CN211012436U - Utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device - Google Patents

Utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN211012436U
CN211012436U CN201921478198.9U CN201921478198U CN211012436U CN 211012436 U CN211012436 U CN 211012436U CN 201921478198 U CN201921478198 U CN 201921478198U CN 211012436 U CN211012436 U CN 211012436U
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semi
melting
fly ash
coke
melting furnace
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CN201921478198.9U
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牛艳青
刘思琪
韩江霖
惠世恩
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Abstract

A device for harmlessly treating garbage fly ash by using semi-coke is characterized in that a mixture of the semi-coke, the garbage fly ash and the like is put into a high-temperature melting pool for accumulating the semi-coke to be melted and solidified, so that heavy metal reduction and dioxin decomposition are realized; the high-temperature melting furnace adopts a grading air distribution technology, most of pure oxygen is introduced into the semi-melting layer through an air inlet, and low NOx clean combustion and heavy metal reduction under reducing atmosphere in the melting tank are realized; and the residual pure oxygen is introduced into the upper part of the melting furnace through the over-fire air nozzle, so that CO is eliminated through oxidation, the toxic gas is prevented from escaping, and the temperature in the furnace is kept uniform. The device and the method of the utility model can realize the harmless, recycling and reduction treatment of the fly ash, and avoid the secondary pollution; the characteristic and low price of the semi-coke clean fuel also solve the economical problem of the fly ash fusion treatment, and are beneficial to further popularization and application of the fly ash fusion treatment method.

Description

Utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device
Technical Field
The utility model relates to a waste incineration flying dust handles technical field, in particular to utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device.
Background
The incineration of garbage is an important treatment means of municipal solid waste, and the fly ash generated therewith brings about a problem in treatment. The fly ash from waste incineration mainly comprises SiO2、Al2O3Iso-acidic oxides and CaO, MgO, Fe2O3And a large amount of toxic and harmful substances, including dioxin, heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg, Zn, and the like, which are highly toxic substances. The latest 2016 edition of national records of dangerous wastes in China places fly ash from waste incineration in HW18 incineration disposal residue, which can not enter a landfill site without special treatment. At present, fly ash harmless treatment modes mainly comprise a sintering melting technology, a solidification technology, a chemical agent stabilization technology and a separation extraction technology. The sintering and melting technology utilizes higher temperature to eliminate highly toxic organic pollutants in the fly ash, has high decrement degree and large volume reduction ratio, and is a relatively advanced treatment mode.
The fly ash high-temperature melting equipment generally adopts a surface melting furnace, an electric arc melting furnace, a plasma melting furnace, a cyclone furnace and the like. When the waste incineration fly ash is heated to the melting temperature of the fly ash, organic matters such as dioxin in the fly ash are decomposed by heating and damaged. During the melting process, low-volatility metals such as Fe, Ca, Al, Zn, Mn, Cr and the like are transferred into the slag. The molten fly ash is divided into a semi-molten layer suspended at the upper part of the molten pool and a molten layer deposited at the bottom of the high-temperature molten pool through density classification, and resource utilization is carried out after the molten slag is cooled and recycled. When the furnace is in an oxidizing atmosphere, trivalent chromium in heavy metals is completely converted into hexavalent chromium, which has lasting harm to the environment and is not allowed to exist in the environmental protection standard. Therefore, coal is required to be added as a reducing agent to generate a reducing atmosphere at high temperature, so as to provide conditions for reducing and detoxifying heavy metals. The slag with relatively low density (main component SiO) is subjected to harmless treatment in high-temperature reducing atmosphere2、Al2O3CaO, etc.) can be used as raw materials for manufacturing heat-insulating cotton, cement, etc. after being cooled and recovered, and metals (Fe, Zn, Cr, etc.) with higher density are deposited at the bottom of the high-temperature melting furnace to be recycled.
However, the existing waste incineration fly ash treatment technology adopts coal to generate reducing atmosphere, and has the following problems: (1) releasing NOx and SO in the combustion process of coal used in high-temperature melting furnace2And the emission concentration of the flue gas is higher than the national standard. (2) In the process of treating the garbage fly ash by melting, residual dioxin and heavy metals can be subjected to secondary treatment, and the system investment is increased. (3) The melting treatment of the waste fly ash has high energy consumption, low energy utilization rate and extremely high construction and operation cost, and is difficult to implement industrially.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the defects of the prior art, the utility model aims to provide an utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device through high temperature melting furnace effective decomposition dioxin, utilizes hierarchical air distribution technology to reduce NOx and SO2And heavy metals are reduced while being discharged, so that the final treatment and resource utilization of the next step are facilitated.
In order to realize the purpose, the utility model discloses a technical scheme is:
the utility model provides an utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device, includes melting furnace 3, and 3 tops of melting furnace are provided with feed inlet 1, and 3 upper portion sides of melting furnace are provided with burn-off air spout 2, and 3 lower part both sides of melting furnace are provided with air inlet 4, and 3 lower parts of melting furnace that are located 2 opposite sides of burn-off air spout are provided with slag outlet 6, 3 bottoms of melting furnace be provided with fusion pond 5.
The air inlet 4 is arranged at the furnace body height 1/6 of the melting furnace 3.
The fly ash slag in the melting tank 5 can be divided into a semi-melting layer with lower density and a melting layer with higher density, and the slag outlet 6 is arranged at the melting layer with higher density.
A method for innocent treatment of garbage fly ash by semi coke comprises the following steps;
mixing the garbage fly ash generated by a garbage incineration plant with semi coke in a stirrer, treating and forming, enabling the garbage fly ash to fall into a bottom melting pool 5 from the top of a melting furnace 3, and enabling the garbage fly ash to penetrate into the melting pool 5 under the action of gravity for melting and solidification, so that heavy metal reduction and dioxin decomposition are realized; introducing pure oxygen into the melting furnace 3 to react with the semi-coke; the furnace adopts a graded air distribution technology, an air inlet 4 is arranged at the height 1/6 of the furnace body of the melting furnace 3, most of pure oxygen is introduced into a semi-melting layer, and clean combustion of reducing atmosphere low NOx in a melting pool is realized; introducing the residual pure oxygen into the upper part of the melting furnace through the over-fire air nozzle 2, oxidizing and eliminating CO to avoid toxic gas from diffusing and escaping, and simultaneously uniformly keeping the temperature of the furnace at 1400-1500 ℃; the melting tank 5 plays a role of a high-temperature heat accumulator, melts and solidifies the formed garbage fly ash falling into the tank, decomposes dioxin, and realizes harmless, recycling and reduction treatment of the fly ash.
The fly ash slag in the melting tank 5 can be divided into semi-melting layers (the main component is SiO)2、Al2O3CaO, newly dropped fly ash, semi coke and the like) and a molten layer (Fe, Zn, Cr and the like) with higher density are discharged from a molten slag outlet 6 so as to be convenient for the final treatment and resource utilization of the next step.
The melting furnace 3 is 1-1.8 m according to the ratio of pure oxygen to semi-coke3Introducing pure oxygen to react with semi-coke per kg; the middle upper part of the melting furnace 3 is provided with an over-fire air nozzle 2 for burning and consuming incomplete products, and the furnace temperature of the melting furnace 3 is uniformly maintained at 1400-1500 ℃.
The melting furnace 3 is any one of a surface melting furnace, a cyclone furnace and high-temperature equipment of an iron-making blast furnace.
The air inlet 4 can be filled with gases which can be oxidized with semi coke, such as air, besides pure oxygen, and the air input is adjusted along with the atmosphere.
The number of the slag outlets 6 can be adjusted according to different melting layers, so that subsequent resource utilization is facilitated.
The utility model has the advantages that:
the utility model provides an utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device to handle rubbish flying dust in batches. Under the high temperature and reducing atmosphere in the melting furnace, dioxin contained in the waste fly ash is decomposed and destroyed, heavy metals are reduced to enter the furnace slag, and finally harmless slag is obtained.
Ramsbottom coal as clean fuel relative to bituminous coal NOx and SO2The emission is low, the price is low compared with the price of natural gas, fuel oil and other heat supply fuels, and the operation cost is reduced.
The pure oxygen is introduced into the air inlet, so that the burning efficiency of the semi coke in the melting furnace can be greatly improved, the high-temperature environment in the furnace is ensured, and simultaneously, the N in the air at high temperature is avoided2Oxidized to form thermal NOx.
The grading air distribution technology in the high-temperature melting furnace not only inhibits the generation of thermal NOx in the furnace, but also reduces products (such as NH) generated by incomplete combustion3And HCN), which reduces and cracks NOx that has been produced, thereby suppressing the production of fuel-type NOx. The furnace temperature and atmosphere adjustment flexibility of the high-temperature melting furnace are improved while the desulfurization and denitrification device is simplified.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an apparatus for harmless treatment of garbage fly ash by semi-coke according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Wherein, 1 is a feed inlet, 2 is an over-fire air nozzle, 3 is a melting furnace, 4 is an air inlet, 5 is a melting tank, and 6 is a slag outlet.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 shows a device for harmless treatment of garbage fly ash by semi-coke. The utility model discloses middle and high temperature melting furnace can extensive innocent treatment rubbish flying dust, realizes the reliable economic recycle of rubbish flying dust simultaneously. The device comprises a semi-coke garbage fly ash mixture feeding port 1, an air inlet 4 for introducing most of pure oxygen for incomplete combustion of semi-coke, and an over-fire air nozzle 2 for introducing a small part of residual pure oxygen; the semi-coke fly ash mixture falls into a melting pool 5 at the bottom of a melting furnace 3 for melting and solidification, and finally, generated slag is discharged from a slag outlet 6; before the high-temperature melting furnace is started, sufficient semi coke is accumulated in the furnace to supply sufficient heat energy for heating the melting tank, so that the requirement of the melting treatment temperature of the garbage fly ash is met; the melting furnace 3 and the melting pool 5 in the furnace are in proper size to ensure that the semi-coke fly ash mixture in the melting pool fully reacts in a reducing atmosphere.
The method comprises the steps of enabling a mixture of semi-coke, garbage fly ash and the like to fall into a bottom melting pool 5 through a feeding hole 1 of a melting furnace 3 for melting and solidification, and realizing heavy metal reduction and dioxin decomposition; most of pure oxygen is introduced into the semi-molten layer through the air inlet, and the rest pure oxygen is introduced into the upper part of the melting furnace through the over-fire air nozzle, so that CO is eliminated through oxidation, the toxic gas is prevented from escaping, and the temperature in the furnace is kept uniform; slag in the melter 3 is discharged through a slag outlet 6.
The garbage fly ash and semi coke uniform mixture falls into a bottom melting tank 5 from the top of a melting furnace 3, and penetrates into the melting tank 5 under the action of gravity, and semi coke is not completely combusted due to oxygen deficiency, so that strong reducing atmosphere in the melting tank 5 is generated, and heavy metal reduction is realized.
The melting furnace 3 adopts a graded air distribution technology, an air inlet 4 is arranged at the position 1/6 of the height of the high-temperature melting furnace body, and the ratio of pure oxygen to semi-coke is 1-1.8 m3Introducing pure oxygen/kg to react with semi-coke, and realizing low NOx clean combustion in a reducing atmosphere in the smelting tank; an over-fire air nozzle 2 is arranged at the upper part of the melting furnace for burning and consuming incomplete products, and the temperature of the furnace is uniformly maintained at 1400-1500 ℃.
The melting tank 5 plays a role of a high-temperature heat accumulator, melts and solidifies the formed garbage fly ash falling into the tank, decomposes dioxin, and realizes harmless, recycling and reduction treatment of the fly ash.
The utility model discloses get into blast furnace to the blue charcoal mixture of flying dust and handle as follows:
according to the analysis of semi-coke industry, the fixed carbon content is high (80.4%), the ash content is low (11.57%), the volatile content is low (7.99%), the heat value is high (26.87MJ.kg), the sulfur content is only 0.36%, and compared with other bituminous coal or anthracite coal, the fixed carbon is a clean fuel, SO that NOx and SO in the combustion products are clean fuel2The amount is much lower than that of part of the coal. In a high-temperature melting furnace, semi coke reacts with introduced pure oxygen at high temperature to generate CO (reaction formula 1), and the reducing atmosphere not only detoxifies and harmlessly treats the molten heavy metal, but also reduces the generated NOx into N2. Because the fixed carbon content of the semi-coke is extremely high, only fixed carbon and O are supposed to be in the semi-coke2Oxidation reactionIf other components are neglected, 0.8kg of C contained in 1kg of semi-coke needs O to generate pure CO2Mass about 1.1kg, corresponding to O at room temperature2The volume is 0.81m3(O at 20 ℃ C. under atmospheric pressure)2The density was 1.32 kg/m3) I.e. 1kg of semi-coke corresponds to O2The minimum consumption is 0.81m3. However, considering the loss and dissipation of oxygen during the transportation process, the reaction of other components of the semi-coke with oxygen, and the requirement of adjusting the working condition, the actual pure oxygen consumption is far higher than the calculated value. The utility model discloses be 1 ~ 1.8m according to pure oxygen and blue charcoal ratio3Pure oxygen is introduced per kg.
C+0.5O2→CO (1)
The utility model utilizes semi coke as the fly ash treatment raw material of the high-temperature melting furnace. The semi-coke is a carbon product with low volatile content obtained by dry distillation pyrolysis of high volatile content bituminous coal with no viscosity or weak viscosity at low temperature. Semi-coke has low volatility<7 percent of sulfur-containing compound<0.5%), low ash content: (<10%), high calorific value: (>25MJ), etc. As an environment-friendly fuel, semi-coke NOx and SO2The discharge amount is lower than that of bituminous coal and part of anthracite. Meanwhile, the semi-coke is low in price and has competitive advantages compared with fuel oil and natural gas used by a high-temperature melting furnace. The utility model discloses a rational design innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device utilizes blue charcoal and flying dust to mix incomplete combustion and produces reducing atmosphere, realizes heavy metal reduction and NOx and SO2The emission is reduced, the construction and operation cost is reduced, and the harmless, resource and reduction treatment of the fly ash is achieved.
The utility model relates to an utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust method specifically as follows:
mixing the garbage fly ash generated by a garbage incineration plant with semi coke in a stirrer according to a certain proportion, treating and forming, dropping the mixture into a bottom melting pool 5 from the top of a melting furnace 3, and deeply penetrating into the melting pool 5 under the action of gravity for melting and solidification to realize heavy metal reduction and dioxin decomposition; the melting furnace 3 is 1-1.8 m according to the ratio of pure oxygen to semi-coke3Introducing pure oxygen to react with semi-coke per kg; the furnace adopts a graded air distribution technology, an air inlet 4 is arranged at the position 1/6 of the height of the furnace body of the melting furnace 3, most of pure oxygen is introduced into a semi-melting layer, and melting is realizedClean combustion of reducing atmosphere low NOx in the pool; introducing the residual pure oxygen into the upper part of the melting furnace through the over-fire air nozzle 2, oxidizing and eliminating CO to avoid toxic gas from diffusing and escaping, and simultaneously uniformly keeping the temperature of the furnace at 1400-1500 ℃; the melting tank 5 plays a role of a high-temperature heat accumulator, melts and solidifies the formed garbage fly ash falling into the tank, decomposes dioxin, and realizes harmless, recycling and reduction treatment of the fly ash. The fly ash slag in the melting tank 5 can be divided into semi-melting layers (the main component is SiO)2、Al2O3CaO, newly dropped fly ash, semi coke and the like) and a molten layer (Fe, Zn, Cr and the like) with higher density are discharged from a molten slag outlet 6 so as to be convenient for the final treatment and resource utilization of the next step.
The melting furnace 3 can be a surface melting furnace, a cyclone furnace, an iron-making blast furnace and other high-temperature equipment.
The air inlet can be filled with gases which can be subjected to oxidation reaction with semi-coke, such as air and the like besides pure oxygen, and the air inflow is adjusted along with the atmosphere;
the number of the slag outlets 6 can be adjusted according to different melting layers, so that subsequent resource utilization is facilitated.

Claims (6)

1. The utility model provides an utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device, its characterized in that, including melting furnace (3), melting furnace (3) top is provided with feed inlet (1), and melting furnace (3) upper portion side is provided with burn-off air spout (2), and melting furnace (3) lower part both sides are provided with air inlet (4), and melting furnace (3) lower part that is located burn-off air spout (2) opposite side is provided with slag outlet (6), melting furnace (3) bottom be provided with melting tank (5).
2. The device for harmless treatment of garbage fly ash by semi-coke according to claim 1, wherein the air inlet (4) is arranged at the furnace body height 1/6 of the melting furnace (3).
3. The device for harmless treatment of garbage fly ash by using semi-coke according to claim 1, wherein fly ash slag is arranged at the bottom of the melting tank (5), the fly ash slag can be divided into a semi-melting layer with lower density and a melting layer with higher density, and the slag outlet (6) is arranged at the melting layer with higher density.
4. The device for harmless treatment of garbage fly ash by using semi-coke according to claim 1, wherein the melting furnace (3) is 1-1.8 m according to the ratio of pure oxygen to semi-coke3Introducing pure oxygen to react with semi-coke per kg; the middle upper part of the melting furnace (3) is provided with an over-fire air nozzle (2) for burning and consuming incomplete products, and the furnace temperature of the melting furnace (3) is uniformly maintained at 1400-1500 ℃.
5. The device for harmless treatment of garbage fly ash by using semi-coke according to claim 1, wherein the melting furnace (3) is any one of a surface melting furnace, a cyclone furnace and high temperature equipment of an iron-making blast furnace.
6. The device for harmless treatment of garbage fly ash by using semi-coke as claimed in claim 1, wherein the air inlet (4) is not only pure oxygen but also air or other gas which can be oxidized with semi-coke, and the air input is adjusted according to the atmosphere.
CN201921478198.9U 2019-09-06 2019-09-06 Utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device Active CN211012436U (en)

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CN201921478198.9U CN211012436U (en) 2019-09-06 2019-09-06 Utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201921478198.9U CN211012436U (en) 2019-09-06 2019-09-06 Utilize blue charcoal innocent treatment rubbish flying dust device

Publications (1)

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CN211012436U true CN211012436U (en) 2020-07-14

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