The objective of the invention is with the transportation of cancelling large-scale large board member is main target, rational structure pattern and production technology are simply and easily organically combined, create and to use on-the-spot lamination production, directly to lift the new template that uses, so that obtain best economic effect.
In particular, be exactly will be in further investigation lamination production theory, grasp under the prerequisite of lamination production law, very rational " grillage unification " prestressed slab of stress form, all be designed to the form of structure of the overlapping production of energy, and adopt the way of post-tensioned prestressing to carry out arrangement of reinforcement, so that reduce the production floor space to greatest extent and simplify the production pedestal, reach and to use on-the-spot requirement in engineering by the lifting position, the simple and easy production pedestal of flexible arrangement, both make the member of producing, can just can directly lift the purpose of use without transportation.So just can save the transport cost that pre-tensioned prestressing is produced the investment of pedestal and saved whole large-scale components in a large number.
Key technology of the present invention is will be by aforementioned purpose, design big plate template and the concrete moulding process that solves these big plates can lamination produced, and for implementing two particular problems that lamination production need solve, that is: post-tensioned prestressed reinforcement in overlapping production member collocation method and overlapping production member in suspension hook way is set.
The design of the big plate cross sectional shape of lamination production:
Some simple plane members or single curve or broken line member successively be superimposed together, and to produce be easily, but, to can satisfy the each side mechanical property requirements to some, complex-shaped large panel structure, in the longitudinal and transverse two directions production that all is superimposed together closely, and all span is equal to make each member of producing, shape is identical, the size at each position is all just the same, just must further investigate the rule of overlapping production, the strict design principles of grasping, that is: when the cross section was curved surface, the upper surface in cross section must be identical with the curvature of soffit; When the cross section was the folding plane, the upper surface in cross section and the break of soffit must be on same vertical lines; To whole member make vertical line more arbitrarily, 2 the distance that member upper surface and soffit and this vertical line intersect is a constant, this constant is exactly the thickness that the member lamination is produced, the height of each template vertical-lift when just producing.
Above-mentioned 3 points, mandatory " contour lifting " principle when being referred to as design lamination production member.The design of member no matter for any point, all must be satisfied this principle, otherwise the member that designs not to get up with regard to overlapping when actual production.
The design of the big plate post-tensioned prestressed reinforcement of lamination production:
Produce the big plate of prestressed reinforced concrete for making the lamination that designs, can need flexible arrangement to produce pedestal by lifting at the scene of using, reach the purpose of not carrying out the member transportation, just must cancel fixing pre-tensioned prestressing pedestal, adopt post-tensioned prestressing arrangement of reinforcement technology.But the configuration of post-tensioned prestressed reinforcement can not penetrate the concrete component of lamination production, must successively separate.So these post-tensioned prestressed reinforcements can only be installed in the member both sides that lamination production is over, and adopt the form expose, treat that big plate is installed after, grouting protection in the preformed plate seam again is shown in Fig. 1 (A).Be to guarantee the wide installation dimension of plate, the short bracket of anchoring prestressed reinforcement can not stretch out outside the plate, thus the anchor head of prestressed reinforcement be after end horizontal bends, enter with the wide short bracket that equates of plate in anchoring, as shown in Figure 1.
The design of the big plate suspension hook of lamination production:
Produce in the member at lamination, how designing suspension hook is a key problem in technology.This is because big plate is the thin-walled arch form structure, generally to the status requirement strictness of suspension hook, can not move arbitrarily.So in whole lamination manufacturing process, suspension hook also must overlap.But when lifting component, guarantee that again these suspension hooks can throw off smoothly, and can link up with lifting immediately.The loading that suspension hook bears is very big, and big plate is as thin wall construction, and the concrete of anchoring suspension hook is very thin again, so must manage to guarantee the reliability of suspension hook anchoring.
For satisfying above-mentioned requirements, suspension hook be shaped as taper, big down little so that intussusception between the suspension hook, the awl end, add the weldering anchor slab, increase anchoring, expose the concrete vertex of a cone as suspension ring, during concrete construction with this suspension ring filled with mortar, make solid conical, after the brush interleaving agent, can separate with the upper strata member, so that the demoulding.Shown in Fig. 1 (B).
Template by the mentioned above principle design has ten kinds of following four classes:
The two-hinged arch of band pull bar:
Insulation layer is not with in built on stilts lamination production, and positive flute profile arch bar is as Fig. 2.
Be close to lamination production, band insulation layer, anti-flute profile arch bar, Fig. 3.
Be close to lamination production, band insulation layer, square-section arch bar, Fig. 4.
Be close to lamination production, be not with insulation layer, the plate face is the anti-flute profile arch bar of grid beams, Fig. 5.
The integral channel plate arch:
Be close to lamination production, band insulation layer, frid arch, Fig. 6.
Be close to lamination production, be not with insulation layer, the plate face is the frid arch of grid beams, Fig. 7.
The flap arch:
Be close to lamination production, be not with insulation layer, curtain template arch, Fig. 8.
Two-way little arched:
Be close to lamination production, be not with insulation layer, two-way little arched, Fig. 9.
Be close to lamination production, the band insulation layer, two-way little arched, Figure 10.
Be close to lamination production, be not with insulation layer, the plate face is the two-way little arched of grid beams, Figure 11.
The form of structure of these big plates, mechanical property, moulding process have nothing in common with each other, so their pluses and minuses and the scope of application also have nothing in common with each other.As:
Have the big plate of two-hinged arch of pull bar, its moulding process is simple, and template construct is convenient, but because lower edge is the flexible steel bar rod that exposes, so only relatively be applicable to the factory building of various storehouses, no crane.
The integral channel plate arch, its mechanical property is fine, and is handsome in appearance, so the scope of application is very wide, no matter storehouse, factory building, public building can both be suitable for, and span can do very big.But its template and moulding process more complicated, construction level is had relatively high expectations.
Flap arch, its mechanical property and architectural image all be not so good as frid and encircle, so that span can not be done is too big.In addition, its roofing is a broken line, the constructing operation inconvenience of insulation, waterproof, and material usage is also many.But the moulding process of this plate is very simple, and the mould materials are economized very much, can produce 10～15 layers easily at a pedestal, so can be widely used in various small and medium constructions.
Two-way little arched, the mechanical property of this arch bar is fine, and moulding is also fine, and moulding process is simple, and the mould materials are economized very much, but it must supported along four sides, so can only be used to have the structure of supported along four sides condition.
Winding up is the various big plate of grid beams, and its architectural image is all better, the building that can be used for having relatively high expectations.Owing to there is not concrete plate surface, plate is heavy lighter, can strengthen so plate is wide.But the frame mould materials that form grid beams are a lot, and construction is inconvenient.
These big plates have a common great advantage, the roofing good integrity after building up exactly, and antidetonation evil ability is strong, and the area of application is unrestricted.
The moulding process of the big plate of lamination production, because template has nothing in common with each other,, conclude and get up can divide following five kinds so different templates is had different moulding process:
Built on stilts lamination production technology.When lamination is produced, leave a fixed gap between every layer of member.The concrete practice is that the production pedestal is brick buttress, and pier is used for supporting the weight that whole laminations are produced members apart from 2 meters.Forming panel divides side form and bed die two partly.During formwork, bed die is bearing in the bottom of two side forms, and side form is successively to promote use in overlapping manufacturing process, and after side form was removed, bed die can be reused by releasing in the bedding void.All the production of member lamination is over, after curing concrete reaches design strength, and the unified again lower edge prestressed draw-bar of installing, successively stretch-draw anchor all after the completion, is concentrated at last again and is carried out lifting component.
The band insulation layer be close to the lamination production technology.The member of producing all fits together closely.The concrete practice is to produce pedestal to fill out block with common brick, dry sand and form, and smears mortar on the surface again and makes loose tool.Forming panel has only two side forms.Bed die is the upper surface of lower floor's member of having produced of utilization, in the overlapping manufacturing process, as long as successively promote two side forms, just can produce each layer member.Separate with interleaving agent between every layer of member.All member production is over.After concrete curing reaches design strength, unified post-tensioned prestressed reinforcement, the successively stretch-draw anchor installed.Concentrate at last and carry out lifting component.Such plate can be close to the essential condition that lamination is produced, and is to make insulation layer with cement expanded perlite, has filled the thickness of plate face, has played making big plate both have insulation layer, the effect of again can lamination producing.
Flap arch (curtain template arch) is close to the lamination production technology.Because the side plate gradient of this structure is very big, can not adopt integral mold plate.Its moulding way is an employing activity steel mould base, and steel mould base makes with angle steel, and shape is identical with the broken line shape of member cross section.In the forming process, lay steel mould base by the moulding position, 1.5 meters～2.5 meters of spacings are made scale with steel mould base, with special straight line scraper plate, draw in longitudinal and transverse two directions along steel mould base and to scrape concrete, and are promptly plastic.Other technology content is the same.
Be close to lamination and produce two-way little arched sheet metal forming technology.This plate does not have lateral plates, and the area of upper face is very big, is two-way little song, and dimensional requirement is accurate.Because the area of upper surface is very big, adopt template or movable steel mould base to come moulding all not have possibility.So the moulding process of this plate is to take to install four little arched respectively on the frame punching block around the big plate,, draws and scrapes surperficial concrete formation respectively along little arched of two opposite side with the length scraper plate.The mould of whole technology is very simple, and is easy to operate, and size is accurate.Other relevant technology is all identical.
Production technology when being close to lamination and producing the upper string board face of various templates and be grid beams.This moment, the template of each grid was the framed of a rectangle, with the lamination production of each member, promoted successively that this is framed, produced the grid beams of winding up.The grid depth of beam is exactly the height of every layer of member " contour lifting ", needn't come the thickness of infill panel face with insulation layer.The architectural image of this plate is attractive in appearance, and De Shop plate Shang the grid beams can be selected voluntarily as required.
On-the-spot lamination produce prestressed reinforced concrete arched roof plate system be bar structure form and production technology be closely linked and produce one overlap novel roof structure system, its major advantage is under the prerequisite that has kept " grillage unification " original advantage, accomplished again and made the large board member of producing just can directly lift use without any transportation, and it is all very simple to produce pedestal, construction equipment and operating procedure, be fit to China's concrete condition, be convenient to large scale application.
" pilot scale " testing identity, adopt the large panel structure of this lamination at the scene production to make roofing, but big plate at the scene lamination production close with form of structure made comparisons, the consumption of the material of roofing element own is almost equal, but the direct cost of roofworks can reduce by 20～40%, the engineering comprehensive cost can reduce by 13～18%, and the duration can shorten 1/3～1/5, the economic benefit highly significant.
The more important thing is that it has changed traditional prefabricated large board member must be in the fixing prefabricated place or the practice of plant produced,, become and to have used the on-the-spot flexible prefabricated factory of small-sized activity that moves with engineering large-scale fixing big plate production plant.Therefore, implement the present invention, can not only obtain tangible economic benefit, and have good development prospect.
Optimum implementation of the present invention:
Press the plane of building,, use the production pedestal of arranging the big plate of roofing as starting point on the roofing, and determine on each pedestal the big plate number should lamination produced can directly big plate being hung according to the crane crane capacity.
At selected production pedestal place, fill out the block pedestal with common brick and dry sand, so that after pedestal was removed in the future, common brick, sand still can use as usual.
Two side templates having made are fixed on the pedestal both sides, water the loose tool that formal member is produced in plain mortar (mixing early strength admixture) moulding then in the space between side form and pedestal.
After the loose tool mortar reaches intensity, take two side forms apart.
On loose tool and template, brush interleaving agent.
The good reinforcing bar of colligation is installed on loose tool.
By two side forms of designing requirement " contour lifting ", fixed then.
Placing of concrete is used slab tamper, and moulding is smash in shake.(mixing early strength admixture in the concrete).
Health 12 hours after concrete reaches intensity more than the 50#, is taken two side forms apart.
The big plate of having produced is continued to use when loose tool, repeat above operation, just can the big plate of successively overlapping each layer of production.
The all overlapping productions of big plate all on each pedestal are over, a plate on top layer, and after health reaches design strength, can be by designing requirement, the unified post-tensioned prestressed reinforcement that all big plates are installed.
With two double acting hydraulic jacks, successively carry out the prestressed reinforcement of every plate both sides is carried out the prestressed stretch-draw and the anchoring of symmetry by the tension stress of design.Until whole completions.
The arrangement crane is marched into the arena, and arranges lifting program predetermined when producing pedestal by original, one by one pedestal, successively big plate lifts.
The big plate that is installed on the roofing is carried out the grouting of plate seam, and suitably shaken and smash, guarantee that mortar fills up the plate seam, reaches the effect of protecting post-tensioned prestressed reinforcement with little shake tamper.
All large board member all finishes from producing to the operation of installing, and other insulation, waterproof work are carried out according to normal procedure.