CN212621819U - Medium-flow atmospheric fine particulate concentration device - Google Patents

Medium-flow atmospheric fine particulate concentration device Download PDF

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CN212621819U
CN212621819U CN202021491028.7U CN202021491028U CN212621819U CN 212621819 U CN212621819 U CN 212621819U CN 202021491028 U CN202021491028 U CN 202021491028U CN 212621819 U CN212621819 U CN 212621819U
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concentration
pipe
nozzle
flow
condensation
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陈建民
尚晓娜
孙剑峰
李凌
朱超
康慧慧
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Fudan University
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Fudan University
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Abstract

The utility model belongs to the technical field of the environmental protection, specifically be a medium flow atmosphere fine particles thing enrichment facility and method. The utility model discloses the device is including collision formula PM2.5The cutting machine comprises a cutting head, a water tank system, a virtual cutting system and a condensation circulating system; the water tank system comprises a water tank, an electric heating rod, a temperature control digital display device and a PM2.5The cutting head is communicated with the water tank; the virtual cutting system comprises a virtual cutter, a concentrated airflow vacuum pump and a main airflow vacuum pump; the condensation circulating system comprises a condensing agent circulating pipe and a condensing machine; the condensation circulating system is used for circulating and circulating condensate to condense and grow saturated particles; air flow outlet and condensation circulation of water tankThe beginning end of a condensation inner pipe in the ring system is coaxially arranged, and the terminal end of the condensation inner pipe is connected with a nozzle in the virtual cutting system. The device can concentrate actual atmospheric fine particles by 7 to 10 times, has high concentration efficiency which reaches 75 to 99 percent, and has stable concentration performance; the device is simple and convenient to operate, reliable and stable, easy to maintain and low in cost.

Description

Medium-flow atmospheric fine particulate concentration device
Technical Field
The utility model belongs to the technical field of the environmental protection, concretely relates to particulate matter enrichment facility and method especially relate to a medium flow atmosphere fine particles enrichment facility.
Background
PM2.5Refers to particles having an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 microns in the atmosphere, also known as atmospheric fine particles. Albeit PM2.5But only the earth's atmospheric constituents are very small in content, but they have a significant effect on air quality and visibility. Atmospheric PM2.5Small grain size, large specific surface area, containing a large amount of toxic and harmful substances, long suspension time in the atmosphere and long transmission distance, thereby having no negligence on the negative effects of human health and atmospheric environmental quality.
In recent years, atmospheric PM of China2.5The pollution is serious, and the haze pollution is often caused, so that the treatment rate is increased rapidly and susceptible people die too early. Particularly, toxic and harmful chemical components carried by aerosol particles under haze endanger the health of people, and cause high social attention. There has been a great deal of epidemiological evidence that PM is indicative of2.5Has acute and chronic health effects. High concentration PM2.5Exposure increases the risk of acute respiratory and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, while PM is present2.5It may induce chronic diseases such as lung cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pneumonia (COPD), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, etc., and affect immune system and nervous system of human body. Therefore, the study of particle toxicity of haze aerosol has also become one of the hot spots and the leading direction. However, the determination of the toxicity of the atmospheric fine particles is limited by detection techniques and instruments (e.g., higher detection limit)) At present, the method still stays in an off-line detection stage, and needs to be carried out under the conditions of heavy pollution and long continuous sampling time, so that the requirements of monitoring the concentration of atmospheric fine particulate matters and toxic chemical components in real time cannot be met.
For filling above-mentioned technical blank, the utility model discloses the medium flow atmosphere fine particles enrichment device who develops can be with the atmosphere fine particles under the prerequisite that does not change its any physicochemical characteristic, and the concentration enrichment is enough to obviously detect the level of its toxicity. Meanwhile, the device can be used together with an online toxicity detection device, so that the realization of online toxicity detection of the artificial intelligent atmospheric fine particles becomes possible in the future, and the device can be widely applied to environmental monitoring and health risk assessment.
Disclosure of Invention
An object of the utility model is to provide a reliable stable, the medium flow atmosphere fine particles thing enrichment facility that can high-efficient concentration. The medium flow here is 50. + -.1 l/min.
The structure of the medium-flow atmospheric fine particulate concentrating device provided by the utility model is shown in figure 1; the device comprises: impact PM2.5The cutting machine comprises a cutting head, a water tank heating system, a virtual cutting system and a condensation circulating system; wherein:
the collision type PM2.5Cutting head comprising PM10、PM5、PM2.5The three-stage impact separation and collection plate is of the same structure, and the number of holes and the aperture of the three-stage impact plate are different due to different impact inertias of particles with different particle diameters;
the water tank heating system comprises a water tank (9) for containing deionized water, and a heat insulation layer (10) is arranged on the inner wall of the water tank (9) and used for preserving the heat of the deionized water in the water tank (9); one side of the water tank (9) is provided with a visible window (11) for observing the height of the water surface in the tank body; an electric heating rod (12) with a temperature sensor is arranged in the water tank (9) and used for heating the deionized water; a temperature control digital display device (13) is arranged in the water tank (9) and is used for controlling the temperature of the deionized water; impact PM2.5A cutting head (7) and a water tank (9)) Communicating;
the virtual cutting system comprises a virtual cutter (17), a concentrated airflow vacuum pump (2) and a main airflow vacuum pump (3); wherein the virtual cutter (17) comprises a nozzle (19), a nozzle connecting pipe (20) and two air paths: a main gas path and a concentration gas path; the nozzle (19) and the nozzle connecting pipe (20) are coaxially arranged, the nozzle connecting pipe (20) is arranged above the nozzle (19) and is spaced by a certain gap, and the nozzle connecting pipe (20) is used for receiving particles sprayed by the nozzle (19); the concentrated airflow vacuum pump (2) is communicated with a concentrated air passage at the upper part of the virtual cutter (17) through a pipeline, and a float flowmeter (1) is arranged on the communicated pipeline and used for metering the flow of the pipeline; the main air flow vacuum pump (3) is communicated with a main air path outlet (18) at the upper part of the virtual cutter (17) through a pipeline, a drying pipe (4) and a large-flow mass flow controller (5) are arranged on the communicated pipeline, the drying pipe (4) is used for drying air flow so as to prevent the water vapor of the system from excessively damaging a pump body, and the large-flow mass flow controller (5) is used for accurately controlling the flow of the pipeline;
the condensation circulating system comprises a condensing agent circulating pipe (6) and a condenser (8); the condensing agent circulating pipe (6) comprises a condensing inner pipe (14), a soft copper spiral pipe (15) is tightly wound outside the condensing inner pipe (14), and the beginning end and the end of the spiral pipe (15) are respectively connected with an outlet and an inlet of the condensing machine (8); a heat insulation layer (16) is wrapped outside the spiral pipe (15), so that the temperature of the condensation pipe is not influenced by the outside temperature, and the condensation circulating system is used for circulating and circulating condensate to condense and grow saturated particles;
an airflow outlet of the water tank (9) is coaxially arranged with the beginning end of a condensation inner pipe (14) in a condensation circulating system and is connected by a quick-connection flange (containing a sealing ring); the end of the condensation inner pipe (14) is connected with a nozzle (19) in the virtual cutting system.
The utility model provides an atmosphere fine particles thing enrichment facility, its work flow is as follows:
(1) to collision type PM2.5The cutting head (7) is arranged in the actual atmosphere environment, and the original atmosphere sample is collidedBump PM2.5The cutting head (7) discharges PM2.5Atmospheric fine particles with the aerodynamic equivalent diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns are screened out and enter a water tank (9) by means of system suction;
(2) under a visible window (11), adding deionized water to two thirds of the height of the water tank, heating the deionized water by using an electric heating rod (12) with a temperature sensor, and controlling the temperature to be 45 +/-2 ℃ by using a temperature control digital display device (13) to enable the generated water vapor to enable particles to reach a saturated state;
(3) the particles reaching the saturated state flow through a condensation inner pipe (14) of the condensation circulating system; the external circulation temperature control mode of the condenser controls the temperature to be minus 19 +/-1 ℃, so that the circulating condensate liquid condenses and grows saturated particles, wherein most PM2.5Can grow to 3-4 microns in aerodynamic diameter;
(4) condensing the growing PM2.5The particles enter the virtual cutter (17) and are accelerated at the nozzle (19); the accelerating power of the device comes from two gas paths, namely a main gas path and a concentration gas path; in the main gas path, the main flow is accurately controlled to be 50 +/-1 liter/minute by a large-flow mass flow controller (5); in the concentration gas path, the particles accelerated by the nozzle (19) are received by a nozzle connecting pipe (20) above the coaxially arranged nozzle, and the flow of the concentrated gas flow is controlled to be 5 liters/minute; theoretically, under the condition that the concentration of the particulate matters is the same, the gas flow rate is changed to be one tenth of the original gas flow rate, and the concentration of the particulate matters in the sample is changed to be ten times of the original concentration, so that the concentration effect is achieved.
After the concentration is finished, finally passing through a concentration factor (PM in the atmosphere after concentration)2.5Mass concentration/number concentration/chemical component concentration of (1) and PM in the atmosphere before concentration2.5The ratio of mass concentration/number concentration/chemical component concentration) and the concentration efficiency (concentration after actual concentration as a percentage of the theoretical concentration) were evaluated.
In the device, the condensing agent in the condensing machine adopts alcohol, the concentration of which can be adjusted, and the effects of refrigerating and reducing the volatilization amount are only needed;
the diameter of the condensation inner pipe (14) is 2.5 cm, and the length is 80 cm;
the control range of the flow controller (5) is 0-200L/min;
the diameter of the nozzle is 0.37 cm, the spacing gap between the nozzle (9) and the nozzle connecting pipe (20) is 0.45 cm, and the diameter of the nozzle connecting pipe is 2.5 cm.
The beneficial effects of the utility model reside in that:
(1) the device can concentrate actual atmospheric fine particles by 7 to 10 times (the particle size is related), the concentration efficiency is high and can reach 75 to 99 percent (the particle size is related), and the concentration performance is stable;
(2) the device has low requirements on the flow of sampled inlet air, and the actual atmospheric fine particles can be efficiently concentrated when the medium flow is 50 liters/minute;
(3) the device is simple and convenient to operate, reliable and stable, easy to maintain and low in cost.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a medium flow atmospheric fine particulate concentration device. Wherein, the lower diagram is a diagram of a virtual slicer structure.
Reference numbers in the figures: 1 is a float flowmeter, 2 is a concentrated airflow vacuum pump, 3 is a main airflow vacuum pump, 4 is a drying pipe, 5 is a mass flow controller, 6 is a condensing agent circulating pipe, and 7 is collision type PM2.5The cutting head, 8 is a condenser, 9 is a water tank, 10 is a water tank heat insulation layer, 11 is a visible window, 12 is an electric heating rod with a temperature sensor, 13 is a temperature control digital display device, 14 is a condensation inner pipe, 15 is a condensation outer spiral pipe, 16 is a heat insulation layer, 17 is a virtual cutter, 18 is a main air outlet, 19 is a nozzle, and 20 is a nozzle connecting pipe.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further explained with reference to the drawings and examples.
Example 1
(1) To collision type PM2.5The cutting head (7) is arranged outside a 6-storey window of an environment building of the university of Compound Dan in an impact PM2.5Under the action of a cutting head (7), PM2.5Aerodynamic equivalentAtmospheric fine particles with the diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns are screened out and enter a water tank (9) by means of pumping force provided by a main gas circuit and a concentration gas circuit;
(2) under a visible window (11), deionized water is added to two thirds of the height of a water tank, an electric heating rod (12) with a temperature sensor is used for heating the deionized water, the temperature is controlled to be 45 +/-2 ℃ through a temperature control digital display device (13), the generated water vapor enables particulate matters to reach a saturated state, the ambient temperature in an external field experiment does not exceed 24 ℃, the supersaturated ambient temperature in the water tank (9) is actually reduced to 31 ℃ or lower by injecting low-temperature airflow, and the loss of volatile or semi-volatile components in the particulate matters can be greatly reduced by setting a parameter with a small difference with the actual ambient temperature;
(3) PM reaching saturation state2.5Particles flowing through a condensation inner tube (14) of the condensation circulation system; the external circulation temperature control mode of the condenser controls the temperature to be minus 19 +/-1 ℃, so that the circulating condensate liquid condenses and grows saturated particles, wherein most PM2.5Can grow to 3-4 microns in aerodynamic diameter;
(4) condensing the growing PM2.5The particles enter the virtual cutter (17) and are accelerated at the nozzle (19); the accelerating power of the device comes from two gas paths, namely a main gas path and a concentration gas path; in the main gas path, the main flow is accurately controlled to be 50 +/-1 liter/minute by a large-flow mass flow controller (5); in the concentration gas path, the particles accelerated by the nozzle (19) are received by a nozzle connecting pipe (20) above the coaxially arranged nozzle, and the flow of the concentrated gas flow is controlled to be 5 liters/minute; theoretically, under the condition that the concentration of the particulate matters is the same, the gas flow rate is changed to be one tenth of the original gas flow rate, and the concentration of the particulate matters in the sample is changed to be ten times of the original concentration, so that the concentration effect is achieved.
In the concentration process, the sample inlets of the two scanning electric mobility particle size spectrometers are respectively connected with a concentration gas circuit of an enrichment system and actual atmosphere, and the number concentration and the mass concentration of particles (10 to 1000 nanometers) in each particle size range in the system and the actual atmosphere are continuously monitored so as to calculateConcentration factor (PM in atmosphere after concentration)2.5Mass/number concentration of (2) and PM in the atmosphere before concentration2.5Mass concentration/number concentration ratio) and concentration efficiency (concentration after actual concentration as a percentage of the theoretical concentration), detailed data are shown in table 1. The flow rates of the two scanning electric mobility particle size spectrometers are set to be 0.3 liter/minute, so that when the two scanning electric mobility particle size spectrometers are connected to an enrichment system, 0.3 liter/minute of airflow in the concentration gas path enters the scanning electric mobility particle size spectrometers, and the remaining 4.7 liter/minute of airflow can be used for subsequent particle sampling or real-time monitoring. In addition, because system steam is too big, be difficult for direct access to scan mobility particle size spectrometer, need add the drying tube in the front end and get rid of steam and reduce the particle size.
TABLE 1 enrichment efficiency of different particle size particles in real atmospheric environment

Claims (6)

1. A medium flow atmospheric fine particle concentrating device, comprising: impact PM2.5The cutting machine comprises a cutting head (7), a water tank heating system, a virtual cutting system and a condensation circulating system; wherein:
the collision type PM2.5Cutting head comprising PM10、PM5、PM2.5The three-stage impact separation and collection plate is of the same structure, and the number of holes and the aperture of the three-stage impact plate are different due to different impact inertias of particles with different particle diameters;
the water tank heating system comprises a water tank (9) for containing deionized water, and a heat insulation layer (10) is arranged on the inner wall of the water tank (9) and used for preserving the heat of the deionized water in the water tank (9); one side of the water tank (9) is provided with a visible window (11) for observing the height of the water surface in the tank body; an electric heating rod (12) with a temperature sensor is arranged in the water tank (9) and used for heating the deionized water; a temperature control digital display device (13) is arranged in the water tank (9) and is used forControlling the temperature of the deionized water; the PM2.5The cutting head (7) is communicated with the water tank (9);
the virtual cutting system comprises a virtual cutter (17), a concentrated airflow vacuum pump (2) and a main airflow vacuum pump (3); wherein the virtual cutter (17) comprises a nozzle (19), a nozzle connecting pipe (20) and two air paths: a main gas path and a concentration gas path; the nozzle (19) and the nozzle connecting pipe (20) are coaxially arranged, the nozzle connecting pipe (20) is arranged above the nozzle (19) and is spaced by a certain gap, and the nozzle connecting pipe (20) is used for receiving particles sprayed by the nozzle (19); the concentrated airflow vacuum pump (2) is communicated with a concentrated air passage at the upper part of the virtual cutter (17) through a pipeline, and a float flowmeter (1) is arranged on the communicated pipeline and used for metering the flow of the pipeline; the main air flow vacuum pump (3) is communicated with a main air path outlet (18) at the upper part of the virtual cutter (17) through a pipeline, a drying pipe (4) and a large-flow mass flow controller (5) are arranged on the communicated pipeline, the drying pipe (4) is used for drying air flow so as to prevent the water vapor of the system from excessively damaging a pump body, and the large-flow mass flow controller (5) is used for accurately controlling the flow of the pipeline;
the condensation circulating system comprises a condensing agent circulating pipe (6) and a condenser (8); the condensing agent circulating pipe (6) comprises a condensing inner pipe (14), a soft copper spiral pipe (15) is tightly wound outside the condensing inner pipe (14), and the beginning end and the end of the spiral pipe (15) are respectively connected with an outlet and an inlet of the condensing machine (8); a heat insulation layer (16) is wrapped outside the spiral pipe (15), so that the temperature of the condensation pipe is not influenced by the outside temperature, and the condensation circulating system is used for circulating and circulating condensate to condense and grow saturated particles;
an airflow outlet of the water tank (9) is coaxially arranged with the beginning end of a condensation inner pipe (14) in a condensation circulating system and is connected by a quick-connection flange; the end of the condensation inner pipe (14) is connected with a nozzle (19) in the virtual cutting system.
2. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the condensing agent in the condenser is alcohol, and the concentration of the alcohol is adjustable to achieve the effects of refrigerating and reducing the amount of volatile matter.
3. The apparatus for concentrating medium flow atmospheric fine particulate matter according to claim 1, wherein the condensation inner tube (14) has a diameter of 2.5 cm and a length of 80 cm.
4. The apparatus for concentrating medium flow atmospheric fine particles according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle diameter is 0.37 cm, the nozzle (9) is spaced from the nozzle connection (20) by 0.45 cm, and the nozzle connection has a diameter of 2.5 cm.
5. A device for concentrating medium-flow atmospheric fine particulate matter according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the operation flow is as follows:
(1) mixing PM2.5The cutting head (7) is arranged in the actual atmosphere environment, and the original atmosphere sample passes through PM2.5The cutting head (7) discharges PM2.5Atmospheric fine particles with the aerodynamic equivalent diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns are screened out and enter a water tank (9) by means of system suction;
(2) under a visible window (11), adding deionized water to two thirds of the height of the water tank, heating the deionized water by using an electric heating rod (12) with a temperature sensor, and controlling the temperature to be 45 +/-2 ℃ by using a temperature control digital display device (13) to enable the generated water vapor to enable particles to reach a saturated state;
(3) the particles reaching the saturated state flow through a condensation inner pipe (14) of the condensation circulating system; the external circulation temperature control mode of the condenser controls the temperature to be minus 19 +/-1 ℃, so that the circulating condensate liquid condenses and grows saturated particles, wherein most PM2.5Can grow to 3-4 microns in aerodynamic diameter;
(4) condensing the growing PM2.5The particles enter the virtual cutter (17) and are accelerated at the nozzle (19); the accelerating power of the device comes from two gas paths, namely a main gas path and a concentration gas path; in the main gas path, a mass flow controller with large flow(5) The main flow is accurately controlled to be 50 +/-1 liter/minute; in the concentration gas path, the particles accelerated by the nozzle (19) are received by a nozzle connecting pipe (20) above the coaxially arranged nozzle, and the flow of the concentrated gas flow is controlled to be 5 liters/minute; theoretically, under the condition that the concentration of the particulate matters is the same, the gas flow rate is changed to be one tenth of the original gas flow rate, and the concentration of the particulate matters in the sample is changed to be ten times of the original concentration, so that the concentration effect is achieved.
6. The device for concentrating medium-flow atmospheric fine particulate matter according to claim 5, wherein after the concentration is completed, the concentration factor and the concentration efficiency are finally evaluated; wherein, the concentration factor refers to: PM in atmosphere after concentration2.5Mass concentration/number concentration/chemical component concentration of (1) and PM in the atmosphere before concentration2.5The ratio of mass concentration/number concentration/chemical component concentration of (a); the concentration efficiency is as follows: the actual post-concentration is a percentage of the theoretical concentration.
CN202021491028.7U 2020-07-26 2020-07-26 Medium-flow atmospheric fine particulate concentration device Active CN212621819U (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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