CN206578635U - High speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder - Google Patents

High speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder Download PDF

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CN206578635U
CN206578635U CN201720183497.4U CN201720183497U CN206578635U CN 206578635 U CN206578635 U CN 206578635U CN 201720183497 U CN201720183497 U CN 201720183497U CN 206578635 U CN206578635 U CN 206578635U
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magnetic induction
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cosine
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张道勇
许娟
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张道勇
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Abstract

The utility model is related to high speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder, including measures gear and magnetic induction read head;Magnetic induction component is provided with magnetic induction read head, signal conditioning circuit, reference zero comparator circuit and FPGA interpolation sub-circuits, magnetic induction component is with measuring the just tangent installation of circumference of gear, magnetic induction component is to measuring sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal and reference zero differential signal produced by gear carries out non-contact scanning, after signal conditioning circuit, by FPGA interpolations sub-circuit to its direct current biasing error, amplitude error and quadrature phase error correct and compensate in real time, and combine reference zero comparator circuit, the absolute position values of the relative position value relative to the rotating shaft anglec of rotation at upper electric moment and the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to reference zero signal were generated respectively, mechanical transmission structure is simple, improve machine tool chief axis positioning, repetitive positioning accuracy, improve the overall accuracy in measurement of Digit Control Machine Tool and processing efficiency.

Description

High speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder
Technical field
The utility model is related to a kind of encoder (Encoder), main more particularly, to a kind of high speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electricity Axle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder, can be widely applied to the neck such as Digit Control Machine Tool, robot, elevator and industrial automation Domain.
Background technology
Encoder is a kind of sensor for detection angles, position, speed and acceleration, is the angle position machinery rotation The equipment that shifting or straight-line displacement are worked out, are converted to the electrical signal form that can be used for communicating, transmit and store, is machinery and electricity The accurate measurement device that son is combined closely, is widely used in the various fields such as motor, automobile, wind-powered electricity generation, robot.From measurement function On, coding code device can be divided into increment size encoder (being also incremental encoder) and absolute value encoder.From measuring principle, compile Code device includes photoelectric encoder and magnetic induction encoder.
Increment size encoder is used to provide information of the current location relative to prior location, without the current definitely position of memory The function of putting.When electromechanical equipment is powered off, if mechanical location causes position to produce inclined because external force is moved or is rotated and is changed Move, and when electromechanical equipment restarts, increment size encoder will be unable to judge the signal of current location with being recorded before power-off Position signalling it is whether identical, thus must adjust encoder carry out back to zero operation.Each position of absolute value encoder The digital code of one determination of correspondence, therefore only starting with measurement and final position are relevant for its indicating value, and with the centre of measurement Process is unrelated.When electromechanical equipment power-off after send a telegram in reply again when, absolute value encoder can read immediately the current spindle anglec of rotation or Absolute position.
In the industrial production, wide variety of encoder is generally photo-electric, and its operation principle is:LED/light source and condenser The light source of stable raster diffraction stripe is provided;The grating structure for scanning mask and measuring basis is same or similar, when both Slit has light transmission when aliging, and light can not pass through when both grooves align, and photocell is sensed during both relative motions Strong and weak alternately change just occurs for light intensity, and it is in triangular wave patterns that this alternately change, which is, but is due to that grating diffration effect is this Alternately change is actually in sine wave.Sine and cosine encoded signal refers to the sinusoidal signal loading position that two-way phase difference is 90 degree The code device signal of confidence breath.Photoelectric encoder both can detect angle displacement, can detect straight under mechanical switching device help again Line position, has the advantages that low inertia, low noise, high accuracy, high-resolution, and it is poor to environmental suitability to have the disadvantage, for moisture, The resistivity of dust, greasy dirt and temperature change is weaker, needs to do encapsulation process in practical application;In addition, photoelectric encoder grating Disk is generally glass material, when being rotated at a high speed around axle, easily because of the influence of the external environment conditions such as shaft vibration, impact so that grating disc Fragmentation.
When photoelectric encoder on machine tool chief axis in use, its first position feedback photoelectric encoder and the second place are fed back Photoelectric encoder can not be connected directly with machine tool chief axis, generally with the mechanical transmission mechanisms such as synchronizing wheel, belt and machine tool chief axis It is indirectly connected with, its transmission process is:The spindle servo electric machine of built-in first position encoder drives belt movement, belt drive machine Bed motion of main shaft, machine tool chief axis drives synchronizing wheel rotation, synchronizing wheel drive second place encoder rotation, thus whole machinery to pass Dynamic structure is more complicated, causes servomotor maximum speed relatively low.Supporting CNC digital control systems, can be achieved not high to required precision The function such as screw thread process, rigid tapping, orientation trouble and tool magazine tool changing.If long-play, because bearing load is larger, skin Band, the elastic deformation of timing belt, expand with heat and contract with cold and wear and tear so that Digit Control Machine Tool overall processing precision can become poorer and poorer.
When machine tool chief axis is higher to positioning accuracy request, first position feedback needs to use 17 or higher resolution Photoelectric encoder, second place feedback will use the high-precision encoders such as magnetic resistance, magnetic grid, while axial coding is fed back in the second place Device and machine tool chief axis are direct-connected, to reduce driving error.It is integrated with machine tool chief axis that electro spindle realizes spindle motor, by height Precision encoding device and machine tool chief axis are direct-connected, reducing the error brought of transmission device simultaneously, processing, positioning accurate greatly improved Degree, and be a kind of desired transmission mode for meeting high speed and high precision processing requirement with a series of excellent drive characteristics.
To the motor driving using digit position and controlling technology of velocity, high-precision sine and cosine encoder can provide 1Vpp electricity The sinusoidal increment signal of ordinary mail number, signal quality is high to be turned into so as to carry out high frequency multiplication interpolation subdivision in follow-up signal process circuit May.If for example, carrying out 4096 times in follow-up signal process circuit carefully to the rotary encoder of 512 signal periods of every circle Point, 2,000,000 measurement step pitches or line number, the resolution ratio equivalent to 21 can be just produced in a circle.Even if rotating speed reaches 24000 Revolutions per second, frequency when signal reaches control system input circuit also only has about 200KHz.1Vpp sinusoidal increment signal is due to defeated The spectrum component gone out is relatively simple, can transmit larger distance compared with square wave and it is unattenuated or distortion, it is allowed to cable Length is up to 150 meters.
Except photoelectric encoder, magnetic induction encoder is also widely used in industrial production.Magnetic induction encoder is based on magnetic Sensor, and Magnetic Sensor is widely used in modern industry and electronic product, is measured with induced field intensity and its distribution The physical parameters such as electric current, position, direction.In the prior art, many different types of sensors are used to measure magnetic field and its His parameter, for example with Hall (Hall) element, anisotropic magnetoresistance (Anisotropic MagnetoResistance, AMR) element, giant magnetoresistance (Gaint MagnetoResistance, GMR) element, tunnel magneto resistance TMR (Tunnel MagnetoResistance) element is the Magnetic Sensor of measurement sensing element.Compared to other magnetic sensor elements, TMR elements Possesses big, the excellent temperature stability of micro energy lose, high resolution, dynamic range and the advantages of high sensitivity.
In high speed, high accuracy, the servo-drive system of high dynamic performance requirement, generally passed using the magnetic of output cosine and sine signal Sensor detecting element, for position and velocity feedback.It is orthogonal that its output signal includes periodic sine and cosine (SINE, COSINE) Differential signal, often rotates a circle and also exports reference zero (INDEX) differential signal all the way, when electromechanical equipment starts, though can be through Later continue signal processing circuit and carry out high frequency multiplication interpolation subdivision, but the absolute position of the current spindle anglec of rotation can not be read immediately Value, until rotating shaft rotation is after reference zero signal, can just obtain the absolute place value of the current spindle anglec of rotation.If using The mode of traditional pulse string transmits signal, on the one hand with the raising of position-measurement device resolution ratio and precision, its output line number It is increasing, in the case of motor runs at high speed, higher is required to subsequent control device interface, HFS transmission easily occurs Miscount, so as to influence numerical control device feedback control;On the other hand, train of pulse output is apart from limited, easily by industrial environment Electromagnetic interference, be not suitable for the high-speed transfer of industry spot.In order to improve position feedback accuracy and reliably transmit position at a high speed Data are put, in digital control system, digital serial bus formula communicator are used between position-measurement device and control device, by controlling End unit processed and measurement end unit are connected and composed by communication cable, compared with Transistor-Transistor Logic level and sine and cosine burst mode, serially Bus type transmission means improves antijamming capability, with higher reliability and real-time, while transmission increment position may be selected Put value or absolute position.
At present, the installation positioning method of magnetic induction encoder is very coarse, and the positioning reference plane of read head is plane.In peace During dress, using positioning tool it is difficult to ensure that magnetic induction read head center, measure gear, machine tool chief axis install concentricity, meanwhile, The positioning reference plane and measurement circumference of gear tangent plane of read head are parallel to each other, guarantee of the read head with measuring the distance between gear Also it is highly difficult, so as to cause the accuracy and uniformity of read head actual installation very poor, and then greatly reduce magnetic induction coding The control accuracy of device.
In addition, magnetic induction sine and cosine encoder is in engineer applied, due to by fluted disc processing technology, power-supply fluctuation, ring The influence of border temperature change, the factor such as non-linear of read head magnetic induction chip, the output of position detecting element magnetic induction chip Cosine and sine signal is often accompanied by direct current biasing error, amplitude error and quadrature phase error, harmonic component error, noise error etc., These errors directly influence the precision and reliability of servo-control system.How the Angle Position that sine and cosine encoder is exported is believed Number error effectively correct and compensate, and high-resolution position is extracted from cosine and sine signal using suitable interpolation method Confidence ceases, and has important research and application value to meet the high speed of servo-drive system, high-precision control requirement.
In Chinese invention patent application disclosed in 9 days March in 2016, number of patent application is 201511029653.3, open Number it is CN105387879A, discloses the absolute place value magnetic coder of Large central aperture axial charging structure, be that a kind of magnet ring type is compiled Code device, the magnet ring type coding disk employed in it is to pass through note by ferromagnetic material powder and as the ductile material of binding agent The cyclic structure of the technique machine-shapings such as modeling, die casting or casting, is limited by the uniformity of material, and the also difficult precisely control of magnetization position System so that magnetic moment size on coding disk, strong and weak and uniformity is more difficult is further enhanced, and during engineer applied, Due to the exposure of coding disk upper magnetic pole outside, flying dust and tiny iron filings easily are adsorbed and carry out error to detection band.As motor is processed The rising of temperature, the coding disk temperature characterisitic of heat transfer will be the factor having to consider, and coding disk can be magnetic decay, cause Accuracy of waveform deteriorates, and closely influences machining accuracy.
The Chinese utility model patent announced on April 29th, 2015, number of patent application is 201420861460.9, bulletin Number be CN204301754U, disclose gear rotary encoder, its output signal is divided into A roads, B roads and Z roads, with analog signal or The form output of square wave, does not have bus type data output capacities;Its sense gap between read head and gear for 0.1 to 0.15mm, gap is too small, and mechanical erection requirement is excessively harsh, causes installation and debugging to expend a large amount of man-hours;Have inside it at program Chip is managed, it is necessary to debug signal parameter by computer software, and program write-in program memory is preserved, non intelligent behaviour Control, manually adjusts very cumbersome, wastes time and energy, and homogeneity of product is not high.
The content of the invention
In order to solve encoder control accuracy in the prior art and the relatively low technical problem of reliability, the utility model is provided One kind is applied to high speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder, the encoder applies gear sense Answer magnetic line of force operation principle, to measure gear carry out non-contact scanning, produce high reliability sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal and Reference zero differential signal, using FPGA field programmable logic devices, realizes and the high accuracy interpolation of cosine and sine signal is segmented, And reference zero comparator circuit is combined, so as to generate the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to the upper electric moment respectively in decoder internal High line number relative position value and the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to reference zero signal high line number absolute position values, reducing While complicated machinery transmission mechanism, positioning, the repetitive positioning accuracy of machine tool chief axis greatly improved, so as to improve numerical control machine The overall accuracy in measurement and processing efficiency of bed.
The utility model high speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder, including be sleeved on Used cooperatively on machine tool chief axis, electro spindle and with machine tool chief axis, the measurement gear of electro spindle synchronous rotary and with measuring gear Magnetic induction read head;The measurement gear exports magnetic track and the output of reference zero differential signal provided with sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal Magnetic track;Magnetic induction component, signal conditioning circuit, reference zero comparator circuit and FPGA interpolations are provided with magnetic induction read head Sub-circuit, magnetic induction component is with measuring the just tangent installation of circumference of gear;The magnetic induction component is carried out to measuring gear Sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal and reference zero differential signal produced by non-contact scanning, after signal conditioning circuit, Its direct current biasing error, amplitude error and quadrature phase error are carried out by FPGA interpolations sub-circuit to correct and mend in real time Repay, and combine reference zero comparator circuit, so as to generate the relative position of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to the upper electric moment respectively Put the absolute position values of value and the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to reference zero signal.
Preferably, the FPGA interpolations sub-circuit include direct current biasing error compensation module, amplitude error compensating module, Cosine and sine signal is most worth module, memory module, frequency multiplication module, Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module and the life of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation Into module, rotating shaft anglec of rotation generation module is connected with reference zero comparator circuit, Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module, direct current Biased error compensating module, amplitude error compensating module, frequency multiplication module and Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module are sequentially connected, Cosine and sine signal is most worth module and is connected respectively with direct current biasing error compensation module, amplitude error compensating module, memory module, just Cosine signal is most worth the sampling maximum and minimum value that module is used to ask for cosine and sine signal, and memory module is inclined for storing direct current Put the operation result that error compensation module, amplitude error compensating module, cosine and sine signal are most worth module.
Preferably, the frequency multiplication module includes cosine and sine signal multiplier module, cosine and sine signal phase shift block, adjustment Circuit module, wherein cosine and sine signal multiplier module are provided with two, the input and amplitude of cosine and sine signal multiplier module Error compensation module is connected, and output end is connected with adjustment circuit module;The input of another cosine and sine signal multiplier module leads to Cross cosine and sine signal phase shift block to be connected with amplitude error compensating module, output end is connected with adjustment circuit module, adjustment circuit Module is connected with Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module.
Preferably, the direct current biasing error compensation module and amplitude error compensating module derive cosine and sine signal respectively Direct current biasing error and amplitude error;Then using frequency multiplication module by phase shift, frequency multiplication by quadrature phase error It is transformed into direct current biasing error and amplitude error, adjusted circuit module is gone after removing DC bias error and adjustment amplitude, with two The two-way cosine and sine signal of frequency multiplication carries out interpolation subdivision again as primary signal in Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module;It is described to sit Mark rotary digital computing module and calculate arc tangent, ask for phase value, draw rotating shaft anglec of rotation present position values, i.e., relative to upper The relative position value of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation at electric moment;The signal conditioning circuit to reference zero differential signal amplify shaping, Single-ended signal is generated after filtering, into reference zero comparator circuit, the data signal of low and high level is converted into, recently enters and turns Axle anglec of rotation generation module, generates the absolute position values of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to reference zero signal.
The memory module calls FLASH ROM institutes for FLASH ROM, FPGA the interpolation sub-circuits in FPGA pieces Direct current biasing error compensation module, the amplitude error compensating module operation result of storage, to realize the automatic school again of FPGA programs The accurate and automatic adjusument to error.
Preferably, the seating side of the magnetic induction read head is in same plane with measuring gear side;Magnetic induction is read The housing bottom of head is taken to be provided with the symmetrical projection being easily installed, symmetrical rising height one, which is shown, realizes magnetic induction component and measurement Circumference of gear is just tangent to be installed, that is, is realized magnetic induction component center, measured the concentricity that gear, machine tool chief axis are installed.
Relative to prior art, the utility model has advantages below and positive technique effect:
1st, the utility model encoder has hypersensitivity, precision and reaction speed using a kind of, and with measuring tooth Wheel coordinates the magnetic resistance sensor with higher advantageous characteristic, using gear induced magnetism line operation principle, enters to measuring gear Row non-contact scanning, produces high reliability cosine and sine signal and reference zero signal, uses FPGA field programmable logic devices Part, the cosine and sine signal direct current biasing error sampled to ADC modulus switching devices, amplitude error and quadrature phase error carry out real When amendment and compensation, and preserved simultaneously using error parameter is write into FPGA field programmable logic device in-chip FLASHs ROM The mode called, carries out the automatic recalibration of electricity in FPGA programs and the automatic adjusument to error, realizes to cosine and sine signal High accuracy interpolation subdivision, and combine reference zero comparator circuit so that generated respectively inside encoder system relative to The high line number relative position value of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation at upper electric moment and the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to reference zero signal High line number absolute position values, realize the various errors of cosine and sine signal are calibrated automatically, automatic adjusument function, improve volume The precision and reliability of code device, and without the operation of manual debugging full automation, greatly improve production efficiency.This practicality is new Type encoder can remain processing, determining for stability in the operating modes such as rapid drilling, rapid changing knife and continuity tapping Position, control accuracy;Simple in construction, small volume, lightweight, easy to install and impact resistance and environmental suitability are strong, reliability height, Anti-vibration, high frequency sound, high accuracy, while complicated machinery transmission mechanism is reduced, greatly improved positioning, again for machine tool chief axis Multiple positioning precision, so as to improve the overall accuracy in measurement and processing efficiency of Digit Control Machine Tool.
2nd, using serial bus type transmission means, antijamming capability is improved, with higher reliability and real-time, inspection Survey precision height and high-speed response can be carried out.Incremental magnetic induction type bus type code device signal is connect by RS485 or RS422 buses Mouth is exported, the serial communication protocol such as compatible BISS, SSI, and can be surveyed under conditions of 20000 revs/min of turn up and the above Determine absolute position.Magnetic induction read head has selected high-precision sensing chip, using gear induced magnetism line operation principle, can be with Identification is located at the angle position that gear is measured immediately below chip, realizes high accuracy, high reliability detection.
3rd, heavy caliber hollow shaft is installed, without complicated mechanical transmission structure, it is not necessary to carry any bearing, it is not required that Any machenical coupling, measures direct geared and is sleeved on machine tool chief axis, is revolved with machine tool chief axis, electro spindle on electro spindle and synchronously Turn.High-precision encoder and machine tool chief axis, electro spindle is direct-connected, reducing the error brought of transmission device simultaneously, greatly improving Processing, positioning precision, the problems such as solving photoelectric encoder rotation is to axial float and sensitive circular runout at a high speed, are improved The adaptability of product, and with a series of excellent drive characteristics, it is particularly suitable for use in machine tool chief axis, electro spindle high speed and high precision processing Occasion.
4th, coding disk is made of measurement gear has bigger advantage compared to magnet ring type coding disk, and its plasticity is good, is easy to Processing, uniformity are good, and dimensional accuracy is more preferably controlled, and meet different application scenarios, and more most heavy produced through magnetic resistance sensor Raw cosine and sine signal accuracy of waveform is high, and uniformity is good.
5th, magnetic induction encoder mechanical structure simplifies firm, measure between gear and magnetic induction read head using noncontact, Without abrasion design, the characteristic with anti-vibration, anticorrosive, antipollution and wide operating temperature, fast response time adapts to revolve at a high speed Transhipment is dynamic, can be applied to the immalleable field of photoelectric encoder, and precision is high, and long lifespan, direct-drive machine error is small, and does not have There is mechanism back clearance problem.
6th, novel header structure, the firm, strong shock resistance of design, degree of protection height are read in magnetic induction, up to IP68, environment Adaptability is good, and stable and reliable working performance, accurate positioning, installation are easily and using easy to operate.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the utility model high speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder is integrally tied Structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is the schematic block circuit diagram of the utility model magnetic induction read head;
Fig. 3 is the theory diagram of the utility model FPGA interpolation sub-circuits;
Fig. 4 A are a kind of structural representation that the utility model measures gear;
Fig. 4 B are another structural representation that the utility model measures gear;
Fig. 5 is the utility model BISSC serial communication protocol timing waveforms.
Embodiment
The utility model is described in further detail below in conjunction with embodiment and Figure of description, but this practicality is new The embodiment not limited to this of type.
Embodiment
Referring to Fig. 1, the utility model high speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder include Be sleeved on machine tool chief axis, on electro spindle and measure gear 1 with the ferromagnetism of machine tool chief axis, electro spindle synchronous rotary, and with amount Survey the magnetic induction read head 2 that gear 1 is used cooperatively.The measurement gear 1 is used in being arranged in live spindle provided with one Heart hole 11;The magnetic induction read head 2 be arranged on measure gear 1 outside above, the seating side 26 of magnetic induction read head with Measure gear side 12 be in same plane, and adjust magnetic induction read head 2 and measure gear 1 between gap for 0.1 to 0.3mm。
Such as Fig. 2, the circuit part of magnetic induction read head is encapsulated in metal shell 21, including first circuit board 22, magnet steel 23rd, cooperation magnet steel is provided with electrical connector 24, second circuit board 25, first circuit board 22 to carry out change of magnetic field strength situation The magnetic induction component detected in real time;The signal condition electricity electrically connected with magnetic induction component is provided with second circuit board 25 Road, and ADC analog to digital conversion circuits, reference zero comparator circuit, FPGA (field programmable logic device) interpolation subdivision electricity Road and input/output interface circuit, wherein signal conditioning circuit respectively with ADC analog to digital conversion circuits, reference zero comparator circuit Connection, FPGA (field programmable logic device) interpolations sub-circuit respectively with ADC analog to digital conversion circuits, reference zero comparator Circuit, input/output interface circuit connection, and the extraction input/output interface terminal from input/output interface circuit.Magnetic induction member Device produces sine and cosine (A, B) orthogonal differential signal and reference zero (Z) differential signal, sine and cosine (A, B) orthogonal differential signal Amplify through signal conditioning circuit, after filtering process, the single-ended sine and cosine letter of digital quantity is converted into ADC analog to digital conversion circuits Number, finally handled by FPGA interpolation sub-circuits;And reference zero (Z) differential signal amplifies and whole through signal conditioning circuit Manage into after single-ended signal, into reference zero comparator circuit, be converted into the data signal of low and high level, feeding FPGA interpolations are thin Parallel circuit is handled.The metal shell 21 of magnetic induction read head 2 uses copper alloy or aluminum alloy material, including the He of cylinder body 27 Upper lid 28 of the spiral-lock directly over cylinder body 27, is attached, and carry out between cylinder body 27 and upper lid 28 by screw or solid gum Electron pouring sealant is sealed, and the circuit part of magnetic induction read head is placed in the annular seal space that cylinder body is constituted with upper lid, and its outside is equipped with Metal water joint is electrically connected with input/output interface circuit, realizes the output of incremental bus type current position signal.
The magnetic induction component is SMRE (Semiconductor MagnetoResistive Element) semiconductor Magnetoresistive element or TMR (Tunnel MagnetoResistance) tunnel magneto resistance sensor.Magnetic resistance sensor chip Can be superior, with high magnetic field gradient sensitivity, small changes of magnetic field can be detected, output signal has good temperature Stability, it uses push-pull type Wheatstone bridge design, and the Grad to externally-applied magnetic field along sensor sensing direction provides difference Voltage output, and produce two-way have precise phase difference quadrature voltage output signal, to detect measure pinion rotation position Put and direction.Coordinate magnetic induction encoder location and installation technique and welding circuit board production technology, such as magnetic induction chip pin Design of pad etc., it is ensured that cosine and sine signal quadrature phase error is in the range of rational limit.
In work, machine tool chief axis, electro spindle drive the magnetic strength measured on gear rotation, magnetic induction read head first circuit board Answer component to coordinate magnet steel, using gear induced magnetism line operation principle, non-contact scanning is carried out to measuring gear, is produced high Reliability sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal and reference zero differential signal, by signal conditioning circuit, put to differential signal Greatly, shaping, and filter out high frequency spurs, using FPGA field programmable logic devices ADC analog to digital conversion circuits are sampled it is just remaining String signal direct current biasing error, amplitude error and quadrature phase error correct and compensate in real time, and error parameter is write Enter FPGA field programmable logic device in-chip FLASHs ROM preservations and upper electricity is called, realize the high accuracy to cosine and sine signal Interpolation is segmented, and combines reference zero comparator circuit, so as to be generated respectively inside encoder system relative to the upper electric moment The high line number relative position value of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation and exhausted relative to the high line number of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation of reference zero signal To positional value.
The utility model uses FPGA field programmable logic devices, and the sine and cosine that ADC analog to digital conversion circuits are sampled is believed Number direct current biasing error, amplitude error and quadrature phase error correct and compensate in real time, are realized to cosine and sine signal High accuracy interpolation is segmented, and theory diagram is as shown in figure 3, including direct current biasing error compensation module, amplitude error compensating module, just Cosine signal is most worth module, memory module, frequency multiplication module, Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module and the generation of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation Module, rotating shaft anglec of rotation generation module is connected with reference zero comparator circuit, Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module, and direct current is inclined Put error compensation module, amplitude error compensating module, frequency multiplication module and Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module to be sequentially connected, just Cosine signal is most worth module and is connected respectively with direct current biasing error compensation module, amplitude error compensating module, memory module, storage Module is used to store the computing knot that direct current biasing error compensation module, amplitude error compensating module, cosine and sine signal are most worth module Really.Frequency multiplication module includes cosine and sine signal multiplier module, cosine and sine signal phase shift block, adjustment circuit module, wherein just Cosine signal multiplier module is provided with two, and input and the amplitude error compensating module of a cosine and sine signal multiplier module connect Connect, output end is connected with adjustment circuit module;The input of another cosine and sine signal multiplier module is moved by cosine and sine signal Phase module is connected with amplitude error compensating module, and output end is connected with adjustment circuit module, and adjustment circuit module rotates with coordinate Digital computation modules are connected.
The sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal of magnetic induction component output, by signal conditioning circuit, to orthogonal differential signal Be amplified, Shape correction, and filter out high frequency spurs and even-order harmonic.Using ADC analog to digital conversion circuits to sine wave signal and Cosine wave signal carries out high speed real-time synchronization collection, and carries out digital filtering by FPGA, and filtering method is:Eight numbers of continuous acquisition According to, two maximum sampled values of removal, two minimum sampled values, the average value of lower four sampled values of remainder is as current form Sampled value.Using such a digital filtering method, the shake, saltus step and interference of sampled data are eliminated well.
Due to being influenceed by the factors such as Gearmaking Technology, power-supply fluctuation, variation of ambient temperature are measured, monocycle sine and cosine The sampling maximum and minimum value of signal can all have data dithering all the time, measure the sine and cosine letter that gear revolves sampling of turning around Number maximum and minimum value also can all have data dithering all the time, in order to which smoothed data shakes the subdivision error that brings, adopt Following method is taken to be handled:Machine shaft is rotated after reference zero signal, is started cosine and sine signal and is most worth module, motor When rotating shaft passes through reference zero signal for each revolution, one maximum of numeration sinusoidal signal, a minimum value, cosine signal one Individual maximum, a minimum value, eight cycles of continuous counter, sampling obtain eight sinusoidal signal maximums, minimum values, more than eight String signal maximum, minimum value.Two maximum sampled values, two minimum sampled values are removed, lower four sampled values of remainder Average value as cosine and sine signal sampling maximum and minimum value.
Equation below is run in direct current biasing error compensation module and amplitude error compensating module, direct current biasing is derived Error and amplitude error;
SIN (θ+)=VCC/2+offset_A+Ksin (θ+α);〈1〉
SIN (θ -)=VCC/2+offset_B-Lsin (θ+α);〈2〉
SIN (θ)=SIN (θ+)-SIN (θ -)=offset_A-offset_B+ (K+L) sin (θ+α);〈3〉
COS (θ+)=VCC/2+offset_C+Mcos (θ+β);〈4〉
COS (θ -)=VCC/2+offset_D-Ncos (θ+β);〈5〉
COS (θ)=COS (θ+)-COS (θ -)=offset_C-offset_D+ (M+N) cos (θ+β);〈6〉
In above-mentioned formula, SIN (θ+), SIN (θ -), COS (θ+), COS (θ -) are magnetic induction component output sine and cosine letter Number differential signal, SIN (θ), COS (θ) are the cosine and sine signal that is obtained after signal conditioning circuit.offset_A、 Offset_C is the DC deviation amount of sine and cosine principal-employment sub-signal, and offset_B, offset_D are sine and cosine negative differential signal DC deviation amount, K, M are the amplitude deviation factor of sine and cosine principal-employment sub-signal, and L, N are inclined for the amplitude of sine and cosine negative differential signal Poor coefficient, α, β are cosine and sine signal phase deviation.From the maximum of cosine and sine signal, minimum value:
SIN (90 °)=offset_A-offset_B+ (K+L) sin (90 °);〈7〉
SIN (270 °)=offset_A-offset_B+ (K+L) sin (270 °);〈8〉
SIN (90 °)+SIN (270 °)=2 (offset_A-offset_B);〈9〉
SIN (90 °)-SIN (270 °)=2 (K+L);〈10〉
Offset_A-offset_B=(SIN (90 °)+SIN (270 °))/2;〈11〉
K+L=(SIN (90 °)-SIN (270 °))/2;〈12〉
Obtain the sampling maximum and minimum value of sinusoidal signal, you can draw the direct current biasing error and amplitude of sinusoidal signal Error, similarly, can also draw the direct current biasing error and amplitude error of cosine signal.
Direct current biasing error is subtracted by the current optional position moment waveform sample values handled by digital filtering, you can To the cosine and sine signal for including amplitude error and quadrature phase error:
SIN (θ)-(offset_A-offset_B)=(K+L) sin (θ+α)
COS (θ)-(offset_C-offset_D)=(M+N) cos (θ+β)
Amplitude deviation factor is multiplied by both sides simultaneously, obtains formula:
(M+N) (SIN (θ)-(offset_A-offset_B))=(M+N) (K+L) sin (θ+α)
(K+L) (COS (θ)-(offset_C-offset_D))=(K+L) (M+N) cos (θ+β)
The two-way cosine and sine signal of the direct current biasing error that is eliminated and amplitude error, the tangent letter of negating if two formulas are divided by Number, you can obtain the cosine and sine signal angular positional value for only including quadrature phase error.
Sampling maximum, minimum value to cosine and sine signal carry out direct current biasing error amount and the amplitude that above-mentioned computing is obtained Error amount write-in FPGA in-chip FLASHs ROM (i.e. memory module) is preserved, and is called in automatically after electricity on next time, and then to magnetic strength The error of the cosine and sine signal of component generation is answered to carry out amendment in real time with compensating.If error deviation threshold value is more than a certain setting Value, such as situations such as magnetic induction read head is reinstalled is influenceed, then FPGA programs are recalibrated automatically, so as to realize to error Automatic adjusument.
Then the cosine and sine signal for having eliminated direct current biasing error and amplitude error is carried out using frequency multiplication technology Amendment, i.e., be transformed into direct current biasing error and amplitude error by quadrature phase error by phase shift, frequency multiplication, adjusted through rear class Circuit module is gone after removing DC bias error and adjustment amplitude, with the high-quality cosine and sine signal of the two-way of two frequencys multiplication as original Signal, carries out interpolation subdivision again in Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module, can improve subdivision accuracy, can reduce to sine and cosine again The orthogonality requirement of signal.Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module is based on Coordinate Rotation Digital and calculates (CORDIC) algorithm, calculates anti- Tangent, asks for phase value, draws rotating shaft anglec of rotation present position values, i.e., relative to the upper electric moment the rotating shaft anglec of rotation phase To positional value;The signal conditioning circuit generates single-ended signal after amplifying shaping, filtering to reference zero differential signal, into ginseng Zero point comparator circuit is examined, the data signal of low and high level is converted into, rotating shaft anglec of rotation generation module is recently entered, phase is generated For the absolute position values of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation of reference zero signal.
The ADA4950-2 collection of the preferred Anolog Devices companies of high-speed-differential operational amplifier in signal conditioning circuit Into circuit chip;ADC modulus switching device preferred embodiments, using the multi-level differential streamline of Anolog Devices companies The high-speed parallel AD9248 IC chips of framework;The preferred FPGA field programmable logic devices of interpolation sub-circuit 10M16SCU169I7G IC chips.
Whole algorithms use FPGA processing, the characteristics of fully using FPGA pipeline parallel method computings, and utilize FPGA The modules such as memory block, hardware multiplier that inside is carried improve hardware algorithm and realize performance, and speed is fast, and real-time is high, meets Requirement of the motion control arithmetic to current location real-time.Magnetic induction component is exported just using digital circuit processing mode The various errors of cosine signal effectively correct and compensate, and improve accuracy and reliability that difference mends subdivision, and then improve The subdivision accuracy and resolution ratio of cosine and sine signal, and preserve and adjust using by error parameter write-in FPGA in-chip FLASHs ROM Mode, carries out FPGA programs and recalibrates automatically and the automatic adjusument to error.Pass through high-speed ADC analog to digital conversion circuit With working in coordination for FPGA field programmable logic devices, the data acquisition and procession of high-speed, high precision is realized, by serial Communications protocol bus realizes the data output of high-speed and high-efficiency, so as to provide more accurate positional information for servo-control system Meet high speed, the requirement of high-precision control.
The measurement gear has two kinds of magnetic tracks, and one is that sine and cosine (A, B) orthogonal differential signal exports magnetic track 14, the number of teeth It is preferred that 512 teeth;Secondly exporting magnetic track 13 for reference zero (Z) differential signal.Reference zero (Z) differential signal output magnetic track has Two kinds of structure types, one kind only lacks a tooth than sine and cosine magnetic track for a circle, as shown in Figure 4 A, and one kind is only one, a circle Tooth, as shown in Figure 4 B.
In normal use condition and range, can according to actual main shaft or motor space situation to measuring the outer of gear Footpath, thickness, hole size and modulus claim, measure gear specification modulus can for 0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.8, 1.0 or 2.0.Measure when gear and magnetic induction read head are installed notably direction, it is necessary to correspond to up and down and install, otherwise signal It is bad.Magnetic induction read head is installed with measuring during gear, it is recommended to use the clearance gauge of standard thickness (such as 0.15 millimeter), both can be accurate Ensure magnetic induction component and measure the clipping room of gear away from, between 0.3mm, splendid signal quality being obtained again 0.1. In addition, being provided with the symmetrical projection being easily installed in the bottom of the metal shell 21 of magnetic induction read head, symmetrical projection is located at metal The both sides of the bottom of housing 21, the symmetrical rising height of both sides is consistent, to realize magnetic induction component and measure circumference of gear positive Cut, that is, realize magnetic induction component center, the concentricity that gear, machine tool chief axis are installed measured, then by screw by magnetic induction Read head is fastenedly connected with read head fixing base, finally extracts clearance gauge out or rotation measures gear and takes out clearance gauge.
The precision for measuring Gear Processing has a huge impact to the precision and uniformity of code device signal.Commercial Application In, the precise measure gear of 6 grades of national standard or higher precision should be selected.Code device signal line number can be carried out by measuring number of gear teeth Adjustment, and and then influence machine tooling, positioning precision.The measurement gear has three kinds of mounting means:1st, hot charging.Using this During technique, the main shaft diameter of axle should be slightly less than by producing the internal diameter of measurement gear.Under normal temperature, measuring gear can not connect with main shaft, lead to Crossing heating measurement gear makes material expand, at this moment can will measure gear on main shaft, then cooling, which measures gear, receives material Contracting, the final gear that measures firmly is pressed on main shaft.2nd, it is tightened on the shaft shoulder.Gear will be measured on main shaft, spiral shell is used Nail is fixed on gear is measured on the main shaft shaft shoulder.3rd, clamped by axle nut.Measure gear to be installed on spindle shaft, pass through axle spiral shell Mother is pressed on a component;Customer requirement can also be answered, an integration type shaft nut, therefore internal diameter are assembled on gear is measured On have corresponding screw thread.
The utility model encoder data form is as shown in table 1, its BISSC serial communication protocols timing waveform such as Fig. 5 institute Show:
The incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder data form of table 1
Note 1:" Ack ", confirmation signal, magnetic induction encoder receives the confirmation feedback of the clock signal of host computer transmission, And begin preparing for transmission location data.
Note 2:" Start " and " 0 ", serial communication data transfer start bit, magnetic induction encoder signals are opened to main interface Begin transmission data.
Note 3:" Relative Position ", relative to the high line number relative position of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation at upper electric moment Value, binary format, 24, line number, which is overflowed, raps around to zero.
Note 4:" Absolute Position ", the high line number relative to the rotating shaft anglec of rotation of reference zero signal is absolute Positional value, binary format, 24, line number, which is overflowed, raps around to zero.
Note 5:" Zero ", zero signal flag bit, original state is " 0 ", low level;Rotating shaft rotation is by reference zero letter After number, " ZERO " position position, perseverance is " 1 ", high level.
Note 6:" Error ", error bit, low level is effective." 1 " represents the positional information of transmission by magnetic induction read head Built-in security checking algorithm is verified, as a result correctly;" 0 " represents internal detection failure, and positional information is insincere.
Note 7:" Warn ", alerts position, and low level is effective." 1 " represents the positional information of transmission by magnetic induction read head Built-in security checking algorithm is verified, as a result correctly;" 0 " represents that internal detection exceeds threshold value, and positional information is insincere.
Note 8:" CRC ", check bit, relative position, absolute position, mistake and alarm data check bit, altogether 6.
In Fig. 5, " MA ", which refers to, is transferred to magnetic induction encoder position collection request and timing information (clock) from host computer Magnetic induction encoder;" SLO " refers to position data from magnetic induction encoder transmission to the main interface synchronous with MA;“Timeout” For time-out period, a request circulation starts and another asks to circulate the time between starting.
Incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder data form is acted on, for used in high speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle Synchronous motor, the acquisition of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation current location of asynchronous machine can be handled well.
Asynchronous machine rotor winding because there is relative motion between magnetic field and induced electromotive force and electric current, and with magnetic field phase Interaction produces electromagnetic torque, realizes energy conversion, because torque current is vertical with exciting current electrical angle, position data increment is true Fixed, electricity can normal work on for asynchronous machine;Need to know the position of magnetic pole of rotor when synchronous motor startup, can High-torque starts servomotor, is so accomplished by the definite current location for detecting rotor of absolute value encoder.But magnetic induction Electricity only knows relative position on incremental bus type encoder one, so for synchronous motor, it is necessary to some special processing Mode, such as, with station-keeping data, rotating shaft low speed first turns around, and finds after reference zero signal, then rotated with current spindle Algorithm process, but this processing mode are done in the absolute position of angle, and first lap cannot be used for part processing because torque current with Exciting current electrical angle phase relation is not determined, when machine shaft rotation is after reference zero signal, you can high-torque starts Servomotor, certainly, can be with other software processing methods, such as, high-frequency signal injection, to obtain electricity in engineer applied Phase relation of angle.
Incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder data format transmission method is selected, for synchronous motor, synchronization is overcome Electricity is accomplished by the drawbacks of absolute value encoder definitely detects rotor current location on motor, expands application field, and also have One big advantage, that is, measure that gear is relatively easy to machine, from absolute position magnetic induction encoder then measure gear structure it is complicated, Difficulty of processing is big, requires high to machining tool overall performance.
The incremental magnetic induction type bus type code device signal via 10 core shielded twisted pair lines, by RS485 or RS422 EBIs are exported, the serial communication protocol such as compatible BISS, SSI, and can 20000 revs/min of turn up and more than Under conditions of determine absolute position, can be widely applied to the fields such as Digit Control Machine Tool, robot, elevator and industrial automation.
One of preferred embodiment of the present utility model is the foregoing is only, the utility model is not limited to, it is all Any modifications, equivalent substitutions and improvements made within spirit of the present utility model and principle etc., should be included in this practicality Within new protection domain.

Claims (10)

1. high speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder, it is characterised in that including being sleeved on machine On bed main shaft, electro spindle and with machine tool chief axis, the measurement gear of electro spindle synchronous rotary and with measuring the magnetic that gear is used cooperatively Sense read head;The measurement gear exports magnetic track and reference zero differential signal output magnetic provided with sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal Road;It is thin provided with magnetic induction component, signal conditioning circuit, reference zero comparator circuit and FPGA interpolations in magnetic induction read head Parallel circuit, magnetic induction component is with measuring the just tangent installation of circumference of gear;The magnetic induction component is non-to measuring gear progress Sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal and reference zero differential signal produced by contact type scanning, after signal conditioning circuit, by FPGA interpolations sub-circuit carries out correcting and compensating in real time to its direct current biasing error, amplitude error and quadrature phase error, And reference zero comparator circuit is combined, so as to generate the relative position value of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to the upper electric moment respectively With the absolute position values of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative to reference zero signal.
2. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the FPGA interpolations subdivision Circuit includes direct current biasing error compensation module, amplitude error compensating module, cosine and sine signal and is most worth module, memory module, multiplies Method times frequency module, Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module and rotating shaft anglec of rotation generation module, rotating shaft anglec of rotation generation module with Reference zero comparator circuit, the connection of Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module, direct current biasing error compensation module, amplitude error compensation Module, frequency multiplication module and Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module are sequentially connected, cosine and sine signal be most worth module respectively with direct current Biased error compensating module, amplitude error compensating module, memory module connection, it is just remaining for asking for that cosine and sine signal is most worth module The sampling maximum and minimum value of string signal, memory module are used to store direct current biasing error compensation module, amplitude error compensation Module, cosine and sine signal are most worth the operation result of module.
3. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 2, it is characterised in that the frequency multiplication module Including cosine and sine signal multiplier module, cosine and sine signal phase shift block, adjustment circuit module, wherein cosine and sine signal multiplier module Provided with two, the input of a cosine and sine signal multiplier module is connected with amplitude error compensating module, output end and adjustment electricity Road module connection;The input of another cosine and sine signal multiplier module is mended by cosine and sine signal phase shift block and amplitude error Module connection is repaid, output end is connected with adjustment circuit module, and adjustment circuit module is connected with Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module.
4. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 3, it is characterised in that the direct current biasing error Compensating module and amplitude error compensating module derive the direct current biasing error and amplitude error of cosine and sine signal respectively;Then it is sharp Quadrature phase error is transformed into by direct current biasing error and amplitude error by phase shift, frequency multiplication with frequency multiplication module, passed through Adjustment circuit module is gone after removing DC bias error and adjustment amplitude, and primary signal is used as with the two-way cosine and sine signal of two frequencys multiplication Carry out interpolation subdivision again in Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module;The Coordinate Rotation Digital computing module calculates arc tangent, asks Take phase value, draw rotating shaft anglec of rotation present position values, i.e., relative to the upper electric moment the rotating shaft anglec of rotation relative position Value;
The signal conditioning circuit generates single-ended signal after amplifying shaping, filtering to reference zero differential signal, into referring to zero Point comparator circuit, is converted into the data signal of low and high level, recently enters rotating shaft anglec of rotation generation module, generation relative to The absolute position values of the rotating shaft anglec of rotation of reference zero signal.
5. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 2, it is characterised in that the memory module is position The direct current biasing error compensation mould that FLASH ROM are stored is called in FLASH ROM, FPGA the interpolation sub-circuits in FPGA pieces Block, amplitude error compensating module operation result, to realize that FPGA programs are recalibrated and automatic adjusument to error automatically.
6. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the magnetic induction read head It is 0.1 to 0.3mm positioned at the gap measured above on the outside of gear and between measurement gear.
7. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the magnetic induction read head Seating side with measure gear side be in same plane;The housing bottom of magnetic induction read head is symmetrical provided with what is be easily installed Projection, symmetrical rising height one, which is shown, to be realized magnetic induction component and measures the just tangent installation of circumference of gear, that is, realizes magnetic induction The concentricity that component center, measurement gear, machine tool chief axis are installed.
8. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the ginseng of the measurement gear It is the structure that a circle only has a tooth to examine zero point differential signal output magnetic track, or more defeated than sine and cosine orthogonal differential signal for a circle Go out the structure that magnetic track only lacks a tooth.
9. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the measurement gear is provided with One centre bore for being arranged in live spindle;The measurement gear set specifications modulus is 0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6, 0.8th, 1.0 or 2.0.
10. incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the magnetic induction is read The ADC analog to digital conversion circuits being connected between signal conditioning circuit and FPGA interpolation sub-circuits are additionally provided with head.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106625020A (en) * 2017-02-27 2017-05-10 张道勇 Incremental magnetic induction bus type encoder for high-speed high-precision machine tool main shaft and electric main shaft
CN108981761A (en) * 2018-05-28 2018-12-11 广东工业大学 A kind of incremental rotary encoder

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106625020A (en) * 2017-02-27 2017-05-10 张道勇 Incremental magnetic induction bus type encoder for high-speed high-precision machine tool main shaft and electric main shaft
CN106625020B (en) * 2017-02-27 2019-05-21 张道勇 High speed and super precision machine tool chief axis, electro spindle incremental magnetic induction type bus type encoder
CN108981761A (en) * 2018-05-28 2018-12-11 广东工业大学 A kind of incremental rotary encoder
CN108981761B (en) * 2018-05-28 2021-07-02 广东工业大学 Incremental rotary encoder

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