CN2514544Y - Permanent magnet brushless motor - Google Patents

Permanent magnet brushless motor Download PDF

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CN2514544Y
CN2514544Y CN 01252421 CN01252421U CN2514544Y CN 2514544 Y CN2514544 Y CN 2514544Y CN 01252421 CN01252421 CN 01252421 CN 01252421 U CN01252421 U CN 01252421U CN 2514544 Y CN2514544 Y CN 2514544Y
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stator
motor
permanent magnet
brushless motor
rotor
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CN 01252421
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Chinese (zh)
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林统强
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林统强
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Abstract

A permanent-magnet brushless generator is composed of a stator, a rotor and a control unit, wherein the inner diametric plane of a generator casing is connected with magnetic steel to form the rotor, and air is filled between the inner diametric plane of the rotor and the stator which is directly connected with a main shaft via a fixed shaft sleeve, and a flat key is used to position between the stator and the main shaft, and the control unit employs a computer chip and a digit circuit, thereby resolving the questions of low efficiency of the system and high cost. The utility model can be widely applied to various electric vehicles and the generator field which works by way of inner rotors, and the utility model is characterized by high efficiency, low cost, stable performance and the like.

Description

永磁无刷电机 Permanent magnet brushless motor

本实用新型涉及一种高效率低成本的永磁无刷电机,包括单相电机,二相电机,三相电机三种形式,用于驱动各种电动车辆,以及以内转子形式工作及其他领域。 The present invention relates to a low cost high efficiency permanent magnet brushless motor, the motor comprises a single phase, two-phase motor, three forms of the three-phase motor for driving a variety of electric vehicles, and the inner rotor in the form of work and other fields.

现有的电动自选车分别采用有刷电机和无刷电机二种,电机和控制系统的系统效率在72~74%之间。 Optional conventional electric vehicles there were used two kinds of brush motors and brushless motors, the system efficiency of the motor control system and between 72 to 74%. 本实用新型的前有技术,专利号为97229314.0公开的电动摩托车,其电机机控制系统于1998年经国家中小型电机质量监督中心检测,系统效率为83%,堵转力矩为76Nm,装上车后已行驶1.5万公里,至今仍在正常运行。 This new front practical art, Patent No. 97229314.0 discloses an electric motorcycle, a motor control system which in 1998 by the National Center for Quality Supervision sized motor 76Nm detection system efficiency of 83% for the stall torque, fitted after the car has traveled 15,000 km, it is still operating normally. 该车一次充电行程68公里,车速32公里/小时,爬坡能力9°。 A charge car travel 68 km, speed of 32 km / h, climbing ability 9 °. 其电机由定子、转子和控制部份组成,电机的外壳通过辐条或螺栓与车轮同步运转,控制部分包括由N沟道场管构成的桥式驱动电路以及霍尔位置传感器等组成的模拟控制电路。 Which motor stator, a rotor and a control part composed of the synchronous operation of the motor housing, the control portion includes a bridge driver circuit analog N-channel field tubes and a Hall sensor composed of a control circuit by a bolt or the wheel spokes. 其存在的不足之处在于,一是系统效率还可进一步提高,以及降低生产成本和重量,二是功能简单,三是控制系统为模拟控制电路。 Deficiencies in that it is present, one may further improve system efficiency and reduce the production cost and weight, the second is a simple function, the third is a control system for the analog control circuit.

本实用新型其目的就在于提供一种永磁无刷电机,具有高效率、低成本,并减轻重量,增加功能,使电动车更趋实用化,同时实现数字控制。 An object of the present invention to provide a permanent magnet brushless motor having high efficiency, low cost, and reduce weight, increase functionality, the electric cars become more practical, while digital control.

实现上述目的而采取的技术方案包括,由定、转子和控制部分组成,电机外壳的内径面联接弧形钕铁硼磁钢,构成转子,在转子的内径面和由矽钢片组成的定子之间是气隙,定子通过固定轴套直接和主轴联接,其间由平键定位,绕组引出线经过主轴引出电机外壳之外。 To achieve the above object taken aspect include a stator and rotor and a control part, the inner surface of the motor housing is coupled arcuate NdFeB magnets constituting a rotor, an inner surface of the rotor and a stator composed of a silicon steel Room air gap, the stator fixed sleeve and the main shaft is coupled directly, by a flat key positioned therebetween, the winding lead wires led out through the spindle motor outside the housing.

下面结合附图对本实用新型作进一步详述,图1为本装置结构示意图;图2为本装置控制系统原理框图; The following drawings further detail of the present invention for binding, the structure of FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the device; FIG. 2 block diagram of a control system of the present apparatus;

图3为二相永磁无刷电机控制系统原理框图;图4为三相永磁无刷电机控制系统原理框图。 3 is a two-phase permanent magnet brushless motor control system block diagram; FIG. 4 is a schematic block diagram of a three-phase permanent magnet brushless motor control system.

本实用新型是在前有技术(专利号为97229314.0)的基础上,为进一步提高系统效率和降低生产成本及重量,并增加功能,使电动车更趋实用化,并使其同时能适用于其它领域而设计的。 The present invention has a front base (Patent No. 97229314.0) on, to further improve system efficiency and reduce production costs and weight, and increased functionality, the electric cars become more practical, and at the same time it can be applied to other the field of design.

实施例一:如图1所示,由定子5、转子3和控制部份组成,电机外壳的内径面联接弧形钕铁硼磁钢6,构成转子3,在转子3的内径面和由矽钢片组成的定子5之间是气隙7,定子5通过固定轴套8直接和主轴2联接,其间由平键定位,绕组4引出线1经过主轴2引出电机外壳之外。 Example a: As shown, a stator 5, and a control part composed of the rotor 3, inner surface of the motor housing 1 is coupled arcuate NdFeB magnets 6, constituting the rotor 3, and an inner diameter surface of the rotor 3 in the silicon 5 between the stator steel is composed of an air gap 7, the sleeve 8 is fixed by a stator 5 and the main shaft 2 is directly coupled, by a flat key positioned therebetween, the winding shaft 2 via a lead wire 4 led out outside the motor housing. 定子5和固定轴套8之间的平键槽与主轴2的夹角≤3°。 The stator 5 and between the fixed sleeve 8 and the spindle keyway flat angle of ≤3 ° 2. 定子5每个齿的中部均有形状相同的减轻孔,并在定子5的外径端面安装有≤4个霍尔位置传感器,用于输出磁钢6位置信号。 The stator 5 of the middle of each tooth has the same shape as lightening holes, and ≤4 a Hall sensor mounted on the outer diameter of the end face of the stator 5 are, for the magnet 6 for outputting a position signal. 定子绕组4均为整距绕组,绕组节距等于定子5铁芯齿距。 The stator windings 4 are full pitch winding, the winding pitch equal to the pitch of the stator core 5. 电机外壳内径面的弧形磁钢6是N块或1/2N块,其厚度为3~5毫米。 Magnet arcuate inner surface of the motor housing 6 is a block N or 1 / 2N block having a thickness of 3 to 5 mm. 磁钢6的块数和定子5的齿数比例是1/2N∶N,电机绕组4的相位差为180°。 The ratio of the number of teeth magnet block 6 and the stator 5 is 1 / 2N:N, 4 phase motor winding is 180 °. 控制系统包括与译码电路联接的推动电路,推动电路和桥式驱动电路相联,桥式驱动电路和永磁无刷电机相联接,CPU电脑芯片采用AT89C2051,全桥驱动电路的上下臂均为N沟道场管。 The control system includes a circuit with a decoding circuit coupled to push, push-bridge driver circuit and the associated circuitry, and a bridge driver circuit coupled to permanent magnet brushless motor, the CPU uses the AT89C2051 computer chip, the upper and lower arms are full bridge drive circuit N-channel field tube.

定子5是由主轴2通过固定轴套8和矽钢片连成一个整体,主轴2和固定轴套8之间及固定轴套8和矽钢片之间均由平键来定位。 The stator 2 of the spindle 5 is integrally fixed to a silicon steel sheet and the sleeve 8 is connected, is positioned by a flat key between the sleeve 8 and the fixed shaft 2 and the fixed sleeve 8 and silicon steel. 在由矽钢片组成的定子铁芯的圆周上均匀地分布有极齿,每个极齿的弧长及形状均相等,并且极齿的总数成偶数。 The total number of the circumference of the stator core composed of silicon steel by a very uniformly distributed teeth, each of the pole teeth are equal arc length and shape, and to an even pole teeth. 在极齿的中心位置,可以有形状相同的减轻孔,目的是在不影响过载能力的情况下,尽量减少电机重量。 In the center position of the pole teeth, lightening holes can have the same shape, aimed at without affecting the overload, to minimize the weight of the motor. 图1中电机主轴二端和车架联接处是平面,电机定子5和转子3的径向之间是气隙7,在电机通电运行时定子5不动,是转子3也就是电机外壳作为轮毂本身在旋转,在它的外径端面串以幅条或用螺栓和车轮联接并同步运行,在转子3的内径面是用环氧树脂粘贴上的钕铁硼弧形磁钢6,其厚度为3~5毫米。 Two ends of the spindle motor in FIG. 1 and the frame are coupled at a flat, radial air gap 7 of the rotor 5 and the stator 3 between the stator 5 does not move when the motor is energized to run, the motor rotor 3 is a wheel housing rotating itself, its end surface the outer diameter of the string or to the spokes and the wheel is coupled with bolts and run synchronously, the inner diameter surface of the rotor 3 is arcuate NdFeB magnets 6 on the epoxy resin adhesive, a thickness of 3 to 5 mm.

定子铁芯由定子极齿组成,极齿的总数为偶数,各极齿沿定子铁芯圆周均匀分布,转子内径面均匀分布的磁钢片数和定子极齿的比例是N∶N或N/2∶N。 The stator core of the stator pole teeth by the composition, the total number of pole teeth is an even number, each of the pole teeth circumferentially distributed uniformly along the stator core, the pole teeth of the stator and the number of magnetic steel sheets of the rotor inner surface uniformly distributed or N:N proportion of N / 2:N.

图2为控制系统框图,该电机工作时电机绕组的相位差是180°,它有三个工作状态:正向通电、反向通电、停止。 FIG 2 is a block diagram of a control system, the motor phase winding when the motor operation is 180 °, which has three operating states: a forward power and reverse power, stopped. 为此,只要在定子极齿的径向端面安装二个霍尔位置传感器,并和图2的译码电路联接,通过CPU电脑芯的综合处理后推动电路推动全桥驱动电机运行。 For this purpose, as long as the end faces of the stator teeth in a radial mounting two Hall sensor, and FIG. 2 and the decoder circuit is coupled through an integrated post-processing of the CPU core computer driven full-bridge circuit driven drive the motor.

该电机整体设计上最为简洁,但有力距脉动和死点的缺点,该类电机只能用在电动自行车上,并通过CPU电脑芯片设置车速在≥3公里/小时时,全桥驱动电路才能正常工作,既避免了电动自行车启动时十几安培的启动电流对蓄电池的冲击,又能相对延长电动自行车的行程和延长蓄电池的使用寿命,缺点转化成了优点。 The overall design of the motor on the most simple, but powerful torque pulsation and dead disadvantages, these motors can only be used on an electric bicycle and when ≥3 km / h, a full bridge drive circuit to function by setting the vehicle speed computer chip CPU work, both to avoid a ten ampere starting current impact on the battery when starting the electric bicycle, electric bicycle can travel relative extension and extend battery life, the disadvantages converted into advantages. 该电机在2000年3月一次电动车整车试验中曾以108W的输入功率,即电压36V电流3A,在普通二级公路上以27km/h的速度行驶。 The machine once in March 2000 a test electric-vehicle input power of 108W, i.e., the voltage 36V current. 3A, at 27km / h with a speed in the normal secondary roads.

实施例二:由定子、转子和控制部份组成,二相永磁无刷电机的磁钢块数和电机定子的齿数比例为N∶N-2,电机绕组的相位差为90°。 Example II: a stator, a rotor and a control part composition, the number of teeth ratio and the number of blocks magnet motor stator of a two-phase permanent magnet brushless motor as N:N-2, the motor phase winding is 90 °.

二相电机的定子铁芯由AB二相定子极齿组成,每相极齿的总数为偶数,每相的极齿分为二相并处在和铁芯中心同一连线的二端,每组极齿的数量也相等,并且二连线相交90°,每组极齿之间间隔1/2极齿弧长。 The stator core of a two-phase motor AB two-phase stator teeth, each with an even total number of pole teeth, each of the pole teeth were divided into two phases at two ends and impose the same central core connection, each also equal the number of pole teeth, and the two wirings intersecting 90 °, half the interval between the pole teeth of the pole teeth each arc length. 本实施例二相电机转子内径面均匀分布的弧形磁钢的块数和由矽钢片组成的定子极齿的比例为N∶N-2或N/2∶N-2。 Ratio of the number of arc-shaped magnets uniformly distributed two-phase motor according to the present embodiment and the rotor inner surface of the stator pole teeth composed of silicon steel is N:N-2 or N / 2:N-2.

图3是本实施例二相电机的控制系统原理框图,该电机运行时,A、B二相绕组电压的相位差是90°,A、B二相绕组各自独立工作,为此,在定子铁芯的A相和B相的矽钢片极齿的径向端面位置各放置2个霍尔位置传感器,通过图3的译码电路在其它条件满足CPU允许其工作时通过推动电路,控制二个全桥,并且上下二臂均为N沟道场管,所以这种形式的电机的过载能力相当大,能长时间过载5倍额定负载电流。 FIG 3 is a block diagram of a control system according to the present embodiment of the two-phase motor, the motor is running, the phase difference A, two B-phase winding voltage is 90 °, A, B two-phase winding work independently, therefore, in the stator when silicon steel core a and B phases of the pole teeth of the radial position of each end surface are placed two Hall sensor, which allows the CPU to meet the working conditions by the other decoder circuit of FIG. 3 by pushing the circuit for controlling two full bridge, and two upper and lower arms are N-channel field pipe, so that overload of the motor in the form of relatively large, a long time overload 5 times the rated load current. 所以特别适用于电动国自行车、电动摩托车和电动汽车,它有相当大的爬坡能力和加速度,可满足一般用户的使用要求。 It is particularly applicable to national electric bicycles, electric motorcycles and electric cars, it has a considerable acceleration and climbing ability, can meet the general requirements of users. 同时二个全桥上下二臂均为N沟道场管能显著减少控制系统的功耗。 While the two full bridge two arm tubes are N-channel field can significantly reduce the power consumption of the control system.

实施例三:由定子、转子和控制部份组成,三相永磁场无刷电机的磁钢块数和电机定子的齿数比例为N∶N-2,并且定子齿数的1/3等于三相永磁无刷电机每相的总齿数。 Third Embodiment: a stator, a rotor and a control part composition, the number of teeth ratio and the number of blocks magnet motor stator three-phase brushless motor is a permanent magnetic field N:N-2, and the stator teeth is equal to 1/3 of a three-phase permanent the total number of teeth per phase magnetic brushless motors.

三相电机的定子铁芯由ABC三相定子铁芯极齿组成,三相极齿沿定子圆周独立分布,每相极齿的总数为偶数,每相的极齿分为二组,并处于和铁芯中心同一连线的二端,每组的极齿也相等,并且三连线相交60°。 The stator core of a ABC three-phase three-phase motor pole teeth of the stator core composed of a three-phase independent pole teeth circumferentially distributed stator, a total number of phase per pole teeth is an even number, each of the pole teeth were divided into two groups, and in and the same central core connecting the two ends, the pole teeth of each group are also equal, and three wirings intersecting 60 °. 每组极齿之间间隔1/3极齿弧长。 1/3 the arc length of the interval between the pole teeth of the pole teeth in each group. 本实施例转子内径面均匀分布的弧形磁钢的块数和矽钢片组成的定子极齿的比例为N∶N-2或N/2∶N-2。 The stator pole teeth and the number of blocks of uniform distribution of silicon steel arcuate magnet rotor according to the present embodiment consisting of inner surface N:N-2 or a ratio of N / 2:N-2.

图4是本实施例三相电机的控制系统原理框图,该电机运行时,ABC三相之间的电压相位差是120°,ABC三个绕组按Y形联接,三个绕组的其中一端共接,另一端接在图4三个半桥的中点,该三相电机只要在矽钢片极齿的径向端面设置三个霍尔位置传感器,就能通过图4的译码器区分出6个工作状态的信号来,当其它条件满足,CPU允许工作时,通过图4的推动电路,分别控制三个半桥驱动电机运行。 FIG 4 is a block diagram of a control system of the present embodiment of the three-phase motor embodiment, the motor is running, the three-phase voltage of the phase difference between ABC is 120 °, ABC three windings coupled by the Y-shape, wherein one end of the three windings connected in common , the other end at the midpoint of the half-bridge three in FIG. 4, the three-phase motor as long as the Hall sensor is provided in the radial end face of the pole teeth silicon steel, 6 can be distinguished by the decoder 4 of FIG. signal to a working state, when the other conditions are met, to allow the CPU to work by pushing the circuit of Figure 4, respectively control the three half-bridge drive the motor.

与前二例不同的是,由于该三相片机绕组信号总是由二相信号迭加的,所以在电机运行的任何时候均有二相同时通电,另一相停止。 The previous two cases is different, since the three coils to a photo signal by the two-phase signal is always superimposed, the two phases are energized at any time while the motor is running, the other phase is stopped. 该电机有效材料的利用率只有70%,但是依靠优化设计的磁路和总体结构,包括控制系统上下臂部份采用N沟道场管,使电机的系统效率,要比现有技术的三相电机高8%,成本低20%,过载能力也比现有技术优越。 The effective utilization of the motor is only 70% of the material, but thanks to the overall structure and magnetic circuit design optimization, including the upper and lower arm part of a control system using N-channel field pipe, so that the system efficiency of the motor, than in the prior art three-phase motor 8%, 20% lower cost overload superior than the prior art. 2000年曾以该三相电理做过输出功率20KW的汽车车用电机的实验,和输出功率180W电动自行车电机的实验,均取得了较为满意的结果。 In 2000 once the three-phase power management have done output power of 20KW motor car vehicle experiments, and the experimental output power of 180W electric bicycle motor, we have achieved satisfactory results.

与同有技术相比本实用新型具有以下优点,1、由于采用了本实用新型所述的结构设计,因而使得系统效率提高,并降低了成本。 Compared with the prior art and the present invention has the following advantages, 1, thanks to the design according to the present invention, thus making the system more efficient, and reduce costs.

2、由于绕组的节距等于齿距,减少了通电导线的无效部分,减少数派用铜量和铜损,因而减轻了重量,降低了成本。 2, since the winding pitch is equal to the pitch, reducing the ineffective part of the current supply conductor, reduce the number of send and the amount of copper copper loss, thereby reducing the weight and reduce costs.

3、由于控制系统有CPU电脑芯片AT89C2051,PIC16C72A和数字电路组成,既简化了线路,降低了成本,还可方便地设置各种实用功能。 3, since the control system computer CPU chip AT89C2051, PIC16C72A and digital circuit, not only simplifies the wiring, reducing costs, may conveniently be provided with useful features.

Claims (8)

  1. 1.一种永磁无刷电机,由定子(5)、转子(3)和控制部份组成,其特征在于,电机外壳的内径面联接弧形钕铁硼磁钢(6),构成转子(3),在转子(3)的内径面和由矽钢片组成的定子(5)之间是气隙(7),定子(5)通过固定轴套(8)直接和主轴(2)联接,其间由平键定位,绕组(4)引出线(1)经过主轴(2)引出电机外壳之外。 A permanent magnet brushless motor, a stator (5), a rotor (3) and a control part, and is characterized in that the inner surface of the motor housing is coupled arcuate NdFeB magnets (6), constituting the rotor ( 3), between the inner diameter surface of the rotor (3) and a stator (5) is made of silicon steel consisting of an air gap (7), a stator (5) by a fixing sleeve (8) and the spindle direct (2) is coupled, (2) lead outside through the motor housing between the main shaft positioned by a flat key, the winding (4) lead (1).
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的一种永磁无刷电机,其特征在于,定子(5)和固定轴套(8)之间的平键槽与主轴(2)的夹角≤3°。 A permanent magnet brushless motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle between the main shaft parallel keyway (2) between the stator (5) and the fixed sleeve (8) ≤3 °.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1或2所述的一种永磁无刷电机,其特征在于定子(5)每个齿的中部均有形状相同的减轻孔,并在定子(5)的外径端面安装有≤4个霍尔位置传感器,用于输出磁钢(6)位置信号。 A permanent magnet brushless motor according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that the same has a shape to alleviate the middle hole of the stator (5) of each tooth, and mounted in the stator (5) of the outer diameter of the end face there ≤4 Hall position sensors, for outputting a magnet (6) position signal.
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的一种永磁无刷电机,其特征在于,定子绕组(4)均为整距绕组,绕组节距等于定子(5)铁芯齿距。 4. A permanent magnet brushless motor according to claim 1, characterized in that the stator winding (4) are full pitch winding, the winding pitch is equal to (5) of the stator core teeth pitch.
  5. 5.根据权利要求1所述的一种永磁无刷电机其特征在于,电机外壳内径面的弧形磁钢(6)是N块或1/2N块,其厚度为3~5毫米。 5. A permanent magnet brushless motor according to claim 1 wherein the arcuate inner surface of the magnet of the motor housing (6) is N or the block 1 / 2N block having a thickness of 3 to 5 mm.
  6. 6.根据权利要求1所述的一种永磁无刷电机,其特征在于磁钢(6)的块数和定子(5)的齿数比例是1/2 N∶N,电机绕组(4)的相位差为180°。 A permanent magnet brushless motor according to claim 1, wherein the ratio of magnetic steel teeth (6) the number of blocks and a stator (5) is 1/2 N:N, motor windings (4) a phase difference of 180 °.
  7. 7.一种永磁无刷电机,由定子、转子和控制部份组成,其特征在于,二相永磁无刷电机的磁钢块数和电机定子的齿数比例为N∶N-2,电机绕组的相位差为90°。 A permanent magnet brushless motor, a stator, a rotor and a control part composition, wherein the ratio of the number of teeth and the number of blocks magnet motor stator of a two-phase permanent magnet brushless motor as N:N-2, the motor phase winding is 90 °.
  8. 8.一种永磁无刷电机,由定子、转子和控制部份组成,其特征在于,三相永磁场无刷电机的磁钢块数和电机定子的齿数比例为N∶N-2,并且定子齿数的1/3等于三相永磁无刷电机每相的总齿数。 A permanent magnet brushless motor, a stator, a rotor and a control part composition, wherein the ratio of the number of teeth and the number of blocks magnet motor stator three-phase brushless motor is a permanent magnetic field N:N-2, and the stator teeth is equal to 1/3 of a three-phase permanent magnet brushless motor of the total number of teeth per phase.
CN 01252421 2001-11-08 2001-11-08 Permanent magnet brushless motor CN2514544Y (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10078354B2 (en) 2003-11-07 2018-09-18 Asetek Danmark A/S Cooling system for a computer system
US10078355B2 (en) 2005-05-06 2018-09-18 Asetek Danmark A/S Cooling system for a computer system

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10078354B2 (en) 2003-11-07 2018-09-18 Asetek Danmark A/S Cooling system for a computer system
US10078355B2 (en) 2005-05-06 2018-09-18 Asetek Danmark A/S Cooling system for a computer system

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