DE102005032240A1 - Method of detecting the heat - Google Patents

Method of detecting the heat

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Publication number
DE102005032240A1
DE102005032240A1 DE200510032240 DE102005032240A DE102005032240A1 DE 102005032240 A1 DE102005032240 A1 DE 102005032240A1 DE 200510032240 DE200510032240 DE 200510032240 DE 102005032240 A DE102005032240 A DE 102005032240A DE 102005032240 A1 DE102005032240 A1 DE 102005032240A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
non
heat
method according
vocalization
human mammal
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DE200510032240
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German (de)
Inventor
Kathrina Hämel
Wilhelm Kanitz
Peter-Christian Schön
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FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT fur DIE BIOLOGIE LANDWIRTSCHAFTLICHER NUTZTIERE
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FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT fur DIE BIOLOGIE LANDWIRTSCHAFTLICHER NUTZTIERE
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Priority to DE200510032240 priority Critical patent/DE102005032240A1/en
Publication of DE102005032240A1 publication Critical patent/DE102005032240A1/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61DVETERINARY INSTRUMENTS, IMPLEMENTS, TOOLS, OR METHODS
    • A61D17/00Devices for indicating trouble during labour of animals ; Methods or instruments for detecting pregnancy-related states of animals
    • A61D17/002Devices for indicating trouble during labour of animals ; Methods or instruments for detecting pregnancy-related states of animals for detecting period of heat of animals, i.e. for detecting oestrus

Abstract

The The invention relates to a method for detecting the heat in a non-human mammal. The invention further relates to a method for mating a female non-human mammals.

Description

  • The The invention relates to a method for detecting the heat in a female, non-human mammal. The invention further relates to a method for mating a female non-human mammals.
  • The Heat detection is one of the most important tasks in management from dairy farms. She has a great influence on the interim calf, the pregnancy rate per unit of time and the profitability of milk production. Milk delivery, also called lactation, starts with cattle the birth of the first calf. The daily milk quantity (power) increases after the birth of the calf, reaches after a few weeks their maximum and then sink again. Through a successful mating and entering a new pregnancy with subsequent calving, however, a renewed lactation phase caused, which leads to a recovery of milk yield. Out For this reason a successful mating is the optimal one Time after calving is crucial for a high milk yield.
  • Of the most important factor for the success of a mating is the realization of an optimal Intervalls between insemination and ovulation, the latter at Beef about 10-12 Hours after the end of estrus takes place. In practice, could be high conception rates, if the cattle in a defined Time intervals were adjusted after the onset of estrus (about 10-14 hours after the beginning of the heat). Accordingly, the Mating time for an artificial one Insemination or natural jump usually starting from the appearance of the calculated first heat sign. The subjectively from the pet owner too judging estrous symptoms are therefore crucial for the determination a cheap one Time for the mating. If the ointment symptoms are not recognized correctly, so a successful mating is only at the next oomph possible. this leads to to a reduction of the pregnancy rate and thus a reduced milk yield in dairy farms.
  • Out This is the reason for the effectiveness the heat observation and the resulting oestrus detection rate (Percentage of correct as brünstig recognized animals) of great economic importance. A poor fertility of a Inventory is frequent at an insufficient heat detection. In determining the Heat becomes common Made mistakes that cause that one too early or too late mating carried out becomes. For Germany reported Heuwieser and Mansfeld (1995) about heat detection rates of about only 50%. Esslemont (1992) investigated for British Herds an average estrus detection rate of 51.9%. Further Sources report for the state of Minnesota from an average estrus recognition rate less than 40%. In dairy farms with good fertility management should the heat detection rate be above 70% (Esslemont 1992, Ferguson and Galligan 1993).
  • in the The state of the art is present Various methods are known which are used for heat detection become. An overview of these Procedure is the publication by Becker et al. (2005). For example, the animals can a regular visual Subject to control (at least twice a day for at least 30 minutes) become. In doing so, the animals are related to the one shown by them Behavior assessed. As the clearest sign in the behavior of the animals, that for A heat speaks is a behavior in which a Sexually mature beef tolerates the popping up of another bovine. This stand-by readiness (English: standing heat) is considered the primary sign of estrus. The animal that is being hunted is a probability from 90-95% in the heat; the animal, which jumps other animals, is with a probability of 65-70% in the heat (Heuwieser 1997).
  • The Heat can u.a. above an increase in movement activity can be detected. On average is the movement activity the animals in the heat period compared to non-brünstigen About four times as high (Roth, 1987, Schuensen et al., 1987, Schofild et al., 1991). The measurement can be done with automated control systems such as with a pedometer (pedometry measurement), which is attached to the fetlock or the neck of the animal. The pedometry is a suitable automatic heat detection method that but also limits. So the pedometry is only applicable in pens and in the case of dysentery cattle false negative results occur. An overview of the method of activity measurement give Wangler et al. (2005).
  • An alternative method of heat detection is based on the use of fertile or deck incompetent search bulls, who recognize fierce female animals by repeated riding. Search bulls, however, are questionable under the aspect of occupational safety. The use of search bulls also contradicts the objective of the German Animal Protection Act.
  • Further can be used for heat detection color marking techniques which allow the animals being hunted as well as the Animals jumping to mark in color. Various color marking systems are commercially available, e.g. Chin-Ball Mating Device (Pavour Ltd., Hamolton, New Zealand) or the KaMar Heat Mount Detector (Kamar Inc., Steamboat Springs, Colorado, USA). The relative inaccuracy in connection with pure practical difficulties in attaching the equipment to the cows, limit their application possibilities but very strong.
  • Furthermore There are automatic methods for detecting heat. That's how it is it is the heat-watch system (DDx Inc. Denver, Colorado, USA) around a take-up detector comprising a pressure sensor, which is attached to the cross leg of the cow. Will the with the device provided cow from another cow jumped, the sensor sends information about the jump intensity and the launch time to a stationary computer. The procedure leads to high heat detection rates, but is not yet in Germany admitted and above also costly.
  • alternative Methods have been proposed in which the measurement of certain biochemical parameters allows statements about the oestrus. An example is the measurement of progesterone concentration. The Hormone progesterone is produced in the corpus luteum and released into the bloodstream. It can be in the blood and in the milk reliable be determined. Walker et al. (1996) and Xu et al. (1998) reported that when the progesterone concentration falls by about 2 ng / ml to less than 0.5 ng / ml with a high probability with a Rough can be expected. However, a low progesterone concentration have other causes, so that such a test only conditionally reliable Statements about the presence of a rupture allowed. A high progesterone concentration however, it closes a rage.
  • Also other methods, such as the determination of the electrical conductivity of the vaginal mucus of cattle, lead only conditionally to reliable Statements about the presence of a heat. A suitable method for detection The ostomy should be a permanent surveillance as well as a safe one and enable clear identification of the animal to be monitored. Furthermore, the process should lead to high heat detection rates and be associated with low work and low costs.
  • task The present invention is therefore the provision of a Procedure for the detection of heat, which meets the requirements mentioned and the ones mentioned above Does not have disadvantages of the known in the prior art method. This object is solved by the subject matter of the present claims.
  • description the invention
  • The present invention provides a method for detecting estrus in a female, non-human mammal comprising:
    • a) detects the vocalization events of a female, non-human mammal;
    • b) determines the vocalization rate on the basis of the vocalization events detected in step a);
    • c) compares the vocalization rate with a reference value, the comparison providing information on the presence of estrus in the female, non-human mammal.
  • In the context of the present invention, the term "estrus" denotes a defined phase of the sexual cycle in non-human mammals with a cyclical, hormonally controlled mating rhythm. The physiological processes in the female genital organs are periodic in mammals. They form the sexual cycle that takes from one rage to the next. The cycle length varies from species to species and also has a slight variability between races and individual animals. The estrus or oestrus is externally recognizable by oestrus symptoms. The duration and course of estrus itself are also species-specific with a certain variability between races and individual individuals. Oestrus is the phase of the sexual cycle during which mating and fertilization can occur. With regard to the type of cycle, a distinction is made in mammals between monoöstrischen, diöstrischen and polyöstrischen animals. Mono-ostrous animals are bred only once a year (eg deer, stag), diabolical animals twice (eg dog) and polyöstrische animals several times a year (eg cattle, pig, sheep, Goat and horse). Beef and pork can become hot throughout the year and are therefore termed polyecious throughout the year. Sheep, goat and horse usually become fervent only during a certain period (breeding season) and therefore show a seasonal polycentric cycle type. Daylight and light intensity play a major role in triggering the seasonal heat. The breeding season with the horse takes place in spring, with sheep and goats usually in autumn. Other livestock species such as rabbits, llamas or camels have induced ovulation that is triggered directly by the mating act.
  • exemplary the sexual cycle becomes female. Beef described in detail. The sexual cycle in cattle, it usually takes 21 days. For young cattle this is Time lapse often on 19-20 Shortened days. Overall, fluctuations occur in the period between 18-27 days in front. The sexual cycle leaves divide into 4 phases based on different characteristics:
  • 1. Oestrus (main or high estrus)
  • As estrus becomes a period of about 18 hours in which the female animal tolerates the mating. For the mating behavior is largely responsible for the neuroendocrine system, the impulses gets the above the brain through tactile, visual, acoustic and olfactory Triggered stimuli become. The period of estrus may be due to exogenous and endogenous factors be influenced, for example by changing the temperature and Lighting and feeding conditions. Hammond (1927) gives the average duration of estrus in the course of the year with about 17 hours. Grunert (1999) describes 18 hours (2-30 Hrs.) In the lowland cattle as the average period of readiness for copulation. In addition to some symptoms already existing in the early morning, such as Roar, Restlessness, bending of the back etc. is the departure of crystal clear, stringy ooze as well as a clearly swollen vulva a reliable sign of esteem. Hot cattle in a free herd show on the sacrum fresh skin abrasions as a result of the jumps by other animals. The vaginal vein is pink and with Mucus, the vaginal canal also shows Mucus secretions and is open strong pencil. The uterus is during the heat coiled and of a coarse, solid texture. On the touch stimulus in rectal palpation, the uterus usually contracts and causes e.g. in connection with the manipulations at the artificial Insemination more often the departure of oily mucus from the cervix. The ovary is now a clearly trained about hazelnut-sized follicle felt.
  • 2. Postöstrus (fervor or metestrus)
  • Of the Postöstrus is generally defined as the period of 2-3 days, starting from the the willingness to tolerate no longer exists and the outer and internal uterine symptoms disappear (e.g., decaying uterine contraction, Subsidence of hyperemia and the amplified Secretion of the cervix, vagina and vestibulum, end of the cervical canal). While the fervor, circa 2 days after the end of the oestrus, can which leaks out of the vagina, adding blood. By capillary bleeding into the uterine lumen, caused by estrogen-induced hyperemia the blood becomes with the afterglow mucus. Ovulation occurs during Cattle in general only when the external Brunsterscheinungen already have subsided. Ovulation occurs on average for 30-35 hours after start and about 7.3 (0-16) Hours after the end of oestrus (Grunert 1999).
  • 3. Inter-oestrus (intermediate est or diestrus)
  • When interoestrus It is called the sexual rest period of about 16 days. He follows Postöstrus and usually lasts until the proestrus. With a duration of 16 days, the interosseus is the longest phase in the sexual cycle. It is characterized by the absence of any symptoms that as an approach to a sexual partner. Essentially corresponds the interosseus the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle (about 3.-18./19. Cycle day) and the secretion phase of the mucous membrane cycle (Grunert 1999). The interosseus ends with the luteal body regression, which is initiated by the uterine prostaglandin F2α.
  • 4. Proöstrus
  • The Proöstrus is the period of time from the onset of behavioral changes to the first toleration readiness (duration 2-3 days). The first signs are an increased nervousness. The clearest indication of the approaching heat is the mutual jumping of the animals. In the special gynecological external and internal examination will be a slight swelling of the vulva, a hyperemic and highly moist Vaginal mucosa as well as an accumulation of mucus in the vulva observed (Grunert 1999). Occasionally, effluent mucus is already visible at the bottom of the pubic angle. The mucus consistency changes during the early morning heat. She is initially moderately viscous. Towards the end of this phase (during the transition to oestrus) the clear, transparent mucus is stringy. The cervix has a certain amount of relaxation. The increased excitability is also evident in rectal palpation, with the uterus reacting with an already more or less pronounced willingness to contract. The estrogen-related increased blood supply leads to a slight enlargement of the uterus. In addition to the small and bony corpus luteum in regression, a Graafian follicle can already be palpated on the ovaries during the formation phase (Grunert 1999).
  • With With the exception of the oestrus, which can be strictly distinguished, the transitions of the individual cycle phases gradually. These relatively flowing transitions will be still superimposed through individual reaction patterns. That makes it understandable why the information given in the literature about the Duration of the individual cycle phases do not always coincide (Grunert 1999).
  • When Vocalization event is present each by means of appropriate technical Devices detectable acoustic lute of the examined non-human mammal understood that exceeds a predetermined sound level and temporally on both sides is limited by phases in which no vocalization takes place or the sound level of the speaker below the predetermined sound level lies. Depending on the each to be examined mammal can The nature and duration of the vocalisation events vary. In cattle For example, vocalization events are preferably detected, which last at least 750 ms and not longer than 3000 ms. The time intervals corresponding to the individual vocalization events are accordingly separated by time intervals (relative) silence. The predetermined sound level is determined as a function of e.g. Ambient noise or There are sounds nearby stagnant other animals or the economically sensible complexity of the technical Construction chosen. Preferably, a detection of loudnesses of a volume, the can already be heard by the human ear. Depending on the individual case it may be advantageous to use the concept of vocalization event to be narrower in the way that a vocalization only as Vocalization event is scored, if additional Conditions fulfilled. So it may be useful, for example, to demand that the predetermined Sound level for a predetermined minimum period of time must be exceeded (for example 1000 ms or 1500 ms) that the vocalization is at least partially within a chosen one Frequency band he follows and / or that the frequency spectrum is a selected frequency pattern contains. In this way, a preselection among the individual vocalizations of the animal. In the same way can also be a further suppression of ambient noise or vocalization events other animals are reached. For example, a frequency band can be selected that for the lameness of the animal to be examined is characteristic. Further can Discourses are discarded that are not a familiar one for the vocalization of the animal to be examined characteristic pattern in her Frequency spectrum to distinguish between different Animal species or breeds.
  • The Detection of the vocalization events preferably takes place with the aid of at least one sound sensor (e.g., a microphone) containing the Sound of non-human mammalian vocalizations received and into the phoneme can convert corresponding sensor signal, which is preferred is an electrical signal. For this purpose, the sound sensor near of the animal or by means of a suitable fastening device arranged on the animal. It may be advantageous if a Means for transmitting the sensor signal to a remote location, e.g. a central unit, is provided. Such a central processing unit may comprise a computer, the for the storage, processing and / or evaluation of the sensor signals is set up. The sound sensor and the means for transmitting of the sensor signal can according to the invention in one Device summarized.
  • In a preferred embodiment the sensor signal becomes the later Evaluation recorded by a suitable storage device. The recording can, for example, on a magnetic tape or a electronic storage device done. The identification The individual vocalisation events take place in the simplest case manually by converting the recorded sensor signal by means of a suitable transducer in sound. In this way it is possible to simple electronic devices, e.g. a tape recorder or to use a camcorder. Alternatively, the recorded Sensor signal to be further processed, as related to the following embodiments is described. The storage device may be at the location of the sound sensor or preferably at a remote location, such as the one indicated above Central unit, be arranged.
  • In a further preferred embodiment, the sensor signal is supplied to a device for automatic analysis, which is adapted to the individual vocalization events in the sensor signal identify and issue an identification signal for each identified vocalization event. These identification signals can for example consist of electrical, optical or acoustic pulses. The subsequent determination of the vocalization rate can then be carried out in a simple manner by manual counting of the identification signals or preferably by automatic counting of the identification signals with a suitable counter. A preferred device for generating such identification signals comprises a discriminator device which delivers an output pulse when the amplitude of the input signal (possibly for a predetermined period of time) exceeds an adjustable threshold value.
  • As already indicated above, the device for identification the vocalisation events for the purpose of masking ambient noise and a more accurate assignment of the vocalization events to the straight have a bandpass filter at their entrance, whose pass band is a for the lute of the animal corresponds to the characteristic frequency range. Additionally or Alternatively, the device may include a memory for storing at least Have a reference signal that a characteristic pattern in the time or frequency spectrum of the animal's normal vocalization equivalent. In this case, there is also a means for pattern recognition provided, which is adapted to the sensor signal or the frequency spectrum of the sensor signal to be compared with the at least one reference signal and in this way the appearance of the characteristic characteristic corresponding to it Recognize pattern and display. That's the way it is for example possible, even then to reliably detect the vocalization events of cows, if they are kept in a stable with other species. Of the Bandpass filter, the memory for storing at least one reference signal and / or the means for pattern recognition may, for example, in the be realized above central unit.
  • The inventive method The heat detection includes in one of the detection below Step the determination of the so-called vocalization rate, i. the Determination of the number of female, non-human mammals voiced vocalizations per time unit. The determination of the vocalization rate includes the count the detected vocalization events. Examples for carrying out the count are given above. Preferably, the time unit used for Calculation of the vocalization rate serves, in the range of one or more chosen for several hours. In the context of the experiment described in the example section was at the number of vocalisation events per animal Hour determined. The time unit used has been found to be suitable proved to increase the vocalization rate in the course of estrus to be able to represent in a suitable manner. The skilled person is of course known that other time intervals can be chosen to to determine a suitable vocalization rate. So, for example Time intervals of 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 minutes, or 1-4 hours for the Calculation of the vocalisation rate. It recommends However, to use time intervals of less than 4 hours, also after detection, determination of the vocalization rate and subsequent comparison with the corresponding reference value when determining a heat possibly at an early age Timing measures to initiate mating of the non-human mammal.
  • The in step b) certain Vokalisationsrate is then with compared to a previously defined reference value, the information about the There is a heat in the subsequently examined non-human mammal gives. The present invention is based on the surprising finding that the periodic recurrence of heat in a female cow with a quantitative increase in the vocalization events of the Animal and consequently following these vocalisation events over one defined period statements over allowed the optimal mating period of the animal. As "optimum mating period" applies in this context a period within the sexual cycle of the female, non-human mammal, which leads to a high probability of conception. In In practice, high conception rates have been found in cattle, if the mating in a period of 10 to 14 hours, preferably 12 hours after the onset of heat took place. The present invention open thus the possibility for any non-human mammals Reference values for to determine the vocalisation rate, which is characteristic for fervent or non-rutting Animals of this genus, species or subspecies are. Once these reference values have been established, it is possible on the basis of in a particular animal of the same genus (preferably of the same species or subspecies) with sufficiently high probability statements about that The presence of heat in this animal.
  • As a reference value, the respective vocalization rates of brünstigen or non-brünstigen non-human mammals serve. These are the non-human mammals whose oestrus is to be determined by the method according to the invention and non-human mammals from which the respective reference values are obtained for animals of the same genus, preferably animals of the same species or subspecies (Breed ), and in some cases also animals of closely related species or subspecies can be compared. The present invention as a reference value Vokali The rate of arrival may be from a single animal whose vocalization has been detected in a suitable manner over a defined period of time. This may be a single vowelization rate measured during heat or several averaged values. Such averaged reference values are preferable to those determined from a single value because they are less error prone. Alternatively, the reference value may be an averaged value formed from vocalization rates of several animals.
  • According to one preferred embodiment of the present invention is the reference value (averaged) vocalization rate of one or more non-human mammals, which are demonstrably not in the heat. Preferably The reference value is one or more non-favorable ones non-human mammals, that belong to the same species or subspecies as the non-human mammal, where the heat is to be detected. According to a particularly preferred embodiment comes from the reference value serving Vokalisationsrate a non-brünstigen Animal from the same nonhuman mammal in which the oestrus to be detected. This means that first the Vocalization events in the respective animal over a defined period of time be detected when the animal is proven not located in the estuary. From the measured vocalization events during the Hustle will follow the reference value is formed (e.g. by formation of the corresponding Average or by choosing a suitable single value). Provided the corresponding value for once the vocalization rate has been determined, this may be too later Times (if the mating of the respective animal is desired) as a reference value for The determination of the oestrus can be used in this animal.
  • Of the Proof of this whether the respective non-human mammal, which serves to determine a reference value, in the heat or not, can with the help of one or more in the state be determined by the technique of sufficiently known methods. Preferably this evidence is based on the detection of a possible high number of signs and biological parameters on the Indicate presence of heat. In the case of cattle, for example, several the above mentioned known in the art, such as the methods Measurement of progesterone concentrations in blood and milk, the determination the motility the animals, or similar carried out become. One possible high number of different measurements and the detection of one possible huge Number of signs allows to prove with sufficient probability that the respective animal is in heat. A fierce animal can, for example be uniquely identified by simultaneously using both visual control of motility, a determination of the progesterone concentration in the blood and a tactile evidence of preovulatory Follicle performs. An increased motility, a low progesterone concentration and the palpation of the preovulatory Follicles indicate a heat.
  • If the vocalization rate measured on the non-human mammal to be examined the reference value of one or more non-beneficial Animals comes, transcends, so lets to conclude that the non-human mammal being measured undergoes the measurement located in the estuary. It is to be expected that in such a Situation the measured vocalization rate clearly exceeds the reference value. Under "significantly higher" is present understand that the measured value for the vocalization rate is the Reference value at least 60%, preferably 75%, 100%, 150%, 200%, 300%, 400%, 500% or more. This means that the vocalization rate in a feral animal compared to a non-fervent Animal many times higher can be. If, however, in step b) of the method according to the invention certain vocalisation rate approximates (or falls below) the reference value, leave this to conclude that the non-human mammal, in which the heat is to be determined, not in the heat. Under "approximately equal" is present understood that the Vokalisationsrate determined in step b) the corresponding reference value or deviates slightly from it, the deviation is preferably less than 50%. Especially preferred become embodiments, where the determined vocalization rate is a maximum of 35%, 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5% or less of the reference value, where the measured vocalization rate can be higher or lower as the reference value.
  • In an alternative embodiment, the reference (averaged) vocalization rate is from one or more non-human mammals found to be in the oestrus. Preferably, the reference value is from one or more human mammalian non-human mammals belonging to the same species or subspecies as the non-human mammal for which the oestrus is to be detected. According to a particularly preferred embodiment, the vocalization rate of a brute animal serving as the reference value originates from the same non-human mammal in which the oestrus is to be detected. This means that, first of all, the vocalisation events in the respective animal are detected over a defined period of time, if the animal has demonstrably been detected in the animal Is located. After the reference value has been established, it can be used at later times for the determination of the heat in this animal (or other animals), for example if it is to decide on the mating time of the animal in question. Evidence of whether the animal from which the reference value is obtained is fusible can be uniquely determined as described above by a combination of the methods known in the art.
  • Provided in the context of the method according to the invention used reference value of one or more fruity Comes from animals, can in the animal to be examined for a heat be closed when the specific vocalization rate of this Animal close to the reference value where the term "approximately equal" means that the in step b) certain vocalization rate of the respective reference value equal or insignificant deviates from it, the deviation preferably less than 50%. Particular preference is given to embodiments where the determined vocalization rate is a maximum of 35%, 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5% or less of the reference value, where the measured vocalization rate can be higher or lower as the reference value. Provided that the certain vocalization rate the falls below the respective reference value, this is a sign that the non-human mammal does not located in the estuary. As is clear in the example section, it is too expect the measured vocalization rate to be the reference value clearly below. The term "significantly below" is understood in the present case, that the measured value for the vocalization rate the reference value at least 60%, preferably falls below 75%, 100%, 150%, 200%, 300%, 400%, 500% or more.
  • According to one particularly preferred embodiment the present invention is the non-human Mammal, in which the proof of an estrus should take place, around a cloven-hoofed animal. The taxonomic group of Cloven Hoofed Artiodactyla or Paarzehigen Hoofed animals forms an order within the higher mammals (Placentalia). These taxonomic group includes about 220 different species, among others Camels, deer, gazelles and giraffes, as well as the main farm animals, including Cattle, goats, pigs, horses and sheep. The order of the cloven-hoofed animals is subdivided into the subordination of non-ruminants (Suina), These include, for example, the pigs, and the subordination of the Ruminants (Ruminantia), which includes cattle, sheep and goats. According to a particularly preferred embodiment that is not humane mammal selected from the group consisting of beef, pork, horse, goat and sheep. Most preferably, the female is non-human mammal around a cow. Preferably belongs the bovine of the genus "Bos".
  • The Cattle may also belong to any breed, with preference being given to that the cow is an animal of a breed, the meaning in the context of milk and / or meat production. Such races are sufficient for the specialist in livestock farming and include, for example, Charolais, Fleckvieh, Gelbvieh, Blonde d'Aquitaine, German Angus, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Hereford, Galloway, Holstein Friesian, Blackbunt, Redbunt, Limburger or Highland.
  • Further it is preferred according to the invention, that it is the cattle that are being examined for a heat is supposed to be a young cattle. In the context of the present invention becomes a sexual maturity under the term "young cattle" female cattle before the first pregnancy.
  • According to one In another aspect, the present invention provides a method for mating a female nonhuman mammal, in which one first as described above, the heat in the female non-human mammal by detection of the vocalisation events, subsequent determination of the Vocalization rate and comparison of the vocalisation rate with a Reference value determined and, if there is a heat, the female non-human mammal the mating leads.
  • According to the present invention, the term "mating" is understood to mean any process resulting in insemination of the female, non-human mammal. According to a preferred embodiment, the mating is performed by artificial insemination. The man working in the field of animal husbandry methods of artificial insemination of various mammals, especially livestock, well known and are, for example, in Busch, W., K. Löhle, W. Peter: artificial insemination of livestock. 2nd edition, Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena Stuttgart, 1991, described. According to a particularly preferred embodiment, the artificial insemination takes place several times. Thus, for example, in the presence of an estrus at intervals of a few hours, several inseminations take place in order to increase the probability of fertilization. According to an alternative embodiment, the mating takes place after detecting the heat by natural jump. This means that the mating of the female, non-human mammal occurs naturally by a corresponding male animal. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the mating of the animal takes place in a period of 8-14 Hours after recognition of the heat. According to a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, it follows the mating in a period of 10-12 hours after the onset of heat.
  • Description of the figures:
  • 1 shows the number of vocalisations per hour over a recording period of 7 days for the experimental animal DE1301729866 , BB marks the visualization of the onset of estrus.
  • 2 shows the number of vocalizations per hour over a recording period of 5 days for the test animal DE1301729876 , BB marks the visualization of the onset of estrus.
  • 3 shows the number of vocalizations per day as well as the course of the progesterone concentration over the recording period of 7 days for the test animal DE1301729866 ,
  • 4 shows the number of vocalizations per day and the course of the progesterone concentration over the 5-day uptake period for the experimental animal DE1301729876 ,
  • The experiments described below show that it is in cattle to a significant increase in the vocalization rate during the Brunst comes.
  • Test animals:
  • The used animals were in the experimental animal facility of the research institute for the Biology of farm animals Dummerstorf.
  • For the trial 10 animals of the breed German Holstein (DH) were available.
  • Figure 00220001
    Table 1: Animals used, recording period and visual oestrus observation
  • Test procedure:
  • There was a complete recording of all sounds of the respective animal over a period of at least 5 days. The recording of the vocalization events was started on day 11 of the cycle (counting from day 0 = high heat of the previous cycle). On day 12 of the cycle, an intramuscular injection of 0.5 mg PGF (animedica, Germany) was performed to induce estrus.
  • at All the animals were ruffed by experienced professionals daily Observed heat observation. In the daily oestrus observation were the following symptoms are assessed by rating: behavior of the animal, redness and Swelling of pubic and mucus.
  • In addition, blood was drawn every morning (08:00) of the observation period to determine the progesterone concentration of each animal. To determine the progesterone concentration, a radioimmunoassay was used. A description of the assay and the assay criteria are in Schneider et al. (2002).
  • Around an assignment of the individual vocalization events to the respective one To clearly identify animals The animals were positioned at a distance of about 15 meters to each other. The vocalization was measured with a microphone, the Using a transmitter, the recorded sounds played directly into a computer. The microphone was in close proximity attached to the head of the animal. By means of a pick-up threshold could false recordings (sounds of other animals) for the most part be prevented. The detection took place for a period of at least 5 days.
  • Everyone recorded sound was as a waveform, consisting of individual files, stored in the computer. In this way arose between each animal 200 and 600 individual files, with the respective sound, the date, the Time, the length the sound and the distance to the previous sound. The Recording thus consisted of a large number of juxtaposed Single loudspeakers together, with recorded ambient noise as well Sounds of other animals deleted were.
  • Results:
  • The experiments showed a significant increase in the vowelization rate in the oestrus. The result of the detection is in the 1 and 2 shown graphically. The Y-axis shows the number of vocalization events, while the X-axis shows the multi-day detection period at hourly intervals (the interval from 13:00 to 1:00 in 1 corresponds to that according to a 12-hour interval).
  • The displayed bars represent the measured number of vocalization events per hour for each experimental animal. In addition, the time of estrus (BB) determined by visual observation is shown. It can be seen clearly that at the time of the rupture a strong increase in the vocalizations and thus the vocalization rate occurs. The maximum vocalization rates were in the range of 115 vocalizations in the first hour and 200 vocalizations in the second hour (see 1 ). 200 vocalisations means that the animal has vocalized on average more than 3 times per minute. It is therefore to be expected that the vocalization rate of a brute of beef according to the invention is in the order of 100-200 vocalizations per hour.
  • In order to achieve a comparability of the experimental animals with each other and to describe a connection with the progesterone concentration course, the number of vocalisations per day was summed up and displayed together with the measured progesterone concentration in a diagram. Since the blood samples for progesterone determination were daily at 08:00 o'clock, the vocalizations were summed up in the time interval from 09:00 of the previous day to 8:00 of the following day. The 3 and 4 show the corresponding presentation of the results for the in the 1 respectively. 2 examined experimental animals. It can be seen that the increase in the vocalization rate correlates with a low progesterone concentration in the blood of the respective animal. This increase was also consistent with the day of manual oestrus observation.
  • bibliography
    • Becker et al. (2005) Advantages and disadvantages of individual methods Breeding detection in cattle Breeding customer 77 (2-3), 140-150
    • Busch, W., K. Löhle, W. Peter (1991) Artificial Insemination in farm animals. 2nd edition, Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena Stuttgart
    • Esslemont, R.J. (1992) Measuring dairy herd fertility Vet. Rec. 131, 209-212
    • Ferguson, J.D. and Galligan, D.T. (1993) Prostaglandin synchronization programs in dairy herds partI
    • Grunert, E. and Berchtold, M. (1999) Fertility Disorders at female ox Parey Verlag, Stuttgart
    • Hammond, J. (1927) The physiology of reproduction in the cow Cambridge Univ. Press, London, GB
    • Heuwieser, W. and Mansfeld, R. (1995) Oath Observation at Rind Milchpraxis 33, 75-79
    • Roth, H., Schuensen, D. and beautiful, H. (1987) In: Computer-aided oestrus detection in dairy cattle Am. Soc. Agric. Eng., 87: 1-11
    • Schneider et al. (2002) Gonadotropin release in periovulatory heifers after GnRH analogs measured by two types of immunoassays Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 110, 235-244
    • Schofield, S.A., Phillips, C.J.C. and Owens, A.R. (1991) Variation in milk production, activity rate and electrical impedance of cervical mucus over the estrus period of dairy cows Anim. Reprod. Sci., 24: 231-248
    • Schünsen, D. et al. (1987) Automatic health and estrus control in dairy husbandry through computer aided systems J. Agric. Closely. Res., 38: 263-279
    • Walker, W.L., Nebel, R.L. and McGilliard, M.L. (1996) Time of Ovulation relative to mounting activity in dairy cattle J. Dairy Sci. 79, 1555-1561
    • Wangler et al. (2005). How efficient is the activity measurement as an aid in the detection of heat in dairy cattle? Züchtungskunde 77 (2-3), 110-127
    • Xu, Z.Z., et al. (1998) Estrus detection using radiotelemetry or visual observation and tail painting for dairy cows on pasture J. Dairy. Sci., 81: 2

Claims (20)

  1. Method for detecting a heat in a female, non-human mammal, in which one a) the vocalization events of a female, non-human mammal detected; b) starting from those detected in step a) Vocalization events determines the vocalization rate; c) comparing the vocalization rate with a reference value, wherein the Comparison information about the presence of heat in the female non-human mammal gives.
  2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that that the non-human mammal is a cloven-hoofed animal.
  3. Method according to claim 2, characterized in that that the Cloven Hoof picked is from the group consisting of beef, pork, goat and sheep.
  4. Method according to claim 3, characterized that the non-human mammal a cow is.
  5. Method according to claim 4, characterized in that that the cow belongs to the genus "Bos".
  6. Method according to claim 5, characterized in that that the cattle to breed Charolais, Fleckvieh, yellow cattle, Blonde d'Aquitaine, German Angus, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Hereford, Galloway, Holstein Frisian, Black and White, Rotbunt, Limburger or Highland heard.
  7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized that the reference value of one or more non-fervent non-human mammals where, if the vocalization rate determined in step b) exceeds the reference value, to conclude this leaves, that the non-human mammal in the heat, and if the vocalization rate determined in step b) close to the reference value corresponds, this conclude leaves, that the non-human mammal not in the heat.
  8. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized that the reference value of one or more brushless non-human mammals where, if the vocalization rate determined in step b) close to the reference value corresponds, this conclude leaves, that the non-human mammal in the heat, and if the vocalization rate determined in step b) below the reference value, this suggests that the nonhuman mammal not in the heat.
  9. Method according to one of claims 7 or 8, wherein the reference value from one or more non-human mammals, the same Belong to species or subspecies like the non-human mammal, where the heat is to be detected.
  10. The method of claim 9, wherein the reference value from the same non-human mammal comes from, where the oestrus is to be detected.
  11. Method according to one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the detection the vocalisation events with the help of at least one sound sensor he follows.
  12. The method of claim 11, wherein the at least a sound sensor is disposed on the non-human mammal.
  13. Method according to one of claims 11 or 12, characterized that the detected vocalization events by means of a transmitter transmitted to a central unit become.
  14. Method according to one of claims 11 to 13, wherein the sensor signal by a suitable Spei is recorded.
  15. Method for mating a female, non-human mammal, in which one a) performs a method according to claims 1 to 14; and b) if there is a heat, the female, non-human mammal the mating leads.
  16. Method according to claim 15, characterized in that that the mating by artificial Insemination takes place.
  17. Method according to claim 15 or 16, characterized that the artificial Insemination takes place several times.
  18. Method according to claim 15, characterized in that that the mating takes place by natural jump.
  19. Method according to one of claims 15 to 18, characterized that mating takes place 8 to 14 hours after the onset of heat.
  20. Method according to claim 19, characterized that the mating takes place 10 to 12 hours after the onset of heat.
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DE102014003846A1 (en) 2014-03-18 2015-09-24 Leibniz-Institut Für Nutztierbiologie Device for recording animal-specific behavioral parameters of animals

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102012107012A1 (en) 2012-08-01 2014-02-06 Oliver Dietrich Method for detecting the probability of estrus
WO2014019791A1 (en) 2012-08-01 2014-02-06 Oliver Dietrich Method for identifying the probability of an estrus
DE102014003846A1 (en) 2014-03-18 2015-09-24 Leibniz-Institut Für Nutztierbiologie Device for recording animal-specific behavioral parameters of animals
DE102014003846B4 (en) * 2014-03-18 2016-09-08 Leibniz-Institut Für Nutztierbiologie Device for recording animal-specific behavioral parameters of animals

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