DD224448A1 - Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen strukturuebertragung - Google Patents

Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen strukturuebertragung Download PDF

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Publication number
DD224448A1
DD224448A1 DD26046084A DD26046084A DD224448A1 DD 224448 A1 DD224448 A1 DD 224448A1 DD 26046084 A DD26046084 A DD 26046084A DD 26046084 A DD26046084 A DD 26046084A DD 224448 A1 DD224448 A1 DD 224448A1
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German Democratic Republic
Prior art keywords
photosensitive layer
immersion liquid
projection lens
optically transparent
chamber
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DD26046084A
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English (en)
Inventor
Rainer Hesse
Wolfgang Gaertner
Karl-Heinz Kuch
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Zeiss Jena Veb Carl
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Priority to DD26046084A priority Critical patent/DD224448A1/de
Publication of DD224448A1 publication Critical patent/DD224448A1/de

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion

Abstract

Es wird eine Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen Strukturuebertragung mittels eines Projektionsobjektivs beschrieben. Sie ist zur Erzeugung von Halbleiterstrukturen in einer fotoempfindlichen Schicht einer Halbleiterscheibe nach der Planartechnologie anwendbar. Das Ziel der Erfindung besteht in der Erhoehung der Genauigkeit bei hoher Produktivitaet der Strukturuebertragung. Als Aufgabe steht die Schaffung einer Einrichtung, die bei Verwendung einer Immersionsfluessigkeit Turbulenzen vermeidet und moegliche Verunreinigungen ausserhalb des Schaerfentiefebereiches des Probjektionsobjektivs haelt. Die Erfindung besteht darin, dass zwei mit Immersionsfluessigkeit gefuellte Kammern vorgesehen sind, von denen eine dem Projektionsobjektiv und die zweite dem Substrat zugeordnet sind. Hoechste Aufloesung wird erreicht, wenn zwischen den die Kammern abschliessenden optisch transparenten Medien ebenfalls Immersionsfluessigkeit eingebracht wird. Fig. 1

Description

Titel der Erfindung

Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen Strukturübertragung

Anwendungsgebiet der Erfindung

Die Erfindung betrifft eine Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen Strukturübertragung mittels eines Projektionsobjektivs zum Erzeugen eines Belichtungsmusters in einer fotoempfindlichen Schicht eines Substrates. Sie ist insbesondere bei der Erzeugung einer Mikrostruktur in einer fotoempfindlichen Schicht einer Halbleiterscheibe zur Herstellung von Halbleiterstrukturen nach der Planartechnologie anwendbar.

Charakteristik der bekannten technischen Lösungen In der veröffentlichten Europäischen Patentanmeldung E? 0 023 231 sind ein Verfahren und eine Vorrichtung zum Kopieren eines Musters auf eine Halbleiterscheibe beschrieben, die zwischen einem Projektionsobjektiv und einer Halbleiterplatte eine Flüssigkeit verwendet, deren Brechungsindex dem des Lacküberzuges der Halbleiterplatte entspricht. Dabei wird die Flüssigkeit ständig ausgetauscht und temperiert und/oder gefiltert. Diese Vorrichtung soll eine Vergrößerung der numerischen Apertur ohne Vergrößerung des Einfallswinkels ermöglichen. Dieses auch aus der Mikroskopie bekannte Prinzip (man vergleiche hierzu: Brockhaus, "ABC der Optik" Brockhaus Verlag Leipzig, 19β1 S. 565 ff.) ist bei Übertragung auf das Gebiet der Mikro-

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lithografie mit Nachteilen behaftet. Ein Nachteil besteht darin, daß in der Flüssigkeit, deren Volumen bei dem beschriebenen Verfahren erheblich ist, zwischen Projektionsobjektiv und Halbleiterscheibe bei der Herstellung von hochintegrierten Schaltkreisen infolge der notwendigen Verfahrbewegung der auf einem Koordinatentisch befindlichen Halbleiterscheibe Turbulenzen erzeugt werden. Deshalb wird man, bei heute aus Produktivitätsgründen hohen Verfahrgeschwindigkeiten, endweder Fehler . bei der Strukturübertragung in Kauf nehmen müssen oder man muß das Zeitregime für jeden Belichtungsschritt, um die Zeit für die Beruhigung der Turbulenzen erweitern, was wiederum Produktivitätseinbußen bedeutet.

Ein weiterer Nachteil ist die Handhabbarkeit des zu belichtenden Substrates unter Cleanrοom-Bedingungen. Bei dem Verfahren gemäß obengenannter Patentanmeldung muß nach jeder vollständigen Belichtung einer Halbleiterscheibe diese aus der Flüssigkeit herausgebracht werden und von der Flüssigkeit getrennt werden. Hier besteht zunächst die Gefahr, daß zum Beispiel Staub oder andere unerwünschte Stoffe die Oberfläche des Substrates belegen. Desweiteren läßt sich die Oberfläche des Substrates zum Beispiel zur Vorbereitung auf einen Kontrollschritt infolge der zahlreichen Stufen, Gräben, Erhöhungen etc. nur mit hohem Aufwand von der Flüssigkeit befreien. Weiterhin nachteilig ist die Verwendung eines nach oben offenen Behälters, der die Flüssigkeit beinhaltet. Die daraus resultierende große Flüssigkeitsoberfläche bietet so Eintrittsmöglichkeiten für Verunreinigungen der Flüssigkeit, die erst nach Durchlauf eines Filters beseitigt werden können.

Ziel der Erfindung

Ziel der Erfindung ist die Schaffung einer hochproduktiven und hochgenauen Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen Strukturübertragung.

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Darlegung des Wesens der Erfindung

Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, eine Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen Strukturübertragung mittels eines Projektionsobjektivs zu entwickeln, in welcher ein geringes Volumen Immersionsflüssigkeit Verwendung findet, so daß keine störenden Turbulenzen in Erscheinung treten und die so aufgebaut ist, daß mögliche Verunreinigungen außerhalb des Schärfentiefebereiches des Projektionsobjektivs liegen und so keine Strukturierungsfehler verursachen. Das zu belichtende Substrat soll so handhabbar sein, daß die fotoempfindliche Schicht des Substrats in keiner Weise beeinträchtigt wird.

Erfindungsgemäß wird die Aufgabe dadurch gelöst, daß bei einer Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen Strukturübertragung mittels eines Projektionsobjektivs zum Erzeugen eines Belichtungsmusters in einer fotoempfindlichen Schicht eines parallel zur Bildebene schrittweise bewegten und auswechselbaren Substrats, wobei im optischen Strahlengang zwischen der fotoempfindlichen Schicht und der dieser zugewandten Grenzfläche des Produktionsobjektivs eine Immersionsflüssigkeit annähernd gleichen Brechwertes wie der der lichtempfindlichen Schicht Verwendung findet,im optischen Strahlengang zwischen Projektionsobjektiv und der fotoempfindlichen Schicht des Substrats zwei voneinander getrennte, gegen die Atmosphäre abgeschlossene, relativ zueinander bewegbare und mit Immersionsflüssigkeit gefüllte Kammern vorgesehen sind, wobei die erste Kammer, die mit dem Projektionsobjektiv fest verbunden ist, von der der fotoempfindlichen Schicht zugewandten Grenzfläche des Projektionsobjektivs und von einem optisch transparenten Medium begrenzt wird, und die zweite Kammer, die mit dem Substrat verbunden ist, von der fotoempfindlichen Schicht des Substrats und von einem weiteren optisch transparenten Medium begrenzt wird.

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Als optisch transparente Medien lassen sich vorteilhaft Glasplatten und/oder Folien einsetzen.

Zur.Verringerung des Volumens an bewegter Immersionsflüssigkeit und damit zur Verringerung von Turbulenzen in der Immersionsflüssigkeit ist es von Vorteil, wenn mindestens eine Kammer mit einer Einrichtung zur Veränderung des Druckes der Immersionsflüssigkeit in Verbindung steht und wenn das optisch transparente Medium dieser Kammer senkrecht zur Bildebene bewegbar angeordnet ist.

Zur weiteren Erhöhung der Auflösung des Projektionsobjektivs sowie zur Verringerung von Strukturübertragungsfehlern kann man zwischen den die Kammern begrenzenden optisch transparenten Medien ebenfalls Immersionsflüssigkeit einbringen.

Ausführungsbeispiele

In der Zeichnung sind Ausführungsbeispiele der Erfindung dargestellt, und zwar zeigen:

Pig. 1 ein Ausführungsbeispiel der erfindungsgemäßen Einrichtung mit zwei Glasplatten als Abschluß der Kammern,

Fig. 2 ein Ausführungsbeispiel mit einer mittels Ringmembran bewegbar angeordneten Glasplatte, Fig. 3 ein Ausführungsbeispiel, wo die Kammer vor dem Projektionsobjektiv mit einer Folie abgeschlossen ist.

Die erfindungsgemäße Einrichtung besteht nach Fig. 1 aus einem gestellfesten Projektionsobjektiv 1. Mit dem Projektionsobjektiv 1 fest verbunden ist eine Kammer 2, die restlos mit Immersionsflüssigkeit 3 gefüllt ist. Die Kammer 2 ist gegen die Atmosphäre abgeschlossen und wird im optischen Strahlengang von der der fotoempfindlichen Schicht zugewandten Grenzfläche 4 des Projektionsobjektivs 1 und von einer optisch transparenten, planparallelen Glasplatte 5 begrenzt. Desweiteren besteht die

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Einrichtung aus einer zweiten Kammer 6, die mit dem zu belichtenden Substrat zum Beispiel mit einer Halbleiterscheibe 7 verbunden ist. Diese zweite Kammer 6 wird unter anderem von der fotoempfindlichen Schicht 8 der Halbleiterscheibe 7 und von einer weiteren optisch transparenten, planparallelen Glasplatte 9 begrenzt. In der zweiten Kammer 6 befindet sich ebenfalls Immer^ sionsflüssigkeit 10. Die zweite Kammer 6 einschließlich der Glasplatte 9 und der Halbleiterscheibe 7 befinden sich auf der Tischplatte 11 eines Koordinatentisches, der über Bewegungseinrichtungen' 12 eine Relativbewegung der Halbleiterscheibe 7 parallel und senkrecht zur Bildebene 13 bewirkt. Zur Erhöhung der Auflösung befindet sich zwischen den beiden die Kammern 2, 6 begrenzenden Glasplatten 5 und 9 weitere Immersionsflüssigkeit 14, deren Oberfläche 15 in einem Behälter 16 höher liegt, als die der Halbleiterscheibe zugewandte Fläche 17 der Glasplatte Zwischen der Grenzfläche 4 des Projektionsobjektivs 1 und der fotoempfindlichen Schicht 8 der Halbleiterscheibe 7 verläuft der optische Strahlengang somit nur in Medien annähernd gleichen Brechwertes wie der der fotoempfindlichen Schicht, wenn man voraussetzt, daß die Brechwerte der Immersionsflüssigkeiten 3, 10 und 14 und der Glasplatten 5 und 9 annähernd übereinstimmen. Will man eine weitere Reduzierung des bewegten Volumens an Immersipnsflüssigkeit 14 erreichen, das heißt auch eine Reduzierung der darin auftretenden Turbulenzen, dann kann man den Abstand zwischen den beiden zueinander bewegten Kammern 2 und 6 minimal auslegen. Vorteilhaft lassen sich hier zum Beispiel an Kammer 2, wie in Figur 2, Glasplatten 18 einsetzen, die in der Kammer mittels einer Ringmembran senkrecht zur Bildebene 13 beweglich angeordnet ist. Den gleichen Zweck soll die Folie 20 in Figur 3 erfüllen. Die Kammer 2 steht in diesen Fällen über einem Anschlußstutzen 21 mit einer

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Einrichtung 22 zur Veränderung des Druckes der Immersionsflüssigkeit in Verbindung. Während der Belichtung der fotoempfindlichen Schicht, 8 wird die Glasplatte 18 durch einen erhöhten Druck in der Kammer 2 in Richtung Bildebene 13 bewegt. Während der Bewegung der Tischplatte 11 zur Vermeidung von Beschädigungen der Glasplatte 18 oder Folie 20 wird durch Druckminderung der Immersionsflüssigkeit 3 in Kammer 2 die Glasplatte 18 oder Polie 20 von der sich bewegenden Glasplatte 9 wegbewegt.

Die im Ausführungsbeispiel beschriebene Einrichtung läßt sich auch ohne Immersionsflüssigkeit 14 beschreiben· In diesem Falle hätte man mit keinerlei Turbulenzen zu rechnen. Die Vorteile der erfindungsgemäßen Einrichtung bleiben erhalten, weil der Abstand beider Kammern 2 und 6 minimal gehalten werden kann und die gegen Verunreinigungen (Staub u.a.) empfindlichen Flächen außerhalb des Schärfentiefenbereichs des Projektionsobjektivs 7 liegen.

Claims (4)

  1. Erfindungξanspruch
    1. Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen Strukturübertragung mittels- eines Projektionsobjektivs zum Erzeugen eines Belichtungsmusters in einer fotoempfindlichen Schicht eines parallel zur Bildebene schrittweise bewegten und auswechselbaren Substrats, wobei im optischen Strahlengang zwischen der fotoempfindlichen Schicht und der dieser zugewandten Grenzfläche des Projektionsobjektivs eine Immersionsflüssigkeit annähernd gleichen Brechwertes wie der der lichtempfindlichen Schicht Verwendung findet, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß im optischen Strahlengang zwischen Projektionsobjektiv und der fotoempfindlichen Schicht des Substrats zwei voneinander getrennte, gegen die Atmosphäre abgeschlossene, relativ zueinander bewegbare und mit Immersionsflüssigkeit gefüllte Kammern vorgesehen sind, wobei die erste Kammer, die mit dem Projektionsobjektiv fest verbunden ist, von der der fotoempfindlichen Schicht zugewandten Grenzfläche des Projektionsobjektivs und von einem optisch transparenten Medium begrenzt wird und die zweite Kammer, die mit dem Substrat verbunden ist, von der fotoempfindlichen Schicht des Substrats und von einem v/eiteren optisch transparenten Medium begrenzt wird.
  2. 2. Einrichtung nach Punkt 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die optisch transparenten" Medien Glasplatten und/oder Folien sind.
  3. 3. Einrichtung nach Punkt 1 und 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß mindestens eine Kammer mit einer Einrichtung zur Veränderung des Druckes der Immersionsflüssigkeit in Verbindung steht, und daß das optisch transparente Medium dieser Kammer senkrecht zur Bildebene bewegbar angeordnet ist.
  4. 4. Einrichtung nach Punkt 1 bis 3» dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß sich zwischen den die Kammern "begrenzenden optisch transparenten Medien ebenfalls Immersionsflüssigkeit befindet»
    Hierzu 3 Blatt Zeichnungen.
DD26046084A 1984-03-01 1984-03-01 Einrichtung zur fotolithografischen strukturuebertragung DD224448A1 (de)

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