CN210475531U - Laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment for functional gradient material - Google Patents

Laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment for functional gradient material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN210475531U
CN210475531U CN201921487896.5U CN201921487896U CN210475531U CN 210475531 U CN210475531 U CN 210475531U CN 201921487896 U CN201921487896 U CN 201921487896U CN 210475531 U CN210475531 U CN 210475531U
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powder
laser
forming chamber
powder feeding
head
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CN201921487896.5U
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郭明海
李广生
李澄
董建新
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Xinjinghe Laser Technology Development Beijing Co ltd
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Xinjinghe Laser Technology Development Beijing Co ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The utility model discloses a laser deposition additive manufacturing device of functional gradient material, which comprises a forming chamber, a laser, a powder feeder, a processing head, a moving assembly, a recovery bin and a negative pressure device, wherein the laser and the powder feeder are arranged outside the forming chamber, are respectively used for generating laser beams and outputting corresponding powder according to a preset scheme; the processing head comprises a laser head and a plurality of powder feeding nozzles, and the laser head can send laser beams to a forming area to carry out laser cladding; the powder feeding nozzles are respectively used for feeding corresponding powder to a forming area during laser cladding; the recovery bins are at least two and are arranged at two sides of the forming chamber to respectively recover the powder of different materials so as to prevent the powder of different materials from being mixed; the negative pressure device can generate negative pressure in the recovery channel to recover the powder. The utility model discloses a send the powder in turn to different material powder to and retrieve the unnecessary powder of different materials unshaped before sending the powder, thereby improve the precision and the quality of processing work piece.

Description

Laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment for functional gradient material
Technical Field
The utility model relates to a three-dimensional printing apparatus technical field, concretely relates to laser deposition vibration material disk equipment of function gradient material.
Background
The coaxial laser forming technology is that powder is fed directly into the laser action area by the powder-carrying airflow in the laser forming process by the powder feeding system, so that the powder and the base material are melted simultaneously, and the workpiece is formed by cooling and solidifying. The synchronous powder feeding forming method is beneficial to flexibly reducing the thickness of a forming layer and realizing controllability of materials, tissues, shapes of workpieces and the like, and is the most widely applied laser additive manufacturing technology at present.
However, in practical application scenarios, many engineering components are difficult to be qualified by using a single material, dual effects of dual properties are required, or different parts require different properties, and different materials, namely, functionally gradient materials, are used at different parts of the components. The existing laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment has a series of problems of single powder feeding, or mixed melting and splashing of multiple kinds of powder feeding due to insufficient perfection of a powder feeding mechanism and a powder recovery structure, and can only process workpieces made of single materials at present, but cannot process workpieces made of functionally graded materials or multiple materials.
SUMMERY OF THE UTILITY MODEL
In order to overcome current laser deposit vibration material disk equipment and only can process the work piece of single material, can't process the technical problem of the work piece of being prepared by functional gradient material or multiple material, the utility model provides a laser deposit vibration material disk equipment of functional gradient material.
The laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment of the functional gradient material of the utility model comprises a forming chamber,
a laser disposed outside the forming chamber for generating a laser beam;
the powder feeder is arranged outside the forming chamber and comprises at least two powder feeding tanks for outputting corresponding powder according to a preset scheme;
the laser head is connected with a light outlet of the laser and can send laser beams to a forming area for laser cladding; the powder feeding nozzles are respectively connected with the powder feeding ports of the at least two powder feeding tanks and used for feeding corresponding powder to a forming area during laser cladding;
the moving assembly is arranged inside the forming chamber and is used for aligning the laser head and the powder feeding nozzle to a forming area according to a preset scheme;
the recycling bins are at least two in number, the recycling bins are arranged on two sides of the forming chamber and are communicated with the forming chamber through pipelines, the pipelines and the recycling bins form a powder recycling channel, and the recycling bins are used for recycling powder of different materials respectively so as to prevent the powder of the different materials from being mixed;
and the negative pressure device can generate negative pressure in the recovery channel to recover the powder.
Preferably, the powder collection point of the powder feeding nozzles coincides with the axis of the laser head to feed the powder to the forming area.
Preferably, a workbench is arranged in the forming chamber, and a substrate is arranged on a bearing surface of the workbench and used for bearing a processing workpiece.
Preferably, the laser head is connected with the light outlet of the laser through an optical fiber.
Preferably, the axis of the laser head is at an angle of 80 ° to 88 ° to the working surface of the substrate.
Preferably, the negative pressure device is communicated with the recovery bin through a screen.
Preferably, the number of the recovery bins is two, two side walls of the forming chamber are respectively provided with an adsorption port which can be opened and closed, one end of the pipeline is communicated with the forming chamber, and the other end of the pipeline is communicated with the recovery bins.
Preferably, the negative pressure device is a vacuum pump.
Preferably, the powder feeding gas adopted by the powder feeder is argon.
Preferably, the moving assembly comprises a numerical control machine tool frame, the fixed end of the numerical control machine tool frame is arranged at the top of the forming chamber, and the moving end of the numerical control machine tool frame is connected with the machining head so as to align the laser head and the powder feeding nozzle to the forming area according to a preset scheme.
To sum up, the utility model provides a laser deposition vibration material disk equipment of functional gradient material has the powder feeder that includes two at least powder feeding tank, and the powder of different materials is held in different powder feeding tank, and when the powder of different materials need to be processed, the powder feeder can close the powder feeding mouth that holds other material powder feeding tank according to the predetermined scheme, opens the powder feeding mouth that holds corresponding material powder, carries corresponding powder to the shaping region through sending the powder mouth; and (3) carrying out cladding forming on different parts of the workpiece by laser while feeding powder, and thus, operating for a plurality of times to finish the workpiece prepared by the functionally graded material or a plurality of materials.
Before different powders are alternately fed, the negative pressure device needs to be opened, the redundant powder of the upper layer is recovered to the corresponding recovery bin through the pipeline, the situation that the different material powder of the upper layer is remained when the different material powder of the lower layer is printed is avoided, the performance of a processed workpiece is reduced, meanwhile, the powder of different materials is respectively recovered by at least two recovery bins, the powder of different materials is prevented from being mixed, and the powder is convenient to recover and recycle.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a functionally graded laser additive manufacturing apparatus according to the present invention.
The device comprises a forming chamber 1, a workbench 10, a substrate 11, a laser 2, a powder feeder 3, a first powder feeding tank 30, a second powder feeding tank 31, a processing head 4, a laser head 40, a powder feeding nozzle 41, a first recovery bin 5, a second recovery bin 6, a negative pressure device 7, an optical fiber 8 and a moving component 9.
Detailed Description
The following description of the embodiments according to the present invention is made with reference to the accompanying drawings.
In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention, however, the present invention may be practiced in other ways than those specifically described herein, and the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments disclosed below.
In order to overcome current laser deposit vibration material disk equipment and only can process the work piece of single material, can't process the technical problem of the work piece of being prepared by functional gradient material or multiple material, the utility model provides a laser deposit vibration material disk equipment of functional gradient material.
The laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment of the functional gradient material of the utility model comprises a forming chamber 1,
a laser 2, the laser 2 being arranged outside the forming chamber 1 for generating a laser beam;
the powder feeder 3 is arranged outside the forming chamber 1, and comprises at least two powder feeding tanks for outputting corresponding powder according to a preset scheme;
the processing head 4 is arranged in the forming chamber 1 and comprises a laser head 40 and a plurality of powder feeding nozzles 41, the laser head 40 is connected with a light outlet of the laser 2 and can send laser beams to a forming area for laser cladding; the powder feeding nozzles 41 are respectively connected with at least two powder feeding openings of the powder feeding tank and used for feeding corresponding powder to a forming area during laser cladding;
the moving assembly 9, the moving assembly 9 is arranged inside the forming chamber 1, and the moving assembly 9 is used for aligning the laser head 40 and the powder feeding nozzle 41 to the forming area according to a preset scheme;
the recycling bins are at least two in number, the recycling bins are arranged on two sides of the forming chamber 1 and are communicated with the forming chamber 1 through pipelines, powder recycling channels are formed by the pipelines and the recycling bins, and the recycling bins are used for recycling powder of different materials respectively so as to prevent the powder of the different materials from being mixed;
a negative pressure device 7, the negative pressure device 7 can generate negative pressure in the recovery channel to recover the powder.
In the embodiment, the forming chamber 1 is a closed space, and inert gas is filled in the closed space during three-dimensional printing, so that the reaction of powder or a workpiece and air caused by high laser temperature can be avoided; the number of the powder feeding nozzles 41 is 4 to 8, 4 to 8 powder feeding nozzles 41 are uniformly distributed around the laser head 40, and of course, the specific number of the powder feeding nozzles 41 can also be set according to actual working conditions.
By adopting the technical scheme, the machining head 4 can reach a specified area according to a preset scheme under the drive of the moving assembly 9; when powder of different materials needs to be processed, the powder feeding port of the powder feeding tank with the upper layer of powder is closed, the powder feeding port of the other powder feeding tank is opened, and laser beams irradiate the same area while the powder is conveyed to a forming area to complete the cladding forming of the powder; before different powders are alternately fed, the negative pressure device 7 needs to be opened, the upper layer of redundant unformed powder accumulated around the workpiece is recycled into the corresponding recycling bin through a pipeline, the problem that the quality and the performance of the processed workpiece are reduced due to the fact that the previous layer of heterogeneous powder is remained when the next layer of different material powder is printed is avoided, and meanwhile, the powders of different materials are respectively recycled by at least two recycling bins to prevent the powders of different materials from being mixed and facilitate the recycling of the powders.
In addition to the above embodiment, further, the powder collection points of the powder feeding nozzles 41 are overlapped with the axis of the laser head 40, that is, the powder collection points of the powder feeding nozzles 41 are overlapped with the focal spot point of the laser beam emitted from the laser head 40 to intersect, so as to feed the powder into the laser molten pool of the molding area.
By adopting the technical scheme, the powder feeding nozzles 41 are uniformly distributed around the laser head 40, and the powder collection points of the powder feeding nozzles 41 are intersected and collected with the focal spot points of the laser beams emitted by the laser head 40, namely when a workpiece is machined, the powder which is output by different powder feeding nozzles 41 is simultaneously fed into a molten pool formed by the focal spot points of the laser beams emitted by the laser head 40, so that the powder is clad on the workpiece according to a preset scheme, the waste of the powder which is sent out due to the fact that the laser beams and the powder flow cannot be collected is avoided, and the utilization rate of the powder and the compactness of the workpiece are improved.
On the basis of the above embodiments, further, a working table 10 is disposed in the forming chamber 1, and a substrate 11 is disposed on a carrying surface of the working table 10 for carrying the processing workpiece.
In this embodiment, the workpiece is printed on the substrate 11, and meanwhile, the substrate 11 is detachably connected to the worktable 10, so that the workpiece is conveniently separated from the substrate 11 after printing; it is conceivable that the temperature of the laser beam is high during the processing, and in order to avoid welding deformation of the powder material cladding and the substrate 11, the substrate 11 may be made of a material with high strength and stable performance, or made of a material the same as that of the workpiece to be processed.
In addition to the above embodiments, the laser head 40 is connected to the light outlet of the laser 2 via the optical fiber 8.
By adopting the technical scheme, the transmission loss of the optical fiber 8 is small, and the laser head 40 and the laser 2 are connected through the optical fiber 8 and used for transmitting laser beams, so that the transmission loss of the laser beams can be reduced, and meanwhile, the production cost is reduced.
On the basis of the above embodiment, further, the included angle between the axis of the laser head 40 and the working surface of the substrate 11 is 80 ° to 88 °; i.e. the axis of the laser head 40 is at an angle of 2 to 10 deg. to the normal to the working surface of the substrate 11.
Preferably, the axis of the laser head 40 is at an angle of 3 ° to 5 ° to the normal to the working surface of the substrate 11.
By adopting the technical scheme, in the laser cladding process, the laser head 40 can carry out laser cladding at a preset position under the driving of the moving assembly 9 according to a preset scheme, because the laser temperature is higher, when the laser cladding operation is carried out on a workpiece, a white hot mirror surface is formed by molten liquid metal, not only the laser head 40 and even the optical fiber 8 are formed by the laser, but also the laser can be reflected, so that the optical fiber 8 connected with the laser head 40 is damaged, the vertical inclination angle of the axis of the laser head 40 and the working surface of the substrate 11 is set to be 2-10 degrees, namely, the included angle between the axis of the laser head 40 and the working surface of the substrate 11 is set to be 80-88 degrees, the laser reflection can be effectively prevented, and the probability of burning the optical fiber 8 is reduced.
On the basis of the above embodiment, further, the negative pressure device 7 is communicated with the recovery bin through a screen.
In this embodiment, the mesh size of the screen is smaller than the powder size to prevent the powder from entering the negative pressure device 7.
Adopt above-mentioned technical scheme, negative pressure device 7 passes through the screen cloth and retrieves the storehouse intercommunication, and the mesh specification on the screen cloth is less than the specification of powder, can avoid retrieving the in-process of powder, and the powder enters into negative pressure device 7 in to cause negative pressure device 7 to damage.
On the basis of the above embodiment, further, the number of the recovery bins is two, two side walls of the forming chamber 1 are respectively provided with an adsorption port which can be opened and closed, one end of the pipeline is communicated with the forming chamber 1, and the other end of the pipeline is communicated with the recovery bins.
By adopting the technical scheme, the two side walls of the forming chamber 1 are respectively provided with the openable adsorption ports which are communicated with the pipeline, on one hand, when powder needs to be recovered, the corresponding adsorption ports can be opened in a targeted manner, the powder can be recovered into a specific recovery bin, different kinds of powder are prevented from being mixed, and the subsequent purification and reutilization of the powder are facilitated; on the other hand, can close the absorption mouth in printing process, prevent that too much protective gas from overflowing from the absorption mouth, also can avoid the intervention of outside air.
In addition to the above embodiments, the negative pressure device 7 is a vacuum pump.
Adopt above-mentioned technical scheme, the vacuum pump can be bled the recovery passageway and obtain vacuum environment to produce the negative pressure, retrieve the powder, simultaneously, avoid having air admission and the shaping chamber 1 that the recovery passageway is linked together, cause the printing in-process, the work piece reacts with the air.
In other alternative embodiments, the negative pressure device 7 may be any existing equipment, and can meet the working requirements.
In addition to the above-described embodiments, the powder feeding gas used in the powder feeder 3 is argon gas.
Adopt above-mentioned technical scheme, argon gas is inert gas, adopts argon gas as the powder feeding gas, sends the powder to powder feeding nozzle 41 by sending the powder jar to and send to the shaping region, and argon gas can not react with powder, work piece at this in-process, avoids influencing the processing work piece quality, simultaneously, also can not cause the potential safety hazard because of the temperature is higher in the shaping room 1 in the course of working.
In other alternative embodiments, the powder feed gas may also be any existing gas that is stable in nature and does not react with the material powder.
On the basis of the above embodiment, further, the moving assembly 9 includes a numerically controlled machine frame, a fixed end of the numerically controlled machine frame is disposed at the top of the forming chamber 1, and a moving end of the numerically controlled machine frame is connected to the processing head 4, so as to align the laser head 40 and the powder feeding nozzle 41 to the forming area according to a preset scheme.
By adopting the technical scheme, the numerical control machine tool frame has higher precision, can realize three-dimensional accurate positioning, and can align the machining head 4 to a forming area according to a preset scheme under the driving of the numerical control machine tool frame, thereby improving the quality and precision of a machined workpiece.
In other optional embodiments, the moving assembly 9 may further include a manipulator, a fixed end of the manipulator is disposed on one side of the workbench 10, and a working end of the manipulator is connected to the processing head 4, so that the processing head 4 can be flexibly aligned to the molding area according to a preset scheme under the driving of the manipulator, thereby improving the degree of freedom of the additive manufacturing equipment; of course, the moving assembly 9 may also comprise any existing assembly that meets the operational requirements.
The utility model discloses a laser deposition vibration material disk equipment of functional gradient material, the operating method when processing functional gradient material work piece:
s1, establishing a three-dimensional solid model of the machined workpiece, and formulating a 3D printing additive manufacturing scheme according to the established three-dimensional model;
s2, adjusting the position and the angle of the processing head 4 through a numerical control machine tool frame, closing the powder feeding port of the first powder feeding tank 30, opening the powder feeding port of the second powder feeding tank 31, outputting a laser beam by the laser head 40, feeding powder and cladding on the substrate 11 according to a formulated 3D printing additive manufacturing scheme, printing layer by layer, and manufacturing a first material layer;
s3, starting the negative pressure device 7, and recycling the surplus powder which flows out from the powder feeding port of the second powder feeding tank 31 and is not formed around the workpiece into the second recycling bin 6;
s4, closing the powder feeding port of the second powder feeding tank 31, opening the powder feeding port of the first powder feeding tank 30, feeding powder and cladding in the molding area according to the established 3D printing additive manufacturing scheme, and printing layer by layer to manufacture a second material layer;
s5, starting the negative pressure device 7, and recovering the surplus powder which flows out from the powder feeding port of the first powder feeding tank 30 and is not formed around the workpiece into the first recovery bin 5;
s6, repeating the steps S2 to S5, and printing layer by layer until the whole workpiece is machined;
s7, cutting and separating the workpiece from the substrate 11; and post-processing the workpiece.
It should be noted that, in order to ensure sufficient fusion between different material layers and ensure that the structure and function of the area alternately printed by two or more materials are in gradient distribution, an active powder protective agent may be added into the corresponding powder, wherein, preferably, the active powder protective agent may be one or more of B, Sn, Bi, Al, Sb, P, etc.; meanwhile, the content of the active powder protective agent is 0.1 to 2 percent.
To sum up, the utility model provides a laser deposition vibration material disk equipment of functional gradient material has the powder feeder 3 that includes two at least powder feeding tank, and the powder of different materials is held in different powder feeding tank, and when the powder of different materials need to be processed, powder feeder 3 can close the powder feeding mouth that holds other materials powder feeding tank according to the predetermined scheme, opens the powder feeding mouth that holds corresponding material powder, carries corresponding powder to the shaping region through powder feeding nozzle 41; and (3) carrying out cladding forming on different parts of the workpiece by laser while feeding powder, and thus, operating for a plurality of times to finish the workpiece prepared by the functionally graded material or a plurality of materials.
Before different powders are alternately fed, the negative pressure device 7 needs to be opened, the redundant powder of the upper layer is recovered to the corresponding recovery bin through the pipeline, the situation that when the different material powder of the lower layer is printed, the different material powder of the upper layer is remained, the performance of a processed workpiece is reduced, and meanwhile, the powder of different materials is respectively recovered by at least two recovery bins, so that the powder of different materials is prevented from being mixed, and the powder is conveniently recovered and reused.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention and is not intended to limit the present invention, and various modifications and changes may be made by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment for the functionally graded material is characterized by comprising a forming chamber,
a laser disposed outside the forming chamber for generating a laser beam;
the powder feeder is arranged outside the forming chamber, comprises at least two powder feeding tanks and is used for outputting corresponding powder according to a preset scheme;
the processing head is arranged in the forming chamber and comprises a laser head and a plurality of powder feeding nozzles, the laser head is connected with a light outlet of the laser and can send the laser beam to a forming area for laser cladding; the powder feeding nozzles are respectively connected with at least two powder feeding ports of the powder feeding tank and used for feeding the corresponding powder to the forming area during laser cladding;
the moving assembly is arranged inside the forming chamber and is used for aligning the laser head and the powder feeding nozzle to the forming area according to a preset scheme;
the recycling bin is at least two, the recycling bins are arranged on two sides of the forming chamber and are communicated with the forming chamber through pipelines, the pipelines and the recycling bins form a recycling channel of powder, and the recycling bins respectively recycle powder of different materials so as to prevent the powder of the different materials from being mixed;
an underpressure device capable of generating an underpressure within the recovery channel to recover the powder.
2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein powder collection points of the powder feeding nozzles coincide with an axis of the laser head to feed the powder to the forming area.
3. The apparatus for laser deposition additive manufacturing of functionally graded material according to claim 1, wherein a working table is disposed in the forming chamber, and a substrate is disposed on a carrying surface of the working table for carrying a processing workpiece.
4. The laser deposition additive manufacturing apparatus of functionally graded material according to claim 1, wherein the laser head is connected with a light outlet of the laser through an optical fiber.
5. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein an angle between an axis of the laser head and the working surface of the substrate is 80 ° to 88 °.
6. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the negative pressure device is in communication with the recycling bin through a screen.
7. The laser deposition additive manufacturing device for the functionally graded material according to claim 1, wherein the number of the recovery bins is two, two side walls of the forming chamber are respectively provided with an adsorption port which can be opened and closed, one end of the pipeline is communicated with the forming chamber, and the other end of the pipeline is communicated with the recovery bins.
8. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the negative pressure device is a vacuum pump.
9. The apparatus for laser deposition additive manufacturing of functionally graded material according to claim 1, wherein the powder feeder uses argon as the powder feeding gas.
10. The apparatus for laser deposition additive manufacturing of functionally graded material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the moving assembly comprises a numerically controlled machine tool frame, a fixed end of the numerically controlled machine tool frame is disposed at the top of the forming chamber, and a moving end of the numerically controlled machine tool frame is connected with a processing head to achieve alignment of the laser head and powder feeding nozzle with the forming area according to a preset scheme.
CN201921487896.5U 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 Laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment for functional gradient material Active CN210475531U (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201921487896.5U CN210475531U (en) 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 Laser deposition additive manufacturing equipment for functional gradient material

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112846227A (en) * 2020-12-29 2021-05-28 昆山迪尼三维模型有限公司 Laser 3D printing process for automobile door panel plate
CN112958786A (en) * 2021-01-30 2021-06-15 温州大学 Additive manufacturing device with powder recycling and processing distance control functions

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112846227A (en) * 2020-12-29 2021-05-28 昆山迪尼三维模型有限公司 Laser 3D printing process for automobile door panel plate
CN112958786A (en) * 2021-01-30 2021-06-15 温州大学 Additive manufacturing device with powder recycling and processing distance control functions

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