CN2787870Y - Micro/nano thermoacoustic engine based on thermoacoustic conversion - Google Patents

Micro/nano thermoacoustic engine based on thermoacoustic conversion Download PDF

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CN2787870Y
CN2787870Y CN 200520005148 CN200520005148U CN2787870Y CN 2787870 Y CN2787870 Y CN 2787870Y CN 200520005148 CN200520005148 CN 200520005148 CN 200520005148 U CN200520005148 U CN 200520005148U CN 2787870 Y CN2787870 Y CN 2787870Y
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nano
thermoacoustic
nanotube
micro
based
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刘静
罗二仓
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中国科学院理化技术研究所
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Abstract

The utility model relates to a micro/nano thermoacoustics engine based on thermoacoustics conversion, which is also a nano thermoacoustics engine. The utility model comprises a nanotube and a heater, wherein the nanotube is filled with a liquid working medium, one end of the nanotube is closed, and the other end is provided with a vibrating membrane; the heater which heats the nanotube is arranged outside the nanotube which can be filled with a perforated plate stacking structure; a metal magnetic nanometer particle layer can also adhere to the nanotube wall; the heater can be a laser, an electrode plate pair or a nanometer electrical heating wire with a self-carrying power supply. The heater heats the nanotube to induce the mutual conversion of thermoacoustics powers, and high-frequency signals of various frequencies and vibration amplitudes are output from the vibrating membrane end. The utility model has the characteristics of compact structure, simple and convenient operation, high response frequency, low cost, etc. The utility model has an important application value in the field of nanometer measurement.

Description

一种基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机 A thermal-acoustic converter micro / nano thermoacoustic engine based

技术领域 FIELD

本实用新型属于纳米振子及纳米机器领域,特别涉及一种基于对纳米管局部进行加热,以使管内所封装的气流产生热声振荡的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其振动膜端可输出GHz-MHz范围的超高频率的激振力。 The present invention belongs to the nanometer resonator and nano-machines, and more particularly relates based nanotubes locally heated, so that the air flow within the tube package generated based on micro / nano thermoacoustic engine thermoacoustic conversion of the thermoacoustic oscillations, the diaphragm output terminal GHz-MHz ultra high frequency range of the excitation force.

背景技术 Background technique

近年来,由于纳米热声发动机(纳米振子)技术在感知纳米世界方面的重大价值,国内外在其相关研究上投入大量力量,显示了一个有重大发展前景的前沿科技领域。 In recent years, due to the thermoacoustic engine nanometer (nanometer oscillator) technology in the nano-world perception of great value aspects of domestic and foreign invest a lot of force on its research, cutting-edge science and technology shows a significant development prospects. 已经逐步清楚的是,在纳米尺度上的振子如碳/纳米管或硅微悬臂上粘附上原子或分子,即可能导致其振动频率发生明显改变。 Has gradually clear that, in the transducer as nanoscale carbon / nanotubes or adhered on a silicon atom or molecule on the cantilever, which may result in vibration frequency change significantly. 若对该频率予以监测,即可探知出纳米世界中极为丰富的力学、电学、磁学及热学等信息。 If the frequency to be monitored, to ascertain the nano world in a very rich information on mechanical, electrical, magnetic and thermal science. 此类技术在微/纳米科技领域中的许多场合如发展与扫描力显微镜、MEMS、力学测量及生物检测芯片等结合的超灵敏度传感器上均有重要用途。 Such techniques are many applications in the field of micro / nano science and technology, such as development and scanning force microscopy, have important uses ultra sensitivity of the sensor binds the MEMS, mechanical measuring and biological detection chip.

目前,纳米热声发动机(纳米振子)主要是采用碳/纳米管作为微悬臂梁实现的,外界物理因素通过影响梁体内在的应力,使之频率及振幅发生变化;而为使悬臂梁持续不断地振动,必须予以适当的激励。 Currently, thermoacoustic engine nanometers (nanometers transducers) is mainly used, external physical factors C / nanotube as a microcantilever beams achieved by the influence of stress on the body, so that the frequency and amplitude changes occurred; to make the cantilever continuously vibrate, must be appropriate incentives. 目前所提出的典型微结构激振技术主要包括:压电激励、电磁激励、电容激励、热激励等,其中,热激励方法又显得更为简单高效,因而为众多研究者所关注。 Typical microstructures exciting technology currently proposed include: a piezoelectric actuator, an electromagnetic excitation, excitation capacitor, thermal excitation, etc., where the thermal excitation method is much more simple and efficient, and therefore for many researchers concerned. 但现有的热激励主要是对固体悬臂梁实施局部加热,以诱发其振动,由于受空间加热精度的限制,由此实现的振动频率不会太高(因需要极大的温度梯度),特别是,热声发动机的振动频率主要受加热频率决定,因此在纳米尺度上要进一步提高其性能存在很大困难。 However, the conventional thermally activated solid cantilever embodiment mainly localized heating to induce vibration, due to the limitation of space heating by the accuracy, thereby achieving the vibration frequency is not too high (due to the great temperature gradient required), particularly is the vibration frequency of the thermoacoustic engine is mainly decided by heating frequency, so the presence of the nanoscale very difficult to further enhance its performance.

众所周知,声功转换是一种新的动力技术。 As we all know, the acoustic power conversion is a new power technology. 其原理在于,只需对一个中空或部分填充有多孔材料如板叠的共振管(无论开口与否,但其内存在有气体工质)的一端进行加热,则管内会形成周期疏密相间的声波,管内的工质气体在这种压力波的驱动下,在板叠中来回运动,即形成往复变化的压力和密度波,从而带动管的另一端发生流体激振,产生动力。 The principle is simply laminated with a porous material such as a resonance tube of a hollow or partially filled (whether open or not, but there exists in the gas medium) is heated at one end, the tube formed periodic density and white sonic, refrigerant gas in the tube under such pressure wave driven back and forth movement of the plate stack, i.e., a pressure and density changes reciprocating wave, so that the other end of the drive tube fluid excitation occurs, generating power. 基于特定的热学及结构设计,可以实现性能优良的热声发动机。 Specific thermal and structural design based on the excellent performance of thermoacoustic engine can be achieved. 然而,现有的所有热声学装置均建立在宏观的概念上,即其整体尺寸至少在厘米量级以上,也就是说,迄今未有整体尺寸在毫/微米以下的热声机械被提出,相关的研究工作也就未有开展,原因当然也不难理解,从传统的观念看,在此尺寸下,热声发动机会没有实用价值。 However, all existing thermoacoustic devices are based on the concept of the macro, i.e., the overall dimension of at least a centimeter or more, that is, the overall size far No thermoacoustic machinery mmol / m or less have been proposed, associated no carry out research work will, of course, the reason is not difficult to understand, from the traditional concept of looking at this size, thermoacoustic engine will not have practical value.

为此,本实用新型从新的技术途径出发,提供一种基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,借助于纳米管、纳米加热结构及管内封装气流之间的热声功转换,实现在GHz-MHz范围的超高频率的热声激振,从而大大扩展了现有热激励悬臂梁的概念,同时,这种微/纳米热声发动机也是对传统热声装置形式及用途的一个突破,并首次提出了纳米热声发动机的概念。 To this end, the present invention starting from this new technical approach, there is provided a thermal acoustic transducer based micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, by means of a thermal acoustic power conversion between the nanotubes, and heating the inner tube package stream structure, implemented in the GHz ultrahigh frequency acoustic excitation heat -MHz range, which greatly extends the concept of conventional thermal excitation of the cantilever, while such a micro / nano thermoacoustic engine is a breakthrough of traditional acoustic devices in the form of heat and use, and first proposed the concept of nano thermoacoustic engine.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本实用新型的目的在于:从有别于现有的纳米振子原理的技术途径出发,提供一种基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,可作为探测纳米对象物理化学信息的热声发动机。 The object of the present invention: route from the departure point is different from the prior art nano vibrator principles, there is provided a micro / nano thermoacoustic heat engine based on sound conversion, thermoacoustic engine can be used as nano-objects physicochemical detection information.

这里,我们先对微/纳米热声发动机的工作原理予以阐述。 Here, we have to be elaborated on the principle of micro / nano thermoacoustic engine. 借助于传统的热声转换原理,可以知道,通过对纳米管的一端进行加热,可在其内外产生较大的温度梯度,管内气体受热后膨胀,产生压缩力,导致气流运动,波动的气流不断与管壁发生热交换,由于气流的急速运动及传热粘滞性、速度及温度的滑移特性等,会导致压力波及温度波之间的相位差,从而激发气体的振荡。 By means of conventional thermoacoustic conversion principle, can know, by heating one end of the nanotube, it can be produced in a large temperature gradient inside and outside thereof, the gas after the expansion of the inner tube is heated, compressive forces causing air movement, the fluctuation of the gas stream continuously heat exchange with the tube wall due to rapid movement of the gas flow and heat transfer viscosity, speed and slip characteristics of the temperature and the like, will lead to a phase difference between the temperature of the pressure waves spread, to excite the oscillating gas. 而且,气流管的直径越小或长径比越大,则气团的热声振荡效率越高,极高的比表面积使得气流运动与传热之间的相位更易于形成。 Moreover, the smaller the diameter of the gas flow tube or a larger aspect ratio, the higher the efficiency of the thermoacoustic oscillations of the air mass, a high specific surface area such that the phase of the heat transfer between the air movement is more easily formed. 此时,像传统热声装置中所需填充的板叠结构可能并非必要,也就是说,对封装有特定气体的纳米管的一端实施加热,即可在管内形成热声振荡,从而在管的振动膜端输出激振力,即成为纳米振子。 At this time, the stack structure as a conventional thermal-acoustic device required filling may not be necessary, that is, one end of the nanotube encapsulated with a specific embodiment of the gas heating, thermoacoustic oscillations can be formed within the tube so that the tube an excitation force output end of the diaphragm, the transducer becomes nanometers.

本实用新型的技术方案如下:本实用新型提供的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,包括:一纳米管1;所述纳米管1的一端封闭,另一端装有振动膜6,振动膜6为由Cu、Au、Si或C材料制成的弹性膜;纳米管1内充有流体工质4;一位于纳米管1之外,并对纳米管1进行加热的加热器5。 The technical solution of the present invention are as follows: Based on the present disclosure provides thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, characterized by comprising: a nanotube 1; one end of the nanotube is closed, with the other end of vibration film 6, the diaphragm 6 by Cu, Au, Si or elastic membrane made of a material C; refrigerant fluid-filled nanotubes 4 1; 1 a located outside of the nanotube, and a nanotube heating heating 5.

所述纳米管1之内靠近封闭端10nm-300nm范围内的通道中填充多孔板叠结构3;所述多孔板叠结构3由碳/硅纳米管构成或由纳米多孔金属颗粒堆积构成。 The nano-channel near the closed end of the inner tube 1 10nm-300nm range of filling a porous structure of the laminated core 3; stack structure 3 of the porous carbon / silicon nano-tubes or nano porous metal particle packing configuration. 所述纳米多孔金属颗粒为多孔Au颗粒或多孔Cu颗粒。 The nanoporous metal particles are porous particles or porous Cu Au particles.

还可在所述纳米管1外的靠近封闭端10nm-300nm范围内的管壁上粘附一层金属磁性纳米颗粒层7;所述加热器5为位于该层金属磁性纳米颗粒层7之外的对其施加电磁场的一对电极板51,所述电极板51尺寸在1mm×1mm×1mm到10cm×10cm×10cm之间,两电极板之间电压在1-300V之间,频率在1Hz到1000MHz之间。 Adhesion may also be a metal nanoparticle magnetic layer 7 on the outer wall 1 near the closed end of the nanotube range of 10nm-300nm; the heater metal layer 5 is located outside the magnetic nanoparticle layer 7 its pair of electrode plates 51 is applied to an electromagnetic field, the size of the electrode plate 51 in 1mm × 1mm × 1mm between 10cm × 10cm × 10cm, the voltage between the two electrode plates between 1-300V, frequency 1Hz to between 1000MHz.

所述纳米管1内填充的流动工质4为空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮或它们的组合;或者为水或酒精液体;或者为液态金属稼与气体的混合工质,其气体为空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮。 The working fluid flow of nanotubes filled with 4 1 of air, helium, nitrogen, argon, nitric oxide, or combinations thereof; or the liquid is water or alcohol; or a gallium liquid metal mixed with the gas refrigerant, which gas is air, helium, nitrogen, argon, nitric oxide.

所述加热器5为激光器;或者为自带电源的纳米电加热丝52。 The heater 5 is a laser; or a self-powered electrical heating wire 52 nanometers.

所述纳米管1为由金、铜、碳或硅材料制成;其横截面形状为正方形、三角形或圆形,其壁厚在1nm-1mm之间;纳米管1的直径及轴向长度在1nm-1mm范围内。 1 by gold, copper, carbon nanotubes, or made of silicon material; cross section shape is square, triangular or circular, the wall thickness between 1nm-1mm; diameter and an axial length of the nanotubes in in the range of 1nm-1mm.

还可在所述纳米管1靠近封闭端的管壁上连通一循环旁路,循环旁路内填充多孔板叠结构3,所述多孔板叠结构3由碳、硅纳米管构成或由纳米多孔金属颗粒堆积构成;所述加热器5为沉积在循环旁路通道外壁上的自带电源的纳米电加热丝52。 Also in the nano a circulation bypass pipe communicating on a wall near the closed end, filled with a porous internal circulation bypass stack structure 3, the stack structure of the porous carbon 3, a silicon nano-tubes or nano-porous metal the particle packing configuration; the heater 5 is a self-powered electrical heating wire nanometers is deposited on the outer wall 52 of the circulation bypass passage.

本实用新型的关键之处在于首次将热声转换原理用于发展微/纳米热声发动机,从而提供了一种概念崭新的微/纳米热声发动机即微/纳米热声激振器,这是对传统热声机械的实现方法及应用领域研究的一个拓展。 Utility model crux of this is that for the first time thermoacoustic conversion principles for the development of micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, thus providing a new concept of micro / nano thermoacoustic engine that is micro / nano thermoacoustic exciter, which is a study to expand the implementation of the traditional mechanical and thermal acoustic applications. 目前,已有大量实验发现纳米管具有良好的力学、热学、电学和磁学性能,正被尝试用于多种工业领域。 Currently, there are a large number of experiments found that nanotubes have excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, attempts are being used in many industrial fields. 纳米管极小的尺寸使得其内的热声转换更易于发生,从而促成高性能微/纳米振子的实现。 Nanotubes extremely small size so that thermoacoustic conversion therein occurs more easily, thus contributing to high-performance micro / nano transducer. 虽然这种纳米机器的原理系借助于已有的热声转换原理,但在概念和内涵乃至应用领域上完全不同于以往,至今,此类微/纳米热声发动机的概念在国内外从未被提出过。 While the principles of such a system by means of nanomachines existing thermoacoustic conversion principle, but conceptually and content even with completely different applications, so far, such concepts micro / nano thermoacoustic engine at home and abroad has never been proposed.

目前,纳米技术的发展日新月异,但实用化器件仍较少。 At present, the rapid development of nanotechnology, but still less practical devices. 本实用新型提供的微/纳米热声发动机可为此找到一个切入点。 The present invention provides a micro / nano thermoacoustic engine may find a starting point for this purpose.

本实用新型提供的微/纳米热声发动机器具有很多优点,首先,由于该器件借助的是固体加热及气体的流动传热,因而以一种简单的方式促成了纳米管内的流体发生受激振动;由于微/纳米热声发动机的尺寸相当小,可以产生极高的振动频率如GHz;基于这些综合因素,本实用新型相比于以往单纯对固体悬臂梁加热的激振器,功能更全面,其振动频率可根据结构、工质材料及加热的配合在一个较宽范围内变动。 The present invention provides a micro / nano thermoacoustic engine has many advantages, first of all, since the flow of the heat transfer device is by means of solid and gas is heated, in a simple manner and thus contribute to fluid-excited vibration occurs nanotube by ; thermoacoustic engine due to the size of the micro / nano relatively small, the vibration frequency may be generated high as GHz; based on these combined factors, the present invention is simple compared to a conventional cantilever beam heating solid exciter, more versatile, the vibration frequency can vary over a wide range in accordance with the configuration, material working and heating. 由于微/纳米热声发动机内管道的比表面积极小,气体与壁面的换热效率更好,因而产生的热声振荡特性更好。 Since the specific surface micro / nano thermoacoustic engine duct extremely small, the heat exchange efficiency of the gas and the wall surface of the better characteristics of the thermoacoustic oscillations thus producing better. 此外,在低温下,许多纳米振子很难正常工作,而本实用新型可在此种环境下工作,以用于对探测精度要求较高的物理化学问题的研究,此时可根据需要,将工质选择为空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮等在特定温度区间不发生相变的气体。 Further, at low temperatures, a plurality of nanowires vibrator difficult work, and the present invention can operate in this environment, to study the physicochemical problem for high precision of the detection at this time may be necessary, the work mass selected to air, helium, nitrogen, argon, nitrous oxide and other gas phase transition does not occur in a particular temperature range.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

附图1为本实用新型(一实施例)的结构示意图;附图2为本实用新型(另一实施例)的结构示意图;附图3为本实用新型(又一实施例)的结构示意图;附图4为本实用新型(再一实施例)的结构示意图;附图5为本实用新型(带循环旁路以构成行波型热声激振器的实施例)的结构示意图;其中:纳米管1 谐振腔2 多孔板叠结构3流体工质4 加热激光5 振动膜6磁性纳米颗粒层7 电极板51 电加热丝52循环旁路8具体实施方式下面结合附图和具体实施例进一步描述本实用新型:附图1为本实用新型(一实施例)的结构示意图;附图2为本实用新型(另一实施例)的结构示意图;附图3为本实用新型(又一实施例)的结构示意图;附图4为本实用新型(再一实施例)的结构示意图;附图5为本实用新型(带循环旁路以构成行波型热声发动机的实施例)的结构示意图。 Figure 1 structure diagram (embodiment a) of the novel utility of the present; invention, a schematic configuration (another embodiment) of the present FIG. 2; FIG. 3 new (another embodiment) of the present practical structural diagram; Figure 4 is a schematic structural diagram invention (another embodiment); 5 of the present invention (with a bypass loop to constitute the embodiments traveling wave thermoacoustic exciter) is a schematic view of the structure of the accompanying drawings; wherein: nano 7 bypass loop 52 in conjunction with the electrode plate 51 is electrically heated filament tubes 1 stacked resonator structure 3 porous plate 4 was heated fluid working medium 5 diaphragm 6 laser magnetic nanoparticle layer 8 DETAILED dESCRIPTION The following drawings and specific examples further describe the present invention: a schematic structural diagram of invention (an embodiment of) the drawings; 2 a schematic view of the present invention (another embodiment) the structure of the drawings; FIG. 3 of the present invention (another embodiment) of structure diagram; structure diagram invention (further embodiment) of the present figures 4; FIG. 5 of the present invention (Example configuration with traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine bypass circulation) of the structure diagram.

由图可知,本实用新型提供的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,包括:一纳米管1;所述纳米管1的一端封闭,另一端装有振动膜6,振动膜6为由Cu、Au、Si或C材料制成的弹性膜;纳米管1内充有流体工质4;一位于纳米管1之外,并对纳米管1进行加热的加热器5。 The figure shows that the present invention provides a thermoacoustic conversion based micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, comprising: a nanotube 1; one end of the nanotube is closed, with the other end of the diaphragm 6, the diaphragm 6 by Cu, Au, Si, or a film made of an elastic material C; 4 is filled with working fluid within the fluid nanotube 1; 1 a located outside the nanotubes, and nanotube heating heater 5 1.

所述纳米管1之内靠近封闭端10nm-300nm范围内的通道中填充多孔板叠结构3;所述多孔板叠结构3由碳/硅纳米管构成或由纳米多孔金属颗粒堆积构成。 The nano-channel near the closed end of the inner tube 1 10nm-300nm range of filling a porous structure of the laminated core 3; stack structure 3 of the porous carbon / silicon nano-tubes or nano porous metal particle packing configuration. 所述纳米多孔金属颗粒为多孔Au颗粒或多孔Cu颗粒。 The nanoporous metal particles are porous particles or porous Cu Au particles.

还可在所述纳米管1外的靠近封闭端10nm-300nm范围内的管壁上粘附一层金属磁性纳米颗粒层7;所述加热器5为位于该层金属磁性纳米颗粒层7之外的对其施加电磁场的一对电极板51,所述电极板51尺寸在1mm×1mm×1mm到10cm×10cm×10cm之间,两电极板之间电压在1-300V之间,频率在1Hz到1000MHz之间。 Adhesion may also be a metal nanoparticle magnetic layer 7 on the outer wall 1 near the closed end of the nanotube range of 10nm-300nm; the heater metal layer 5 is located outside the magnetic nanoparticle layer 7 its pair of electrode plates 51 is applied to an electromagnetic field, the size of the electrode plate 51 in 1mm × 1mm × 1mm between 10cm × 10cm × 10cm, the voltage between the two electrode plates between 1-300V, frequency 1Hz to between 1000MHz.

所述纳米管1内填充的流动工质4为空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮或它们的组合;或者为水或酒精液体;或者为液态金属稼与气体的混合工质,其气体为空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮。 The working fluid flow of nanotubes filled with 4 1 of air, helium, nitrogen, argon, nitric oxide, or combinations thereof; or the liquid is water or alcohol; or a gallium liquid metal mixed with the gas refrigerant, which gas is air, helium, nitrogen, argon, nitric oxide.

所述加热器5为激光器;或者为自带电源的纳米电加热丝52。 The heater 5 is a laser; or a self-powered electrical heating wire 52 nanometers.

所述纳米管1为由金、铜、碳或硅材料制成;其横截面形状为正方形、三角形或圆形,其壁厚在1nm-1mm之间;纳米管1的直径及轴向长度在1nm-1mm范围内。 1 by gold, copper, carbon nanotubes, or made of silicon material; cross section shape is square, triangular or circular, the wall thickness between 1nm-1mm; diameter and an axial length of the nanotubes in in the range of 1nm-1mm.

还可在所述纳米管1靠近封闭端的管壁上连通一循环旁路,循环旁路内填充多孔板叠结构3,所述多孔板叠结构3由碳、硅纳米管构成或由纳米多孔金属颗粒堆积构成;所述加热器5为沉积在循环旁路通道外壁上的自带电源的纳米电加热丝52。 Also in the nano a circulation bypass pipe communicating on a wall near the closed end, filled with a porous internal circulation bypass stack structure 3, the stack structure of the porous carbon 3, a silicon nano-tubes or nano-porous metal the particle packing configuration; the heater 5 is a self-powered electrical heating wire nanometers is deposited on the outer wall 52 of the circulation bypass passage.

图1所示实施例1中的加热器5为激光加热器(光束直径在1nm-1mm),放在纳米管1之外对纳米管1进行加热;纳米管1为金制制做的圆形纳米管,其直径及轴向长度在1nm-1mm之间均可,壁厚在1nm-1mm之间;振动膜6为由Cu、Au、Si或C等材料制成的弹性膜;流体工质4为氦气(当然也可以根据需要为空气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮或它们的组合)。 The embodiment shown in Figure 1 Example 5 a laser heater heater (beam diameter 1nm-1mm), in addition to a heating nanotube nanotubes 1; 1 round gold nanotubes making the nanotubes, the diameter and axial length may be between 1nm-1mm, a wall thickness between 1nm-1mm; diaphragm 6 by an elastic film made of Cu, Au, Si, or the like material C; refrigerant fluid 4 was helium (of course, may be necessary as air, nitrogen, argon, nitric oxide, or combinations thereof).

图2所示实施例2:纳米管1内靠近封闭端的管壁内填充多孔板叠结构3,多孔板叠结构3由碳纳米管(当然也可为硅纳米管);多孔板叠结构3也纳米多孔金属颗粒堆积构成;纳米管1封闭端与多孔板叠结构3之间构成谐振腔2;其余部件同实施例1。 Example 2 shown in FIG. 2: the inner wall near the closed end of the inner tube is filled with a nano-porous laminated structure 3, the porous carbon nanotubes stack structure 3 (of course, may be a silicon nanotubes); stack structure 3 is also perforated nanoporous metal particles constituting the bulk; 2 constituting the cavity 31 between the closed end and the porous nanotube stack structure; the remaining components in Example 1.

图3所示实施例3:在纳米管1外的靠近封闭端10nm-300nm范围内的管壁上粘附一层金属磁性纳米颗粒层7(如Fe3O4颗粒层);加热器5为位于该层金属磁性纳米颗粒层7之外的对其施加电磁场的一对电极板51,所述电极板51的尺寸在1mm×1mm×1mm到10cm×10cm×10cm之间均可,两电极板之间电压在1-300V之间,频率在1Hz到1000MHz之间;纳米管1内靠近封闭端的管壁内填充多孔板叠结构3,多孔板叠结构3由碳纳米管;纳米管1封闭端与多孔板叠结构3之间构成谐振腔2;该电极板51产生的电磁场对谐振腔2进行诱发生热,来达到激振的目的。 Example 3 Figure 3: 7 (e.g., the Fe3O4 layer), a metal layer is adhered on the magnetic nanoparticles inner wall near the closed end of the outer tube 1 nanometer range 10nm-300nm; heater layer 5 is located its pair of electrode plates 51 other than the metallic magnetic nanoparticle layer 7 is applied to an electromagnetic field, the size of the electrode plate 51 in 1mm × 1mm × 1mm between 10cm × 10cm × 10cm can, the voltage between the two electrode plates between 1-300V, frequencies between 1Hz to 1000MHz; filling the inner wall near the closed end of a porous nanotube stack structure 3, the stack structure of the porous carbon nanotubes 3; 1 closed end of the nanotube and the porous plate 2 constituting the cavity 3 between the stacked structure; electromagnetic field generated by the electrode plate 51 to the resonator 2 is induced by heat, to achieve the purpose of excitation.

图4所示实施例4:其加热器5为沉积在纳米管1管壁上的自带电源的纳米电加热丝52;属于接触加热,在通电的情况下即可对纳米管1实现局部加热,而诱发其内流体的热声振荡,从而带动振动膜6有规律的振荡。 Embodiment shown in FIG. 4 Example 4: a heater 5 which is deposited on a wall of their own power supply nanotube nano electrical heating wire 52; belongs contact heating, local heating can be realized in a nanotube with power , which is induced within the fluid thermoacoustic oscillations, the diaphragm 6 so as to drive a regular oscillation.

图5所示实施例5:在靠近纳米管1封闭端的管壁上连通一循环旁路8,循环旁路8内填充有多孔板叠结构3,所述多孔板叠结构3由纳米多孔金属颗粒堆积而成;所述加热器5为沉积在循环旁路8的通道外壁上的自带电源的纳米电加热丝52。 5 embodiment illustrated in FIG. 5: communicating a bypass loop in the wall near the closed end of a nanotube 8, the bypass loop 8 is filled within the laminated structure of a perforated plate 3, the porous structure of the laminated porous metal nano particles 3 piled up; the heater 5 is a self-powered electrical heating wire nanometers is deposited on the outer wall 8 of the bypass passage 52 cycles.

振动膜6用于探测微/纳米对象的物理化学性能,可以实现较高的分辨率。 Diaphragm 6 for detecting micro / nano-objects of the physical and chemical properties, higher resolution may be achieved.

本实用新型提供的纳米管1及其多孔板叠结构3的材料,除采用最常见的碳纳米管或颗粒外,也可采用金属(如Au、Cu等)。 The present invention provides a nanotube and a laminated porous structural material, in addition to the most common carbon nanotubes or particles, but may also be a metal (e.g., Au, Cu, etc.). 目前,已可根据需要制成及组装出各种纳米结构(张立德,牟季美,纳米材料和纳米结构,北京:科学出版社,2001),比如碳纳米管已可实现定向生长,且达到超长量级(毫米级),并在今后还会得到继续提高,这使得本实用新型易于实现。 At present, it can be made according to the needs and assemble a variety of nanostructures (Zhang Lide, Mou US, nanomaterials and nanostructures, Beijing: Science Press, 2001), such as carbon nanotubes have been directed to achieve growth and achieve long amount level (millimeters), and will continue to increase in the future obtained, which makes the present invention easy to implement. 流体介质4可采用与纳米管壁材料相容的工质,如空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮等惰性气体或它们的组合,此外,也可选用液体工质如水、酒精等充填到纳米管中,对之实施局部加热来实现相应的热激振荡。 4 refrigerant fluid medium can be compatible with the materials nanotube walls, an inert gas such as air, helium, nitrogen, argon, nitric oxide, etc., or a combination thereof, in addition, the liquid refrigerant can also be used such as water, alcohol, etc. filled nanotubes to achieve the appropriate thermal oscillation embodiment of the local heating. 甚至,一些液态金属与部分气体混合后充填到纳米管1中,通过局部加热也可实现功能各异的微/纳米热声发动机。 Indeed, some of the liquid metal mixed with a portion of the gas filled nanotubes 1, local heating may also be achieved by different functions of the micro / nano thermoacoustic engine.

本实用新型提供的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机工作时,只需对纳米管1的一端进行加热,受热后的流体介质4与纳米管1及多孔板叠结构3进行复杂的热交换;与此同时,周围空气则对纳米管1的其余部分起到冷却作用,于是,在上述复杂的加热、流体诱发振动及声功转换下,即在纳米管1的另一端振动膜6处形成规律形的振动,此时,本实用新型的微/纳米热声发动机即成为一种纳米振子。 When the thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine operation based on only one end of the nanotube is heated in the present invention provides, after the heated fluid medium 4 and a porous nanotube complex stack structure thermally 3 exchange; at the same time, ambient air cooling effect on the rest of the nanotube 1, then, heating the complex in the above, the fluid-induced vibration and acoustic power conversion, i.e., at the other end of the diaphragm 1 of nanotubes 6 shaped formation patterns of vibration in this case, the present invention micro / nano thermoacoustic engine becomes a nano vibrator.

本实用新型所提供的一种纳米热声发动机的具体制作方式如下:1.纳米管1的加工:要求所制成的纳米管尺寸尽可能小(如管道1的内径在数百纳米以下),则需采用纳米加工技术制成有一定长径比的纳米管或孔道,如图1所示。 Specific production methods of the present invention thermoacoustic engine novel nano provided as follows: 1 1 Processing nanotubes: nanotube size requirements made as small as possible (such as the inner diameter of the tube 1 in the hundreds of nanometers or less), nanofabrication was needed to have a certain aspect ratio made of nanotubes or channels, as shown in FIG. 该孔道也可直接制作在一基底上。 The channel can also be directly formed on a substrate.

2.多孔板叠结构3的制作及管道封装:取一定量碳纳米管(其制作已有现成方法,可参见[张立德,牟季美,纳米材料和纳米结构,北京:科学出版社,2001],将其沿轴向填充到纳米管1的内壁上,并采用粘附剂使之与纳米管1管道融合(这在各种化工领域是成熟技术,不难实现),即形成纳米管内的板叠结构3(板叠结构3位于纳米管1内靠近封闭端10-300nm部位处)。 2. The perforated pipe production and the stack structure of the package 3: Take a certain amount of carbon nanotubes (which are already in place production methods, see [Zhang Lide, Mou US, nanomaterials and nanostructures, Beijing: Science Press, 2001], the filling the axial direction to the inner wall 1 of the nanotubes, and the use of fusion with the adhesive nanotube pipe 1 (which is a mature technology in the field of various chemical, difficult to achieve), i.e., the stack structure is formed inside the nanotubes 3 (the stack structure 3 located at the site of the nanotube near the closed end of 10-300nm 1).

上述也可采用碳纳米管的制作方法由化学反应途径实现,比如在碳纳米管1内的笼状结构中直接生成纳米结构,由此也可实现纳米管内的板叠结构。 The method of making the above-described carbon nanotubes may also be achieved by a chemical reaction pathways, such as generating nanostructures directly on the cage structure in a carbon nanotube, thereby also be realized in the stack structure of nanotubes. 目前的技术已能保证上述目标的实现。 Current technology has been able to ensure the realization of these goals. 当然,微/纳米热声发动机也可不填充此类板叠结构,此时它充当一种中空的热声转换管,也能达到热声激振的目的。 Of course, the micro / nano thermoacoustic engine may not be filled with such a stack structure, at which time it acts as a kind of hollow pipe thermoacoustic conversion, can achieve the purpose of thermal acoustic excitation. 甚至,纳米管可为开口结构,只是此时采用的工质为环境中天然存在的空气。 Even nanotube structure can be open, but this time the working fluid used is naturally occurring in the environment air.

3.流体工质的填充:将上述半封闭结构置于真空室内,进行抽真空,以除去纳米管1内的空气,从而填充特定功能的工质。 The fluid filling the working medium: the above-described semi-closed structure in a vacuum chamber evacuated to remove air within a nanotube, so that the working fluid fill a specific function. 之后,将待填充的流体介质4加入到该真空室内,并对之进行加热,经过一定时间后,随着压力的升高,真空室内的流体介质4即进入纳米管1的孔道及板叠材料3中,视需要,调整真空室内的温度及压力,则可改变进入微/纳米热声激发动机内的工质数量。 Thereafter, the fluid to be filled with a medium was added to the vacuum chamber 4, the heating and, after a certain time, as the pressure increased, the vacuum chamber 4 i.e. the fluid medium into the ducts and the nanotube sheet material 1 stack 3, as needed, to adjust the temperature and pressure in the vacuum chamber, the number may be changed into the working fluid within the micro / nano thermoacoustic engine shock. 此时,需对纳米管的开口端进行封装,如镀膜后形成振动膜6。 In this case, for an open end of the nanotube encapsulated, as diaphragm 6 is formed after plating. 之后,将纳米管1从真空室内取出,在室温下冷却一定时间后,即制作出本实用新型的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机。 Thereafter, the nano-tube is removed from the vacuum chamber 1, a predetermined time after cooling at room temperature, i.e., to produce the present invention is based on thermal acoustic transducer micro / nano thermoacoustic engine.

4.本实用新型提供的管中流体流动的驱动力来自纳米管外的局部加热,由于该纳米管具有极高的比表面积,因而所提供的外界热量易于驱动流体介质4在管内发生振荡,因而采用如图1-3所示的几类微/纳米热声激振器结构均可。 4. The driving force of fluid in the pipe of the present invention to provide localized heating from flowing outside the nanotubes, the nanotubes due to the extremely high specific surface area, so that the heat is provided outside the drive fluid medium tends to oscillate within the tube 4, thus As shown in FIG. 1-3 using several types of micro / nano structure can thermoacoustic exciter. 除上述驻波形结构外,本微/纳米热声发动机也可采用行波型等热声转换结构,只需对流道作相应设计即可。 In addition to the standing wave structure, the micro / nano thermoacoustic engine conversion structure may also be employed thermoacoustic wave type, etc., just as the flow channel can be designed accordingly. 总之,本实用新型提供的是最基本的热声激振单元结构,由此概念可以引申出其他类型的微/纳米发动机器,此处不一而足。 In summary, the present invention provides basic structure of a thermal acoustic excitation unit, whereby the concept can be extended to other types of micro / nano-engine, a so forth herein.

5.本实用新型提供的微/纳米热声发动机器可组装成多种形式。 The present invention provides a micro / nano thermoacoustic engine can be assembled into a variety of forms. 整个微/纳米热声发动机既可为一个整体;也可制作成阵列组合,甚至采用多级热声转换实现。 Entire micro / nano thermoacoustic engine can as a whole; composition may be made into an array, or even multi-stage thermoacoustic conversion achieved. 而且,还可在纳米管外壁特定部位引入局部制冷,配合以上阐述的加热途径,可实现最好的热声激振方式。 Furthermore, refrigerant may also be introduced locally at the outer wall of a particular portion of the nanotube, with heating pathway set forth above, the best way thermoacoustic excitation can be achieved.

应该指出的是,一般用作本实用新型的流体工质4应满足如下要求:不燃烧,无毒,应与结构材料相容,且不能造成对纳米管产生腐蚀和锈化等影响使用寿命的不利因素,高温下不分解,低温下不发生相变;易于获取;具有一定的热稳定性。 It should be noted that the present invention is generally used as a fluid working medium 4 should meet the following requirements: no burning, non-toxic, should be compatible with the structural material, and could cause corrosion and rust and other effects on the life of the nanotubes disadvantage, does not decompose at a high temperature, the phase change does not occur at a low temperature; easily accessible; having a certain thermal stability. 此外,工质还应具有合适的粘性系数。 Further, the working fluid should have an appropriate coefficient of viscosity.

本实用新型提供的微/纳米热声发动机具有很多优点,首先,由于该器件借助的是固体加热及气体的流动传热,因而以一种简单的方式促成了纳米管内的流体发生受激振动;由于纳米热声激振器的尺寸相当小,可以产生极高的振动频率如GHz;基于这些综合因素,本实用新型相比于以往单纯对固体悬臂梁加热的激振器,功能更全面,其振动频率可根据结构、工质材料及加热的配合在一个较宽范围内变动。 The present invention provides a micro / nano thermoacoustic engines have many advantages, first of all, since the flow of the heat transfer device is by means of solid and gas is heated, thus contributing in a simple manner by the fluid induced vibration occurs nanotube; as the nano thermoacoustic vibration exciter relatively small in size, can be produced as a high frequency vibration GHz; based on these combined factors, the present invention is simple in the conventional solid exciter heated cantilever, more versatile compared to its vibration frequencies can vary over a wide range in accordance with the configuration, material working and heating. 由于微/纳米热声发动机内管道的比表面积极小,气体与壁面的换热效率更好,因而产生的热声振荡特性更好。 Since the specific surface micro / nano thermoacoustic engine duct extremely small, the heat exchange efficiency of the gas and the wall surface of the better characteristics of the thermoacoustic oscillations thus producing better. 此外,在低温下,许多纳米振子很难正常工作,而本实用新型可在此种环境下工作,以用于对探测精度要求较高的物理化学问题的研究,此时可根据需要,将工质选择为空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮等在特定温度区间不发生相变的气体。 Further, at low temperatures, a plurality of nanowires vibrator difficult work, and the present invention can operate in this environment, to study the physicochemical problem for high precision of the detection at this time may be necessary, the work mass selected to air, helium, nitrogen, argon, nitrous oxide and other gas phase transition does not occur in a particular temperature range.

还可将本实用新型的微/纳米热声发动机紧贴于特定的基底上,根据所需达到的振动频率和幅度,选择特定功率及尺寸的激光器,在显微镜的引导下对准纳米热声激振器的一端进行加热,即可在其另一端振动膜6处诱发出热声振动,由此完成进一步的测试工作。 The present invention may also be micro / nano thermoacoustic engine close contact on a particular substrate, the vibration frequency and amplitude required to achieve the selection of a particular size and laser power, under the guidance of a microscope quasi-nanometer laser thermoacoustic One end of the vibration is heated to thermally induced acoustic vibrations at the other end of the diaphragm 6, thereby completing the further testing.

Claims (10)

1.一种基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,包括:一纳米管(1);所述纳米管(1)的一端封闭,另一端装有振动膜(6),其内充有流体工质(4);一位于纳米管(1)之外,并对纳米管(1)进行加热的加热器(5)。 An acoustic transducer based on thermal micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, characterized by comprising: a nano-tube (1); the nanotube (1) is closed at one end, with the other end of the diaphragm (6), within a fluid-filled working medium (4); nano located in a tube (1), the nanotubes and (1) heated by the heater (5).
2.按权利要求1所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述纳米管(1)之内靠近封闭端10nm-300nm范围内的通道中填充多孔板叠结构(3);所述多孔板叠结构(3)由碳/硅纳米管或纳米多孔金属颗粒堆积构成。 2. according to claim 1 based on the thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, characterized in that the nanotubes (1) within the channel near the closed end of the range of 10nm-300nm filling a porous laminated structure (3); the porous laminated structure (3) made of carbon / silicon nanotubes or nano-porous metal particle packing configuration.
3.按权利要求2所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述纳米多孔金属颗粒为多孔Au颗粒或多孔Cu颗粒。 3. according to claim 2 based on the converted thermoacoustic micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, wherein the nanoporous metal particles are porous particles or porous Cu Au particles.
4.按权利要求1或2所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述纳米管(1)外的靠近封闭端10nm-300nm范围内的管壁上粘附一层金属磁性纳米颗粒层(7);所述加热器(5)为位于该层金属磁性纳米颗粒层(7)之外的对其施加电磁场的一对电极板(51),所述电极板(51)尺寸在1mm×1mm×1mm到10cm×10cm×10cm之间,两电极板之间电压在1-300V之间,频率在1Hz到1000MHz之间。 4. Press as claimed in claim micro / nano or thermoacoustic engine 1 based on the thermal-acoustic converter, characterized in that the inner wall of the nanotubes near the closed end (1) outside the range of 10nm-300nm adhesion a metal nanoparticle magnetic layer (7); this layer is located on the metal magnetic nanoparticle layer (7) outside of the heater (5) of the pair of electrode plates applied thereto an electromagnetic field (51), the electrode plate (51) dimensions 1mm × 1mm × 1mm between 10cm × 10cm × 10cm, the voltage between the two electrode plates between 1-300V, at a frequency between 1Hz to 1000MHz.
5.按权利要求1所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述纳米管(1)内填充的流动工质(4)为空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮或它们的组合;或者为水或酒精液体;或者为液态金属稼与气体的混合工质,其气体为空气、氦气、氮气、氩气、一氧化氮。 5. according to claim 1 based on the thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, wherein the nanotubes filled with (1) the working medium flow (4) is air, helium, nitrogen, argon gas, nitric oxide, or combinations thereof; or the liquid is water or alcohol; or a mixed refrigerant gas and liquid metal gallium, which gas is air, helium, nitrogen, argon, nitric oxide.
6.按权利要求1所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述加热器(5)为激光器;或者为自带电源的纳米电加热丝(52)。 6. The according to claim 1 based on the thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, characterized in that the heater (5) is a laser; or a self-powered electrical heating nano wire (52).
7.按权利要求1所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述纳米管(1)为由金、铜、碳或硅材料制成。 7. Claim 1 is based on thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, wherein the nano-tube (1) is a gold, copper, carbon or silicon material.
8.按权利要求1所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述纳米管(1)的横截面形状为正方形、三角形或圆形;其壁厚在1nm-1mm;纳米管(1)的直径及轴向长度在1nm-1mm范围内。 8. according to claim 1 based on the thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, wherein the nano-tube (1) is square, triangular or circular cross-sectional shape; having a wall thickness in 1nm- 1mm; nanotube diameter and the axial length (1) is in the range 1nm 1mm-.
9.按权利要求1所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述纳米管(1)靠近封闭端的管壁上连通一循环旁路,循环旁路内填充多孔板叠结构(3),所述多孔板叠结构(3)由碳/硅纳米管或纳米多孔金属颗粒堆积构成;所述加热器(5)为沉积在循环旁路通道外壁上的自带电源的纳米电加热丝(52)。 9. The according to claim 1 based on the thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, characterized in that the nanotubes (1) communicating a circulation bypass pipe wall near the closed end, filled with a porous inner loop bypass the laminated structure (3), the porous laminated structure (3) of the porous metal tubes or nano particles constituted by stacking a carbon / silicon nanoparticles; said heater (5) is deposited on the outer wall of the self-powered circulation bypass passage nano electric heating wire (52).
10.按权利要求1所述的基于热声转换的微/纳米热声发动机,其特征在于,所述振动膜(6)为由Cu、Au、Si或C材料制成的弹性膜。 10. The according to claim 1 based on the thermoacoustic conversion micro / nano thermoacoustic engine, characterized in that the diaphragm (6) is a Cu, Au, Si or a film made of an elastic material C.
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