 5a on the right half of the picture. The pinion of the gear 6 engages on both sides in the H-shaped design of the rack 5 , The lateral forces described are from the role 10 or. 11 corresponding 1 with storage 10a supported. For cost reasons, the rack can be made of plastic. Since its surface pressure is not sufficient, here are hard metal strips 49 inserted, which adapt to the roles with slightly spherical training of the support. In the pinion 6 is the gear wheel 7 pressed, which is engaged with the motor pinion. Preferably, the pinion is in the motor housing 8a stored.
  • The 6 shows the side view of the integrated unit with housing 4 , Fork piece 32 for brake pedal 30 , Operating unit 33 , Flange 45 , Fixing screws 47 , Lid 48 , This view shows the short length, with the front of the electronic control unit 50 is appropriate. This is in the prior art with the coils or a part of the magnetic circuit of the solenoid valves 14 u. 16 connected in order to save additional contacting and electrical connection lines. This feature can be extended by adding all electrical components such as electric motor 8th , Magnetic coil 43 , Displacement sensor 38 , Brake light switch 46 , Brake fluid level sensor 53 be contacted directly to the control unit without electrical connection lines. In this case, the control unit would have to be from the top direction 50a to be built in. However, it is also in the direction 50b possible, which has a changed arrangement of the solenoid coil result.
  • The solenoid valves are preferably on a support plate 51 fastened because they are pressed for cost reasons in aluminum with high elongation at break. In this carrier plate are the locking screws 52 screwed in for the brake lines. In the middle part of the control unit, the contact is located, which in the area 54 a redundant power supply, in the area 55 the bus line, at 56 contains the sensors for ABS and ESP.
  • The 7 shows the essential characteristics of the brake system. Shown are pedal force F P , brake pressure p and pedal travel on the actuator unit. Usually, a translation of 4 to 5 is chosen from here to Pedalfuß. The pedal travel has its maximum at S P and the pistons, as already mentioned, at a higher value s K. With 57 is the so-called pressure-displacement curve shown, which here z. B. corresponds to a brake circuit. The non-linear course results from various elasticities such as those of caliper, seals, pipes, residual air inclusions and compressibility of the liquid. This line shows the average of a scatter band, which is also temperature dependent, especially on the caliper. Therefore, a map must be created for the current-proportional pressure control.
  • The characteristics 59 show the failure of the electric drive, in which after the game S 0, the pistons are actuated. To achieve eg 100 bar, the described considerably higher pedal forces F PA of approximately 600 N are necessary here, which corresponds to a more than 40% lower pedal force compared to today's solutions.
  • From the pedal position and the brake pressure can be seen that the pressure modulation of 10 bar at blocking pressures> 50 bar does not respond to the pedal, since the pedal at S S encounters the lock. At lower blocking pressures occurs at pressure reduction and construction a reaction to the pedal when the pedal is fully worn, and is therefore comparable to today's systems ESP and ABS. However, it is possible to reduce or avoid the repercussion by using an in 4 described electric motor 60 , which adjusts the locking of the path simulator via a drive. About the piston drive 6 the pedal is moved back to reduce the pressure. At this point, the motor adjusts the drive with small force. This is also a pedal movement to warn the driver possible, for. B. at traffic jam or the like. Even without this additional motor, a reaction is possible if the pedal movement is greater than the game S o and the pistons are briefly returned to the warning.
  • The thicker lines are the amplifier lines 58 and 58a showing the association of pedal force F P to brake pressure. At approximately 50% of the maximum pedal travel, the travel simulator is fully controlled at S S. This has the advantage that a full braking with short pedal travel is possible. The pedal travel is thereby from the sensor 38 detected. The assignment of the pressure to the pedal force is freely variable and can, for. B. in the dashed line take into account the vehicle deceleration by these enters as a correction value in the gain, so that when fading the brake at the same pedal force, a higher pressure is controlled. This correction is also necessary in systems with recuperation of the braking energy through the generator, since the braking effect of the generator must be taken into account. The same applies to a panic braking with high pedal speed. Here, a much higher pressure can be fed in disproportionately to the pedal force, which, with a time delay, again follows the static characteristic curve shown (solid line).
  • For F P1 , a foot force of 200 N is generally set for the brake pressure of 100 bar. This pressure corresponds to the blocking limit on dry roads. In this area, the Wegsimulatorkennlinie is almost linear, so that a good metering is guaranteed. As a rule, a maximum pressure of 160 bar is sufficient, according to which the creep rupture strength of the elements is dimensioned. However, a reserve R can be reserved for rare loads, which can be effective, for example, if the blocking limit has not yet been reached at 160 bar.
  • The electric drive can be regarded as fail-safe than the vacuum BKV in the event of failure of the power supply, since at least two electric motor drives are used for the proposed invention, ie one of redundant and known as total failure rate λ g = λ 1 · λ 2 applies. A power failure while driving is almost impossible, as generator and battery at the same time practically not fail. A break in the electrical power supply is caused by the in 7 Prevented described redundant power supply. The vacuum-BKV is not redundant with amplifier elements, supply lines and possibly pump.
  • The 8th shows another solution of the piston drive. Instead of the rack can be a rocker arm 60 be used, which has a tension strut 61 over the bearing pin 62 connected to the piston. The return spring 9 acts on the rocker arm, whose initial position by the stop 65 given is. The rocker arm is via a multi-stage transmission 63 from the engine 11 driven.
  • The 8a shows a two-armed rocker arm 60 and 60a with two tension struts 61 and 61a , Thus act on the piston only low lateral forces. The gear 63 is encapsulated here in an extended motor housing 64 and is from the drive pinion 11a of the motor 11 driven. The advantage of this solution lies in the encapsulation of the gearbox, which allows oil or grease filling, allows helical gearing and thus higher load capacity and quieter.
  • The 9 shows a further alternative with a spindle drive, which is arranged within the rotor of the electric motor. This arrangement is from the DE 195 11 287 B4 known, which refers to electromechanically actuated disc brake. In the presented solution is the mother 67 as a separate component in the bore of the rotor 66 and rests on the flange 66a of the rotor. On these act the pressure forces of the piston 1 , The spindle drive also acts as a reduction gear, the spindle 65 the force on the piston transfers. All drives shown so far have a fixedly coupled to the piston reduction gear, which must be moved in case of failure of the power supply from the brake pedal and accelerated with fast pedal operation with motor. These inertia forces prevent rapid pedal operation and irritate the driver. To avoid this, the nut is axially movable in the bore of the rotor, so that when pedal engagement of the ball screw is turned off. The nut is for normal operation with electric motor of a lever 70 fixed, which is effective at faster recovery of the piston, especially when there is a vacuum in the piston chamber. This lever is over the shaft 71 stored in the rotor and is with the engine not rotating on the spring 72 moved to a position where the mother is free. As the drive motor accelerates extremely fast, the centrifugal force acts on the lever, and the nut is enclosed by the lever for the movement of the piston.
  • This movement can also be accomplished by a dotted electromagnet in which the lever is a rotary armature. The torque generated by the nut on the spindle is provided by two bearing pins 69 and 69a collected. These pins are also carriers of the return spring 9 , The rotor is preferably in a ball bearing 74 stored, which receives the axial forces of the piston and in a plain bearing 75 which may also be a rolling bearing. This solution requires a greater length, which compared with 9 becomes clear, since the immersion length of the spindle in the nut is equal to the piston stroke. To keep this extension small, is the motor housing 74 directly on the piston housing 4 flanged. This also has the advantage of different material selection of engine and piston housing.
  • The mother 67 can also be directly with the rotor 66 be connected, for. B. by injection. For the required forces, a plastic nut with a small coefficient of friction can be used.
  • In case of failure of a motor or the power supply, the unshown pedal acts on the fork accordingly 2 and over the lever 26 after the free travel so on the spindle 65 or piston 1 , Since a blocking of the drive is to turn off in this solution, the stop 33 have a smaller distance to the lever. This has the advantage that the pedal force acts fully on the piston when z. B. fails an electric motor. As soon as the lever is supported on the opposite end during rotation, only half the pedal force acts on the piston. In the structural design of the spindle and piston are decoupled, which was not carried out separately.
  • Of importance is the provision of the piston in the starting position. If the engine fails in an intermediate position, the piston return spring can be additionally supported by a spiral spring 66a , which at the end of the rotor 66 and the motor housing 74 is arranged and coupled to this. This should compensate for the locking and friction torque of the engine. This is particularly advantageous for small restoring forces of the pistons, which act in conjunction with the in case of failure of the power supply to the pedal 9 described clutch lever.
  • The 10 shows a further simplified embodiment with an electromotive piston drive, in turn, the piston 1 performs the brake boost and pressure modulation for ABS. The piston chambers 1' are according to the 1 to 9 via lines 13 and 13a with the wheel brakes (not shown) and connected to the solenoid valves, also not shown. The structure corresponds 8th with spindle drive 65 and with rotor 66 , firmly attached mother 67 , Separation of engine and piston, housing 74 or. 4 , Piston Return Springs 9 and bearing pin 69 , Spiral spring 66a for engine reset. The pedal force becomes similar 2 from a fork 26 on an actuating device 34 with rod 35 transfer. This is in the motor housing 74 stored and carries in the extension a target 45 eg for an eddy current sensor 38 , which measures the pedal travel. The actuator is via a spring 79 reset. At the actuator 35 is again a lever 26 stored, which at the end in the connection to the piston preferably leaf springs 76 carries, which with a strong leaf spring with a Weggeber 77 or a softer spring with a force transmitter 77a are connected. In both cases, the force transmitted by the lever or pedal should be measured here. The leaf spring 76 The task of the pedal is to avoid a hard reaction before the engine starts running. The function takes place in such a way that in a certain function of this pedal force the motors exert a reinforcing force on the piston, which force in turn can be determined from current and piston travel or a pressure transducer. Here, the pedal travel via the displacement sensor 38 be processed in this amplifier function or characteristic. This sensor can also be used at the beginning of braking at low pressures in conjunction with the return spring 76 take over the amplifier function. This is where the spring takes over 79 the function of the Wegsimulatorfeder.
  • The motor housing has a flange for securing the unit via the bolts 78 in the front wall. This simplified concept does not have the expense of the path simulator and locking. A disadvantage is the limited Pedalwegcharakteristik the amplifier characteristic, a falling through of the pedal in brake circuit failure and higher pedal forces in case of failure of the gain, since the pedal travel and piston travel are identical. This version is mainly suitable for small vehicles.
  • In the embodiment according to. 10 are representative of all solutions safety valves 80 drawn, which take effect, for example, when a piston drive jams when the pedal goes back to the starting position. When the pedal is moved by a conical extension of the actuator 35 the two safety valves 80 operated, which is the connection from the brake circuit 13 or. 13a close to the return. This ensures that when the pedal is in the starting position, no brake pressure is built up in the brake circuit. These valves can also be actuated electromagnetically.
  • Safety-relevant systems usually have a separate switch-off facility for faults in the output stages, e.g. full flow of current through alloy. In this case, a switch-off possibility, e.g. installed by a conventional relay. The diagnostic part of the electrical circuit detects this error and turns off the relay, which normally supplies power to the output stages. Also in the concepts proposed here, a shutdown must be included, which is realized by a relay or a central MOSFET.
  • In view of the pulse control of the electric motors and a fuse can be used, since the pulse-off ratio is very large.
  • There follow embodiments of the invention.
  • Embodiment 1
  • Brake system, an actuating device, in particular a brake pedal, and having a control and regulating device, wherein the control and regulating device based on the movement and / or position of the actuating device controls an electric motor drive device, wherein the drive device comprises a piston of a piston-cylinder system via a adjusted non-hydraulic transmission device, so that sets in the working space of the cylinder pressure, wherein the working space via a pressure line with a wheel brake in conjunction, characterized in that in case of failure of the drive device, the actuating device, the piston ( 1 ) or the drive device adjusted.
  • Embodiment 2:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 1 , characterized in that a sensor device determines the position of the actuating device.
  • Embodiment 3
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 1 or 2 , characterized in that a device, in particular a Haptikeinrichtung, for setting or setting a force / displacement characteristic of the actuating device is in operative connection with this.
  • Embodiment 4
  • Brake system according to one of the embodiments 1 to 3 , characterized in that in the pressure line ( 13 ) to the wheel brake ( 15 . 17 ) one of the control device ( 22 ) controlled valve ( 14 . 16 ) is arranged.
  • Embodiment 5:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 4 , characterized in that the valve ( 14 . 16 ) after reaching the required brake pressure in the brake cylinder ( 15 . 17 ) and is open to set a new brake pressure.
  • Embodiment 6:
  • Brake system according to one of the embodiments 1 to 5 , characterized in that the piston ( 1 ) generates the required pressure change for the brake booster (BKV) and the anti-lock braking system (ABS).
  • Embodiment 7:
  • Brake system according to one of the embodiments 1 to 6 , characterized in that a spring ( 9 ) the piston ( 1 ) or the drive device is subjected to force, wherein the spring force acts in the direction that increases the working space.
  • Embodiment 8:
  • Brake system according to one of the embodiments 1 to 7 , characterized in that the drive device comprises at least one electric motor ( 8th ) having in particular a small time constant and / or a high acceleration capacity.
  • Embodiment 9:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 8th , characterized in that the electric motor ( 8th ) with the valve closed ( 14 . 16 ) is energized with a field current that is sufficient to the piston ( 1 ) to hold against the spring force in position.
  • Embodiment 10:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that each brake circuit comprises a piston-cylinder system.
  • Embodiment 11:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the working space ( 4 ) over two or more pressure lines ( 13 ) with several brake cylinders ( 15 . 17 ), wherein in each case one valve ( 14 . 16 ) in each pressure line ( 13 ) is arranged.
  • Embodiment 12:
  • Brake system according to one of the embodiment 4 to 11 , characterized in that the valve ( 14 . 16 ) is a 2/2-way valve.
  • Embodiment 13:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the piston-cylinder system comprises a first and a second piston ( 1a . 1b) which are arranged axially displaceably in a cylinder, wherein the first piston ( 1a) mechanically with the electromotive drive device ( 7a . 6 . 5c) and the second piston ( 1b) hydraulically with the first piston ( 1a) coupled, the two pistons ( 1a . 1b) between themselves a working space ( 4a) form over at least one pressure line ( 13a) is connected to at least one brake cylinder, and the second piston ( 1b) with the cylinder a second working space ( 4b) forms over at least one further pressure line ( 13 ) is connected to at least one further brake cylinder.
  • Embodiment 14:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 13 , characterized in that in the pressure lines ( 13 . 13a) controlled by the control and regulating valves 14 . 15 . 14a . 15a) , in particular 2/2-way valves, are arranged.
  • Embodiment 15:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that in the generation of the brake booster, the actuating device is not or not in direct mechanical connection with the piston or the drive means, and only in case of failure of the drive device or upon activation of the ABS, the piston in mechanical communication with the actuator is.
  • Embodiment 16:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that two piston-cylinder systems, each with associated drive device are arranged side by side, in particular parallel to each other, wherein the actuating device ( 30 ) at least one of the two pistons is adjusted directly or via intermediary means in case of failure of at least one drive device.
  • Embodiment 17:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 16 , characterized in that the actuating device is a lever or the pivot point of a rocker ( 26 ) parallel to the adjustment of the piston ( 1 ) adjusts the piston-cylinder systems, and each free end of one arm of the rocker ( 26 ) each a piston ( 1 ) assigned.
  • Embodiment 18:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 17 , characterized in that a limiting element ( 33 ) the pivoting range of the rocker ( 26 ) limited.
  • Embodiment 19:
  • Brake system according to one of the embodiments 16 to 18 , characterized in that the rocker ( 26 ) on a piston ( 34 ) which is mounted in a cylinder parallel to the driven by the driving piston ( 1 ) is displaceably mounted, wherein the piston ( 34 ) by means of at least one, in particular non-linear spring ( 36 . 36a) is pressurized in the direction of the brake pedal, and the spring together with the piston forms a so-called. Wegsimulator, and a sensor determines the position of the piston.
  • Embodiment 20:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 19 , characterized in that the piston stroke of the with the rocker ( 26 ) connected piston ( 34 ) is limited by a stop, wherein the stop via a particular electromagnetic actuator is switched off.
  • Embodiment 21:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that a channel of the working space ( 4 ) of the piston-cylinder unit with a reservoir ( 18 ) connects, the piston ( 1 ) the channel ( 20 ) closes when entering the cylinder and the channel ( 20 ) in the initial position, ie only with almost or fully retracted piston ( 1 ), is open.
  • Embodiment 22:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 21 , characterized in that a shut-off valve, in particular a 2/2-way valve (19) in the channel ( 20 ) is arranged.
  • Embodiment 23
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 22 , characterized in that the seal of the piston with fast recovery of the piston from the reservoir nachschnüffelt no liquid due to vacuum in the working space.
  • Embodiment 24:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the drive is a rack ( 5a) which parallel to the displacement of the piston ( 1 ), in particular next to the piston, slidably and in particular is mounted with low friction, wherein the rack via a coupling member ( 5 ) with the piston ( 1 ) is in particular firmly connected.
  • Embodiment 25:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 16 , characterized in that a spring ( 9 ) pressurizes the coupling member or the rack.
  • Embodiment 26:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the control in response to the movement and / or force of the brake pedal and / or the driving condition and / or braking action of an electric machine adjusts a corresponding brake booster.
  • Embodiment 27:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the control determines the brake pressure in the working space of the cylinder from the drive current of the drive.
  • Embodiment 28:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments 1 to 16 , characterized in that a pressure sensor for determining the brake pressure in the working space of the cylinder is provided.
  • Embodiment 29:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the control and regulating device has a memory in which a map is stored with various parameters for controlling the drive.
  • Embodiment 30:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the controller determines the piston position by means of at least one sensor, in particular an incremental encoder of the electric motor.
  • Embodiment 31:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the drive moves the piston out of the cylinder so that it mechanically comes into contact with the brake pedal and exerts a force on the brake pedal.
  • Embodiment 32:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the controller generates a negative pressure by means of the associated piston by increasing the working space for generating a rapid pressure reduction in the wheel brake before opening the respective valve.
  • Embodiment 33:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the control and regulating device to build up an increased blocking pressure before opening the respective valve energized the electric motor of the drive device with about 120% of the preceding in the control cycle blocking pressure.
  • Embodiment 34:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that fast energy storage for the storage of electrical energy, in particular capacitors with large capacity, are provided for generating pulse currents.
  • Embodiment 35:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that an additional drive adjusts the actuating device or the stop of the travel simulator, such that in normal operation, the actuating device is not in mechanical connection to the piston.
  • Embodiment 36:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 35 , characterized in that the additional drive acts on a travel simulator, wherein at a low blocking pressure of the additional drive the path simulator during the pressure reduction moves back to the starting position, such that the actuating device is not mechanically in communication with the piston.
  • Embodiment 37:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the control and regulating device vorerregt the valve for rapid closing, so that the valve immediately closes by a small excitation gain.
  • Embodiment 38:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the drive device at least one piston rocker ( 60 . 61 ), by means of which the piston is adjustable.
  • Example 39
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 38 , characterized in that the piston rocker a double-armed rocker arm ( 60 . 60a) is.
  • Embodiment 40:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 38 or 39 , characterized in that the transmission is an encapsulated transmission and in particular is stored in the motor housing.
  • Embodiment 41:
  • Brake system according to one of the embodiments 1 to 37 , characterized in that the piston is driven by means disposed within the rotor of an electric motor spindle drive.
  • Example 42
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 41 , characterized in that the rotor drives the piston via an axially displaceably mounted in the rotor nut, wherein the nut is held by a particular means of solenoid or centrifugal force operated lever upon rotation of the rotor in the axial position, and in case of failure of the electric drive, the spindle together the nut is axially displaceable in the rotor.
  • Embodiment 43:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 41 or 42 , characterized in that an anti-rotation of the spindle via two bearing pins outside of the piston, which at the same time receive the piston return springs takes place.
  • Embodiment 44:
  • Brake system according to one of the embodiments 41 to 43 , characterized in that a torsion spring resets the motor.
  • Embodiment 45:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that the brake system adjusts a proportional to the pedal force gain, wherein the brake system determines the pedal force on the piston.
  • Embodiment 46:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that between the actuating device and the respective piston a damping element, in particular in the form of a leaf spring is arranged, wherein the leaf spring in particular on the rocker ( 26 ) is arranged, and that a force and / or displacement sensor for pedal force measurement is arranged on the rocker or the damping element.
  • Embodiment 47:
  • Brake system according to one of the preceding embodiments, characterized in that a channel of the working space ( 1' ) connects to the reservoir in which a safety valve ( 80 ) is arranged, which in the case of a clamping piston opens and the working space ( 1' ) for pressure reduction in the working space with the reservoir ( 18 ) connects.
  • Embodiment 48:
  • Brake system according to the embodiment 47 , characterized in that the safety valve is a mechanical-hydraulic or an electromagnetic valve.

Claims (22)

  1. Brake system, an actuating device (30), namely a brake pedal, a pedal travel sensor (38) for detecting a pedal travel of the brake pedal and a control and regulating device (22), wherein the control and regulating device (22) taking into account the detected pedal travel, a drive device (5c, 6, 7, 7a) with an electric motor (8), wherein the drive device (5c, 6, 7, 7a) adjusts a piston (1, 1a) of a piston-cylinder system via a non-hydraulic transmission device, so that in the working space (4 ', 4a', 4b ') of the cylinder, a pressure is established, wherein the working space (4', 4a ', 4b') via a pressure line (13) with a wheel brake in conjunction, said in case of failure the drive device (5c, 6, 7, 7a) the actuating device adjusts the piston (1), characterized by : a current sensor (23) for measuring a current of the electric motor, wherein the control and regulating device (22) is designed according to a Hide! make a current proportional pressure control rkerkennlinie, wherein using the current sensor (23) is moved to a position of the piston corresponding to a certain pressure.
  2. Brake system after Claim 1 , characterized in that the control and regulating device (22) is designed to use the current and position measurement in addition to the engine control for indirect pressure measurement.
  3. Brake system after Claim 1 or 2 , characterized in that for the current-proportional pressure control during commissioning a map is applied, the assigned different current strengths positions of the piston.
  4. Brake system after Claim 3 , characterized in that the map is created using an output map, wherein the output map is formed of a pressure-volume curve of the wheel brake, an engine characteristic, transmission efficiency and vehicle deceleration.
  5. Brake system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a further sensor signal (24) is used to determine the position of a rotor of the drive device (5c, 6, 7, 7a).
  6. Brake system according to claim one of Claims 3 to 5 , characterized in that the control and regulating device (22) adapted in the mismatched position of the piston (1) and engine torque the map.
  7. Brake system after one of the Claims 1 to 5 , characterized in that the control and regulating device (22) regulates the rate of pressure change over the speed of the piston (1), taking into account the pressure-volume characteristic of the wheel brake.
  8. Brake system after Claim 1 , characterized in that a sensor device determines the position of the actuating device (30).
  9. Brake system after Claim 1 , characterized in that a device for presetting or setting a force / displacement characteristic of the actuating device (30) is in operative connection with this.
  10. Brake system after one of the Claims 1 to 8th , characterized in that in the pressure line (13) to the wheel brake (15, 17) at least one of the control and regulating device (22) controlled valve (14, 16) is arranged.
  11. Brake system after Claim 10 , characterized in that the valve (14, 16) after reaching the required brake pressure in the brake cylinder (15, 17) closes and is open to set a new brake pressure.
  12. Brake system after one of the Claims 10 or 11 especially after Claim 10 , characterized in that the valve (14, 16) has such a large opening cross section that it has a small throttle effect.
  13. Brake system after one of the Claims 1 to 12 , characterized in that the piston (1) generates the required pressure change for the brake booster (BKV) and the anti-lock braking system (ABS).
  14. Brake system after one of the Claims 1 to 13 characterized in that a spring (9) urges the piston (1) or the drive device, the spring force acting in the direction that the working space is increased.
  15. Brake system after one of the Claims 1 to 14 , characterized in that the electric motor (8) has a small time constant and / or a high acceleration capacity.
  16. Brake system after Claim 16 , characterized in that the electric motor (8) is energized with the valve closed (14, 16) with an excitation current sufficient to keep the piston (1) against the spring force in position.
  17. Brake system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the generation of the brake booster, the actuating device is not or not in direct mechanical communication with the piston or the drive means, and only in case of failure of the drive device or upon activation of the ABS, the piston in mechanical communication with the actuator is.
  18. Brake system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the control in response to the movement and / or force of the brake pedal and / or the driving condition and / or braking action of an electric machine adjusts a corresponding brake booster.
  19. Brake system according to one of the preceding Claims 1 to 18 , characterized in that a pressure sensor for determining the brake pressure in the working space of the cylinder is provided.
  20. Brake system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the control and regulating device (22) has a memory in which a / the map is stored with various parameters for controlling the drive.
  21. Brake system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the control and regulating device (22) determines the piston position using an incremental encoder of the electric motor.
  22. Brake system after one of the Claims 1 to 21 , characterized in that the piston is driven by means of spindle drive.
DE102005063659.4A 2005-04-21 2005-04-21 Brake system with electric motor-driven piston-cylinder system Active DE102005063659B3 (en)

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Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102005063659.4A DE102005063659B3 (en) 2005-04-21 2005-04-21 Brake system with electric motor-driven piston-cylinder system

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Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3342552A1 (en) 1983-11-25 1985-06-05 Volkswagen Ag Hydraulic brake system for motor vehicles provided with a servo device
DE3723916A1 (en) 1987-07-18 1989-01-26 Daimler Benz Ag Hydraulic two circle-brake system
DE4239386A1 (en) 1992-11-24 1994-05-26 Teves Gmbh Alfred Hydraulic friction braking system for electrically propelled vehicle - incorporates pedal with characteristic feel imparted by compression spring in coupling to electromagnet-driven braking piston
DE4445975A1 (en) 1994-12-22 1996-06-27 Bosch Gmbh Robert Automobile hydraulic braking system
DE19500544A1 (en) 1995-01-11 1996-07-18 Teves Gmbh Alfred Electronically controlled ABS braking system for motor vehicle
DE19543583C1 (en) * 1995-11-22 1997-02-06 Daimler Benz Ag Brake pressure control device for a road vehicle with electro-hydraulic multi-circuit brake system
DE19939950A1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2000-05-31 Unisia Jecs Corp Actuator drive control mechanism of brake gear for motor vehicle
DE69515272T2 (en) * 1994-12-14 2000-11-09 Gen Motors Corp The electrohydraulic braking system
DE19936433A1 (en) 1999-07-30 2001-02-01 Continental Teves Ag & Co Ohg Electric brake booster has electromagnetic element driven by output of transducer for detecting driver's braking force to produce mechanical pulse force transferred to actuating element
DE10057557A1 (en) 2000-06-10 2001-12-13 Continental Teves Ag & Co Ohg A power assisted braking system for motor vehicles has an independent electronically controlled power amplifier
DE10318401A1 (en) 2002-04-24 2003-12-11 Advics Co Motor-driven vehicle brake device
WO2004005095A1 (en) 2002-07-09 2004-01-15 Continental Teves Ag & Co. Ohg Brake by-wire actuator
DE19511287B4 (en) 1994-07-21 2004-05-06 Continental Teves Ag & Co. Ohg Electromechanically actuated disc brake

Patent Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3342552A1 (en) 1983-11-25 1985-06-05 Volkswagen Ag Hydraulic brake system for motor vehicles provided with a servo device
DE3723916A1 (en) 1987-07-18 1989-01-26 Daimler Benz Ag Hydraulic two circle-brake system
DE4239386A1 (en) 1992-11-24 1994-05-26 Teves Gmbh Alfred Hydraulic friction braking system for electrically propelled vehicle - incorporates pedal with characteristic feel imparted by compression spring in coupling to electromagnet-driven braking piston
DE19511287B4 (en) 1994-07-21 2004-05-06 Continental Teves Ag & Co. Ohg Electromechanically actuated disc brake
DE69515272T2 (en) * 1994-12-14 2000-11-09 Gen Motors Corp The electrohydraulic braking system
DE4445975A1 (en) 1994-12-22 1996-06-27 Bosch Gmbh Robert Automobile hydraulic braking system
DE19500544A1 (en) 1995-01-11 1996-07-18 Teves Gmbh Alfred Electronically controlled ABS braking system for motor vehicle
DE19543583C1 (en) * 1995-11-22 1997-02-06 Daimler Benz Ag Brake pressure control device for a road vehicle with electro-hydraulic multi-circuit brake system
DE19939950A1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2000-05-31 Unisia Jecs Corp Actuator drive control mechanism of brake gear for motor vehicle
DE19936433A1 (en) 1999-07-30 2001-02-01 Continental Teves Ag & Co Ohg Electric brake booster has electromagnetic element driven by output of transducer for detecting driver's braking force to produce mechanical pulse force transferred to actuating element
DE10057557A1 (en) 2000-06-10 2001-12-13 Continental Teves Ag & Co Ohg A power assisted braking system for motor vehicles has an independent electronically controlled power amplifier
DE10318401A1 (en) 2002-04-24 2003-12-11 Advics Co Motor-driven vehicle brake device
WO2004005095A1 (en) 2002-07-09 2004-01-15 Continental Teves Ag & Co. Ohg Brake by-wire actuator

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