The utility model content
The technical problems to be solved in the utility model provides that a kind of integrated reading/writing distance is far away, read or write speed is fast, reliability and the strong passive radio frequency electronic label read/write of antijamming capability.
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the utility model is carried a kind of integrated passive RF tag reader-writer, comprise antenna, the antenna reflecting plate, inhale wave apparatus, by circulator, the radio frequency transmission channel, the radio frequency reception passage, field programmable gate array, single-chip microcomputer, serial line interface, the reader/writer module that combined communication interface and phaselocked loop frequency synthesizer form, described radio frequency radiating circuit is by low-noise amplifier, modulator and power amplifier are composed in series successively, described radio frequency reception passage is by demodulator, pulse amplifier and comparison shaping circuit are composed in series successively, described circulator comprises three ports and with described antenna, described power amplifier be connected demodulator and connect, described field programmable gate array is with described low-noise amplifier, described comparison shaping circuit and the single-chip microcomputer of being connected connect, described single-chip microcomputer connects with described power amplifier, described phaselocked loop frequency synthesizer is with described modulator, described demodulator and described single-chip microcomputer connect, described serial line interface connects with described single-chip microcomputer, described combined communication interface connects with described field programmable gate array and described single-chip microcomputer, described reader/writer module is fixed in a side of antenna reflecting plate, described antenna is fixed in a described antenna reflecting plate side opposite with described reader/writer module, and described suction wave apparatus is fixed in described reader/writer module one side of being fixed with of described antenna reflecting plate.
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above better, the type of system's output interface is two kinds or two or more in this integrated passive RF tag reader-writer. Wherein field programmable gate array comprises command register, command interpretation state machine, impulse generator, Echo Processing logic device, echo latching logic device, Clock dividers and verification logic device. Wherein command register connects with described single-chip microcomputer; Can the generation state shift and be connected described command interpretation state machine with redirect and connect with described command register; Described command interpretation state machine connects with described impulse generator; Impulse generator connects with described radio frequency transmission channel; Described Echo Processing logic device one end connects with described radio frequency reception passage, and an other end connects with echo latching logic buffer. Can provide the verification logic device of CRC to connect with single-chip microcomputer. Described phaselocked loop connects with impulse generator and command interpretation state machine by Clock dividers. Described read write line can activate the electronic tag that enters the microwave scope. Described radio frequency transmitting power is by computer software control. The signal ground current potential separates with the power supply earth potential. The modulation signal that returns from label directly is demodulated into baseband signal. CRC and parity check mistake are adopted in described electronic tag communication simultaneously. Described suction wave apparatus relies closely with described reader/writer module. Described antenna is parallel with described antenna reflecting plate.
Adopt high-speed remote-passive RF tag reader-writer of the present utility model, technique effect is to have realized that read-write capability realizes at a machine, and read write line is realized integrated design, and read or write speed is fast, and antijamming capability is strong. Read-write object is the passive electronic label, and not only size is little, lightweight, long service life, price are low, and has avoided replacing battery or charging and because the trouble of the use dispute that battery causes of active electronic tag. Ability with remote reading tag data. Quick identification label is than the fast several times of the read or write speed of general read write line. Owing to take to make up design, make not only that circuit is compact, whole hardware platform device is few, volume is little, low price, and the circuit hear rate reduces, reliability is higher, and it is stronger to adapt to the working environment ability. Use more conveniently, multiple output interface, radio-frequency power software control, antenna connect and detect and the prompting of duty acousto-optic, all provide very big convenience for the user.
The utility model can be used for article identification and data acquisition, utilizes the superperformance that the utlity model has, and will extensively be applied in following field. Warehouse logistics management: electronic tag can substitute existing bar coded sticker, and has better characteristic, and the drifting management of flowing with warehousing management and mail, parcel, aviation luggage etc. for commodity all has wide application prospects; Transportation management: highway, railway transport administration, container transportation and management etc.; Customs's management of being open to the custom: customs is open to the custom, turns goods and materials and the vehicle management of pass; Motor vehicle management: the departments such as public security, traffic are to monitoring and the management of various motor vehicles; The toll on the road and bridge: owing to the utlity model has the ability of remote high speed reading tag data, the toll on the road and bridge can not stopped and be carried out, and is particularly useful for expressway tol lcollection; Parking lot management: realize management and charge automation; Entrance guard management: comprise Vehicle And Personnel's turnover management; Explained hereafter flow process: in whole production process, monitor parts; Product false proof: utilize label built-in storage writing protection function, authenticity of products is differentiated.
The specific embodiment
Accompanying drawings embodiment of the present utility model.
See also shown in Fig. 1 and 2, present embodiment structurally comprises antenna 29, bracing frame 75, inhale wave apparatus 77, antenna reflecting plate 78, the radio frequency transmission channel that forms by circulator 1, by low-noise amplifier 6, modulator 7, power amplifier 8, by demodulator 2, pulse amplifier 3, relatively the radio frequency reception passage, field programmable gate array (FPGA) 5, single-chip microcomputer (MCU) 9, the serial line interface 10 that form of shaping circuit 4, make up the reader/writer module 76 that communication interface 11 and phaselocked loop (PLL) 12 etc. form. Reader/writer module 76 is fixed in a side of antenna reflecting plate 78, and antenna 29 is fixed in antenna reflecting plate 78 with reader/writer module 76 opposite sides by bracing frame 75, and antenna 29 connects with circulator 1 by connecting screw 70. That inhales that wave apparatus 77 is fixed in antenna reflecting plate 78 is fixed with reader/writer module 76 1 sides. Inhaling wave apparatus 77 relies closely with reader/writer module 76. Antenna 29 is parallel with described antenna reflecting plate 78.
The effect of circulator 1 is microwave to be transmitted separate with microwave receiving signal isolation, guarantees that microwave transmits can flow to antenna 29 and not enter the radio frequency reception passage by circulator 1, and the microwave signal of antenna 29 receptions can enter the radio frequency reception passage. The effect of radio frequency transmission channel is that the command code that will mail to label is modulated on the tranmitting frequency by modulator 7, and carries out microwave power by power amplifier 8 and amplify. The effect of radio frequency reception passage is that label is processed by the echo-signal that antenna 29 receives, comprise by demodulator carry out the zero intermediate frequency demodulation, by pulse amplifier 3 amplify process and relatively shaping circuit compare shaping processing etc. Field programmable gate array 5 is finished the digital control function of whole read write line, it bear the generation of label echo detection, decoding and buffer memory, modulation waveform ASK sequence and transmission, CRC check and with the task such as MCU swap data. Single-chip microcomputer 9 is processing centers of whole read write line, it want that the explanation of completing user PC message packet, serial communication, MCU Instruction control word produce, electronic tag data reads with write, the storage of FPGA data and download, radio-frequency power control, the control of phaselocked loop frequency etc. Serial communication interface 10 and combined communication interface 11 are finished the data communication of read write line and external equipment. Wherein, serial communication interface 10 is actually RS-232 serial line interface of standard, and combined communication mouth 11 is a kind of combination communication interfaces, in fact comprises Wei root mouth, RS-485 mouthful and external trigger mouth. Phaselocked loop frequency synthesizer 12 provides various frequency standards for whole read write line.
Read-write object of the present utility model, namely electronic tag is the novel passive electronic label that adopts the Sahara RW9000 of U.S. SCS company series and the SENSE of our company 9000 series, its technology is carried out the ISO-18000 industry standard. Their operating frequency is ISM wave band (902～928MHz); The card memory size is 1 kilobit (kBits) (wherein 928Bits is user's application); Read or write speed: average every 32bits reads minimum about 1.4 milliseconds (ms) consuming time, writes the minimum 30ms consuming time of average every 32bits; Adopt the multiple-unit access instruction, only to the label of proprietary application system identify, read-write operation; Possess the anti-collision communications protocol, can operate simultaneously a plurality of labels; Adopt the frequency hopping technology, have very strong antijamming capability. The base material of label and packing forms have papery basic unit, the band self-adhesive encapsulation of soft film basic unit, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) basic unit, ABS encapsulation, pottery to encapsulate etc. They can be pasted on respectively the surface of the objects such as papery, plastic and glass, adopt the special stand Pasting in the metal surface.
During operation, first with the read write line power supply opening, single-chip microcomputer 9 at first passes through single-chip microcomputer---and field programmable gate array 5 buses (address bus A Bus and data/address bus D Bus) download executive software for field programmable gate circuit 5, make field programmable gate array 5 normal operations. When the user sends order or request by serial communication interface 10 or combined communication interface 11, the order that produces the operation label of single-chip microcomputer 9 certificates, notice field programmable gate array 5 produces amplitude keying (ASK) waveform signal, mailing to the radio frequency transmission channel goes, modulated RF modulator 7, again through radio-frequency power amplifier 8, circulator 1, by antenna 29 to the space radiation microwave. Electronic tag is subject to described integrated passive tag read-write equipment and sends the excitation of microwave energy and start working. After it receives the order of described integrated passive tag read-write equipment, namely beam back the microwave signal of response command to this read write line according to order request, received and circulator 1 by read write line enters the radio frequency reception passage by antenna 29, amplify, compare reshaper 4 shapings through demodulator 2 demodulation, pulse amplifier 3, obtain the baseband signal (DATA) of label, these baseband signals obtain the label echo data again after the processing such as field programmable gate array 5 samplings, digital filtering, relevant judgement, deposit in its memory, and notice single-chip microcomputer 9. Single-chip microcomputer 9 is issued the user through serial communication interface 10 or combined communication interface 11 after doing further processing from field programmable gate array 5 taking-up label informations, answers user's order or request. In addition, field programmable gate array 5 also by the power supply of radio-frequency power supply port (RF_PW) control radio-frequency power amplifier 8, makes described integrated passive tag read-write equipment be controlled to aerial radiation electric wave; Field programmable gate array 5 reception antennas 29 connect the information of testing circuits (RF_JC), judge and indicate antenna 29 connection status by antenna indicator lamp (ANT). Single-chip microcomputer 9 is also by the power output from kinetic power control port (APC) control radio-frequency power amplifier 8; Send phaselocked loop control data (PLL_DATA) to phaselocked loop 12, adjust the frequency of phaselocked loop (PLL) 12, and verified the correctness of frequency by phaselocked loop control data (PLL_DET); Single-chip microcomputer 9 is sent echo comparison reference (REF) to the comparison shaping circuit 4 of radio frequency reception passage, for its relatively shaping.
See also shown in Figure 3ly, according to the ISO-18000 standard, in order to improve rapidity, reliability, the security of communicating by letter between electronic tag and the read write line, the communication protocol design of the utility model between read write line and label taked following measures.
It at first is arouse machine processed, the effect that wakes up is the tag activation that will enter in the reading and writing device antenna active region, the label that only is waken up could communicate with read write line, prevents the interference of other label outside the system, guarantees the reliable and accurate of read write line and native system label information exchange. Next is pattern and information coding design, the coding of the information pattern that the utility model adopts and " 0 " in order and the response and " 1 " information. The design of specific command code, the specific command code type of the utility model setting have " waking up " order, " reading " order, " writing " order, " write-protect " order, " inquiry write-protect " order etc., and its pattern and sequential are as shown in Figure 3. That these command codes have adopted is novel, distinguished special format and algorithm, has greatly increased reliability, security, high efficiency when reading and writing passive radio frequency electrical subtab. The rapid answer communication mechanism, the utility model can detect real-time to each information bit of the response message of label, fast response; In case the information of discovery mistake, at once termination recovers again, thereby has improved the information exchange speed between read write line and the label. Many label communication mechanism adopt binary system linear search tree algorithm, realize a plurality of electronic tags are carried out fast operating simultaneously. The data error-check has adopted the combined dual error-check of special CRC and even-odd check, guarantees correctness and the reliability of electronic tag data, improves recognition accuracy. Information security, the utility model increases the special function codes such as write-protect, and the part tag storage information of appointment is implemented protection, prevents that significant data from being rewritten, and guarantees data security.
Modulation and the reception of emission and echo-signal and the effect of demodulation in order to strengthen command code adopt following scheme.
See also shown in Figure 4ly, the signal ground current potential separates with the power supply earth potential. Because high low signal amplifies simultaneously, not only the circuit working load is heavy, and the interference that causes by power supply is very large, and altogether the time, circuit is unstable at signal and power supply, and control circuit is easy to cause erroneous judgement. After having adopted the split circuit of signal ground current potential 67 and power supply earth potential 66, make the receive path circuit working stable, echo is clean, clear. Wherein, reg+5vr sends into the U3A3 pin of emitter follower amplifier (U3A) (model is MAX4020) through resistance R 3, resistance R 4 dividing potential drops after electric capacity R9, the electric capacity R10 filtering. U3A1 pin current potential equals U3A4 pin current potential; Because resistance R 3 is identical with resistance R 4 sizes, so the DC potential of U3A1 pin equals 1/2 of reg+5vr place current potential, and the ac potential of U3A1 pin equals power supply ground 66, and reason is the alternating current bypass that electric capacity R9, electric capacity R10, electric capacity R4, electric capacity R6 form. Adopting foregoing circuit to make with the relevant signal ground 67 power supply ground 66 relevant with following power supply of signal separates fully.
See also shown in Figure 5ly, adopt circuit shown in it can realize direct zero intermediate frequency demodulation scheme.
Directly the zero intermediate frequency demodulation scheme can directly demodulate the signal of electronic tag rapidly from the echo-signal of electronic tag, has avoided the complexity and difficulties of the secondary mixing technology of common microwave receiver employing, thereby has improved the reliability that system receives.
Its course of work is as follows, the information that tag reflection returns is sent into circulator after dual-mode antenna 29 receives, circulator will be received and dispatched the reception signal after signal separates, be the signal that electronic tag returns, send into the orthogonal demodulation circuit that is formed by chip U73 (model is BP2C), chip U79 (model is RMS-2H), chip U70 (model is QCN-12) and chip U71 (model is RMS-2H) etc. Wherein chip U79, chip U70 are frequency mixer. Mixed frequency signal by the frequency mixer generation: difference frequency is FLO-F
RFBe F frequentlyLO+F
RF Because local oscillation signal (FLO) and the radiofrequency signal (F of radio frequency transmission channelRF) all take from same signal source, namely phaselocked loop 12, and the signal that electronic tag returns and the radiofrequency signal of transmission channel be frequency together, therefore, difference frequency (that is intermediate frequency) FLO-F
RF=0, the modulated signal that label returns then directly is demodulated into baseband signal. With frequency FLO+F
RFMuch larger than the operating frequency of mixing and be cut.
Because the zero intermediate frequency solution is in harmonious proportion the RF transmission channel with getting a signal source (PLL), namely saves a signal source, both be easy to realize, save again cost, improve simultaneously the reliability of system.
See also Fig. 2, Fig. 6, it is XC2S50TQ144 that field programmable gate array 5 is selected model, its principal character is, 50,000 programmable gate, up to the block RAM resource of 32Kbit, up to 784 CLB logical resources, have 121 programmable Is/O resource, abundant internal wiring resource, its internal logic structure is as shown in Figure 6. Data/address bus 63 provides data message for command register 52, command register 52 is used for depositing the order that single-chip microcomputer 9 is sent here with and will be sent, command interpretation state machine 53 is according to the order in the command register 52, the generation state shifts and redirect, generates order data and gives ASK impulse generator 54; ASK impulse generator 54 produces and sends corresponding ASK modulation waveform to the radio frequency transmission channel according to command interpretation state machine 53 order datas. The address information that address decoder 55 translating address buses 59 provide, 56 pairs of label echo signals of Echo Processing logic device are sampled and are compared, and judge the echo data state, decode echo data, by echo latching logic device 57 buffer memorys. Simultaneously command interpretation state machine 53 produces interrupt signal, is read by single-chip microcomputer 9, does further processing. Verification logic 58 provides corresponding fast hardware CRC computing for single-chip microcomputer 9. Clock source is that the outside crystal oscillator of 40MHz provides. 59 pairs of clock sources of clock frequency division logic 13 carry out frequency division, for field programmable gate array 5 logics provide the clock signal of 0.1 microsecond (us), 1us and 90us, are used for the generation of the sequential in the various situations.
The model that single-chip microcomputer is selected is C8051F126, and its principal character is high speed 8051 kernels, instruction pipeline structure; 256 byte RAM, 8K byte XRAM, 128K byte FLASH, 64 * 4 byte Cache; 8 I/O mouths (P0～P7), thereby the general I/O pin of abundant (totally 64) is arranged; Dual uart serial ports, two 12 DAC digital to analog converters, 10 ADC analog-digital converters and 8 ADC analog-digital converters; 3.3V operating voltage.
System's output interfaces such as RS-232, RS-485 and Wiegand (Wei root) partly are provided in communication interface, RS-485 and Wiegand interface have been Duoed than general read write line, especially the Wiegand interface can be convenient, fast, neatly with various industrial control equipment seamless links, greatly increased range of application and application scenario.
See also shown in Figure 7ly, adjust not too conveniently in actual use because the radio frequency transmitting power is artificial, adjust also more complicated and difficulty, the utility model has increased the way by software control radio frequency transmitting power, brings convenience to use. U2 (model is PF01411) is power amplifier (PA), and radio frequency (RF) input signal is by the U21 pin input of U2, and the U22 pin is exported, and the U22 pin is the power control end, and control signal is from CPU. The DC potential that changes the U22 pin can change the power output of power amplifier U2. Radio frequency power output (RFOut) obtains by test with the relation of power control input voltage amplitude, makes form and corresponding curve, and software is sent the controlling value of power control input by tabling look-up according to the radio frequency power output actual needs.
See also Fig. 2, shown in Figure 8, be not damaged for preventing function amplification level output no-load, protection radio frequency power tube, the utility model is set up antenna and is connected testing circuit. When antenna 29 does not connect or bad connection, system's light warning then, the radio frequency power tube stops to launch radio-frequency power automatically. When earthing type antenna 29 is connected with read write line when good through capacitance C99, the current potential that D99 is ordered is 0 volt; And do not connect antenna 29 or during with antenna 29 bad connection when read write line, and when namely inductance L 99 is infinitely great, there is not pressure drop on the resistance R 99, the current potential that D99 is ordered then is+5 volts. The D99 point directly links to each other with field programmable gate array 5, and field programmable gate array 5 can be made accordingly antenna 29 and connect judgement whether good, that report to the police and whether export.
See also shown in Figure 12, the built-in buzzer of read write line, read write line is whenever read the electronic tag signal, then sends sound, reminding user. Three light emitting diodes (LED) are set: red light 61 indication power supplys; Amber light 62 marker antennas connect; Green light 60 designation datas. This acousto-optic prompting mode provides great convenience for system integration test and field trial.
Present embodiment is integrated read write line, i.e. a built-in antenna 29. See also Fig. 1, shown in Figure 9, the reader/writer module 76 of antenna 29 with read write line, be combined in the rainproof enclosure, realize that antenna 29 and read write line integrate. Owing to do not connect radio-frequency cable between read write line and the antenna 29, so both simplified circuit, reduced again the defectives such as the radio frequency loss that brings owing to radio-frequency cable and loose contact, be conducive to improve the Performance And Reliability of read write line.
Because reader/writer module 76 is very near with antenna 29 mounting distances, reader/writer module 76 just is installed in the back of antenna reflecting plate 78, therefore, although the front and back of antenna 29 are larger, the electromagnetic wave energy that antenna 29 radiation winding sputterings are returned also is enough to allow the microwave receiving passage of reader/writer module 76 work. For this reason, present embodiment is provided with one and inhales wave apparatus 77, namely by the electromagnetic theory analysis, near reader/writer module 77 microwave receiving passages appropriate location arranges inhales wave apparatus 77, absorb the overwhelming majority of the electromagnetic wave energy that antenna 29 diffraction return, launch and the electromagnetic compatibility that receives guaranteeing.
Present embodiment is according to the Wiegand26/34 of standard or simple RS485 Protocol Design data output interface, only need to be connected read write line with the application controls device when user uses, and gets final product receive data. Therefore, it is relative " fool " type product, and is easy to use.
Present embodiment has the mandate function as security mechanism: take manufacturer that read write line is authorized the user to read write line is encrypted, mandate combines to electronic tag method, accomplish to only have and authorize label just can enter the automatic recognition system management area, without permission or imitated label then kept outside of the door, effectively solved the automatic recognition system safety issue.
Read write line comprises the self adaptation on-line software in the present embodiment, and its treatment step sees also shown in Figure 10. The purpose that adopts software control is the situation that adopts serial ports to carry out communication in order to adapt to read write line and PC machine. In order to improve the read or write speed of read write line, should use the highest communication speed. But because existing electromagnetic field environment differs, if adopt fixedly baud rate, then possibly in the large place of environmental disturbances can't communication; And in the little place of environmental disturbances, then lose time. Adopt the self adaptation on-line mode, then can according to site environment, select high as far as possible baud rate to carry out serial communication. When the principle that realizes software control is the read write line start, set baud rate 2400bps, PC also carries out online with same baud rate and read write line, after the online success, both sides select more higher leveled baud rate further online, until till can't be online, both sides remodify baud rate and are 2400bps afterwards, then carry out onlinely with maximum baud rate that can UNICOM, and carry out work with this baud rate. If occur the communication fault in the course of work, then again online, select high as far as possible communication baud rate under the current environment, thereby the assurance system is always with maximum baud rate work.
See also shown in Figure 11ly, the label write-protect: in some purposes, the partial data of label inside can not at will be changed. In order to prevent that these data from arbitrarily being changed, to provide writing protection function is carried out in the label segment zone, can be implemented in and to read in some situation but cannot write.
According to user's different demands that identification is used to radio frequency, three kinds of models of the utility model design are to adapt to the different application scope. The first is suitable for read-only application, and read write line only reads and is attached to the lip-deep electronic tag numbering of object with timing or triggering mode work; The second is suitable for the readable application of writing, and read write line only just carries out work after receiving control command, can carry out read or write to any memory cell on the electronic tag. The third is suitable for authorizing the readable application of writing, and read write line only just carries out work after receiving control command, and any memory cell on the electronic tag is authorized read-write operation.
The technical indicator that present embodiment reaches is listed in the table below:
|Sequence number ||Content ||Index |
||Operating frequency ||ISM 902～928MHz (or 2.4GHz frequency range) |
||Mode of operation ||Fixed frequency or frequency hopping work, frequency interval 500KHz |
||Read/write ||Write electronic tag data is readable |
||Power bracket ||Software control :+22dBm～+ 32dBm (instantaneous peak value) |
||Power flatness ||
||The range of sensitivity ||Many grades adjustable |
||Reading/writing distance ||Maximum reading/writing distance 〉=5M (power peak is arranged on 30.8dBm, when supporting with the RW9520 smart card) |
||Read or write speed ||The average reading speed of single deck tape-recorder: every 32bits is less than the average writing speed of 10ms: every 32bits, and less than 30mS |
||Card-reading mode ||Interior timing or external signal trigger |
||Many card identifications ||Adopt the anti-collision technology, have many card identifications, can process simultaneously label at most: more than 100 |
||Dynamic Recognition ||Adapt to electronic tag and read write line speed of related movement:＞120Km/h |
||Many communication interfaces ||
||Traffic rate ||Reach as high as 57600bps |
||Antennal interface ||Built-in microwave antenna: gain 5dBi. |
||The data error detection ||CRC and odd even school |
||Data security mechanism ||Write-protect and inquiry write-protect are set, can carry out the legitimacy check to electronic tag. |
||Anti-interference mechanism ||Wide spectrum intelligence frequency-hopping mode |
||Prompting ||Built-in buzzer, read write line are whenever read the electronic tag signal, then send sound. |
||Indication ||Light emitting diode (LED): red light indication power supply; The amber light marker antenna connects; The green light designation data. |
||Operating temperature ||
||Storage temperature ||
||Damp and hot ||
||Power supply ||Direct current DC+9V～+ 18V, peak power is less than 20W. |