CN2852393Y - Solar energy charge/discharge controller - Google Patents

Solar energy charge/discharge controller Download PDF

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Publication number
CN2852393Y
CN2852393Y CN 200520023277 CN200520023277U CN2852393Y CN 2852393 Y CN2852393 Y CN 2852393Y CN 200520023277 CN200520023277 CN 200520023277 CN 200520023277 U CN200520023277 U CN 200520023277U CN 2852393 Y CN2852393 Y CN 2852393Y
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
control
chip microcomputer
charging
load
protection
Prior art date
Application number
CN 200520023277
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王军
Original Assignee
北京天恒华意科技发展有限公司
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Priority to CN 200520023277 priority Critical patent/CN2852393Y/en
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Publication of CN2852393Y publication Critical patent/CN2852393Y/en

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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Abstract

A solar energy charge or discharge controller comprises a charging control (B), a single-chip system (C), an accumulator and a test controller (D), and a load control and protective part (E), of which, the charging control is composed of an MOS high power pipe. PWM pulse control created by the single-chip system (C) is jointed in parallel with the MOS high power pipe arranged on the output terminal of the solar battery to control and adjust the charging current. At the same time, the digital signal control output by the single-chip system is jointed in series at the switching of the load control of the MOS pipe of the output circuit. After adopting the utility model, the effect of high efficiency, simple circuit, lower cost and stable charge or discharge control of photovoltaic system of controlling current and voltage can be achieved.

Description

The solar charging/discharging controller
Technical field
The utility model relates to a kind of solar charging/discharging controller, and a kind of specifically solar energy is to the secondary battery protection circuit of charge in batteries.
Background technology
Solar energy is a kind of inexhaustible, nexhaustible natural energy source, and the electric power that solar cell produced can make it to become stable and reliable power source via electric power converter.The available horsepower of solar cell depends on conditions such as solar radiation density and solar cell self-temperature, environment is not produced any pollution, therefore becomes national governments and develops first-selection pollution-free, the sustainable development novel energy.
A photovoltaic generating system mainly is made up of solar cell, storage battery, inverter and controller.Wherein, solar cell is the semiconductor photovoltaic effect by self material, can produce instability, discontinuous direct current energy through shining upon; Storage battery can be stored instability, the discontinuous direct current energy that solar cell sends, thereby guarantees that whole photovoltaic system has more stable output, and has long flying power.In solar energy photovoltaic system independently, the cost of investment of storage battery is higher, is generally about 15~20% of whole system cost; Inverter converts the direct current power that solar cell produced to alternating electromotive force, uses for AC load; Controller has the function that prevents that accumulator super-charge, mistake from putting, and the protection storage battery prolongs functions such as its useful life.
As seen, charging-discharging controller is most important in whole photovoltaic system, and its performance quality not only determines the useful life of storage battery, but also directly influences the normal electricity output of whole photovoltaic system.Because the characteristics of lead acid accumulator itself and use the charge controller of common performance make photovoltaic system failure rate in service higher, useful life is shorter, has a strong impact on the normal use of load simultaneously.Because general charge controller is when battery tension rises to when overcharging point voltage (this moment, storage battery really was not full of fully), controller automatic disconnection charge circuit.Yet because the effect of accumulator internal resistance, behind the disconnection charge circuit, battery tension can descend immediately.And behind charge circuit connection and controller disconnecting consumers, same effect owing to accumulator internal resistance, battery tension can rise immediately.So repeatedly, controller very easily produces vibration, not only makes controller work undesired, but also damages storage battery easily.Simultaneously during charge in batteries, big electric current can cause energy loss, and can produce a large amount of gases in the charging later stage, the life of storage battery is shortened, but will need long time with low current charge, can't accomplish quick charge.And the charging current difference also can be different to the recovery of storage battery.
The utility model content
(1) technical problem that will solve
The purpose of this utility model is to overcome existing technical deficiency part, provides that a kind of high efficiency, circuit are simple, cost is lower, the photovoltaic system charging-discharging controller of current/voltage control stabilization.
(2) technical scheme
Solar charging/discharging controller of the present utility model comprises charging control, Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system, storage battery and detects several sections such as control, load control and protection.Charging control is made up of the MOS high power valve, and wherein source electrode, drain electrode are connected in parallel on the output of solar cell, and grid is connected with Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system, detects control one end and is connected with storage battery, and the other end connects Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system; Load control and protection connect Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system and simultaneously power delivery are arrived load; control high-power MOS tube control, the adjustment charging current that is attempted by the solar cell output by the pwm pulse that Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system produces; be serially connected in the break-make of the high-power MOS tube control load of output loop simultaneously by the Digital Signals of single-chip microcomputer output; be about to solar cell and directly be connected, use metal-oxide-semiconductor to replace relay control load break-make with storage battery.
A preferred version of above-mentioned solar charging/discharging controller is; charging control is filled and is formed by charging control, PWM amplification and driving, charge protection, charged state indication, counnter attack; wherein PWM amplification and driving divide 4 the tunnel to connect charhing unit, charged state indication, charge protection and Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system respectively; counnter attack fully is not connected to solar cell, charging control, storage battery and detects protection, and charging control is connected in parallel on the solar cell two ends simultaneously.
Above-mentioned solar charging/discharging controller, wherein charging control also comprises pure optical mode control control, " shut " mode" when having light-operated unlatching+fixed response time.
Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system comprises stabilized voltage power supply, single-chip microcomputer; Stabilized voltage power supply directly is connected with single-chip microcomputer, and for single-chip microcomputer provides power supply, the pwm pulse that is produced by single-chip microcomputer is connected to charging control; Single-chip microcomputer is connected with storage battery and detection control, load control and protection simultaneously.
Storage battery and detection control comprise that storage battery, temperature detection, voltage detecting, LED report to the police; Storage battery and charging control connection are connected with temperature detection, voltage detecting and load control and protection simultaneously; Temperature detection, voltage detecting and LED report to the police and are connected to Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system simultaneously.
Load control and protection comprise protective circuit, drive circuit, load control; Protective circuit is made up of diode and relay, is connected between storage battery and the load; Protection controller when reverse connection of accumulator; Drive circuit is made up of triode, and input is connected to single-chip microcomputer, and output is connected to the break-make of the load control control load of being made up of high-power MOS tube, and the output of load control connects load.
(3) beneficial effect
Adopt solar charging/discharging controller of the present utility model, have following beneficial effect:
1, solar cell directly is connected with storage battery, and controller can have been given play to maximum charge efficiency.
2, change the conducting and the deadline of metal-oxide-semiconductor by the duty ratio of adjusting pwm pulse, thereby realize adjustment, make charging current stable, saved voltage stabilizing and current adjusting module charging current.
3, use metal-oxide-semiconductor control load break-make, drive circuit is simple.Because metal-oxide-semiconductor source-drain electrode voltage has only about 0.3V under the on-state, so power consumption is extremely low.And the off-resistances of metal-oxide-semiconductor is in mega-ohms, thereby can realize reliable turn-off.
4, adopted the Single-chip Controlling of built-in A/D conversion, software has been realized voltage ratio, and controlling alarm has been saved reference voltage and voltage comparator circuit, and voltage control is accurate, and hardware circuit is simple, saves cost.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1: this controller general structure schematic diagram
Fig. 2: this controller architecture theory diagram
Fig. 3: this controller circuitry figure
Among the figure: A, solar cell; B, charging control; C, Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system; D, storage battery and detection control; E, load control and protection; F, load; B1, PWM amplify and MOSFET drives; B2, charging control; B3, charge protection; B4, charged state indication; B5, counnter attack are filled; C1, stabilized voltage power supply; C2, PWM export single-chip microcomputer; D1, storage battery; D2, temperature detection; D3, voltage detecting; D4, LED report to the police; E1, protective circuit; E2, drive circuit; E3, load control.
Embodiment
The utility model is described in further detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:
As shown in Figure 1, solar charging/discharging controller of the present utility model comprises charging control B, Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system C, storage battery and detects control D, load control and protection E; Charging control is made up of the MOS high power valve, and wherein source electrode, drain electrode are connected in parallel on the output of solar cell, and grid is connected with Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system, detects control one end and is connected with storage battery, and the other end connects Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system; Load control and protection connect Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system and simultaneously power delivery are arrived load F.Be specifically described below:
Be attempted by high-power MOS tube control, the adjustment charging current of solar cell output by the pwm pulse control that produces in the Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system, be serially connected in the break-make of the high-power MOS tube control load of output loop simultaneously by the Digital Signals of single-chip microcomputer output, be about to solar cell and directly be connected, use metal-oxide-semiconductor to replace relay control load break-make with storage battery.
Charging control comprising charging control B2, PWM amplify and drive B1, charge protection B3, charged state indication B4, B5 is filled in counnter attack; wherein PWM amplification and driving divide 4 the tunnel to connect charhing unit, charged state indication, charge protection and Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system C respectively; counnter attack fully is not connected to solar cell A, charging control B2, storage battery and detects protection D, and charging control B2 is connected in parallel on solar cell A two ends simultaneously.
Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system comprises stabilized voltage power supply C1, single-chip microcomputer C2; Stabilized voltage power supply directly is connected with single-chip microcomputer, and for single-chip microcomputer provides power supply, the pwm pulse that is produced by single-chip microcomputer is connected to charging control; Single-chip microcomputer is connected with storage battery and detection control, load control and protection simultaneously.
Storage battery and detection control comprise storage batteries D 1, temperature detection D2, voltage detecting D3, LED warning D4; Storage battery and charging control connection are connected with temperature detection, voltage detecting and load control and protection simultaneously; Temperature detection, voltage detecting and LED report to the police and are connected to Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system simultaneously.
Load control and protection comprise protective circuit E1, drive circuit E2, load control E3; Protective circuit is made up of diode and relay, is connected between storage batteries D 1 and the load F; Protection controller when reverse connection of accumulator; Drive circuit E2 is made up of triode, and input is connected to single-chip microcomputer, and output is connected to the break-make of the load control E3 control load of being made up of high-power MOS tube, and the output of load control E3 connects load F.
Fig. 2 is the controller principle block diagram, in charging control B2: by single-chip microcomputer output forward be initially low level, amplitude peak is the PWM ripple of 5V, after the PWM amplification and driving B1, the change of pwm pulse duty ratio changes Q2 (see figure 3) ratio switching time.Because the source of Q2, drain electrode directly are connected on the two ends of solar cell in the charging control, when the default mistake that is charged to single-chip microcomputer when the storage battery virtual voltage is supplemented 14.1V with money, the Single-chip Controlling frequency is that the duty ratio of the pwm pulse of 10HZ diminishes, the Q2 internal resistance is diminished, it is big that the conducting degree becomes, charging current reduces, and storage battery is in keeps charged state.Therefore, the duty ratio of pwm pulse in continuous adjustment, remains at best charged state according to the actual potential of storage battery under the control of single-chip microcomputer.If Q2 drives with position control signal, complete conducting during high level, solar cell will not had charging current by short circuit.End the charging current maximum during low level fully.But in the real work of this controller because Q2 is subjected to that pwm pulse duty ratio control is in conducting all the time, in the continuous conversion that ends and Q2 itself have internal resistance, so solar cell can be by short circuit, but charging current will diminish, and promptly be in and keep charged state.Q2 by the time, solar cell directly fills the positive pole that B5 is connected on storage battery by counnter attack, with the charging current of maximum to charge in batteries.Along with the conducting situation of Q2, charging indicator light flicker indication charging is carried out.The effect that MBR diode (see figure 3) among the B5 is filled in counnter attack is that storage battery and solar cell are isolated, and prevents when Q2 conducting storage battery short circuit and the effect that prevents reverse charge.
Reach single-chip microcomputer and preset when putting a some 10.5V when battery tension descends behind the loaded work piece, single-chip microcomputer with detected storage batteries D 1 voltage signal and predeterminated voltage relatively after, the control signal of back output is at first controlled warning circuit 43 and is sent alarm signal as calculated, delaying time stops simultaneously among the control Driver Circuit E2 metal-oxide-semiconductor Q3 by (see figure 3) after 1 minute, thereby makes the load outage.To prevent storage battery generation overdischarge, prolong the useful life of storage battery.Load outage back solar cell continues to charge in batteries, Single-chip Controlling metal-oxide-semiconductor Q3 conducting when battery tension rises to battery-operated voltage 12.5V, and load is connected, and system is in floating towards state.Diode D2 and D3 (see figure 3) make the storage battery instantaneous short circuit when reverse connection of accumulator, the fusing fuse plays the effect of reverse connecting protection.Single-chip microcomputer is to be powered by 7805 regulator block C1 by solar cell or storage battery, as long as have storage battery or solar cell controller to get final product work.Relay (see figure 3) among the protective circuit E1 has played the effect of reverse connecting protection, and when reverse connection of accumulator, normally closed switch disconnects, and circuit is not worked, the protection storage battery.Temperature sensor RT is converted to voltage signal with temperature signal and is input to single-chip microcomputer among the temperature detection D2, single-chip microcomputer judges according to this signal whether the accumulator meter surface temperature exceeds setting range, decision continues whether to charge, before beginning charging, single-chip microcomputer calculates the battery tension value automatically according to detected voltage signal.

Claims (6)

1, a kind of solar charging/discharging controller, comprise charging control (B), Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system (C), storage battery and detect control (D), load control and protection (E) part, it is characterized in that, charging control is made up of the MOS high power valve, wherein source electrode, drain electrode are connected in parallel on the output of solar cell (A), and grid is connected with Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system (C); Load control and protection (E) connect Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system and simultaneously power delivery are arrived load; the pwm pulse control that Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system (C) produces is attempted by high-power MOS tube control, the adjustment charging current of solar cell output, is serially connected in the break-make of the high-power MOS tube control load of output loop simultaneously by the Digital Signals of single-chip microcomputer output.
2, solar charging/discharging controller as claimed in claim 1; it is characterized in that; charging control (B) comprise charging control B2, PWM amplify and drive B1, charge protection B3, charged state indication B4, B5 is filled in counnter attack; wherein PWM amplification and driving divide 4 the tunnel to connect charhing unit, charged state indication, charge protection and Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system C respectively; counnter attack fully is not connected to solar cell A, charging control B2, storage battery and detects protection D, and charging control B2 is connected in parallel on solar cell A two ends simultaneously.
3, solar charging/discharging controller as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system (C) comprises stabilized voltage power supply C1, single-chip microcomputer C2; Stabilized voltage power supply directly is connected with single-chip microcomputer, and for single-chip microcomputer provides power supply, the pwm pulse that is produced by single-chip microcomputer is connected to charging control; Single-chip microcomputer is connected with storage battery and detection control, load control and protection simultaneously.
4, solar charging/discharging controller as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, storage battery and detection control (D) comprise storage batteries D 1, temperature detection D2, voltage detecting D3, LED warning D4; Storage battery and charging control connection are connected with temperature detection, voltage detecting and load control and protection simultaneously; Temperature detection, voltage detecting and LED report to the police and are connected to Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system simultaneously.
5, solar charging/discharging controller as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, load control and protection (E) comprise protective circuit E1, drive circuit E2, load control E3; Protective circuit is made up of diode and relay, is connected between storage batteries D 1 and the load F; Protection controller when reverse connection of accumulator; Drive circuit E2 is made up of triode, and input is connected to single-chip microcomputer, and output is connected to the break-make of the load control E3 control load of being made up of high-power MOS tube, and the output of load control E3 connects load F.
As the described solar charging/discharging controller of one of claim 2 to 5, it is characterized in that 6, charging control (B) comprises pure optical mode control control, " shut " mode" when having light-operated unlatching+fixed response time.
CN 200520023277 2005-09-16 2005-09-16 Solar energy charge/discharge controller CN2852393Y (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101351068B (en) * 2008-02-19 2011-10-12 云南天达光伏科技股份有限公司 Controller electricized with PWM mode for light-control timing two-way output solar streetlight
CN102307026A (en) * 2011-08-29 2012-01-04 苏州盖娅智能科技有限公司 Intermittent working system and control method for solar energy application system
CN102545291A (en) * 2010-12-29 2012-07-04 清华大学 Solar power storage system and solar power supply system
CN101841174B (en) * 2010-01-11 2012-11-21 艾默生网络能源有限公司 Solar charge control method
CN104219826A (en) * 2013-08-19 2014-12-17 郑荣裕 Highly integrated intelligent photovoltaic energy storage control system
CN104217479A (en) * 2014-08-25 2014-12-17 苏州合欣美电子科技有限公司 Car key system
CN104333318A (en) * 2014-10-29 2015-02-04 江苏东润光伏科技有限公司 Solar direct-current photovoltaic power generation system of mobile television
CN104607313A (en) * 2015-01-29 2015-05-13 哈尔滨工业大学 Intelligent solar energy electrostatic dust collector

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101351068B (en) * 2008-02-19 2011-10-12 云南天达光伏科技股份有限公司 Controller electricized with PWM mode for light-control timing two-way output solar streetlight
CN101841174B (en) * 2010-01-11 2012-11-21 艾默生网络能源有限公司 Solar charge control method
CN102545291A (en) * 2010-12-29 2012-07-04 清华大学 Solar power storage system and solar power supply system
CN102545291B (en) * 2010-12-29 2015-07-01 清华大学 Solar power storage system and solar power supply system
CN102307026A (en) * 2011-08-29 2012-01-04 苏州盖娅智能科技有限公司 Intermittent working system and control method for solar energy application system
CN104219826A (en) * 2013-08-19 2014-12-17 郑荣裕 Highly integrated intelligent photovoltaic energy storage control system
CN104219826B (en) * 2013-08-19 2016-08-24 广州楷林裕光能源科技有限公司 A kind of photovoltaic energy storage controls highly integrated intellectualizing system
CN104217479A (en) * 2014-08-25 2014-12-17 苏州合欣美电子科技有限公司 Car key system
CN104333318A (en) * 2014-10-29 2015-02-04 江苏东润光伏科技有限公司 Solar direct-current photovoltaic power generation system of mobile television
CN104607313A (en) * 2015-01-29 2015-05-13 哈尔滨工业大学 Intelligent solar energy electrostatic dust collector
CN104607313B (en) * 2015-01-29 2017-04-12 哈尔滨工业大学 Intelligent solar energy electrostatic dust collector

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C14 Grant of patent or utility model
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20061227

Termination date: 20120916

C17 Cessation of patent right