CN2626684Y - Minitype mechanical arm driven by shape memory alloy - Google Patents

Minitype mechanical arm driven by shape memory alloy Download PDF

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Publication number
CN2626684Y
CN2626684Y CN 03261475 CN03261475U CN2626684Y CN 2626684 Y CN2626684 Y CN 2626684Y CN 03261475 CN03261475 CN 03261475 CN 03261475 U CN03261475 U CN 03261475U CN 2626684 Y CN2626684 Y CN 2626684Y
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shape memory
memory alloy
alloy wire
mechanical hand
robot
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CN 03261475
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Chinese (zh)
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刘德忠
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北京工业大学
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Abstract

The utility model relates to a miniature mechanical hand driven by shape memory alloy used for holding and carrying miniature machine elements, including a mechanical hand main body, grasping fingers and a driving element. The utility model is characterized in that the mechanical hand main body consists of a mechanical hand basal body 1 which is made on a whole piece, a pendulum rod 2, a translational motion rod 3 and flexible hinges used to connect them; the driving element adopts shape memory alloy wires 5, the alloy wire starting from the binding post 6 passes through the mechanical hand basal body 1 and the transitional motion rod 3, and goes back to the binding post 7 to form a double-layer alloy wire; the peripheral power supply is connected through the binding posts 6 and 7. When the shape memory alloy is provided with electric current, the shape memory alloy wire shrinks and drives the grasping fingers 4 to hold target objects through the translational motion rod 3 and the pendulum rod 2. When the shape memory alloy is switched off, the mechanical hand conducts reverse movement. One mechanical hand can be equipped with different grasping fingers to meet the requirements of grasping objects of different diameter. The utility model has advantages of small volume, high precision, moderate holding force, simple adjustment, and convenience for control.

Description

形状记忆合金驱动的微型机械手 The shape memory alloy driving micromanipulator

技术领域 FIELD

:形状记忆合金驱动的微型机械手用于微小机械零件自动化加工、装配过程中的夹持和搬送,是智能材料在机电一体化装置中的应用,属于机械技术领域。 : The shape memory alloy driven micromanipulator for automated processing micro-mechanical parts, the assembly process and holding the conveyance, the application of smart materials mechatronic device, the field of mechanics.

背景技术 Background technique

:普通的机械手,在结构方面一般采用齿轮、齿条、杠杆、销轴等机械零件和滑副、转副、球副等运动副。 : Conventional robot, the general structure of the gear, rack, lever, pin and other mechanical parts and the sub-spool, the sub-transfer, and other sports ball sub-sub. 其缺点是:(1)、体积大,不能胜任微小零件的抓取;不可避免地存在运动副间隙,传动精度低,尤其是微位移精度低,不能适应微小零件抓取时的精确定位。 The disadvantages are: (1), large volume, small parts can not do crawl; Clearance movement inevitably present, low transmission accuracy, especially low-precision micro-displacement, the precise positioning of small parts can not adapt to crawl. (2)、普通机械手的驱动方式,一般采用液压、气动、电机、电磁铁等驱动方式。 (2), the driving mode of the common robot, generally use hydraulic, pneumatic, motors, solenoids and other drive. 由于结构尺寸大而不适应微小零件的抓取。 Due to the large size and structure not suited to small parts crawl. 此外,油渗漏会污染零件,磁场会使零件带磁性,在某些工作情况下是不允许的。 Further, oil leakage can contaminate parts, parts with magnetic field will, in some operation is not allowed.

目前国外也有用形状记忆合金弹簧驱动的微型机械手,其实物如图5所示,这种微型机械手包括有机械手本体17、抓取指4、作为驱动元件的形状记忆合金弹簧19、及联接它们的柔性铰链和连接部件。 Also useful in foreign countries, shape memory alloy spring driven micromanipulator, in fact was shown in Figure 5, the micro robot includes a robot body 17, gripping means 4, the shape memory alloy spring as the drive member 19 and the coupling thereof the flexible hinge and connecting member. 当形状记忆合金弹簧接通电源时抓取指合拢,断开电源时,抓取指张开。 When the shape memory alloy spring powered gripping means closed, the power supply is turned off, gripping fingers open. 这种结构的问题是:(1)、由于弹簧装在机械手一侧,而不是在中间平面内,柔性铰链易发生扭曲至使两个抓取指不平行,以至于抓取微小零件时,一头抓得紧,一头抓得松,容易使零件偏斜;(2)、固定螺钉和形状记忆合金弹簧外露会与工作环境内的导体接触而发生短路;(3)、弹簧体积较大限制机械手进一步微型化。 The problem with this configuration is: (1), since the spring installed in the robot side, but not in the intermediate plane, a flexible hinge prone to twisting of the two gripper fingers are not parallel, so that when gripping small parts, a catch closely, grasp a loose, easily deflected part; (2), fixing screws and shape memory alloy spring will be exposed within the working environment conductor contacting with a short circuit; (3), the larger the volume of the spring to further limit the manipulator miniaturization.

发明内容 SUMMARY

:

本实用新型的目的在于克服前述不足,为满足在狭小空间操作微小目标的需要,设计一种体积小,精度高,夹持力适中,调整简单,控制方便,并可根据抓取的零件尺寸范围要求、更换配置多个抓取指的、形状记忆合金驱动的微型机手。 The present invention aims to overcome the deficiencies, in a small space to meet the needs of the operation target minute, to design a small size, high accuracy, a moderate clamping force, easy to adjust, easy to control, and in accordance with the grasped part size range requires replacement of a plurality of gripping fingers, the shape memory alloy driving the microcomputer hand.

本实用新型的技术方案见结构示意图1,它包括有机械手本体、抓取指、作为驱动元件的形状记忆合金部件、及固定和联接它们的连接部件;本实用新型的特征在于,机械手本体是由在一块整体材料上制成的机械手基体1、摆杆2、平动杆3以及联接它们的柔性铰链构成;抓取指(4)按常规技术嵌入摆杆(2)中、并与其形成配合联接;采用形状记忆合金丝5作为驱动元件,该合金丝由接线柱6开始,穿过机械手基体1和平动杆3再折回到接线柱7形成双股合金丝;外设电源经接线柱6、7接入。 The present invention the technical solution, see structural diagram 1, which comprises a hand body, gripping means, as a drive element of a shape memory alloy member, and the fixing and coupling their connection member; the present invention wherein the hand body by robot matrix on a monolith made of a pendulum lever 2, translational lever 3 and the coupling thereof flexible hinge configuration; gripping means (4) according to a conventional technology embedded pivot lever (2), and form a mating coupling ; wire using shape memory alloy as a drive element 5, starting from the alloy wire terminal 6 through the robot base 1 and translating rod 3 and then is folded back terminal 7 is formed bifilar wire alloy; peripheral power supply terminal via 6,7 access.

这种形状记忆合金驱动的微型机械手,形状记忆合金丝安装结构特征在于,先将中心钻出台阶孔的两个空心螺钉14内装进与其配套的陶瓷管15,再将两个空心螺钉14拧入机械手基体底部,各自构成接线柱6和7,形状记忆合金丝5穿入其中一个空心螺钉内陶瓷管后,经过平动杆3再折回、从另一个开孔螺钉内陶瓷管穿出,分别从陶瓷管穿入和穿出的两股合金丝的露出部分熔成小球16与所在位置的接线柱固定;在平动杆3上设置了隔开形状记忆合金丝5的绝缘片8。 Such a shape memory alloy driving micromechanical hand, the shape memory alloy wire characterized in that the mounting structure, first put into the center 14 of the stepped bore drilled screws with matching two hollow ceramic tube 15, and then the two screws 14 screwed into the hollow the robot base portion thereof, each forming a terminal 6 and 7, after the shape memory alloy wire 5 penetrates a hollow screw wherein the ceramic tube, after the actuator rod 3 then folded flat, the inner ceramic tube out through another screw hole, respectively, from the ceramic tube is penetrated and bifurcated piercing alloy wire fused into the exposed portion of the terminal 16 and the fixed location of the ball; 8 flat lever 3 is provided on the insulating sheet 5 spaced from the shape memory alloy wire.

这种形状记忆合金驱动的微型机械手,特征在于:一个机械手可配置多个抓取目标直径范围不同的抓取指4,当需要抓取不同尺寸范围的零件时,机械手的本体不需要更换,只须更换抓取指。 Such a shape memory alloy driving micro robot comprising: a robot gripper may be arranged a plurality of different target diameters range gripping means 4, when it is necessary to fetch the parts of different size ranges, without having to change the robot's body, only gripper fingers must be replaced.

本实用新型的工作过程为:当形状记忆合金通入电流后,温度升高,组织发生相变,使形状记忆合金丝收缩变短,拉动平动杆3,平动杆带动两个摆杆2相对摆动,带动抓取指4夹持目标。 The present invention works as follows: When the electric current through the shape memory alloys, temperature rise, tissue undergoes a phase change, the shape memory alloy wire is contracted shortened, pulling the translational lever 3, driven by two flat lever pivot lever 2 relatively swinging drive means 4 holding gripping target. 当形状记忆合金断电,机械手相反动作,放松目标。 When the shape memory alloy power, the operation of the robot contrary, certain relaxation.

本实用新型的微型机械手设计采取了一种整体式结构,所有零件(杆、运动副等)都是用同一块材料刻出,采用柔性铰链代替传统的运动副。 The present invention micromanipulator designed to take a unitary structure, all the parts (the rod, the sub-motion, etc.) are engraved with the same piece of material, instead of the traditional use of flexible hinge motion pairs. 运动副(柔性铰链)不仅具有理想的弹性,同时又避免了因装配引起的误差。 Kinematic pair (flexible hinge) not only has the desired elasticity, while avoiding the error caused by the assembly. 由于柔性铰链依靠材料的微小弹性变形来传递位移,因而具有结构紧凑、无运动副间隙、无机械摩擦等优点,是精密机械中理想的微位移机构。 Since the flexible hinge rely minute elastically deformable material displaced to pass, which has a compact structure, no side clearance motion, no mechanical friction, etc., it is an ideal precision micro-mechanical displacement mechanism.

本实用新型中采用形状记忆合金丝作为驱动元件代替传统的驱动方式。 Used in the present invention, the shape memory alloy wire as a drive element instead of the traditional drive. 形状记忆合金丝既是驱动元件同时又是电路的一部分,不仅体积小,而且易于控制。 Both the shape memory alloy wire member while still part of the drive circuit, small volume, and easy to control. 这种驱动方式的另一个特点是控制简单,形状记忆合金丝通电即收缩,断电即伸长。 Another feature of this driving method is simple to control, i.e. shape memory alloy wire contraction power, power that is elongated.

本实用新型中采用双丝驱动。 In the present invention, a dual wire drive. 双丝驱动的优点是:避免两个抓取指4动作不对称,同时增加夹持力。 Advantages of twin wire is driven: to avoid the operation of an asymmetric two gripping means 4, while increasing the holding force. 另外形状记忆合金丝5、在机械手本体上安装的结构特征,既保证形状记忆合金丝与机械手本体绝缘,又可以将形状记忆合金丝预先适当绷紧。 Further shape memory alloy wire 5, wherein the structural body is mounted on the robot, both to ensure the shape memory alloy wire and insulation of the hand body, and may be shape memory alloy wire previously properly taut. 这样不但可以消除间隙,有效利用形状记忆合金丝的伸缩量。 This will not only eliminate the gap, the effective use of expansion and contraction amount of the shape memory alloy wire. 同时可以配合抓取指更换,精确预调抓取尺寸范围。 While replacement with the gripping fingers, gripping precise presetting size range.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

:图1本实用新型微型机械手结构示意图1、机械手基体2、摆杆3、平动杆4、抓取指5、形状记忆合金丝6、接线柱7、接线柱8、绝缘片9、安装孔10-13、柔性铰链铰节点;图2本实用新型形状记忆合金丝的安装结构示意图14、空心螺钉15、陶瓷管16、形状记忆合金溶化小球;图3本实用新型微型机械手的机构运动原理及驱动控制原理示意图;图4本实用新型柔性铰链形状示意图;图5国外研制的微型机械手实物结构示意图17、机械手本体18、固定螺钉19、形状记忆合金弹簧20、柔性铰链铰节点。 : FIG. 1 of the present invention micromanipulator structural diagram of a robot base 2, pendulum 3, translational lever 4, gripping means 5, the shape memory alloy wire 6, terminal 7, terminal 8, insulating sheets 9, the mounting hole 10-13, a flexible hinge hinge node; mounting structure of Figure 2 of the present invention the shape memory alloy wire is a schematic diagram 14, a hollow screw 15, the ceramic tube 16, a shape memory alloy melt pellets; movement principle 3 of the present invention micromanipulator mechanism and a drive control schematic principle; FIG. 4 of the present invention flexible hinge schematic form; development of FIG. 5 is an overseas micromanipulator physical structure diagram 17, the robot body 18, fixing screw 19, 20, the flexible hinge joint node shape memory alloy spring.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

:本实用新型的实施设计方案参见图1-图4。 : Design embodiment of the present invention Referring to Figures 1-4 embodiment.

机械手的机械结构如图1所示,它是由本体1、摆杆2、平动杆3和抓取指4以及联接它们的柔性铰链组成。 The mechanical structure of the robot shown in Figure 1, which is the main body 1, the pendulum 2, 3 and translational lever 4 and the gripping fingers thereof coupled to a flexible hinge components. 它们由一块弹簧钢板用数控电火花线切割机加工而成。 It is machined from a spring steel sheet NC WEDM. 抓取指4是由同样材料用同样工艺加工成的。 Gripping means 4 is made of the same material by the same process into machining. 柔性铰链的典型结构见图4。 A typical structure of the flexible hinge is shown in Figure 4. 设计完成后的机械手外形尺寸52×36×5mm。 Robot dimensions 52 × 36 × 5mm after the design is complete.

形状记忆合金丝5作为驱动元件,微型机械手采用双丝驱动。 The shape memory alloy wire 5 as a drive element, dual wire micromanipulator driver. 当接线柱6、7接入电路,合金丝中有电流通过,温度升高,收缩变短,拉动平动杆3向下运动,通过各柔性铰链(均相当于转动副)带动两侧摆杆2向内摆动,带动两个手指合拢夹持物体。 When the access circuit terminals 6,7, alloy wire there is a current, temperature, shrinkage becomes shorter, lever 3 is pulled downward translational movement, through the flexible hinge (corresponding to all the sub-rotatably) on both sides of the pendulum drive 2 inwardly swung, closed drive two fingers gripping the object. 两个手指是通过柔性铰链连接在一起的。 Two fingers are connected together by a flexible hinge. 基体和手指都是由弹簧钢制成的,柔性铰链具有很好的弹性,断电时依靠弹性使摆杆2复位,两个手指自动张开。 Matrix and are made from spring steel fingers, the flexible hinge has good flexibility, elasticity rely on when power is reset so that the pendulum 2, two fingers automatically open. 接线柱6、7,绝缘片8及合金丝外面套装的热塑管保证形状记忆合金丝与机械手本体绝缘。 Terminals 6,7, and insulating sheet 8 is set outside alloy wire thermoplastic tube to ensure the shape memory alloy wire insulated with the robot body.

微型机械手的机构运动原理及驱动控制原理见图3。 Miniature robot kinematic principle and driving control principle shown in Figure 3. 借助于机构运动原理图可以进行机构分析和原理设计,并在此基础上进行结构设计。 By means of a kinematic mechanism can diagram analysis and design principles, and based on this design.

根据图3由机械手执行端(指尖)的张开量可以解出滑动杆平动的距离和铰节点10、11、12处杆件之间的交角变化量Δα10、Δα11和Δα12(称为柔性变形角);利用下面公式可以求出产生一定的柔性变形角Δαx所需要的弯矩Mx。 The solution of FIG. 3 by the robot performs an end (fingertip) of the opening amount can vary the amount of the angle of intersection between the rods 11, 12 at a distance of the slide bar and the hinge translational node Δα10, Δα11 and Δα12 (referred to as a flexible deflection angle ); it can be determined using the following equation to produce a certain flexibility moment Mx Δαx angle of deformation required.

Mx=2ΔαxEbt5/29πR1/2]]>式中:R铰链圆弧半径;b材料厚度;t铰链最小厚度;E弹性模量;Δαx柔性变形角。 Mx = 2 & Delta; & alpha; xEbt5 / 29 & pi; R1 / 2]]> the formula wherein: R hinge arc radius; B material thickness; T hinge minimum thickness; E modulus of elasticity; Δαx flexible deflection angle.

形状记忆合金丝的拉力一部分用来提供柔性变形角所需要的弯矩,一部分用来提供机械手夹持物体时所需要的拉力。 Pulling a portion of the shape memory alloy wire to provide the flexible bending moment required deflection angle, for providing a portion of the robot gripping force when an object is required. 已知需要的夹持力可以算出形状记忆合金应提供的拉力。 Known desired clamping force can be calculated from the tension of the shape memory alloy should be provided. 同样也可以根据形状记忆合金丝的长度变形率和许用拉力算出机械手执行端的张开量和执行端的夹持力。 The robot can be calculated also perform clamping force and the opening amount of the terminal end of the performing deformation rate depending on the length and the shape memory alloy wire allowable tension.

本实用新型采用的形状记忆合金丝是TiNi合金丝,合金丝的安装较为困难,本实用新型的解决方案见图2。 The present invention uses the shape memory alloy wire is TiNi alloy wire, the alloy wire installation is difficult, according to the present invention shown in Figure 2 solution. 安装形状记忆合金丝,首先把螺钉拧入微型机械手本体,装入陶瓷管,再把TiNi合金丝穿入陶瓷管,把合金丝露出的部分用电火花熔成一个小球,最后把螺钉旋出0.5~2圈左右把合金丝拉紧。 Shape memory alloy wire installation, first of all screws are screwed into the micro robot body, a ceramic tube was charged, and then penetrates the ceramic tube TiNi alloy wire, the exposed portion of the alloy wire EDM using a melt into pellets, and finally unscrew the screw about 0.5 to 2 turns to Jin Sila tight engagement. 同时解决了安装、拉紧和绝缘问题。 While addressing the installation, tensioning and insulation problems.

Claims (3)

1.一种形状记忆合金驱动的微型机械手包括有机械手本体、抓取指、作为驱动元件的形状记忆合金部件、联接它们的柔性铰链和连接部件;本实用新型的特征在于,机械手本体是由在一块整体件上制成的机械手基体(1)、摆杆(2)、平动杆(3)以及联接它们的柔性铰链构成;抓取指(4)按常规技术嵌入摆杆(2)中、并与其形成配合联接;采用形状记忆合金丝(5)作为驱动元件,该合金丝由接线柱(6)开始,穿过机械手基体(1)和平动杆(3)再折回到接线柱(7)形成双股合金丝;外设电源经接线柱(6)、(7)接入。 A shape memory alloy driving the micro robot includes a robot body, gripping means, as the shape memory alloy member driving element, the coupling thereof flexible hinge and connecting member; the present invention wherein the hand body is in a monolith robot base body made of (1), pivot lever (2), a flat rod (3) and the coupling thereof flexible hinge configuration; gripping means (4) according to a conventional technology embedded pivot lever (2), and form a mating connector; shape-memory alloy wire (5) as a drive element, starting from the alloy wire terminal (6), through the robot base (1) and translating rod (3) and then is folded back post (7) forming double-stranded alloy wire; peripheral power via terminal (6), (7) access.
2.根据权利要求1所示的形状记忆合金驱动的微型机械手,形状记忆合金丝安装结构特征在于,先将中心钻出台阶孔的两个空心螺钉(14)内装进与其配套的陶瓷管(15),再将两个空心螺钉(14)拧入机械手基体底部,各自构成接线柱(6)和(7),形状记忆合金丝(5)穿入其中一个空心螺钉内陶瓷管后,经过平动杆(3)再折回、从另一个开孔螺钉内陶瓷管穿出,分别从陶瓷管穿入和穿出的两股合金丝的露出部分熔成小球(16)与所在位置的接线柱固定;在平动杆(3)上设置了隔开形状记忆合金丝(5)的绝缘片(8)。 The shape memory alloy 1 shown driven micromanipulator claim, shape memory alloy wire characterized in that the mounting structure, put into its support (14) of the first center hole bored two stepped hollow ceramic tube screws (15 ), then two hollow screw (14) screwed into the bottom of the robot base, each forming a terminal (6) and (7), the shape memory alloy wire (5) penetrates a hollow screw wherein the ceramic tube, through translational rod (3) and then turn back, another ceramic tube opening out through the inner screw, respectively, from the ceramic tube is penetrated and bifurcated piercing the alloy wire fused into pellets exposed portion (16) of the fixed terminal location ; flat lever (3) is provided spaced apart from a shape memory alloy wire (5) of the insulating sheet (8).
3.根据权利要求1所示的形状记忆合金驱动的微型机械手,其特征在于:一个机械手可更换配置多个抓取目标直径范围不同的抓取指(4)。 The shape memory alloy 1 shown driven micromanipulator claim, wherein: a plurality of exchangeable robot gripping a range of different target diameter gripping means (4).
CN 03261475 2003-05-24 2003-05-24 Minitype mechanical arm driven by shape memory alloy CN2626684Y (en)

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Cited By (9)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100395448C (en) 2005-06-23 2008-06-18 香港理工大学 Motor-free wheel mechanism driven by shape memory alloy
CN100443266C (en) 2006-09-28 2008-12-17 上海交通大学 Heat driven SU-8 base micro pliers with embedded nickel wire in double diamond structure
CN102846365A (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-01-02 北京航空航天大学 Wrist type end effector driven by four shape memory alloy wires
CN102973306A (en) * 2012-11-27 2013-03-20 上海交通大学 Active stone micro-gripper
CN103533908A (en) * 2011-05-13 2014-01-22 直观外科手术操作公司 Device Interface
US9259274B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2016-02-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Passive preload and capstan drive for surgical instruments
CN107187860A (en) * 2017-05-11 2017-09-22 浙江工业大学 Parallel clamping device for clamping small components
CN108247309A (en) * 2017-12-20 2018-07-06 东莞市亚登电子有限公司 Memory alloy wire installing method of miniature optical camera module
CN108772845A (en) * 2018-06-30 2018-11-09 广西晨天金属制品有限公司 A kind of combination type manipulator

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100395448C (en) 2005-06-23 2008-06-18 香港理工大学 Motor-free wheel mechanism driven by shape memory alloy
CN100443266C (en) 2006-09-28 2008-12-17 上海交通大学 Heat driven SU-8 base micro pliers with embedded nickel wire in double diamond structure
US9259274B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2016-02-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Passive preload and capstan drive for surgical instruments
US10022194B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2018-07-17 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Passive preload and capstan drive for surgical instruments
US9339342B2 (en) 2008-09-30 2016-05-17 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Instrument interface
CN103533908A (en) * 2011-05-13 2014-01-22 直观外科手术操作公司 Device Interface
CN103533908B (en) * 2011-05-13 2017-02-15 直观外科手术操作公司 Device Interface
CN102846365A (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-01-02 北京航空航天大学 Wrist type end effector driven by four shape memory alloy wires
CN102973306A (en) * 2012-11-27 2013-03-20 上海交通大学 Active stone micro-gripper
CN107187860A (en) * 2017-05-11 2017-09-22 浙江工业大学 Parallel clamping device for clamping small components
CN107187860B (en) * 2017-05-11 2019-02-12 浙江工业大学 A kind of parallel clamping device clamping small parts
CN108247309A (en) * 2017-12-20 2018-07-06 东莞市亚登电子有限公司 Memory alloy wire installing method of miniature optical camera module
CN108772845A (en) * 2018-06-30 2018-11-09 广西晨天金属制品有限公司 A kind of combination type manipulator

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