CN205982257U - Rainfall infiltration analogue means based on indoor native column experiment - Google Patents

Rainfall infiltration analogue means based on indoor native column experiment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN205982257U
CN205982257U CN201620643017.3U CN201620643017U CN205982257U CN 205982257 U CN205982257 U CN 205982257U CN 201620643017 U CN201620643017 U CN 201620643017U CN 205982257 U CN205982257 U CN 205982257U
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China
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rainfall
water
soil
column
pipe
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CN201620643017.3U
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Chinese (zh)
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毛正君
余宾赛
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Xian University of Science and Technology
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Xian University of Science and Technology
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Abstract

Rainfall infiltration analogue means based on indoor native column experiment, analog system include bottom component, connect the native column experiment standard components of the one or more series connection on bottom component and the various ways precipitation analogue means at native column experiment standard components top, analog system adorns native component for a plurality of standard components and by computer automation control, and the survey based on this system implementation rainfall infiltration coefficient and unsaturated permeability coefficient, and testing procedure and computational method have been provided, adopt large diameter undisturbed soil column to carry out laboratory experiment during survey, four kinds of water conservancy boundary condition of precipitation analogue means simulation of application various ways, be that boundary condition is infiltrated entirely in the low -intensity rainfall, the medium strength rainfall has the runoff to infiltrate boundary condition, the high -intensity rainfall is stable infiltrates boundary condition and snow melt and infiltrates boundary condition, the utility model has the characteristics of the practicality is strong, excellent in use effect, convenient to popularize and use.

Description

Precipitation infiltration analog based on indoor soil-column experiment
Technical field
This utility model belongs to unsaturated soil technical field, particularly to a kind of precipitation infiltration based on indoor soil-column experiment Analog.
Background technology
Precipitation is primarily referred to as rainfall and snowfall, and moisture reaches ground from air in a variety of manners, and the precipitation of other forms is also Including dew, frost, hail etc..Precipitation is the important step of hydrologic cycle, is also the basic source of mankind's water.Precipitation data is analysis Rationally big vast low water feelings, the basis of basin damage caused by a drought, is also the planning and designing developing as controlled flood, generating electricity, irrigate etc. of water resource Basis with management application.The process of precipitation recharge of phreatic water is that atmospheric water mutually turns to the soil water to subsoil water " three water " Change one of most basic link in relation, precipitation infiltration is precipitation recharges amount to the increment of subsoil water, and it is subsoil water Main supply mode, meanwhile, is also the important balance element of one of regional water equilibrium calculation.
Soil column leaching is widely used in the research fields such as agricultural, forestry, geology, building and environment.Application soil column leaching Can be in experiment lab simulation soil moisture and contaminant transportation rule.Earth pillar is generally divided into soil column and disturbance earth pillar two Kind.Soil column can be used for testing structure and its physical property of the soil body itself;Current soil column leaching typically adopts disturbed soil Post, disturbance earth pillar is to be formed through screening, or mixes what filling was formed according to a certain percentage, and it can not be used for testing the soil body The architectural characteristic of itself.No matter being tested using which kind of earth pillar, all there is problems with:1. the native component single-unit of soil column leaching dress Length is big, and convenience is poor, so that earth pillar installation difficulty, the cleaning to instrument brings inconvenience;2. monitoring device installation is loaded down with trivial details, needs Earth pillar is holed, to destroy it structural;3. monitoring device is generally artificial observation so that experimental precision is low, artificial property By force.
Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity is Water Transport and solute in description unsaturated soil with the relation of water content or matric potential One of important function relation of conveying, is Soil Slope Stability under analysis precipitation condition, solid wastes landfill site, the moving of underground sewage The important parameter of the problems such as shifting and fill construction.Due to having the presence of matric suction in unsaturated soil it is impossible to be satisfied with conventional Determine its infiltration coefficient with permeability test method so that the determination of unsaturated soil infiltration coefficient has larger difficulty.Unsaturation The mensure of infiltration coefficient both also can be carried out in laboratory at the scene.The advantage of laboratory experiment is can be on the waterpower border setting Under the conditions of test undisturbed sample and reinvent the unsaturation permeance property of sample, simultaneously compared with in-situ bioremediation, the laboratory experiment cycle Short, economical and more ripe.But it is typically due to the difference of composition, structure and the environmental effect of unsaturated soil, result in indoor real Test small specimen used to be difficult to represent the practical situation of the real soil body.
Content of the invention
In order to overcome the defect of above-mentioned prior art, the purpose of this utility model is to provide one kind real based on indoor soil-column The precipitation infiltration analog tested, the soil column based on major diameter carries out laboratory experiment, the Simulation of Precipitation taking various forms Device, the native component of analog dress is for multiple standard elements and by computer automation control, and is realized non-based on this device The mensure of saturation permeability coefficient, has practical, and using effect is good, is easy to the feature promoted the use of.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical solution of the utility model is:
Based on the precipitation infiltration analog of indoor soil-column experiment, including bottom member (1), it is connected to bottom member (1) On the soil column leaching standard element (4) of one or more series connection and soil column leaching standard element (4) top various ways Simulation of Precipitation device (C);
Described bottom member (1) includes the base (1-1) positioned at bottom, and the collection water spot on base (1-1) passes through to mould Material flexible pipe (2) accesses out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3), and plastic flexible pipe (2) is provided with the 3rd flow transducer (3-1), and the 3rd flow passes Sensor (3-1) accesses computer (7);The top of base (1-1) is provided with bearing column (1-2), the top setting of bearing column (1-2) Have high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), the surrounding edge of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) all with bottom member (1) pipe fitting (1-7) Inwall level is close to, and the top of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is provided with filter paper (1-4), the upper surface of filter paper (1-4) and original state Soil sample (12) contacts;The top of pipe fitting (1-7) is provided with external screw thread linkage section (1-6), and external screw thread linkage section (1-6) passes through flange (6) it is connected with soil column leaching standard element (4);
Described soil column leaching standard element (4) passes through soil column leaching mark by two identical semicylinders through clip (4-30) Clip recess (4-3) place of quasi- component (4) tube wall (4-1) connects into a cylinder, the tube wall of soil column leaching standard element (4) (4-1) it is provided with circular aperture (4-4) on, circular aperture (4-4) is used cooperatively with rubber stopper (5-7);Multiple soil column leaching marks Threaded section (4-2) of upper and lower side is attached by quasi- component (4) by flange (6);Insert (5) passes through rubber stopper (5- 7), in insertion undisturbed soil sample (12), data all real-time Transmission that insert (5) inner sensor is gathered are to computer (7), soil Conduction of heat suction probe (4-7) is through in circular aperture (4-4) insertion undisturbed soil sample (12);Soil heat conduction suction pops one's head in (4-7) The data that inner sensor is gathered all real-time Transmission are to computer (7);Soil column leaching standard element is fixed with multiple pressure measurement on (4) Pipe (4-9), each water inlet of multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) is through in circular aperture (4-4) insertion undisturbed soil sample (12);Described inserts Enter part (5) to arrange according to same row on earth pillar, soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) is arranged according to same row on earth pillar, Pressure-measuring pipe (4-9) is arranged according to same row on earth pillar;
Described bearing column (1-2) includes load pillar support (1-22) and bearing column main body (1- fixed thereon 21), described load pillar support (1-22) and base (1-1) are formed in one, and load pillar support (1-22) vertically projects in earth pillar Arrange according to " circumference in center of circle+with base (1-1) radius 1/2 as radius is to five equal portions " mode;Bearing column main body (1- 21) length difference makes base (1-1) assume the gradient;
Described bottom member (1), soil column leaching standard element (4) and cylindrical member (10) are by pyroceram steel Become;
Described insert (5) be provided with insertion needle (5-6), the corner of insert (5) internal pipeline foremost It is provided with rubber sheet gasket (5-1), in internal pipeline, is provided with expelling means (5-2), expelling means (5-2) include Temperature Humidity Sensor and visit Head (4-5) or cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), expelling means (5-2) rear end is attached with wire (9), expelling means (5-2) Afterbody is arranged with light spring (5-4), and the end of light spring (5-4) is provided with prober controller (5-5), insert (5) Outside stage casing is provided with baffle plate (5-3);
Described circular aperture (4-4) shape size is consistent with rubber stopper (5-7) and is tightly combined, and arrangement mode is:Vertical It is separated by arrangement upwards and follows upper tightly lower sparse principle, transversely divide arrangement around soil column leaching standard element (4) outer circumference 8 grade;
Described clip (4-30) is made up of two halves circular steel ring (4-34) and by rivet (4-35) riveting of one end, card Another end connector (4-33) of hoop (4-30) passes through lead screw (4-31) and nut (4-32) to adjust the elastic of clip (4-30) Degree, the standard cylindrical member of making is combined closely;
It is provided with flange screw thread (6-1), the two ends of flange (6) are provided with swing handle (6-2) inside described flange (6);
The described signal end of computer (7) is connected with the signal end of microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) is arranged Temperature sensing input (7-1), humiture is had to detect outfan (7-2), matric suction detection outfan (7-3);Temperature sensing Input (7-1) connects cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) through wire (9), and humiture detects outfan (7-2) through wire (9) Connect Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5), matric suction detects outfan (7-3) and connects soil heat conduction suction through wire (9) Probe (4-7);
Described various ways Simulation of Precipitation device (C) includes low-intensity rainfall full simulating device (16), middle intensity Rainfall has runoff simulating device (17), high-intensity rainfall to stablize simulating device (14) and snow melt simulating device (8);
Described low-intensity rainfall full simulating device (16) includes outside and carves graduated water delivery bucket (16-1), defeated The lower section of water bucket (16-1) is connected with rainfall shower nozzle (16-9) by water-supply-pipe (16-12), and rainfall shower nozzle (16-9) is arranged at Cylindrical member (10) top on soil column leaching standard element (4) top, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) upper table in cylindrical member (10) Face 2-5 centimeters are provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is provided with sieve aperture;U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) light plastic piece (16-8) is provided with the water surface in, described light plastic piece (16-8) form is thin discs, described It is provided with permanent magnet (16-7), the surface of permanent magnet (16-7) sets in circular groove above light plastic piece (16-8) It is equipped with the electric coil (16-6) that bracing wire (16-3) is hung, electric coil (16-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), the upper end of bracing wire (16-3) twines On runner (16-2), runner (16-2) is provided with handle (16-4), runner (16-2) upper end bracing wire (16-3) is passed through The aperture of power component (16-11) is connected with water check valve (16-5) bottom, and water check valve (16-5) lower end is provided with light spring (16-10), described cylindrical member (10) is connected with U-shaped head control pipe (10-2), light plastic piece (16-8), permanent magnet (16-7) move all in the chute (16-13) of U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) with electric coil (16-6);Described chute (16- 13) it is embedded in U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (16-6) is provided with slide rail (16- according to edge trisection 14), described slide rail (16-14) freely can move up and down in chute (16-13);Described low-intensity rainfall full simulating dress Putting (16) controls undisturbed soil sample (12) surface height of water level to be less than 1mm;
Described middle intensity rainfall has the rainfall that runoff simulating device (17) inclusion is arranged in cylindrical member (10) Container (17-9) and the circular rainfall hole (17-10) being arranged on rainfall container (17-9) bottom, exceed former in cylindrical member (10) Shape soil sample (12) upper surface 2-5 centimeters are provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is provided with sieve aperture;Institute The top stating rainfall container (17-9) is provided with rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) and the water inlet being connected with external water source Pipe (17-7);Entering water electromagnetic valve (17-2), water inlet water pump (17-1) are provided with described water inlet pipe (17-7) and are used for rainfall Amount carries out the first flow sensor (17-3) of real-time monitoring;It is provided with pressure on described rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) Power controls electromagnetic valve (17-5) and pressure transducer (17-6), and the afterbody of described rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) connects There is air compressor (17-4);It is provided with for rainfall container (17-9) in the top inner wall of described rainfall container (17-9) Water level carries out the level sensor (17-11) of real-time monitoring;Outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in described cylindrical member (10) Side has outlet (10-1), and outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13), described plastic flexible pipe by plastic flexible pipe (2) (2) it is provided with second flow sensor (13-1) on, described second flow sensor (13-1) accesses computer by wire (9) (7);
Described high-intensity rainfall is stablized simulating device (14) and is included outside quarter graduated water delivery bucket (14-1), The lower section of water delivery bucket (14-1) is connected with rainfall shower nozzle (14-9) by water-supply-pipe (14-12), and rainfall shower nozzle (14-9) is arranged In cylindrical member (10) top on soil column leaching standard element (4) top, exceed in cylindrical member (10) on undisturbed soil sample (12) Surface 2-5 centimeters are provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is provided with sieve aperture;U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) light plastic piece (14-8) is provided with the water surface in, described light plastic piece (14-8) form is thin discs, described It is provided with permanent magnet (14-7), the surface of permanent magnet (14-7) sets in circular groove above light plastic piece (14-8) It is equipped with the electric coil (14-6) that bracing wire (14-3) is hung, electric coil (14-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), the upper end of bracing wire (14-3) twines On runner (14-2), runner (14-2) is provided with handle (14-4), runner (14-2) upper end bracing wire (14-3) is passed through The aperture of power component (14-11) is connected with water check valve (14-5) bottom, and water check valve (14-5) lower end is provided with light spring (14-10), described cylindrical member (10) is connected with U-shaped head control pipe (10-2), light plastic piece (14-8), permanent magnet (14-7) move all in the chute (14-13) of U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) with electric coil (14-6);Described chute (14- 13) it is embedded in U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (14-6) is provided with slide rail (14- according to edge trisection 14), described slide rail (14-14) freely can move up and down in chute (14-13);Simulating is stablized in described high-intensity rainfall It is higher than more than 1cm that device (14) controls undisturbed soil sample (12) surface height of water level;
Described snow melt simulating device (8) includes being arranged on the temperature controller (8-1) outside earth pillar and passing through The Thermal Control Element (8-3) that wire (9) is connected with it, described Thermal Control Element (8-3) is located at below top cover (8-2), top cover (8-2) Top be provided with ultrasonic distance-measuring sensor (8-4), top cover (8-2) be located at soil column leaching standard element (4) top cylinder The top of component (10) and close contact, have outlet (10- outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in cylindrical member (10) 1), described outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13) by plastic flexible pipe (2), and plastic flexible pipe is provided with second on (2) Flow transducer (13-1), described second flow sensor (13-1) accesses computer (7), undisturbed soil sample by wire (9) (12) it is provided with trash ice (11) on.
Advantage of the present utility model:
1. soil column leaching standard element (4) of the present utility model connects into a cylinder by two identical semicylinders Body, can easily carry out undisturbed and the experiment reinventing sample, facilitate the cleaning of experimental apparatus simultaneously, overcome current earth pillar Experiment is difficult to the defect tested and later stage cleaning is complicated using undisturbed.
2. the using cooperatively of rubber stopper (5-7) and insert (5), spilling water when overcoming existing soil column leaching testing element insertion And the defect of water deficit, have that test result is accurate, reliability is high, reusable advantage.
3. soil column leaching standard element (4) can overcome soil column leaching in prior art according to the multiple series connection of requirement of experiment Middle dress soil part single-unit length is big, unhandy defect;And each part of whole system adopts standard element so that experiment is marked Standardization, conventional efficient greatly improves.
4. analog is connected with computer, realizes Automated condtrol, have the characteristics that accuracy, standard are high, gram Take the defect that error in the artificial processing ease of most instrument and equipment at this stage.
5., the utility model proposes various ways Simulation of Precipitation device (C), it is related to multiple intensity rainfall simulating dresses Put and snow melt simulating device;Multiple intensity rainfall simulating devices include low-intensity rainfall full simulating device (16), middle intensity rainfall has runoff simulating device (17) and high-intensity rainfall to stablize simulating device (14);Low-intensity Rainfall full simulating device (16) and high-intensity rainfall are stablized simulating device (14) and are utilized permanent magnet and electric coil magnetic The principle that property is repelled each other, thus control the speed of rainfall;Middle intensity rainfall has runoff simulating device (17) real by air compressor machine Show the control of rainfall intensity;Thermal Control Element (8-3) and cold-hot integrated hardware (4- are passed through in snow melt simulating device (8) 6) realize snow melt low temperature simulating process.
6th, the precipitation infiltration analog based on indoor soil-column experiment, has practical, using effect is good, is easy to promote The feature using.
7th, the soil column Ji Yu major diameter (not less than 50cm) for this utility model carries out laboratory experiment, with traditional interior Experiment small specimen is compared, and can preferably represent the practical situation of the real soil body, compared with in-situ bioremediation, of the present utility model big The experiment of diameter soil column also possess cycle is short, spend less, feature that technological means are ripe.
8th, this utility model proposes the precipitation infiltration analog under various ways based on indoor soil-column experiment, this reality first New reasonable with new structure, can various working that effectively simulated precipitation infiltrates, there is accuracy high, highly reliable.
Brief description
Figure 1A is the general system diagram based on low-intensity rainfall full simulating device.
Figure 1B is the schematic diagram of low-intensity rainfall full simulating device (16).
Fig. 1 C is enlarged drawing at B in Figure 1B.
Fig. 2A is the general system diagram having Runoff Simulation device based on middle intensity rainfall.
Fig. 2 B is the schematic diagram that middle intensity rainfall has runoff simulating device (17).
Fig. 3 A is the general system diagram stably infiltrating device based on high-intensity rainfall.
Fig. 3 B is the schematic diagram that simulating device (14) are stablized in high-intensity rainfall.
Fig. 3 C is enlarged drawing at B in Fig. 3 B.
Fig. 4 A is the general system diagram based on snow melt simulating device.
Fig. 4 B is the schematic diagram of snow melt simulating device (8).
Fig. 5 is the installation diagram of soil column leaching standard element (4) and bottom member (1).
Fig. 6 is tube wall (4-1) schematic diagram in soil column leaching standard element (4), and wherein Fig. 6 A is front view, and Fig. 6 B is backsight Figure.
Fig. 7 is the enlarged drawing at A in Fig. 5.
Fig. 8 is the top view of base (1-1).
Fig. 9 is the schematic diagram of insert (5).
Figure 10 is the cooperation schematic diagram of insert (5) and rubber stopper (5-7).
Figure 11 is the fractionation schematic diagram of clip of the present utility model (4-30).
Figure 12 is the schematic diagram of flange (6).
Figure 13 is the total schematic diagram of this utility model.
Specific embodiment
With reference to the accompanying drawings this utility model is done with detailed narration.
With reference to Figure 13, based on the precipitation infiltration analog of indoor soil-column experiment, including bottom member (1), it is connected to bottom The soil column leaching standard element (4) of the one or more series connection on portion's component (1) and soil column leaching standard element (4) top Various ways Simulation of Precipitation device (C);Described various ways Simulation of Precipitation device (C) includes the full simulating of low-intensity rainfall Device (16), middle intensity rainfall have runoff simulating device (17), high-intensity rainfall to stablize simulating device (14) and melt Snow simulating device (8);
With reference to Fig. 5, described bottom member (1) includes the base (1-1) positioned at bottom, catchmenting on base (1-1) Point accesses out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3) by plastic flexible pipe (2), and plastic flexible pipe (2) is provided with the 3rd flow transducer (3-1), the Three flow transducers (3-1) access computer (7);The top of base (1-1) is provided with bearing column (1-2), bearing column (1-2) Top is provided with high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), and the surrounding edge of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is all managed with bottom member (1) The inwall level of part (1-7) is close to, and the top of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is provided with filter paper (1-4), filter paper (1-4) upper Surface is contacted with undisturbed soil sample (12);The top of pipe fitting (1-7) is provided with external screw thread linkage section (1-6), external screw thread linkage section (1- 6) it is connected with soil column leaching standard element (4) by flange (6);
With reference to Fig. 6, described soil column leaching standard element (4) passes through soil by two identical semicylinders through clip (4-30) Clip recess (4-3) place of column experiments standard element (4) tube wall (4-1) connects into a cylinder, soil column leaching standard element (4) circular aperture (4-4) is provided with tube wall (4-1), circular aperture (4-4) is used cooperatively with rubber stopper (5-7);Multiple soil Threaded section (4-2) of upper and lower side is attached by column experiments standard element (4) by flange (6);Insert (5) passes through rubber In plug (5-7) insertion undisturbed soil sample (12), data all real-time Transmission that insert (5) inner sensor is gathered are to computer (7), soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) is through in circular aperture (4-4) insertion undisturbed soil sample (12);Soil heat conduction suction is visited Data all real-time Transmission that head (4-7) inner sensor is gathered are to computer (7);Soil column leaching standard element is fixed with (4) Multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9), each water inlet of multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) is through in circular aperture (4-4) insertion undisturbed soil sample (12); Described insert (5) is arranged according to same row on earth pillar, and soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) is on earth pillar according to same Row arrangement, pressure-measuring pipe (4-9) is arranged according to same row on earth pillar;
With reference to Fig. 7, Fig. 8, described bearing column (1-2) includes load pillar support (1-22) and load fixed thereon Post main body (1-21), described load pillar support (1-22) and base (1-1) are formed in one, and load pillar support (1-22) is in earth pillar Vertical projection is arranged according to " circumference in center of circle+with base (1-1) radius 1/2 as radius is to five equal portions " mode;Bearing column Main body (1-21) length difference makes base (1-1) assume the gradient;
Described bottom member (1), soil column leaching standard element (4) and cylindrical member (10) are by pyroceram steel Become;
With reference to Fig. 9, Figure 10, described insert (5) be provided with insertion needle (5-6) foremost, insert (5) is internal The corner of pipeline is provided with rubber sheet gasket (5-1), is provided with expelling means (5-2) in internal pipeline, and expelling means (5-2) include temperature Humidity sensor probe (4-5) or cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), expelling means (5-2) rear end is attached with wire (9), The afterbody of expelling means (5-2) is arranged with light spring (5-4), and the end of light spring (5-4) is provided with prober controller (5- 5), the outside stage casing of insert (5) is provided with baffle plate (5-3);
Described circular aperture (4-4) shape size is consistent with rubber stopper (5-7) and is tightly combined, and arrangement mode is:Vertical It is separated by arrangement upwards and follows upper tightly lower sparse principle, transversely divide arrangement around soil column leaching standard element (4) outer circumference 8 grade;
With reference to Figure 11, described clip (4-30) is made up of two halves circular steel ring (4-34) and by the rivet (4- of one end 35) rivet, another end connector (4-33) of clip (4-30) passes through lead screw (4-31) and nut (4-32) to adjust clip (4- 30) tightness, the standard cylindrical member of making is combined closely.
With reference to Figure 12, it is provided with flange screw thread (6-1) inside described flange (6), the two ends of flange (6) are provided with turning handle Handss (6-2);
The described signal end of computer (7) is connected with the signal end of microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) is arranged Temperature sensing input (7-1), humiture is had to detect outfan (7-2), matric suction detection outfan (7-3);Temperature sensing Input (7-1) connects cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) through wire (9), and humiture detects outfan (7-2) through wire (9) Connect Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5), matric suction detects outfan (7-3) and connects soil heat conduction suction through wire (9) Probe (4-7).
Embodiment one
In the present embodiment, multiple intensity rainfall analog matching used with this utility model are that low-intensity rainfall enters entirely Ooze analog (16):
With reference to Fig. 1, described low-intensity rainfall full simulating device (16) includes outside and carves graduated water delivery bucket (16-1), the lower section of water delivery bucket (16-1) is connected with rainfall shower nozzle (16-9) by water-supply-pipe (16-12), rainfall shower nozzle (16- 9) it is arranged at cylindrical member (10) top on soil column leaching standard element (4) top, cylindrical member exceeds undisturbed soil sample in (10) (12) upper surface 2-5 centimeters are provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is provided with sieve aperture;U-shaped head Light plastic piece (16-8) is provided with the water surface in control pipe (10-2), described light plastic piece (16-8) form is thin circle Piece, is provided with permanent magnet (16-7) in the circular groove above described light plastic piece (16-8), permanent magnet (16-7) It is arranged above the electric coil (16-6) that bracing wire (16-3) is hung, electric coil (16-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), bracing wire (16-3) Upper end twine on runner (16-2), runner (16-2) is provided with handle (16-4), runner (16-2) upper end bracing wire (16- 3) it is connected with water check valve (16-5) bottom by putting forth effort the aperture of component (16-11), water check valve (16-5) lower end is provided with gently Matter spring (16-10), described cylindrical member (10) is connected with U-shaped head control pipe (10-2), light plastic piece (16-8), forever Magnet (16-7) and electric coil (16-6) move all in the chute (16-13) of U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) long;Described chute (16-13) it is embedded in U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (16-6) is provided with slide rail according to edge trisection (16-14), described slide rail (16-14) freely can move up and down in chute (16-13);Described low-intensity rainfall is infiltrated entirely Analog (16) controls undisturbed soil sample (12) surface height of water level to be less than 1mm.
The present embodiment operation principle comprises the following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Respectively two pieces of semicylinder tube walls (4-1) of soil column leaching standard element (4) are spliced, to soil column leaching mark The seam of quasi- component (4) is sealed and water-proofing treatment, then clip (4-30) is enclosed within clip recess (4-3), and passes through Nut (4-32) on lead screw part (4-31) is tightly placed on spanner, makes clip (4-30) be enclosed within clip recess (4-3) securely On, then multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) are realized longitudinal spliced by flange (6) series connection;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Choose preprepared undisturbed soil sample (12), undisturbed soil sample (12) is erect on the ground, will connect Multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) entangle undisturbed soil sample (12), by undisturbed soil sample (12) and soil column leaching standard element (4) Between gap using sealing and water-proofing treatment ensure subsequent experimental when water directly do not flow down from gap;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
First base (1-1) is positioned on level ground, then bearing column main body (1-21) is mounted on corresponding load On pillar support (1-22), high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) are placed horizontally above bearing column main body (1-21), described high air inlet Value pottery clay plates (1-3) upper surface is equipped with filter paper (1-4), described bearing column main body (1-21), high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), It is internal that filter paper (1-4) is respectively positioned on pipe fitting (1-7);In the external plastic flexible pipe (2) of catchment extreme lower position one apopore of setting, will The other end of described plastic flexible pipe (2) accesses out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3), and upper the 3rd flow of installing of wherein said plastic flexible pipe (2) passes Sensor (3-1), described 3rd flow transducer (3-1) accesses computer (7) by wire (9);Flange screw thread by flange (6) (6-1) flange (6) is closely installed at bottom member (1) by swing handle (6-2) by be aligned external screw thread linkage section (1-6) Top, the undisturbed soil sample (12) that the soil column leaching standard element (4) then assembling splicing entangles together with it passes through earth pillar The flange screw thread of the flange (6) of the bottom thread linkage section (4-2) of experimental standard component (4) and described bottom member (1) upper end (6-1) assembled, so that the undisturbed soil sample (12) that the soil column leaching standard element (4) that splicing assembles entangles together with it is located at Cylindrical member (10) is attached by the surface of bottom member (1) filter paper (1-4) finally by flange (6);
Step 4, the original state of mensure undisturbed soil sample
The initial aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12):Multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are respectively to undisturbed soil sample (12) Humidity once monitored, and the signal monitoring is passed to microcontroller (7-0), microcontroller (7-0) is by monitoring signals By serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) receives and records undisturbed soil sample at multiple test points (12) moisture signal, and the moisture signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point is recorded as undisturbed soil at each test point Initial aqueous rate θ of sample (12)c
The initial temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12):Multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are respectively to undisturbed soil sample (12) Temperature is once monitored, and the signal monitoring is passed to microcontroller (7-0), and monitoring signals are led to by microcontroller (7-0) Cross serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) receives and records undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test points Temperature signal, and the temperature signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point is recorded as undisturbed soil sample at each test point (12) initial temperature Tc
The matric suction of undisturbed soil sample (12):Multiple soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) are respectively to undisturbed soil sample (12) Matric suction once monitored, and the signal monitoring is passed to microcontroller (7-0), microcontroller (7-0) will be monitored Signal passes through serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), and computer (7) receives and records undisturbed soil at multiple test points The matric suction signal of sample (12), and the matric suction signal record of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point is tested for each The initial substrate suction F of undisturbed soil sample (12) at pointac
The head height of undisturbed soil sample (12):Multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) are entered to the head height of undisturbed soil sample (12) respectively Row monitoring obtains each test point starting stage corresponding head height hc
The saturated aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12):Other soil samples that the sampling spot of undisturbed soil sample (12) is taken back are satisfied And measurement of water-content coefficient, as the saturated aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12);Soil sampling is put in weighing box, for its water filling up to the water surface Submergence soil sample, unnecessary water is removed by submergence for 10 minutes afterwards, and quality is called m, puts in baking oven by soil sample and weighing box afterwards, Dried, be placed on afterwards on balance carry out weighing quality is ms, utilize formula afterwardsMeter Saturated aqueous rate θ of undisturbed soil sample (12) is tried to achieve in calculationsat
Step 5, simulation low-intensity rainfall are infiltrated entirely
(1), add water (15) into water delivery bucket (16-1), so that water check valve (16-5) is closed, then beat Opening and closing water valve (16-5), water (15) flow to the water resistant in cylindrical member (10) through water-supply-pipe (16-12) from rainfall shower nozzle (16-9) Press on shock plate (A), then reach the upper surface of undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate (A) resistant to pressure plays protection undisturbed soil sample (12) do not acted on by rainfall erosion;Above the light plastic piece (16-8) in U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) and its Permanent magnet (16-7) rises under the buoyancy of water (15), reaches identical with the interior height of water level of cylindrical member (10), when upper The interior water level of cylindrical member (10) in portion rises to when exceeding undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface 1mm, gives electric coil by wire (9) (16-6) supply electric forming electric magnet, drive runner (16-2) to rotate by handle (16-4) simultaneously, described runner (16-2) twines There is bracing wire (16-3), described electric coil (16-6) moves vertically in chute (16-13) with bracing wire (16-3), swing handle (16-4) adjustment bracing wire (16-3) length makes water check valve (16-5) close to closed mode in the presence of light spring (16-10) To carry out coarse adjustment, the size of the connect supply voltage of outer lead (9) then changing electric coil (16-6), to carry out accurate adjustment, makes this When water check valve (16-5) just at closed mode;When the water level in U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) is with the cylinder structure on top During water level decreasing in part (10), described light plastic piece (16-8) and permanent magnet (16-7) also decline therewith, permanent magnet (16-7) magnetic force and electric coil (16-6) between reduces, and the load that described light spring (16-10) is subject to increases generation and compresses Deformation, the water check valve (16-5) on light spring (16-10) is opened, and water (15) continues on through water-supply-pipe (16-12) from rainfall Shower nozzle (16-9) flows in cylindrical member (10) and is fed;When the height of water level of supply is more than 1mm again, water check valve (16- 5) would be at closed mode, when the height of water level of supply is again less than 1mm, water check valve (16-5) opens continuation supply, from And simulated low-intensity rainfall and entirely infiltrated boundary condition;
(2), in the simulation full infiltration process of low-intensity rainfall, ooze out water in undisturbed soil sample (12) from limbers (1-5) Interior outflow simultaneously flows into out milliosmolarity measurement measuring cup (3) through plastic flexible pipe (2);In the full infiltration process of low-intensity rainfall, observe When the moisturizing of water delivery bucket (16-1) is spaced apart more than 2 hours, illustrates to reach and infiltrate stable, closing water system, stop experiment; Now, the difference of the water yield do not penetrated in the loss amount of the interior water of water delivery bucket (16-1) and cylindrical member (10) is recorded as total rainfall Qz, under the full Infiltration Condition of low-intensity rainfall, total rainfall QzNumerically equal to infiltration capacity θi;Now, check out milliosmolarity measurement amount Ooze out the amount of undisturbed soil sample (12) water in cup (3), and this read-record is to go out milliosmolarity under the full Infiltration Condition of low-intensity rainfall θi
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are supervised to the humiture of the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process respectively Survey, and the signal monitoring is passed to microcontroller (7-0), monitoring signals are passed through serial communication circuit by microcontroller (7-0) To computer (7), computer (7) receives and records the temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test points, humidity letter to real-time Transmission Number, and by the temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point, that moisture signal is recorded as each test point record moment is corresponding Temperature Ti, moisture content θi;Multiple soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) bases to the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process respectively Matter suction is monitored, and the matric suction monitoring signal is passed to microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) will monitor letter Number by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) receives and records undisturbed soil sample at multiple test points (12) matric suction signal, and the matric suction signal record of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point is each test point Record moment corresponding matric suction Fa;Multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) are monitored to the head height of undisturbed soil sample (12) respectively Obtain each test point record moment corresponding head height hi
Above-mentioned all of monitoring, its monitoring temporal frequency setting is as follows:In precipitation infiltration 5 minutes, record time interval is 5 Second, in precipitation infiltration 5-15 minute, record time interval is 10 seconds, and in precipitation infiltration 15-30 minute, record time interval is 15 Second, in precipitation infiltration 30-60 minute, record time interval is 20 seconds, and it is 60 that precipitation infiltration records time interval for 60 minutes later Second, until experiment reaches more than 2-4 hour after stably;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Temperature T to a certain moment being recordedi, matric suction FaMonitoring Data does interpolation processing, obtains a certain moment former Temperature cloud picture corresponding to shape soil sample (12) and matric suction cloud atlas;Simultaneously to a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12) institute being recorded Corresponding moisture content θiMonitoring Data does interpolation processing, obtains the corresponding moisture content cloud atlas of a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12);
According to the Changing Pattern of moisture content cloud atlas, find out the position of the moistening forward corresponding to each moment, described moistening The position of forward refers to the part that moisture content between the edge of humid zone, and the non-humid zone in bottom has substantially mutation, everybody Put line and form moistening front forward line, thus observing the Changing Pattern of moistening forward position t in time;According to moisture content cloud atlas, according to According to the size of moisture content, find out saturated aqueous rate θ corresponding to each momentsatContour, so that it is determined that fully saturated band, Described fully saturated with definition be that moisture fully saturated part occurs in earth pillar upper surface certain depth below;As moistening forward With fully saturated band when occurring in the same monitoring moment, described moisten front forward line and saturated aqueous rate θsatArea between contour Domain is defined as precipitation infiltration intermediate zone;
Draw matric suction FaWith moisture content θiGraph of a relation, thus respectively obtaining the soil-structure interaction of each soil layer;
Step 8, precipitation infiltration coefficient calculate
According to formula Qr=Qz-Qj, it is calculated precipitation infiltration amount Qr, unit is cm3;Wherein QzFor gross precipitation, unit For cm3;QjFor precipitation runoff amount, unit is cm3
According to formula △ S=Qr-Qc, it is calculated the water deficit amount △ S of precipitation infiltration, unit is cm3;Wherein QrFor Precipitation infiltration amount, unit is cm3;QcGo out milliosmolarity for precipitation, unit is cm3
According to formula Vr=Qr/ t is calculated precipitation infiltration rate Vr, unit is cm3/s;Wherein QrFor precipitation infiltration amount, list Position is cm3;T is the experiment test time, and unit is s;
According to formula Vc=Qc/ t is calculated precipitation and goes out to ooze rate Vc, unit is cm3/s;Wherein QcGo out milliosmolarity for precipitation, single Position is cm3;T is the experiment test time, and unit is s;
According to formula α=Qc/QzIt is calculated precipitation infiltration factor alpha, unit is dimensionless;Wherein QcGo out milliosmolarity for precipitation, Unit is cm3;QzFor gross precipitation, unit is cm3
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Based on the precipitation infiltration of soil column leaching, one-dimensional Vertical Infiltration can be generalized as, its mathematical model is as follows
Darcy law is substituted into above equation (1) obtain
For unsaturated soil, osmotic coefficient k and moisture content existence function relation, so equation (2) can turn to following formula
The theory being proposed according to Fredlund&Morgenstern, the normal stress (σ-u suffered by samplea) and substrate suction The change of force value will cause volumetric water content θwChange, that is,
In formula:σ total stress;
m1 wWith normal stress (σ-ua) the relevant water of change change in volume coefficient;
With matric suction (ua-uw) the relevant water of change change in volume coefficient;
By equation (4) to time diffusion, meanwhile, soil body unit during unsteady state flow through porous medium does not have external load and makees With it is assumed that continuously constant in non-saturated region gas phase, obtaining
Wherein: The i.e. slope of soil-structure interaction;
By (3), (5) Shi Ke get
Wherein:K is Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity, and unit is dimensionless;H is gross head height, and unit is cm;Y surveys for earth pillar Point height, unit is cm;γwFor the severe of water, unit is N/m3For the slope of soil-structure interaction, unit is immeasurable Guiding principle;T is the time, and unit is s;
Try to achieve the Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity k at any time earth pillar arbitrary height according to equation (6), drawn using interpolation method Its scattergram.
Embodiment two
In the present embodiment, multiple intensity rainfall analog matching used with this utility model are that middle intensity rainfall has footpath Stream simulating device (17);
With reference to Fig. 2, described middle intensity rainfall has runoff simulating device (17) to include being arranged on cylindrical member (10) Interior rainfall container (17-9) and the circular rainfall hole (17-10) being arranged on rainfall container (17-9) bottom, cylindrical member (10) Inside exceed undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface 2-5 centimeters and be provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is upper to be arranged There is sieve aperture;The top of described rainfall container (17-9) is provided with rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) and is connected with external water source The water inlet pipe (17-7) connecing;Entering water electromagnetic valve (17-2), water inlet water pump (17-1) are provided with described water inlet pipe (17-7) and use In the first flow sensor (17-3) that rainfall is carried out with real-time monitoring;On described rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) It is provided with electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) and pressure transducer (17-6), described rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) Afterbody is connected with air compressor (17-4);It is provided with for rainfall container in the top inner wall of described rainfall container (17-9) (17-9) water level carries out the level sensor (17-11) of real-time monitoring;Undisturbed soil sample (12) in described cylindrical member (10) Outlet (10-1) is had, outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13) by plastic flexible pipe (2), described outside upper surface Second flow sensor (13-1) is provided with plastic flexible pipe (2), described second flow sensor (13-1) is connect by wire (9) Enter computer (7).
The present embodiment operation principle comprises the following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 4, the original state of mensure undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
In step 5, simulation, intensity rainfall has runoff to infiltrate
(1), computer (7) sends the current supply circuit that signal connects air compressor (17-4), and then driving pressure controls Electromagnetic valve (17-5) is opened, and air compressor (17-4) starts, and the compressed air of generation is through electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) Enter in rainfall container (17-9) by rainfall pressure control pipe (17-8) in rainfall container after adjusting pressure, by rainfall container (17-9) water in sprays from circular rainfall hole (17-10), reaches the shock plate resistant to pressure (A) in cylindrical member (10) afterwards On, then the upper surface to undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate (A) resistant to pressure plays and protects undisturbed soil sample (12) not invaded by rainfall The effect of erosion, having simulated middle intensity rainfall has runoff to infiltrate boundary condition;In middle intensity rainfall simulation process, pressure transducer (17-6) real-time monitoring is carried out simultaneously to the compressed air pressure of rainfall pressure control pipe (17-8) in rainfall container (17-9) The pressure that the signal output monitoring is set with experiment to computer (7), the pressure monitoring value that computer (7) is received Threshold value is compared, and when pressure monitoring value is less than pressure threshold, computer (7) driving pressure controls electromagnetic valve (17-5) to open Aperture increase, when pressure monitoring value is more than pressure threshold, computer (7) driving pressure controls electromagnetic valve (17-5) to open Aperture reduces, so that the compressed air pressure of rainfall pressure control pipe (17-8) maintains pressure in rainfall container (17-9) In the range of force threshold;Meanwhile, described level sensor (17-11) carries out real-time monitoring simultaneously to the water level in rainfall container (17-9) The water level that the signal output monitoring is set with experiment to computer (7), the water level monitoring value that computer (7) is received Setting value is compared, and when water level monitoring value is less than water level settings value, computer (7) controls connects water inlet water pump (17-1) Current supply circuit, and drive entering water electromagnetic valve (17-2) to open, the water that external water source flows out flows into rainfall by water inlet pipe (17-7) In container (17-9), when water level monitoring value is more than water level settings value, computer (7) controls the confession disconnecting water inlet water pump (17-1) The electric loop, and drive entering water electromagnetic valve (17-2) to close, stop water filling interior toward rainfall container (17-9), so that rainfall container (17-9) in water level maintain stable it is ensured that persistently the carrying out of rainfall;
(2), intensity rainfall has in runoff infiltration process in simulations, does not penetrate into water in undisturbed soil sample (12) from outlet (10-1) flow out in and flow into run-off measuring cup (13) through plastic flexible pipe (2), ooze out water in undisturbed soil sample (12) from water flowing Flow out in hole (1-5) and flow into out milliosmolarity measurement measuring cup (3) through plastic flexible pipe (2);During intensity rainfall in simulation, runoff Amount measuring cup (13) is monitored and records to the amount of the water not penetrated in undisturbed soil sample (12), when two adjacent sampling instants The difference not penetrating into the amount of water in undisturbed soil sample (12) is less than or equal to 1cm3When, illustrate to have reached and infiltrate stable, closing water supply System, stops experiment;Now, first flow sensor (17-3) carries out real-time monitoring will be real for the signal monitoring to rainfall When export to computer (7) and be recorded as total rainfall Qz;Check in runoff measurement measuring cup (13) and do not penetrate into undisturbed soil sample (12) amount of the water in, and this read-record is flow mode Qj;Check out in milliosmolarity measurement measuring cup (3) and ooze out undisturbed soil The amount of the water of sample (12), and this read-record is gone out milliosmolarity Q for rainfallc
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 8, precipitation infiltration coefficient calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one.
Embodiment three
In the present embodiment, multiple intensity rainfall analog matching used with this utility model are that high-intensity rainfall is stable Simulating device (14);
With reference to Fig. 3, described high-intensity rainfall is stablized simulating device (14) and is included outside quarter graduated water delivery water Bucket (14-1), the lower section of water delivery bucket (14-1) is connected with rainfall shower nozzle (14-9) by water-supply-pipe (14-12), rainfall shower nozzle (14-9) it is arranged at cylindrical member (10) top on soil column leaching standard element (4) top, cylindrical member exceeds original state in (10) Soil sample (12) upper surface 2-5 centimeters are provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is provided with sieve aperture;U-shaped Light plastic piece (14-8) is provided with the water surface in head control pipe (10-2), described light plastic piece (14-8) form is thin Disk, is provided with permanent magnet (14-7), permanent magnet (14-7) in the circular groove above described light plastic piece (14-8) Be arranged above the electric coil (14-6) that bracing wire (14-3) is hung, electric coil (14-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), bracing wire (14- 3) upper end twines on runner (14-2), and runner (14-2) is provided with handle (14-4), runner (14-2) upper end bracing wire (14-3) it is connected with water check valve (14-5) bottom by putting forth effort the aperture of component (14-11), water check valve (14-5) lower end is arranged There is light spring (14-10), described cylindrical member (10) is connected with U-shaped head control pipe (10-2), light plastic piece (14- 8), permanent magnet (14-7) and electric coil (14-6) move all in the chute (14-13) of U-shaped head control pipe (10-2);Institute State chute (14-13) and be embedded in U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (14-6) is arranged according to edge trisection There is slide rail (14-14), described slide rail (14-14) freely can move up and down in chute (14-13);Described high-intensity rainfall is steady Determine simulating device (14) to control undisturbed soil sample (12) surface height of water level is higher than more than 1cm.
The present embodiment operation principle comprises the following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 4, the original state of mensure undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 5, simulation high-intensity rainfall are stably infiltrated
(1), add water (15) into water delivery bucket (14-1), so that water check valve (14-5) is closed, then beat Opening and closing water valve (14-5), described water (15) flow in cylindrical member (10) from rainfall shower nozzle (14-9) through water-supply-pipe (14-12) On shock plate (A) resistant to pressure, then reach the upper surface of undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate (A) resistant to pressure plays protection original state Soil sample (12) is not acted on by rainfall erosion;Light plastic piece (14-8) in U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) is with thereon The permanent magnet (14-7) of side rises under the buoyancy of water (15), reaches identical with the interior height of water level of cylindrical member (10), When water level rises to default high experimental in the cylindrical member (10) on top, power to electric coil (14-6) by wire (9) Form electric magnet, drive runner (14-2) to rotate by handle (14-4) simultaneously, described runner (14-2) is tied with bracing wire (14- 3), described electric coil (14-6) moves vertically in chute (14-13) with bracing wire (14-3), and swing handle (14-4) adjustment is drawn Line (14-3) length makes water check valve (14-5) carry out coarse adjustment close to closed mode in the presence of light spring (14-10), Then the size of the connect supply voltage of outer lead (9) changing electric coil (14-6), to carry out accurate adjustment, makes now water check valve (14-5) just at closed mode;When the water level in U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) is with the cylindrical member (10) on top Water level decreasing when, described light plastic piece (14-8) and permanent magnet (14-7) also decline therewith, permanent magnet (14-7) with Magnetic force between electric coil (14-6) reduces, and the load that described light spring (14-10) is subject to increases generation compressive deformation, is located at Water check valve (14-5) on light spring (14-10) is opened, and water (15) continues on through water-supply-pipe (14-12) from rainfall shower nozzle (14-9) Flow in cylindrical member (10) and fed;When the height of water level of supply is more than default high experimental again, water check valve (14- 5) would be at closed mode, when the height of water level of supply is again less than default high experimental, water check valve (14-5) is opened and continued Continuous supply, has simulated high-intensity rainfall and has stably infiltrated boundary condition;
(2), stablize in infiltration process in simulation high-intensity rainfall, ooze out water in undisturbed soil sample (12) from limbers (1- 5) flow out in and flow into out milliosmolarity measurement measuring cup (3) through plastic flexible pipe (2);Stablize in infiltration process in high-intensity rainfall, see When measuring the moisturizing of water delivery bucket (14-1) and being spaced apart more than 2 hours, illustrate to reach infiltrate stable;Now, water delivery bucket (14- 1) loss amount of interior water (15) is recorded as total rainfall Qz, meanwhile, by the loss amount of interior for water delivery bucket (14-1) water (15) and circle The difference of the amount of water do not penetrated in post component (10) is recorded as rainfall infiltration amount Qr, check out in milliosmolarity measurement measuring cup (3) and ooze out The amount of the water of undisturbed soil sample (12), and this read-record is gone out milliosmolarity Q for rainfallc
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 8, precipitation infiltration coefficient calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one.
Example IV
In the present embodiment, multiple intensity rainfall analog matching used with this utility model are snow melt simulating dresses Put (8);
With reference to Fig. 4, described snow melt simulating device (8) includes being arranged on the temperature controller (8-1) outside earth pillar And the Thermal Control Element (8-3) being connected with it by wire (9), described Thermal Control Element (8-3) is located at below top cover (8-2), The top of top cover (8-2) is provided with ultrasonic distance-measuring sensor (8-4), and top cover (8-2) is located on soil column leaching standard element (4) The top of cylindrical member (10) in portion and close contact, have out outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in cylindrical member (10) The mouth of a river (10-1), described outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13) by plastic flexible pipe (2), and plastic flexible pipe sets on (2) It is equipped with second flow sensor (13-1), described second flow sensor (13-1) accesses computer (7) by wire (9), former Trash ice (11) is provided with shape soil sample (12).
The present embodiment operation principle comprises the following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 4, the original state of mensure undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 5, analogsimulation snow melt are infiltrated
(1), computer (7) sends the current supply circuit that signal connects temperature controller (8-1), thus controlling Thermal Control Element (8-3) it is heated to default experimental temperature T1, temperature controller (8-1) carries out real-time monitoring and will monitor to Thermal Control Element (8-3) The signal real-time Transmission arriving is preset real to computer (7), the monitor value that computer (7) is received and Thermal Control Element (8-3) Test temperature T1Mutually compare, preset experimental temperature T when monitor value reaches Thermal Control Element (8-3)1When, computer (7) is to temperature controller (8-1) send the current supply circuit that signal disconnects Thermal Control Element (8-3), Thermal Control Element (8-3) stops heating, adjust when monitor value is less than Warm element (8-3) presets experimental temperature T1When, computer (7) sends signal through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature controller (8-1) Connect the current supply circuit of Thermal Control Element (8-3), Thermal Control Element (8-3) begins to warm up so that Thermal Control Element (8-3) remain pre- If experimental temperature T1;Default experimental temperature T1Scope be 0 DEG C~80 DEG C;
(2), computer (7) send signal through microcontroller (7-0) from temperature sensing input (7-1) through wire (9) to Reach cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) to start working, so that undisturbed soil sample (12) is reached Default experimental temperature T2;During snow melt simulating, Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5) being embedded in undisturbed soil sample (12) is right Nearby the temperature of soil carries out real-time monitoring and the signal monitoring passes through through wire (9) humiture of microcontroller (7-0) Outfan (7-2) real-time Transmission is to computer (7), the temperature monitoring value that computer (7) is received and cold-hot integrated metal Experimental temperature T preset by element (4-6)2Mutually compare, when temperature monitoring value is higher than that experiment temperature preset by cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) Degree T2When, computer (7) sends signal through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature sensing input (7-1) and controls cold-hot integrated metal Element (4-6) starts to freeze, when temperature monitoring value is less than cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) experimental temperature T2When, computer (7) Sending signal through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature sensing input (7-1) controls cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) to start to add Heat, so that the temperature of cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) remains default experimental temperature T2, simulated snow melt low temperature and infiltrated Condition;Default experimental temperature T2Scope be -20 DEG C~20 DEG C;
(3), during simulation snow melt is infiltrated, do not penetrate into water in undisturbed soil sample (12) from described outlet (10-1) Interior outflow simultaneously flows into run-off measuring cup (13) through plastic flexible pipe (2);Ooze out water in undisturbed soil sample (12) from described limbers (1-5) flow out in and flow into out milliosmolarity measurement measuring cup (3) through plastic flexible pipe (2);In snow melt infiltration process, when adjacent two The difference of the amount of water do not penetrated in undisturbed soil sample (12) of individual sampling instant is less than or equal to 1cm3When, illustrate that having reached snow melt enters Ooze stable, stop experiment;Now, check the amount of the water not penetrated in runoff measurement measuring cup (13) in undisturbed soil sample (12), and This read-record is snowflow discharge Qj;Check out the amount of the water oozing out undisturbed soil sample (12) in milliosmolarity measurement measuring cup (3), and This read-record is gone out milliosmolarity Q for snow meltc;Moisture content θ at upper epidermis when infiltrating stable according to undisturbed soil sample (12), in conjunction with former Initial aqueous rate θ at shape soil sample (12) upper epidermisc, thus conversing snow melt infiltration capacity Qr;Snow melt infiltration capacity QrWith snowmelt runoff Amount QjAnd as total amount of snowmelt amount Qz
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 8, precipitation infiltration coefficient calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one.

Claims (6)

1. the precipitation infiltration analog based on indoor soil-column experiment is it is characterised in that including bottom member (1), being connected to bottom The soil column leaching standard element (4) of the one or more series connection on portion's component (1) and soil column leaching standard element (4) top Various ways Simulation of Precipitation device (C);
Described bottom member (1) includes the base (1-1) positioned at bottom, and it is soft that the collection water spot on base (1-1) passes through plastics Pipe (2) accesses out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3), and plastic flexible pipe (2) is provided with the 3rd flow transducer (3-1), the 3rd flow transducer (3-1) access computer (7);The top of base (1-1) is provided with bearing column (1-2), and the top of bearing column (1-2) is provided with height Air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), the surrounding edge of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) inwall all with bottom member (1) pipe fitting (1-7) Level is close to, and the top of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is provided with filter paper (1-4), the upper surface of filter paper (1-4) and undisturbed soil sample (12) contact;The top of pipe fitting (1-7) is provided with external screw thread linkage section (1-6), and external screw thread linkage section (1-6) passes through flange (6) It is connected with soil column leaching standard element (4);
Described soil column leaching standard element (4) passes through soil column leaching standard structure by two identical semicylinders through clip (4-30) Clip recess (4-3) place of part (4) tube wall (4-1) connects into a cylinder, the tube wall (4- of soil column leaching standard element (4) 1) it is provided with circular aperture (4-4) on, circular aperture (4-4) is used cooperatively with rubber stopper (5-7);Multiple soil column leaching standard structures Threaded section (4-2) of upper and lower side is attached by part (4) by flange (6);Insert (5) passes through rubber stopper (5-7) and inserts Enter in undisturbed soil sample (12), data all real-time Transmission that insert (5) inner sensor is gathered pass to computer (7), Soil Thermal Lead suction probe (4-7) through in circular aperture (4-4) insertion undisturbed soil sample (12);Pass in soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) The data that sensor is gathered all real-time Transmission are to computer (7);Soil column leaching standard element is fixed with multiple pressure-measuring pipes on (4) (4-9), each water inlet of multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) is through in circular aperture (4-4) insertion undisturbed soil sample (12);Described insertion Part (5) is arranged according to same row on earth pillar, and soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) is arranged according to same row on earth pillar, surveys Pressure pipe (4-9) is arranged according to same row on earth pillar;
Described various ways Simulation of Precipitation device (C) includes low-intensity rainfall full simulating device (16), middle intensity rainfall Runoff simulating device (17), high-intensity rainfall is had to stablize simulating device (14) and snow melt simulating device (8);
Described low-intensity rainfall full simulating device (16) includes outside and carves graduated water delivery bucket (16-1), water delivery water The lower section of bucket (16-1) is connected with rainfall shower nozzle (16-9) by water-supply-pipe (16-12), and rainfall shower nozzle (16-9) is arranged at earth pillar Cylindrical member (10) top on experimental standard component (4) top, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface 2-5 in cylindrical member (10) Centimeters are provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is provided with sieve aperture;In U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) The water surface on be provided with light plastic piece (16-8), described light plastic piece (16-8) form be thin discs, described light plastic Be provided with permanent magnet (16-7) in circular groove above piece (16-8), permanent magnet (16-7) be arranged above bracing wire (16-3) electric coil (16-6) hung, electric coil (16-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), and the upper end of bracing wire (16-3) twines in runner (16-2), on, runner (16-2) is provided with handle (16-4), runner (16-2) upper end bracing wire (16-3) is by putting forth effort component (16-11) aperture is connected with water check valve (16-5) bottom, and water check valve (16-5) lower end is provided with light spring (16-10), Described cylindrical member (10) is connected with U-shaped head control pipe (10-2), light plastic piece (16-8), permanent magnet (16-7) and Electric coil (16-6) moves all in the chute (16-13) of U-shaped head control pipe (10-2);Described chute (16-13) is embedded in U-shaped Head control pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (16-6) is provided with slide rail (16-14) according to edge trisection, described Slide rail (16-14) freely can move up and down in chute (16-13);Described low-intensity rainfall full simulating device (16) control Undisturbed soil sample (12) surface processed height of water level is less than 1mm;
Described middle intensity rainfall has the rainfall container that runoff simulating device (17) inclusion is arranged in cylindrical member (10) (17-9) with the circular rainfall hole (17-10) being arranged on rainfall container (17-9) bottom, cylindrical member exceeds undisturbed soil in (10) Sample (12) upper surface 2-5 centimeters are provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is provided with sieve aperture;Described fall The top of rain container (17-9) is provided with rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) and the water inlet pipe being connected with external water source (17-7);Entering water electromagnetic valve (17-2), water inlet water pump (17-1) are provided with described water inlet pipe (17-7) and are used for rainfall Carry out the first flow sensor (17-3) of real-time monitoring;It is provided with pressure on described rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) Control electromagnetic valve (17-5) and pressure transducer (17-6), the afterbody of described rainfall container inner pressure control pipe (17-8) is connected with Air compressor (17-4);It is provided with for the water to rainfall container (17-9) in the top inner wall of described rainfall container (17-9) Position carries out the level sensor (17-11) of real-time monitoring;Outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in described cylindrical member (10) Have outlet (10-1), outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13), described plastic flexible pipe by plastic flexible pipe (2) (2) it is provided with second flow sensor (13-1) on, described second flow sensor (13-1) accesses computer by wire (9) (7);
Described high-intensity rainfall is stablized simulating device (14) and is included outside quarter graduated water delivery bucket (14-1), water delivery The lower section of bucket (14-1) is connected with rainfall shower nozzle (14-9) by water-supply-pipe (14-12), and rainfall shower nozzle (14-9) is arranged at soil Cylindrical member (10) top on column experiments standard element (4) top, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in cylindrical member (10) 2-5 centimeters are provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate (A) resistant to pressure is provided with sieve aperture;U-shaped head control pipe (10- 2) light plastic piece (14-8) is provided with the water surface in, described light plastic piece (14-8) form is thin discs, described lightweight It is provided with permanent magnet (14-7), permanent magnet (14-7) is arranged above in circular groove above plastic sheet (14-8) The electric coil (14-6) that bracing wire (14-3) is hung, electric coil (14-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), and the upper end of bracing wire (14-3) twines in turning On wheel (14-2), runner (14-2) is provided with handle (14-4), runner (14-2) upper end bracing wire (14-3) is by putting forth effort structure The aperture of part (14-11) is connected with water check valve (14-5) bottom, and water check valve (14-5) lower end is provided with light spring (14- 10), described cylindrical member (10) is connected with U-shaped head control pipe (10-2), light plastic piece (14-8), permanent magnet (14- 7) move all in the chute (14-13) of U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) with electric coil (14-6);Described chute (14-13) is embedding In U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (14-6) is provided with slide rail (14-14) according to edge trisection, Described slide rail (14-14) freely can move up and down in chute (14-13);Simulating device is stablized in described high-intensity rainfall (14) undisturbed soil sample (12) surface height of water level is controlled to be higher than more than 1cm;
Described snow melt simulating device (8) includes the temperature controller (8-1) being arranged on outside earth pillar and passes through wire (9) Thermal Control Element (8-3) being connected with it, described Thermal Control Element (8-3) is located at below top cover (8-2), the top of top cover (8-2) Portion is provided with ultrasonic distance-measuring sensor (8-4), and top cover (8-2) is located at the cylindrical member on soil column leaching standard element (4) top (10) top and close contact, have outlet (10-1) outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in cylindrical member (10), Described outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13) by plastic flexible pipe (2), and plastic flexible pipe is provided with second flow on (2) Sensor (13-1), described second flow sensor (13-1) accesses computer (7) by wire (9), on undisturbed soil sample (12) It is provided with trash ice (11).
2. the precipitation infiltration analog based on indoor soil-column experiment according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that described Bearing column (1-2) includes load pillar support (1-22) and bearing column main body (1-21) fixed thereon, and described bearing column props up Seat (1-22) is formed in one with base (1-1), load pillar support (1-22) earth pillar vertically project according to " center of circle+with Base (1-1) radius 1/2 is the circumference of radius to five equal portions " mode arranges;Bearing column main body (1-21) length difference makes bottom Seat (1-1) assumes the gradient;
Described bottom member (1), soil column leaching standard element (4) and cylindrical member (10) are made by high temperature resistant glass fibre reinforced plastic.
3. the precipitation infiltration analog based on indoor soil-column experiment according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that described Insert (5) be provided with insertion needle (5-6) foremost, the corner of insert (5) internal pipeline is provided with rubber sheet gasket (5-1), it is provided with expelling means (5-2) in internal pipeline, it is (4-5) or cold and hot that expelling means (5-2) include Temperature Humidity Sensor probe Unitary metallic element (4-6), expelling means (5-2) rear end is attached with wire (9), and the afterbody of expelling means (5-2) is arranged with gently Matter spring (5-4), the end of light spring (5-4) is provided with prober controller (5-5), the outside stage casing setting of insert (5) There is baffle plate (5-3).
4. the precipitation infiltration analog based on indoor soil-column experiment according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that described circle Shape aperture (4-4) shape size is consistent with rubber stopper (5-7) and is tightly combined, and arrangement mode is:Be separated by longitudinal direction arrangement and Follow upper tightly lower sparse principle, transversely divide arrangement around soil column leaching standard element (4) outer circumference 8 grade.
5. the precipitation infiltration analog based on indoor soil-column experiment according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that described Clip (4-30) is made up of two halves circular steel ring (4-34) and by the riveting of the rivet (4-35) of one end, clip (4-30) another End connector (4-33) passes through lead screw (4-31) and nut (4-32) to adjust the tightness of clip (4-30), makes standard cylinder Component is combined closely;
It is provided with flange screw thread (6-1), the two ends of flange (6) are provided with swing handle (6-2) inside described flange (6).
6. the precipitation infiltration analog based on indoor soil-column experiment according to claim 1 is it is characterised in that described The signal end of computer (7) is connected with the signal end of microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) is provided with temperature sensing input End (7-1), humiture detect outfan (7-2), matric suction detects outfan (7-3);Temperature sensing input (7-1) is through leading Line (9) connects cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), and humiture detects outfan (7-2) and connects Temperature Humidity Sensor through wire (9) Probe (4-5), matric suction detects outfan (7-3) and connects soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) through wire (9).
CN201620643017.3U 2016-06-25 2016-06-25 Rainfall infiltration analogue means based on indoor native column experiment Expired - Fee Related CN205982257U (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108645772A (en) * 2018-03-30 2018-10-12 重庆大学 A kind of rainfall infiltration experimental system for simulating considering slope runoff
CN110297073A (en) * 2019-07-17 2019-10-01 西南交通大学 A kind of needle net formula Simulated rainfall pilot system and method

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108645772A (en) * 2018-03-30 2018-10-12 重庆大学 A kind of rainfall infiltration experimental system for simulating considering slope runoff
CN108645772B (en) * 2018-03-30 2021-05-25 重庆大学 Rainfall infiltration simulation experiment system considering slope runoff
CN110297073A (en) * 2019-07-17 2019-10-01 西南交通大学 A kind of needle net formula Simulated rainfall pilot system and method

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