CZ2011883A3 - Method of verifying functionality of fire ventilation and apparatus for making the same - Google Patents

Method of verifying functionality of fire ventilation and apparatus for making the same Download PDF

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Publication number
CZ2011883A3
CZ2011883A3 CZ20110883A CZ2011883A CZ2011883A3 CZ 2011883 A3 CZ2011883 A3 CZ 2011883A3 CZ 20110883 A CZ20110883 A CZ 20110883A CZ 2011883 A CZ2011883 A CZ 2011883A CZ 2011883 A3 CZ2011883 A3 CZ 2011883A3
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CZ
Czechia
Prior art keywords
aerosol
functionality
fire ventilation
fire
test
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Application number
CZ20110883A
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Czech (cs)
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CZ303988B6 (en
Inventor
Bebcák@Petr
Original Assignee
K.B.K. Fire, S.R.O.
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Application filed by K.B.K. Fire, S.R.O. filed Critical K.B.K. Fire, S.R.O.
Priority to CZ20110883A priority Critical patent/CZ2011883A3/en
Publication of CZ2011883A3 publication Critical patent/CZ2011883A3/en
Publication of CZ303988B6 publication Critical patent/CZ303988B6/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A62LIFE-SAVING; FIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62CFIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62C37/00Control of fire-fighting equipment
    • A62C37/50Testing or indicating devices for determining the state of readiness of the equipment
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A62LIFE-SAVING; FIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62CFIRE-FIGHTING
    • A62C99/00Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • A62C99/0081Training methods or equipment for fire-fighting

Abstract

A solid and gaseous non-toxic aerosol generator simulating the smoke combustion products (2) is activated into the test space, followed by monitoring and recording the aerosol cloud propagation and evaluating the function of the post-vent ventilation. The aerosol consists of a mixture based on potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, carbon, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous gas, nitrogen and ammonia, developed at a temperature of 600 to 1300 degC in a quantity of 3 to 100 m.sup.3. s, where tested heat and smoke extraction devices are in operation. The apparatus includes a generator with containers (1) comprising a device (2) and a firing device (3) disposed 4 to 10 in the rack (5), fixed 1 to 20 in the tub (11) and covered with perforated lids (9). The tub (11) is preferably mounted on the vehicle support structure (14).

Description

Method for verifying the functionality of fire ventilation and equipment for carrying out the method

Technical field

The invention relates to the field of fire safety and fire technology. A new method for verifying the functionality of fire ventilation is proposed and apparatus specifically configured to perform this method of verifying the functionality of fire ventilation.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The fire safety of large complexes, such as production facilities, industrial and non-industrial halls, tunnels of motorway and road corridors, metro and other construction facilities, is determined primarily in theory by calculation in the design of their construction, based on expert knowledge of science and technology. The project of fire safety of buildings sets requirements for structural design of buildings, used materials, means for protection against the origin and spread of fire. There are also designated means for detecting possible fire, means of fire ventilation of the building, air conditioning, escape routes, etc. The basic fire safety equipment includes a device for heat and smoke removal, ie fire ventilation. Unfortunately, the project does not always take into account all the real dangers, sometimes the project does not comply with the project precisely, sometimes the quality or maintenance of fire ventilation is not adhered to, and in other cases unexpected situations may arise which are solved only during construction. For these reasons, it is necessary to carry out tests to verify the functionality of fire ventilation before commissioning and during operation.

At present, tests to verify the functionality of fire ventilation in buildings and line constructions are carried out by so-called performance tests. During these tests, the designed parameters of the fire ventilation equipment are verified by physical measurements of anemometers, especially the speed and direction of the air flow in the test space over time. This method does not use special testing equipment in addition to measuring instruments.

As another method of verifying the functionality of a fire ventilation system, a method shall be used to place a real smoke generator in the test area, c c ς.

similar to the actual smoke during a fire, whereupon the movement and concentration of the resulting smoke are monitored during operation of the fire ventilation means. Real smoke is usually obtained by burning gasoline and / or diesel, solid combustible materials and optionally other combustible materials known as conventional materials burning in fires. The advantage of this method is that it allows visualization, ie a viewable record with the possibility of monitoring and viewing the flow of flue gases and also gives the possibility of measuring the optical density of smoke and thus monitoring the stratification of smoke. Performing these visualization tests is very important, as they quite reliably enable the evaluation of possible threats to the lives of people and give accurate values for software and hardware modifications of fire ventilation. This method is mainly used in tunnel constructions where people are most at risk of combustion products, be it transverse or longitudinal ventilation. A considerable disadvantage of this method is the formation of high temperature and toxic combustion products, which limit the possibility of taking measurements and the necessary records and endanger the persons present. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCL) are generally known to be the worst, at higher concentrations of lethal combustion products, and all these substances are produced by the method. Persons performing these tests and any other persons have limited access to and movement in these areas during the tests and must be equipped with appropriate personal protective equipment, such as fire suits, masks, etc., which make the tests more expensive. The huge disadvantage of this method is that the high temperatures accompanying the combustion and / or aggressive combustion products can cause destruction of the building structures and / or degrade the surface finishes and technological equipment of the buildings, contained brands, air conditioners, electronic systems, measurement and control elements, etc. which could be hundreds of thousands of euros. This method uses simple tanks or baths, filled in whole or in part with combustible material, as a smoke evacuation device.

A variant of the method described in the previous paragraph is the method prescribed by RVS Directive 09.02.31 applicable in Austria for verifying the functionality of ventilation in tunnel construction. Hot smoke, obtained by burning 5L of gasoline or 20L of diesel on an area of 1m 2 in a steel container, produces hot smoke, which passes through the test area to video recording while measuring the optical density of the smoke at different heights. During the operation of the air handling equipment contained, the air handling equipment is monitored and measured, and then evaluated, the time of gas and polluted air exchange depending on the volume exchange of air masses and the optical density of the smoke. According to the results of this test, the parameters of the fire ventilation on the air-handling equipment contained are set and the dispatchers are acquainted with the expected course of the real fire. This methodology does not describe any fire in terms of heat output or smoke production, mainly due to non-observance of the required amount of smoke in m 3 / s. In the case of a fire in a passenger car, 20 m 3 / s of smoke is generated, in the case of a fire of a medium-sized vehicle 50 m 3 / s of smoke and in the fire of a truck 80 to 100 m 3 / s of smoke. In addition to not simulating the amount of smoke in a real fire, this test also generates toxic and aggressive gaseous combustion products that devaluate the tunnel's technological equipment and require repair and replacement, as well as the need to clean the tunnel space, which the cost and consequence of long-term decommissioning of tunnels and complicated transport and transportation.

Another method uses so-called cold smoke. As a source for the monitored cloud is used a common smoke pump or only water vapor is used. The smoke product is a mixture of gases. Also water vapor is only a gaseous phase. In both cases, the resulting cloud is based on only harmless gaseous substances and is visible. The advantage of this method is the absence of toxic fumes and the possibility of recording and observing the movement of the cloud. However, it is not possible to achieve or approach the dynamics of the actual smoke behavior in terms of stratification in terms of stratification, in particular because of the absence of thermal dynamics of solid particles whose presence would make it possible to measure optical density comparable to that of real smoke. As a result, it is impossible to fully evaluate the proper functioning of fire ventilation.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The above disadvantages are largely overcome by the invention. A new method of testing the functionality of fire ventilation is proposed, according to which a non-toxic aerosol generator simulating fumes of combustion, equipped with a predetermined number of compositions, is placed in the test area, then these components are activated, and then Eeee is monitored for the propagation of the generated non-toxic aerosol, taking video recordings and measuring the values needed to assess the functionality of the fire ventilation system in a given space, and finally comparing the observed measurements with actual smoke values, such as those generated by the combustion of petrol and diesel, measured in the test area. Based on the results, the functionality of the fire ventilation of the tested area is evaluated and this knowledge will be used to set the fire alarm detectors, control units of the tested air-conditioning and smoke and heat removal equipment, for possible retrofitting, building modifications, etc. at least air velocity, temperature in the region of the aerosol generator, temperature in the region outside the generator, and time are measured.

The generator preferably develops a nontoxic aerosol formed at a temperature of 600 to 130 ° C, consisting of a mixture of solid and gaseous phases, of which the solid phase consists of particles of 1-5 gm based on potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate and carbon, and gaseous phase is a medium based on carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous gases, nitrogen and ammonia. This aerosol has extinguishing effects. It is nontoxic in terms of possible toxic impurities below the standards, and in terms of stratification, density, mobility and visually and measurable values, it is comparable to the actual smoke properties of combustion of gasoline, diesel and solids of conventional fire-causing materials such as wood paper, plastics, etc. The high temperature of aerosol formation makes it possible to perform temperature measurements at the location of the simulated fire. High temperature occurs only at the generator site and here simulates the course of a real fire, then during the movement of aerosol through the ventilation systems no longer has a devastating value and does not devastate the technological or construction equipment of the building. The stratification of the aerosol cloud, the way it entrains through the test area and the optical density values correspond to the smoke values of real fires.

Preferably, the non-toxic aerosol is generated in an amount fully corresponding to the production of actual smoke in the fire, i.e. 3 to 100 m 3 / s, the specific amount generated for each verification test being predetermined within this range. This will be done in particular depending on the design parameters of the fire ventilation for the test area, for example at the level of the highest values permitted by the project or close to these values.

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Preferably, all of the following values are monitored during the test. It is the velocity of the aerosol cloud movement measured by monitoring the air flow including the aerosol contained, the temperature in the area of the aerosol generator and the space, and stratification and dispersion of the aerosol cloud by measuring the optical density of the aerosol. Advantageously, a video recording of the direction and flow of the aerosol particles as a function of the fire ventilation function is also simultaneously recorded, and the exchange time of gases and polluted air is also measured as a function of the volume exchange of the air and the optical density of the aerosol.

Preferably, in the test area, the optical density of the aerosol is folded and measured at different heights during the test by video recording and / or measurement at different distances from activation. These measurements at different distances and at different height levels make it possible to monitor the movement and dispersion of the aerosol cloud generated.

If the test area is equipped with air handling equipment, it is advisable that all or some of the air handling equipment of the area under test is put into operation during aerosol generation and aerosol monitoring. The method is intended in particular to verify that the test area is equipped with sufficient ventilation equipment for the removal of smoke and heat and to test the quality of functionality of these equipment in the premises. Alternatively, however, it is not possible to test areas that are still without air-conditioning devices, which is possible, for example, in older buildings and in buildings with natural ventilation.

Preferably, the non-toxic aerosol generator is placed on at least one carrier, attached to or behind the vehicle, prior to activation of the contained composition, in such a position and accessible to the surrounding space that the aerosol being produced can freely spread to the surrounding space. As a rule, this propagation takes the form of a cloud that moves within the test area and is dispersed or removed therein by means of the test air handling equipment and / or natural ventilation. After the batch is delivered to the site of activation, the actuation is performed once or sequentially by the launch. Activation may occur statically, i.e. leaving the aerosol source stationary at the activation site, until the aerosol cloud is dispersed or removed. Advantageously, in particular for tests in tunnels and other long corridors, during and / or after activation of the compound, the vehicle may be moved within the test area, for example by passing through the test area, with the cloud edge area at the edge of the cloud. the aerosol being generated moves a moving video device, for example another vehicle with a video camera, and this makes a video recording allowing visualization of the test progress. This variant of the method is ideal for testing railway or road tunnels.

The invention also solves the construction of a device suitable for carrying out the proposed method of verification of the functionality of the fire ventilation according to the invention. The apparatus comprises a generator comprising containers of a non-combustible solid material, for example steel, with an internal cavity which are at least partially filled with a combustible composition. The essence of the novel solution is that the containers form a source of nontoxic aerosol imitating combustion products, namely 1 to 5 µm solid particles and nontoxic gaseous substances, believing in appearance, optical density, stratification and motion. No cooler is included, except for the composition, only the launcher is contained in the vessel and only the free space in the vessels is above the mixer with the launcher. In order to produce a sufficient amount of smoke imitation for the purpose of the method, these containers are in a number of 4 to 10 pieces stored in at least one repository of a non-combustible solid material, for example steel, and provided with a common perforated lid.

The container receptacle is preferably in the form of a rack, the upper part of which is formed as a receptacle for the receptacles and below this receptacle there is a pedestal with at least one internal cavity for the necessary electrical elements of the firing device.

Preferably, the bed is provided with at least one aperture and the inner cavity of the pedestal is continuous with the aperture, the pedestal having at least one element stabilizing its position relative to the mat. For example, a support plate with holes and rivets or fastening screws, or welded strips of material, an elongated and bent pedestal leg wall, welded profile, and the like can be used as an element for stabilizing the position of the stand relative to the support.

Preferably, the rack is one or more housed in a tub of a non-combustible solid material, for example steel, wherein the tub comprises at least a bottom and an all-round rim, wherein the rack is fixedly, immovably fixed to the bottom of the tub. The bath forms a support base for the racks occupied or only some of them occupied by containers, allows transport to be folded to the place of use and possibly during use and can serve for any additional, flammable filling if the customer requires a fire effect, such as ethanol. Part c c

The rim on the one hand can be extended and used to fasten the bathtub with the racks and the folds to the place of use, for example on the carrier, as further shown in the exemplary embodiment.

The tub preferably comprises one to twenty racks, with at least some of the racks included having the bed completely filled with containers. The perforated lid mentioned above in the first paragraph of the description of the device may be of dimensions to cover all of the contained racks at once, or to cover each of the included racks separately, or to cover groups of racks. Advantageously, the racks are covered with a perforated lid one at a time, thus saving material in the case of incomplete occupancy of the rack and facilitating the handling associated with the assembly of the individual elements of the device into a unit.

Advantageously, in particular allowing the method to be carried out in tunnels, the trough is supported on a supporting structure of a movable means, for example a vehicle, at least in the area of the lid free from the surrounding space. Thus, the bath with the stands and the folds can advantageously be attached, for example, to a carriage behind the car or to a special carrier directly on the car. In contrast to existing methods, the device so constructed and arranged can be operated without danger by the driver present in the test area.

Preferably, the composition comprises a material which upon firing produces a nontoxic aerosol, the solid particles of which contain a mixture of potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, carbon, and whose gas phase comprises a mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous gases, nitrogen and ammonia. This material is already known and available on the market, but it has been produced and used for quite different purposes so far as a fire extinguishing mixture.

The proposed technical solution according to the invention has the advantage that it simulates real smoke as it arises during a fire, but it is non-toxic and does not cause destruction or damage to the apparatus and other equipment in the object by high heat. The simulation of real smoke from the burning of substances that are a common cause of fire, ie diesel, gasoline, paper, wood, solid fuels, plastics, etc., is perfect especially visually. An aerosol cloud is formed which has the appearance of smoke to the human eye and even the detection device as a smoke in a fire, and which has the same stratification in terms of particle density, cloud shape, cloud movement pattern and dispersion rate and rate. The indicated values can be visualized by video, with the option of

subsequent and repeated inspections, and with the possibility to measure values such as optical density at various locations and heights, etc. The levels of toxic impurities present are below the standards of established toxicity, and thus the aerosol can be considered non-toxic. Since the aerosol cloud is non-toxic and during the test is still dispersed in the test area and removed by the air conditioning system, it is possible to carry out the firing on the stationary or moving vehicle with the driver without risk to human health and ideally during the test. tests for recording video, for example from a vehicle behind the vehicle, shall be passed. Using the proposed method and equipment it is possible to perform quality and safe testing of the functionality of fire ventilation, without the necessity of subsequent replacement of these devices or other equipment of the test area, and also without the necessity of demanding cleaning of these equipment and test area. from operation. The method and apparatus according to the invention make it possible in an optimal way to determine the values to which a particular fire ventilation system is to be set. It also enables dispatchers to become acquainted with the real fire, ie with the probable direction of fire propagation according to the place of origin and course. With regard to the toxicity of substances, the concentration of toxic impurities ranges from 100 to 600 times lower than the permissible exposure limits. It is possible to develop an imitation of smoke according to the required output, at a precisely predetermined value within the range of 3 to 100 m 3 / s. Activation of aerosol formation can be performed manually or remotely by means of an electrical pulse. The method and equipment are suitable for use in any tested area, but especially for road and railway tunnels, large building complexes, industrial and other halls, technological operations, etc.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an exemplary fire ventilation functionality of the present invention; FIG. 2 is a top view of the container itself; FIG. 3 is a front cross-sectional view of the container; Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the stand itself; Fig. 5 is a front view of a vertical longitudinal section through a stand filled with containers over the center of the vessels;

4 * SafrcdboUs view

Fig. 8 demonstration of the function of the proposed device and the method of verification of the functionality of the fire ventilation in a room equipped with a ventilation device with a fan, Fig. 9 demonstration of the function of the proposed device and the method of the verification of the functionality of the fire ventilation of the room with natural ventilation by skylight, Fig. 10 A, B, C demonstration of the function of the designed equipment and three demonstrative variants of the method of verification of the functionality of fire ventilation in a tunnel using static compositions and Fig. 11 AB, C methods for verifying the functionality of fire ventilation in a tunnel using movable compositions.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

An example of the best embodiment of the invention is a device for performing a method of testing the functionality of a fire ventilation system with examples of its use and a procedure for carrying out the method of Figures 1 to 11.

The apparatus for performing the fire ventilation functionality verification method is based on the generator shown in FIG. 1. The generator comprises a source of nontoxic aerosol simulating the flue gases produced by the fire, which forms a charge in containers 1 of a non-combustible solid material. In this exemplary embodiment, containers of practical cylindrical shape, made of steel and having sufficient strength and mechanical resistance, were chosen. The inner cavity of the vessels 1 is partially filled with the cartridge, which is, as an aerosol source, a flammable composition 2. In addition to the composition 2, each vessel 1 located in the generator contains only a firing device 3 with necessary electrical accessories enabling firing. Above the composition 2 with the firing device 3 there is only free space inside the vessels 2, there is no cooler, the presence of which is considered necessary in the prior art devices. The arrangement of the containers 1 is clearly seen in Figs. 2 and 3. As shown in Fig. 1, the containers 1 are stored in a number of 4 to 10 pieces in receptacles having the form of stands of a non-combustible solid material. In this exemplary embodiment, a preferred number of containers 1 of six pieces per rack is selected, which is within the above range. The stands were made of steel for this exemplary embodiment.

9 «9 9

9 9 9999 9 9999999 í C O> ’

However, other suitable material may be used to provide sufficient strength and mechanical resistance to the racks

The arrangement of the racks and their occupation is readily apparent in Figures 4 and 5. The upper part forms a receptacle 5 for receiving containers 1, having the shape of a box with a cut-out in the middle. Under this bed 5 there is a pedestal 6, in this case arranged as a foot, but in another case it may have another suitable shape. The pedestal 6 is hollow, its inner cavity has dimensions and shape to accommodate the necessary accompanying electrical elements of the firing device, in particular the electrical conductors 4. The cutout in the middle of the bed 5 is arranged as an inlet opening 7 into the cavity of the pedestal 6 The pedestal 6 is provided with at least one element stabilizing its position relative to the support, in this case it is the support plate 8 formed below. The perforation of the lid 9 forms passages for escaping the aerosol generated from the containers 1 into the space and forming an aerosol cloud. The containers 1 can be placed in the rack bed 5 with the boxes 10 in which they are supplied, or such boxes 10 filled with the containers 1 can be prepared separately beforehand, their presence facilitates handling during dose counting, filling the racks as well as cleaning used containers 1 and waste left after completion of the tests.

The stands are numbered from one to twenty in a tub 11 of a non-combustible, sufficiently strong material. In this exemplary embodiment, the tub 11 is made of steel. The tub 11 has a bottom 12 to which all the racks contained are fixed, immovably fixed by conventional means of connection, such as screws, rivets, welds. Around the bottom 12 of the bath 11 an upwardly protruding rim 13 is formed, preventing the possible broken pieces of material from falling out and allowing the placement of an additional type of ethanol etc. at the customer's request, for example to increase the fire effect. If a wire launcher 3 is used, the tub 11 may have openings 7 for the electrical conductors 4, the openings 7 being spaced so as to adjoin the cavities of the pedestals 6 and the openings 7 of the rack supports 5. Several racks 11 with racks may be used for one test, depending on the calculated dose required, fold 2. In terms of the number of containers 1 in each 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 € 9 9 9 O

9999 9,999 9,999 €€

Of course, it is considerably more economical for the bed 5 to be preferably filled with the whole of the containers 1, with the possible collection of the calculated number of containers 1 assembled into one rack, with more unused racks than being unnecessarily occupied with unnecessarily large numbers of racks. and provided with perforated lids 9.

The tub 11 may be fixed one or more to the support structure 14 of the movable means, for example on a vehicle, in a position and location of the vehicle selected such that at least the region of each lid 9 remains free from the surrounding space throughout the test. it is necessary to avoid the formation of a cloud from the aerosol being generated. The placement is optimal by means of a special supporting structure 14 tailored for this purpose and fastened to the rear of the car, but other suitable support means such as a roof rack on the vehicle, a trailer, a hull, etc. may be chosen. The above elements are not a requirement.

Component 2 is a non-toxic aerosol generating material, the solid particles of which contain a mixture of potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ), potassium bicarbonate (KHCO 3) and carbon (C), and whose gas phase contains a mixture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (H 2 O) nitrous gases (NO X ), nitrogen (N) and ammonia (NH 4 ). For example, a composition such as:

% wt. in the mixture potassium perchlorate (KCIO4) potassium nitrate (KNO3) epoxy resin bonding component, hardener up to 26 to 60 to 23

0.8 to 1.2

The stated quantities and types of substances are understood to be available on the market, ie with a technical purity of about 99%, so that in addition to the listed substances, a small amount of admixtures may also be present. The aerosol generated by the firing of this mixture can be characterized as unhealthy to harmful, but this harmfulness does not reach the degree that it can be considered toxic,

The apparatus is intended for a new method of checking the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to the invention. An exemplary embodiment of the tests by this method is described below. The operation of the apparatus and the implementation of the method are shown in Figures 8 through

11.

Preparing for the method involves at least examining the project documentation of the test area, identifying the type, number and location of HVAC and smoke and other equipment in the test area, identifying the elements of natural ventilation, determining the shape, dimensions and materials in the test area design parameters of fire ventilation. Furthermore, this preparation involves placing the appropriate sensors and meters in the test area, including any video cameras 15 if they have not been installed before. A device according to the invention is prepared beforehand equipped with the required number of containers 1 is folded 2. A nontoxic aerosol generator simulating smoke is generated in the test area, its components 2 are activated, and then the aerosol evolution is monitored, video recording and the measurements required to evaluate the functionality of the fire ventilation system in a given area, and finally the measurements obtained are compared with the actual smoke values, such as those generated by the combustion of petrol and diesel, measured in the test area. Based on the results, the functionality of the fire ventilation of the tested area is evaluated. As far as possible, modern science and technology, including data management and evaluation systems, are used for measurement and evaluation.

When fired, a non-toxic aerosol is evolved in the generator at a temperature of 600 to 1300 ° C, the particular temperature values within this range depend mainly on the amount of material in the composition 2, the particular composition of composition 2, the presence and amount of oxidizing agents and an aerosol cloud formed from a mixture of solid and gas phase, of which the solid phase consists of particles having a size of 1 to 5 μιτι based on potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate and carbon, and the gas phase consists of a mixture of gaseous substances containing carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous gases, nitrogen and ammonia, and / or compounds thereof. The dose of Compound 2 is calculated to be

- a non-toxic aerosol has been produced at a rate of 3 to 100 m 3 / s, the specific aerosol generated for each verification test being determined within this range in advance according to the customer's wish, preferably depending on the design fire ventilation parameters for the test area; at a level equal to or close to the upper limit of the maximum permitted by the project. During the test, the velocity of the air containing the aerosol, the temperature in the area of the aerosol generator and in the space, the optical density of the aerosol and possibly other measurable values in the tested space and possibly also in the inlets and outlets of air handling equipment are monitored. An important benefit of the invention is, inter alia, the ability to record video of the direction and flow of aerosol particles directly in the region of the edge of the aerosol cloud, depending on the fire ventilation function. The exchange time of gases and polluted air is also measured as a function of the volume exchange of the air masses and the optical density of the aerosol. Since the aerosol cloud has optical density, motion and dispersion properties comparable to actual smoke from the fire, the optical density of the aerosol is also detected at different height levels during the test by video recording and / or measurement at different heights. The recorded video enables visualization of the course of the test, which can be used for evaluation of test results as well as for demonstrative purposes such as demonstration at training courses, for practical instructional training of firefighters, etc.

If air conditioning devices are present in the test area, they are preferably in operation during aerosol generation and aerosol dispersion monitoring. The method is solved as follows for the purpose of testing the ventilation of tunnels and other corridors. For large-size tunnels, halls and similar test areas, the non-toxic aerosol generator shall be placed on at least one carrier mounted on or behind the vehicle, in such a position and so as to be accessible to the surrounding space before the contained aerosol is activated. into the surrounding space. The vehicle is folded 2 is transported to the activation point of the fold 2 and then, during activation and / or after activation, fold 2 by launching the vehicle in the test area. The activated composition 2 develops a visible cloud of aerosol, which spreads in the test area similar to the smoke from a real fire when burning gasoline, diesel, etc. During the whole test, ie at least during the movement of the aerosol cloud in the test area, of this cloud. This monitoring can be provided by a moving video device, such as a video camera 15 mounted on a separate vehicle, through which video is continuously recorded to visualize the progress of the test.

8 and 9 in the case of a statically placed generator, of which FIG. 8 demonstrates the development and propagation of an aerosol cloud in a room vented by a duct system and FIG. rooms with only natural ventilation by skylight. In these figures, the line is indicated by the so-called safe line h, which is a height limit indicating to what height away from the floor of the room there is still safe breathing for persons in areas during fire in the event of use, resp. operation, means of fire ventilation present. The arrows indicate the natural air supply through the building openings.

Giant. 10 shows the performance of a fire ventilation test in a tunnel by means of a generator mounted on a supporting structure 14, mounted on a vehicle during a standing test. In the case of A, the vehicle with the generator is located in the central part of the tunnel under test, in the case of B it is in the beginning of the tunnel, in case of C it is in the end of the tunnel. In all cases A, B, C, two auxiliary vehicles are used for monitoring, each with a video camera 15 that stands near the edge of the aerosol cloud and travels back and forth as the aerosol cloud first diffuses and eventually decreases with ventilation. The invention enables these vehicles and the camcorder 15 to be operated by persons without danger to life and health. All vehicles in the tunnel area are fire-free.

Giant. 11 shows the performance of a fire ventilation test in a tunnel using generators mounted on a supporting structure 14, mounted on vehicles during the mobile test. In case of A, the 2 generator sets are activated in the central part of the tunnel under test, whereupon the vehicles leave to spread the aerosol cloud towards the end of the tunnel. In case of B, the two generator sets are activated already at the beginning of the tunnel being tested, whereupon the vehicles leave to spread the aerosol cloud towards the end of the tunnel. In case of C, the two generator sets are activated only in the end of the tunnel under test, after which the vehicles leave to spread the aerosol cloud towards the beginning of the tunnel. In all cases A, B, C may be for tracking and acquisition • · · · <»

One or two additional vehicles with a video camera 15 are used in the video, similar to the case described in Fig. 10.

The aforementioned variants of the solution according to the invention demonstrate and not limit it. Thus, various other combinations of apparatus and method are possible under the conditions of the invention.

Claims (14)

  1. Method for checking the functionality of a fire ventilation system, characterized in that a non-toxic aerosol generator simulating flue gases, equipped with a predetermined number of compounds (2), is placed in the test area, these components (2) are activated and the aerosol evolution is monitored taking a video recording and measuring the values necessary to evaluate the functionality of the fire ventilation in a given space, measuring at least the air flow rate, the temperature in the area of the aerosol generator, the temperature in the area outside the generator and time, and finally smoke, such as from the combustion of petrol and diesel, measured in the test area and based on the results, evaluate the functionality of the fire ventilation of the test area.
  2. Method for testing the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to claim 1, characterized in that the generator develops a non-toxic aerosol at a temperature of 600 to 1300 ° C consisting of a mixture of solid and gas phase, of which the solid phase consists of particles of 1 to 5 µm potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and carbon, and the gas phase is a medium based on carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous gases, nitrogen and ammonia.
  3. Method for verifying the functionality of the fire ventilation system according to claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the non-toxic aerosol is generated in an amount of 3 to 100 m 3 / s, the specific amount to be generated for each verification test being determined in advance the design parameters of the fire ventilation for the test area, for example at the level of the highest permitted by the project.
  4. Method for verifying the functionality of fire ventilation according to claims 1 to 3, characterized in that during the test the air flow rate including the aerosol contained, the temperature in the area of the aerosol generator and in the test area, the optical density of the aerosol are monitored, direction and flow are recorded. aerosol particles depending on the fire ventilation function and are measured at the time of gas and polluted air exchange depending on the volume exchange of the air mass and the optical density of the aerosol.
  5. Method for testing the functionality of the fire ventilation system according to claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the optical density of the aerosol at different height levels is determined in the test area during the test by video recording and / or by measuring at different heights.
  6. Method for testing the functionality of the fire ventilation system according to claims 1 to 5, characterized in that air-conditioning devices of the test area are in operation during the aerosol generation and monitoring of aerosol propagation.
  7. Method for verifying the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to claims 1 to 6, characterized in that at least one non-toxic aerosol generator is placed on a carrier mounted on or behind the vehicle in such a position and thus accessible relative to the vehicle prior to activation of the component (2) contained therein. to allow the aerosol to spread freely into the surrounding space, whereupon the vehicle i is folded (2) transported to the activation site of the compound (2) and then, during activation and / or after activation of the compound (2) During the test, a moving video device, such as a video camera 15, placed on another vehicle, is continuously moving around the test area, and continuously records video. allowing visualization of the test progress.
  8. Apparatus for carrying out a method of testing the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to any one of claims 1 to 7, comprising a generator comprising containers (1) of a non-combustible solid material, for example steel, having an internal cavity which are at least partially filled with a combustible composition (2). in that the composition (2) of the containers (1) forms a source of nontoxic aerosol imitating combustion products, namely an aerosol consisting of 1 to 5 μπι solid particles and non-toxic gaseous substances, except that the composition (2) contains only the firing device (3) and above the composition (2) with the firing device (3) is only free in vessels (1) © cv
    • · »18 ~ <c ©
    ♦ © © r <.
    and wherein the containers (1) are in the number of 4 to 10 pieces housed in at least one repository of a non-combustible solid material, for example steel, and there provided a common perforated lid (9).
  9. Apparatus for performing a method of testing the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to claim 8, characterized in that the receptacle for containers (1) is in the form of a rack, the upper part of which forms a receptacle (5) for receptacles (1). provides a base (6) with at least one internal cavity for the necessary electrical elements * of the firing device (3), for example for conductors (4).
  10. Apparatus for carrying out a method of testing the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to claim 9, characterized in that the bed (5) is provided with at least one opening (7) and the inner cavity of the pedestal (6) is continuous with this opening (7), the base (6) is provided with at least one element stabilizing its position relative to the base, for example a support plate (8) formed below.
  11. Apparatus for carrying out a method of testing the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to claims 9 and 10, characterized in that the rack is at least one in a tub (11) of a non-combustible solid material, for example steel, the tub (11) comprising at least a bottom. (12) and an all-round rim (13), the stand being fixed, immovably fixed to the bottom (12) of the tub (11).
  12. Apparatus for performing a fire ventilation function verification method according to claim 11, characterized in that the tub (11) comprises one to twenty racks, wherein at least some of the racks contained have the bed (5) completely filled with containers (1) covered with a perforated lid (1). 9).
  13. Apparatus for performing a method of testing the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to claim 12, characterized in that the trough (11) is supported on a supporting structure (14) of a movable means, for example a vehicle, at least in the region of the lid (9) .
    V · í
  14. Apparatus for carrying out a method of testing the functionality of a fire ventilation system according to any one of claims 8 to 13, characterized in that the component (2) is a non-toxic aerosol generating material when fired, the solid particles of which contain a mixture of potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, carbon. the gas phase of which comprises a mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous gases, nitrogen and ammonia.
CZ20110883A 2011-12-27 2011-12-27 Method of verifying functionality of fire ventilation and apparatus for making the same CZ2011883A3 (en)

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CZ20110883A CZ2011883A3 (en) 2011-12-27 2011-12-27 Method of verifying functionality of fire ventilation and apparatus for making the same

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CZ20110883A CZ2011883A3 (en) 2011-12-27 2011-12-27 Method of verifying functionality of fire ventilation and apparatus for making the same
DE202011110470.6U DE202011110470U1 (en) 2011-12-27 2011-12-28 Apparatus for checking the functioning of fire ventilation
SK5021-2014U SK6988Y1 (en) 2011-12-27 2011-12-28 Method of fire ventilation function test and the device for thereof
EP11466041.8A EP2609968A3 (en) 2011-12-27 2011-12-28 Method of fire ventilation function test and the testing device

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CZ2011883A3 true CZ2011883A3 (en) 2013-07-31
CZ303988B6 CZ303988B6 (en) 2013-07-31

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CZ (1) CZ2011883A3 (en)
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3766685B2 (en) * 1993-02-16 2006-04-12 スペクトレックス・インコーポレイテッド Fire extinguishing method and system
DE10002349C2 (en) * 2000-01-20 2001-11-29 Armin Spaniol Fire training facility
US7578225B2 (en) * 2005-12-02 2009-08-25 Garrett Bosch Smoke generator machine
KR100799555B1 (en) * 2006-12-11 2008-01-31 차기만 Apparatus of training for fire fighting
EP2438964A4 (en) * 2009-06-03 2015-03-11 Fundacion Labein Tracer smoke generator for ventilation tests
CN102162375B (en) * 2010-12-27 2013-05-08 中国安全生产科学研究院 On-site hot smoke test equipment and method for subway station and inter-station tunnel

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SK50212014U1 (en) 2014-07-02
EP2609968A2 (en) 2013-07-03
EP2609968A3 (en) 2013-12-25
CZ303988B6 (en) 2013-07-31
DE202011110470U1 (en) 2014-03-25
SK6988Y1 (en) 2014-12-04

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