DE10053625B4 - Method and device for radio remote control of moving objects - Google Patents

Method and device for radio remote control of moving objects

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Publication number
DE10053625B4
DE10053625B4 DE2000153625 DE10053625A DE10053625B4 DE 10053625 B4 DE10053625 B4 DE 10053625B4 DE 2000153625 DE2000153625 DE 2000153625 DE 10053625 A DE10053625 A DE 10053625A DE 10053625 B4 DE10053625 B4 DE 10053625B4
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Prior art keywords
data
means
used
characterized
frequency channels
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German (de)
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DE10053625A1 (en
Inventor
Dipl.-Ing. Bumiller Gerd
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Huber Johannes
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IAD GESELLSCHAFT fur INFORMATIK AUTOMATISIERUNGUND DATENVERARBEITUNG MBH
iAd Gesellschaft fur informatik Automatisierung und Datenverarbeitung
IAD GmbH
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IAD GESELLSCHAFT FUER INFORMATIK, AUTOMATISIERUNGUND DATENVERARBEITUNG MBH
iAd Gesellschaft fur informatik Automatisierung und Datenverarbeitung
IAD GMBH
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Priority to DE2000153625 priority Critical patent/DE10053625B4/en
Publication of DE10053625A1 publication Critical patent/DE10053625A1/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B1/00Details of transmission systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04B3/00 - H04B13/00; Details of transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission
    • H04B1/69Spread spectrum techniques
    • H04B1/707Spread spectrum techniques using direct sequence modulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L1/00Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received
    • H04L1/004Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by using forward error control
    • H04L1/0041Arrangements at the transmitter end
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L1/00Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received
    • H04L1/004Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by using forward error control
    • H04L1/0045Arrangements at the receiver end

Abstract

Method for radio remote control of moving objects, in which
The radio remote control takes place in accordance with a narrow-band bidirectional CDMA transmission system,
A source coding is used to reduce the data to be transmitted,
The source-coded data is fed to a rate 1 / n convolutional decoder (FE) and subsequently modified by a signature-characteristic signature sequence by means of a signature generator (SG),
A carrier-sensitive frequency hopping method according to the measured interference powers in the available frequency channels is used, and
• For the simultaneous determination of the channel assignment, the determination of the interference power in the individual frequency channels by means of a regular spectral measurement of the complete available frequency band by calculating the FFT over a broadband received signal section for spectral detection of multiple frequency channels during the receiving process takes place.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for radio remote control of moving objects according to claim 1. Furthermore, the invention relates according to claim 8, a device for radio remote control of moving objects.
  • The creation of simple and inexpensive radio remote controls has been the subject of intensive development work in various fields of technology for many years. For example, is from the DE 93 19 508 U1 a radio remote control for industrial use, with a transmitter, which contains a transmitter part with a transmitter, an electronic control unit and a coder known. An associated receiver includes a receiver portion with a receiver, scan electronics and scan-stop electronics, and a decoder. In detail, it is provided that the transmitting device has a device for automatically selecting a free frequency or a free channel for data transmission.
  • For the radio remote control of moving objects, such. As model airplanes, ships, or cars exist systems for unidirectional data transmission, in which simple, telecommunications technology transmission methods are used, such. B. analog AM or FM, pulse width modulation or pulse code modulation (PCM) with simple digital transmission method. Since the information to be transmitted is low, the systems have low transmission bandwidths.
  • For example, in model airplanes bandwidths of 10 kHz are used, with several adjacent frequency channels in each of the bands being around 27, 35 and 40 MHz. The systems operate with a constant transmission power, which is designed for the maximum desired range under worst-case propagation conditions. As a result, they also generate high interference power for other, relatively distant systems, which can severely disrupt their operation. Last but not least in model flying disruptions of communication are anything but desirable, as they can lead to crashes of expensive flying objects. In order to avoid multiple uses of frequency channels, therefore exist in model aviation frequency plans, in which a desired frequency assignment is entered in advance.
  • Furthermore, both the controlling element (transmitter) and the controlled element (receiver) of such systems typically contain relatively much intelligence, but for the most part operate separately because there is no effective information exchange, apart from the actual control data.
  • Furthermore, there are a few systems for transmitting telemetry data (eg, as a PC card) using the 1SM bands (Industrial, Scientific, Medical). In these bands, however, only relatively low transmission powers are allowed, so that a transmission only over small distances or with poor transmission quality is possible. Another disadvantage here is that separate systems are needed for the remote control and telemetry data transmission, their joint use severely limits mobility and ease of use.
  • For example, is from the DE 43 12 676 C2 a circuit arrangement for the telemetric transmission of physical state data from an object of the model building technique known. By means arranged in the object RF transmitting device z. As engine speed, battery voltage, altitude or temperature of a model aircraft, a receiver station for optical and / or acoustic evaluation of the data supplied. For this purpose, the transmitting station provided in the object, corresponding to the data to be transmitted, contains a number of analog sensors, which are connected to an A / D converter via a multiplexing interrogator. In detail, it is provided that the output of the A / D converter is connected to an 8-bit microcontroller, which has a RAM, in which the voltage values output by the sensors are stored as a telegram. A data output from the microcontroller is connected to a FFSK modem. The output of the FFSK modem is connected to a control device of a (preferably) 433 MHz RF transmitter, which is in each case a telegram of the measured voltage values, supplemented by a z. B. specified by a dip switch device address, sends to the receiving station. The receiving station consists of a (preferably) 433 MHz RF receiver whose output is connected to an FFSK modem. Furthermore, the FFSK modem is connected to a data input of an 8-bit microcontroller with a RAM and an EPROM for the storage of device address, conversion factors, statistical data, assignment of the transmitter sensor inputs. Finally, the micro-controller has a low-frequency output with amplifier for a headphone, an output for a LC display and a serial V24 interface for connecting a computer.
  • A similar telemetry device for radio controlled models with probes located in the model to determine various readings such as battery charge or battery level, height, model speed in all three axes, elevation ("variometer") of model ed. Like., With a radio telemetry transmitter on board the model for Transmission of the measured values (telemetry data) to a corresponding telemetry receiver in the pilot of the model, is from the DE 195 02 713 A1 known. For this purpose, means are provided for displaying the telemetry data in, on or on the transmitter housing of the radio remote control of the model.
  • Furthermore, from the DE 196 25 588 A1 a method and a device for radio remote control by means of coded electromagnetic pulses, in which the modulated on a high-frequency carrier electromagnetic pulses are emitted by a corresponding transmitter. Upon receipt of a coded transmitter signal is compared by a receiver which has stored at least one code, this with the stored code and in accordance with the stored code with the transmitted code is triggered via the radio remote control function. Furthermore, it is provided that at least one further transmitter is used in addition to a first transmitter for coded electromagnetic pulses. This transmitter receives via an integrated into the transmitter receiving part and a signal processing unit also integrated a radiated from the first transmitter at a sufficiently small distance, coded signal and stores in a correspondingly adjustable operating state, the received coded signal as its own coded transmission signal. Furthermore, from the DE 43 19 830 A1 a CDMA transmission system having at least one transmitter, in each of which a data sequence is spread with a code sequence and with at least one receiver in which the data sequences are recovered by means of a detector known. In detail, a frame structure is provided and the useful information to be transmitted within a frame is in each case combined to form a signal burst.
  • Furthermore, from the DE 44 41 543 A1 a receiver and a method for demodulating a CDMA signal are known. The receiver contains
    • • means for generating data samples from the received signal;
    • • means for collecting data samples in the form of blocks of complex data samples;
    • Means for partially correlating the blocks of data samples with shifts of at least one known signature sequence;
    • Means for selecting a predetermined number of the partial correlations;
    • • means for estimating multipath channel tap coefficients;
    • Means for forming real parts of products of the selected partial correlations with the multipath channel tap coefficients and
    means for combining the real parts of the products to determine at least one transmitted information character sequence.
  • From the US 5,481,257 A is a method for radio remote control of moving objects, in particular a vehicle with a video camera, by means of a broadband CDMA transmission system known. Specifically, a frequency division multiplexing system is used in the execution direction for remote control, and only the backward channel is provided with the wideband CDMA transmission system for transmission of audio and video data. The transmission of audio and video data allows the user to "sit in the remote-controlled moving object".
  • Theoretical principles of the news transmission technology are from D. Kammeyer "message transmission" 2nd edition, B.G. Teubner Stuttgart, 1996, ISBN 3-519-16142-7, pages 109-134, 391-394; 673-684 known. In particular, pages 391 to 393 describe the principle of Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) and pages 673-675 describe low-rate channel coding in the Qualcomm transmission method. The described on the page 673 Qualcomm transmission method is used in the mobile communication for voice communication, in the u. a. a low-pitch channel coding (1/3) is used for the uplink channel and a total processing gain of 128 is reached.
  • So that the operator does not have to work in the danger zone, is out of the EP 0 976 879 A1 a device for radio remote control of moving objects known, in particular of construction vehicles with video camera and microphone. The radio transmission system is a broadband CDMA system in which audio and video data are transmitted between the respective construction vehicle (and possibly via a repeater) and the operator sitting in the remote control center via a radio link (of about 1 km) in the 50 GHz range become. In each case, a motor-tracking antenna system is arranged on the vehicle or on the repeater / remote control center. If the radio link disturbed, so in the alarm state control data in the 2.4 GHz range or in the 429 MHz range transmitted to "virtually blind" and on the other hand - with a maximum distance of 100 m - by means of spread spectrum signals or on the other hand from the construction vehicle to exit the danger zone. The individual operating and alarm states as well as the associated frequency ranges are clearly shown in the table EP 0 976 879 A1 shown.
  • Furthermore, the describes US 5 136 614 A the synchronization in a transmission system with certain spreading sequences and a binary pseudo-random noise code, which has a considerably wider spectrum than the data signal itself.
  • In the publication "L. B. Milstein "Wideband Code Division Multiple Access" IEEE Journal to Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 18, no. 8, August 2000, pages 1344-1354 "a mobile station operating according to a CDMA method, a method for multiple access in a broadband cellular CDMA radio transmission system is described. In this CDMA radio transmission system, which is designed as a small cell network, handover or the multiple access with a plurality of mobile mobile stations play a role.
  • Furthermore, the publications "J. W. Ketchum, J.G. Proakis "Adaptive Algorithms for Estimating and Suppressing Narrow-Band Interference in PN Spread Spectrum Systems", IEEE Transactions an Communications, Vol. COM-30, no. 5, May 1982, pages 913-924 "or" C. Carlemalm et al. "Suppression of Multiple Narrowband Interferers in a Spread-Spectrum Communication System" IEEE Journal at selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 18, no. 8, August 2000, pages 1365-1374 "purely theoretical investigations with respect to linear prediction or the Levisons algorithm (see document" Adaptive Algorithms for Estimating and Suppressing Narrow-Band Interference in PN Spread-Spectrum Systems) ") or estimation algorithm according to Markov to suppress interference (see the publication "Suppression of Multiple Narrowband Interferers in a Spread-Spectrum Communication System").
  • A carrier phase synchronization per se, for example, in the thesis of Enzner, Gerald at the Department of Communications Engineering II, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, August 2000 "Noncoherent sequence estimation for coded M (D) PSK and CPM transmission" or in the journal IEEE Transactions to Communications, COM-47: 1303-1308, September 1999 "Noncoherent Sequence Detection of Continuous Phase Modulations" by Colavolpe, C; Raheli, R. or in the dissertation of Schober, Robert at the Department of Telecommunications 11, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Shaker Verlag 2000 "Noncoherent detection and equalization for MDPSK and MDAPSK signals" described in detail and explained.
  • As the above assessment of the prior art shows, the realization of a cost-effective transmission method with previous devices and methods is only very limited possible. Most importantly, as a bandwidth- and power-efficient, digital transmission method is of great benefit, and the telecommunications industry as well as the modeling industry are considered to be advanced, development-friendly industries that are quick to pick up on and make improvements and simplifications.
  • The invention is compared to the known methods and apparatus the task of a low-cost transmission method and a device in such a way that a noise-resistant, bidirectional, digital data transmission, in particular a change to a channel with less interference power, is possible.
  • This object is achieved in a method for radio remote control of moving objects, according to claim 1, characterized in that
    • The radio remote control takes place in accordance with a narrow-band bidirectional CDMA transmission system,
    • A source coding is used to reduce the data to be transmitted,
    • The source-coded data is fed to a rate 1 / n convolutional encoder and subsequently modified by a signature-characteristic signature sequence by means of a signature generator,
    • A carrier-sensitive frequency hopping method according to the measured interference powers in the available frequency channels is used, and
    • • For the simultaneous determination of the channel assignment, the determination of the interference power in the individual frequency channels by means of a regular spectral measurement of the complete available frequency band by calculating the FFT over a broadband received signal section for spectral detection of multiple frequency channels during the receiving process takes place.
  • The inventive method has the advantages that despite the low data flow still sufficient information can be transmitted by the amount of data to be transmitted is reduced and that to determine the occupancy and thus the interference power of the individual channels in the frequency band, the signal of the entire frequency band spectral analyze what can happen during reception. A separate time slot in which the device neither receives nor transmits can be provided, but is in principle not necessary. Since the device receives regularly, thus also the spectral analysis takes place regularly. By spectral analysis by means of a fast Fourier transform (FFT) from the broadband received signal section, the spectral resolution absorbs the channel spacing of the frequency channels. If in the spectral analysis in the currently used frequency channel, a high interference power is detected, so can a channel with less Interference power to be changed. This can be done, for example, by mixing the HF band into the complex equivalent baseband. In this case, the broadband signal window also shifts. Since the spectral resolution is adapted to the channel spacing, only the assignment of the results of the Fourier transform to the channels has to be adapted. This can be achieved, for example, by selecting twice the bandwidth of the frequency band to be analyzed for the analyzed signal window. Furthermore, the method according to the invention has the advantage that based on the information available therewith about the individual channels, a carrier-sensitive frequency hopping method can be used. Thus, if too much interference power is detected in the frequency channel used so far, it is possible to automatically switch to a channel with suitable or acceptable interference power. Thus, a self-organization of the assignment of the dynamically variable frequency channels to many remote control systems becomes possible. This means that a coordination of radio channels as before (eg on model airfields) is no longer necessary, since multiple occupied frequency channels are automatically exited. As a result, it is also possible to coexist corresponding systems with previously existing systems that use the FM, AM method, etc. The change of a frequency channel is preferably carried out according to a pseudo-random delay in order to avoid frequency changes which are close to each other as closely as possible and thus to prevent several systems from simultaneously switching to the same frequency (compare Aloha principle).
  • If, in a further embodiment of the method, a continuous phase modulation (CPM) is combined with a low-rate channel coding, wherein the binary channel-coded signal is modified by the (modulo-2) addition of a signature sequence, the simultaneous transmission becomes particularly simple of multiple systems in the same frequency channel by code division multiple access (CDMA). In particular, when using the (modulo-2) addition of a pseudorandom binary signature sequence to the channel coded bits, so-called minor class codes are generated, as described for example in the textbook by Friedrichs, Bernd: Kanalcodierung, Springer Verlag 1995. This results in a clear, reversible mapping of the codes, which, however, continue to have the same, telecommunications characteristics. However, the use of signature sequences allows multiple transceiver systems to transmit and receive simultaneously in the same frequency channel without significantly affecting each other. As a result, CDMA access is possible through the use of the signature sequences. The sub-class codes resulting from the signatures in the transmitter can be directly taken into account in the decoder on the receiving side (eg in a trellis decoder in the metric calculation), so that separate operations are no longer necessary to separate the different channels in the receiver. It is advantageous that, in a surprisingly simple manner, the use of low rate channel coding (eg rate 1/8 convolutional coding) enables safe operation. This makes the system robust even over several equally strong transmission signals in the same frequency channel. Furthermore, the use of CPM provides a bandwidth-efficient, power-efficient, constant-envelope digital transmission method. This enables efficient and cost-effective RF amplification, which requires only minimal linearity requirements.
  • Furthermore, the object underlying the invention in a device for radio remote control of moving objects in accordance with a narrow-band, bidirectional CDMA transmission method, according to claim 8, achieved in that in the transmitter
    • A source coding is used to reduce the data to be transmitted,
    • The source-coded data is fed to a rate 1 / n convolutional encoder and subsequently modified by a signature-characteristic signature sequence by means of a signature generator,
    • A carrier-sensitive frequency hopping method is used in accordance with the interference powers measured in the receiver in the available frequency channels, and
    • • in the receiver
    • The receive signal is fed to a mixer or a complex digital mixer for mixing into the equivalent complex baseband and sampling, and
    • • For the simultaneous determination of the channel assignment, the determination of the interference power in the individual frequency channels by means of a regular spectral measurement of the complete available frequency band by calculating the FFT over a broadband received signal section for spectral detection of multiple frequency channels during the receiving process,
    in such a way that CDMA access is possible in the decoder of the receiver even with equally strong transmission signals in the same frequency channel.
  • The inventive method and the device for implementing the method thus allow the use of asynchronous, uncoordinated code division multiple access (CDMA), wherein the Utilization of a channel through multiple transmission systems is possible, for example, at a code rate of 1/8 by up to four transmission systems. Furthermore, the device according to the invention has the advantage that it can be switched to a channel with lower interference power in a cost-effective manner by being shifted by the mixer from the RF band in the complex equivalent baseband and the wideband signal window. Alternatively, only the frequency band can be selected with the mixer from the HF band to the complex equivalent baseband and the frequency channel used for the transmission is selected with a second, then fully complex mixer after branching off the broadband signal window.
  • Furthermore, according to claim 2, DPCM, ADPCM or AQDPCM is used for source coding.
  • If, for example, AQDPCM (Adaptive Quantization Differential Pulse Code Modulation) is used to compress the control information, it is possible, for example, to finely differentiate controller excursions depending on the amplitude. Looking at z. As the remote control of a model airplane, so for the individual control sticks (elevator, rudder, ...) with low control movements around the current controller position around a high resolution (= finer quantization) desirable, for stronger control movements, however, would be a lower resolution ( = coarser quantization) are sufficient, since the accuracy in the movement of the human hand is lower here. This fact can be exploited through the use of AQDPCM, which adjusts coarse and fine quantization to current conditions. But it can also with advantage the other source codings, such. B. DPCM or ADPCM can be used.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention is used according to claim 4, as a duplex method time division duplex or code division duplex.
  • This embodiment of the invention has the advantage that by using Time Division Duplex (TDD) or Code Division Duplex (CDD) a data transmission in the same frequency channel in both directions possible. When TDD is used, a time slot must be provided for the return channel in the protocol. This makes it possible to send data back to the control unit from the controlled unit, which opens up many new applications. Thus, for example, the transmission of telemetry data (altitude, speed, etc.) within the remote control band is possible without additional radio components. Furthermore, data for condition monitoring (tank filling, power supply, etc.) can be transmitted from the controlled unit to the control unit. Thus, the remote control modules can be expanded into small cockpits, where the entire information can be displayed and monitored. In addition, monitoring data security for transmission is possible, and alerting could indicate unreliable traffic, which can be detected by using protection mechanisms in the protocol, such as Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). Furthermore, mechanisms could be provided to flexibly define fallback settings of the controlled entity, i. H. it could be easier to determine which settings the controlled unit should accept in case of disconnection of the radio link (for example, manually making the desired setting on the controlled unit and transmitting information to take over as a fallback setting).
  • Preferably, according to claim 5, an exchange of power control data between controlling and controlled unit is made and in accordance with these data, a minimization of the transmission power by both units.
  • By using the duplex link to mutually exchange power control data to minimize transmit power, both controlling and controlled units regularly share with each other how much the signals are being received alternately. This will allow both units to minimize their transmission power and adapt them to current requirements, depending on the distance and propagation conditions between the two units. This has the advantage of maximizing battery life, minimizing interference generation for other systems, and thereby enabling higher spatial density of systems in the same frequency channel. This means that several systems operating in the same frequency channel can be operated at a smaller spatial distance from each other. If one transmits at a given channel bandwidth (eg 14 kHz for radio remote control systems) with a low code rate, then only a small data flow is possible, as a result of which only relatively low signal powers are incurred. This has the advantage that significantly longer battery life times result and that the interference to other systems are significantly lower than in conventional methods.
  • In a further development of the invention, according to claim 11, the receiver for spectral analysis means for preprocessing the data with a filter and / or window, which are connected to perform a fast Fourier transform with an FFT processor and to reduce the influence of short-term Effects in the measured values which can be tapped off at the output of the FFT processor are supplied to an average value generator before the evaluation.
  • This can easily increase the quality and reduce the influence of short-term effects.
  • Further advantages and details can be taken from the following description of preferred embodiments of the invention with reference to the drawing. In the drawing shows:
  • 1 a preferred embodiment of a transmitter of the overall system according to the invention and
  • 2 a preferred embodiment of a receiver of the overall system according to the invention.
  • 1 shows an example of a transmitter S corresponding to the described method. The binary data arrive in a convolutional decoder FE of the rate 1 / n and are subsequently modified by a system-characteristic signature sequence by means of a signature generator SG. The serialized in turn in a parallel-to-serial converter PS data are then transformed by means of a modulator M, for example by applying a continuous phase modulation (Continuous Phase Modulation CPM) in the desired RF band. In detail, the outputs 0, 1,..., N-1 of the convolutional encoder FE are each connected to a first input of a modulo-2 adder AG, A1,..., An-1 and the second input of each modulo-2 Adder A0, A1, ..., An-1 is connected to the signature generator SG.
  • 2 shows an example of an embodiment of a receiver E according to the described method, wherein the received signal for mixing into the equivalent complex baseband and sampling is supplied to a mixer DEM or a complex digital mixer MI. The output of the mixer DEM or MI is connected to a decoder D via means for filtering, delaying and subsampling, namely FIR, FII, V, MFR, MFI. Preferably, a Viterbi decoder is used as decoder D. In an embodiment not shown in the drawing, the decided data obtained during the decoding are supplied to a carrier phase synchronization, which estimates the current carrier phase therefrom and these in turn are fed back into the decoder D in order to be able to use them for the determination of subsequent bits. As a result, a novel carrier phase synchronization that can be integrated into the decoding process takes place on the receiver side.
  • Furthermore, the receiver E for spectral analysis means VVR, VVI for pre-processing the data with a filter and / or window, which are connected to perform a fast Fourier transform with an FFT processor FFT. To reduce the influence of short-term effects in the measured values which can be tapped off at the output of the FFT processor FFT, these are supplied to an averaging means MIT prior to the evaluation A. In particular, the mean value generator MIT subjects the measured values for the powers in the individual frequency channels to averaging or filtering.
  • Compared to the known prior art, a cost-effective method and an apparatus for implementing the method can be specified according to the invention, in which a noise-resistant, digital radio remote control with power control, a self-organizing channel allocation and a return channel provision is made possible by duplexing methods for telemetry data transmission.

Claims (12)

  1. Method for radio remote control of moving objects, in which The radio remote control takes place in accordance with a narrow-band bidirectional CDMA transmission system, A source coding is used to reduce the data to be transmitted, The source-coded data is fed to a rate 1 / n convolutional decoder (FE) and subsequently modified by a signature-characteristic signature sequence by means of a signature generator (SG), A carrier-sensitive frequency hopping method according to the measured interference powers in the available frequency channels is used, and • For the simultaneous determination of the channel assignment, the determination of the interference power in the individual frequency channels by means of a regular spectral measurement of the complete available frequency band by calculating the FFT over a broadband received signal section for spectral detection of multiple frequency channels during the receiving process takes place.
  2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the source coding DPCM, ADPCM or AQDPCM is used.
  3. Method according to one of claims 1 to 2, characterized in that duplex methods are used for bidirectional data transmission in the same frequency channel.
  4. A method according to claim 3, characterized in that as a duplex method time division duplex (TDD) or code division duplex (CDD) is used.
  5. A method according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that an exchange of power control data between the controlling and controlled unit is made and that in accordance with this data, a minimization of the transmission powers by both units.
  6. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized by the transmission of telemetry data and / or data for condition monitoring from the controlled to the controlling unit.
  7. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the evaluation of the received signal, a carrier phase synchronization which can be integrated into the decoding process takes place.
  8. Device for the radio remote control of moving objects in accordance with a narrow-band, bidirectional CDMA transmission method, in which in the transmitter (S) A source coding is used to reduce the data to be transmitted, The source-coded data is fed to a rate 1 / n convolutional decoder (FE) and subsequently modified by a signature-characteristic signature sequence by means of a signature generator (SG), The source-coded data is fed to a rate 1 / n convolutional decoder (FE) and subsequently modified by a signature-characteristic signature sequence by means of a signature generator (SG), A carrier-sensitive frequency hopping method is used in accordance with the interference powers measured in the receiver (E) in the available frequency channels, and in the receiver (E) The received signal is supplied to a mixer (DEM) or a complex digital mixer (MI) for mixing into the equivalent complex baseband and sampling and • For the simultaneous determination of the channel assignment, the determination of the interference power in the individual frequency channels by means of a regular spectral measurement of the complete available frequency band by calculating the FFT over a broadband received signal section for spectral detection of multiple frequency channels during the receiving process, in such a way that in the decoder (D) of the receiver (E) a CDMA access is possible even with equally strong transmission signals in the same frequency channel.
  9. Device according to Claim 8, characterized in that the output of the mixer (DEM, MI) is connected to the decoder (D) via means for filtering, delaying and subsampling (FIR, FII, V, MFR, MFI).
  10. Device according to Claim 8, characterized in that a Viterbi decoder is used as the decoder (D), that the decided data obtained during the decoding are supplied to a carrier phase synchronization, which estimates the current carrier phase therefrom and these in turn are fed into the decoder (D). can be fed back in order to use them for the determination of subsequent bits.
  11. Apparatus according to claim 8, characterized in that the receiver (E) for spectrum analysis means (VVR, VVI) for preprocessing the data with a filter and / or window, which for performing a fast Fourier transform with an FFT processor (FFT ) and that to reduce the influence of short-term effects in the readable at the output of the FFT processor (FFT) measured values, these are supplied to an averaging (MIT) before the evaluation (A).
  12. Device according to Claim 11, characterized in that the mean value generator (MIT) subjects the measured values for the powers in the individual frequency channels to averaging or filtering.
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