CN205857376U - A kind of novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure - Google Patents

A kind of novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN205857376U
CN205857376U CN201620652170.2U CN201620652170U CN205857376U CN 205857376 U CN205857376 U CN 205857376U CN 201620652170 U CN201620652170 U CN 201620652170U CN 205857376 U CN205857376 U CN 205857376U
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China
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steel
plate
node
applicable
prefabricated concrete
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CN201620652170.2U
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Chinese (zh)
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徐晓珂
田炜
刘斌
卢旦
刘智龙
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华东建筑设计研究院有限公司
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Abstract

The utility model proposes a kind of novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure, including: node damping device, it is friction of joint antivibrator or node metal antivibrator;End plate, it includes the first connecting plate and the second connecting plate, is respectively arranged at the two ends of described node damping device;Connecting bolt, is separately mounted to described both sides end plate on the precast beam of reserving hole channel, prefabricated post or shear wall.The utility model proposes a kind of high-performance nodal connection device being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure, thus it is possible to vary beam column, the Path of Force Transfer of beam wall node, got around node area, made joints reduce, thus, reach to simplify the purpose of joint structure.

Description

A kind of novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure

Technical field

This utility model relates to building field, and particularly to a kind of novel joint being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure Attachment means, can be applicable at the assembling frame structure of earthquake-prone region, assembling frame-shear wall structure, assembled frame Frame-core wall structure.

Background technology

Currently, prefabricated assembled concrete structure is to meet the requirement that equivalent is cast-in-place, it is ensured that prefabricated assembled concrete is tied The overall performance of structure, joint structure is complicated, and this is designed, produces, constructing causes a lot of difficulty, seriously constrains building industry The development changed.The utility model proposes a kind of high-performance nodal connection device being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure, permissible Change beam column, the Path of Force Transfer of beam wall node, got around node area, made joints reduce, such that it is able to carry out simplifying design, Reach to simplify the purpose of joint structure.

During assembly concrete construction, all kinds of prefabricated components are carried out lifting assembling, a lot of support will necessarily be used System.Arranging support causes job site mixed and disorderly, affects construction speed.High-performance node of the present utility model is used to connect, can To save beam support, precast beam directly rests on the junction steel plate of node apparatus when lifting and is fixed with bolt, nothing Support need to be set again.So can reduce the setting that job site supports, be substantially improved the situation that job site is mixed and disorderly, be greatly improved Efficiency of construction.

Prefabricated concrete structure is compared with cast-in-place concrete structure, and its globality is relatively weak, joint structure is complicated.With Time, the anti-seismic performance of prefabricated concrete structure is paid close attention to academia by engineering circles.There are some researches show, assembled Xoncrete structure destructive characteristics under earthquake mainly show as because of each component between continuous damage and cause structure overall from Dissipate, collapse, and prefabricated components itself are less is damaged.Research to prefabricated concrete structure anti-seismic performance the most both at home and abroad Being concentrated mainly on component node, the research to structure entirety anti-seismic performance is relatively fewer.Research to node is directed generally to lead to Cross certain construction measure to improve the shock resistance of component node, belong to the category of traditional anti-seismic structure, and the structure of complexity Measure often leads to component node construction complexity, and structure entirety still relies on the plastic deformation of self component to the seismic energy that dissipates Measure, and structure entirety still lacks effective insulating measure for vertical seismic motion effect.Seek the most rational anti-seismic performance, and Resist the most uncertain calamitous earthquake, become prefabricated concrete structure and enter-walk the top priority of development.

Energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing technology is a kind of effective ways that modern structure vibration control theory is applied to during structural seismic is set up defences, Existing case history demonstrates its effectiveness improving structural seismic performance, it is ensured that building structure knot under action of strong earthquake Structure safety and personal security.Therefore, energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing technology is applied to prefabricated concrete structure, to a certain extent can be significantly Improve the anti-seismic performance of structure so that structure disclosure satisfy that requirements for fortification against earthquake under geological process, has important engineering valency Value be widely applied prospect.

Cushion technique is applied to precast concrete can improve precast concrete Seismic Behavior effectively Weak problem, it is achieved that under geological process, the passive of superstructure controls and energy dissipation, for improving precast concrete knot The overall anti-seismic performance of structure has important theory significance and is worth with engineer applied.

Most antivibrators of research and development are typically connected with agent structure by bracing members at present, and supporting construction form is main Having brace type, chevron shaped, door frame type, chiasma type etc., on the one hand these extra supporting members add antivibrator installation Operation and time, and waste material;On the other hand during bracing members is installed on structure, though adding anti-side rigidity, but to structure Also additional internal force it is easily generated;Furthermore the layout of door and window is the most limited in building structure, occupy too much space, impact The use function of structure, to people's sense of depression spatially, hinders building attractive in appearance.And the market of these antivibrators is still located at present In the monopolization state of several companies, the price causing antivibrator is much more expensive, and additionally these antivibrators in corresponding design and divide Analysis software does not also have effective method to realize so that structure designer is difficult to understand and know its performance and feature, from And constrain this kind of energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing technology the most especially in the application of the poor beam column node area of anti-seismic performance.

This utility model is installed on the node location of structure, does not affect building doors and windows and arranges, it is not necessary to takies too much building Space, does not results in space sense of depression and impact building is attractive in appearance.

Utility model content

This utility model connects complicated, more the lacking of job site support system for prefabricated concrete structure node Point, proposes a kind of high-performance nodal connection device being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure.This product is made to have power transmission, prop up Support, damping three zones, i.e. in the construction stage, this connection can be that the installation of prefabricated components provides temporary support, removes tradition from Support system, saves the construction period, saves construction costs;At serviceability limit stage, structure can be connected as by this and power transmission is provided, subtract The internal force at minor node position, provides space for simplifying joint structure;When earthquake, node energy-dissipating property is utilized to reduce the ground of structure Shake reaction, thus protect main building not destroyed by seismic force.Additionally, in order to overcome traditional structure energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing product size Relatively greatly, affect the problem that building function uses, propose to be integrated in damping function above-mentioned connection products, it is achieved shock resistant damping The miniaturization of device and integrated, reduces the impact that building uses space to greatest extent.

In order to achieve the above object, the utility model proposes a kind of novel joint being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure to connect Connection device, including:

Node damping device, it is friction of joint antivibrator or node metal antivibrator;

End plate, it includes the first connecting plate and the second connecting plate, is respectively arranged at the two ends of described node damping device;

Connecting bolt, is separately mounted to described both sides end plate on the precast beam of reserving hole channel, prefabricated post or shear wall.

Further, described friction of joint antivibrator is provided with friction sheet, and it includes six friction sheet and five friction plates The staggered bolt that is combined and through of plate, described five friction sheet and six friction sheet connects fixing composition friction sheet.

Further, described six friction sheet are to be disposed in parallel in six fanning strips of end sheet surface, on each fanning strip It is respectively arranged with arc round end slideway along its arc angle.

Further, described five friction sheet be to be disposed in parallel in five fanning strips of end sheet surface, its arc angle and Plate thickness arc angle and spacing with six friction plates respectively matches.

Further, described node metal antivibrator is by steel plate in a piece, two blocks of outer steel plates, mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc and cuff Part forms,

Wherein, described interior steel plate is hollow out form, and two blocks of outer steel plates are also in hollow out form, and interior steel plate is parallel with outer steel plate Placing, the middle part of described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc is vertically embedded in the hollow out on interior steel plate, and two ends are respectively perpendicular outside embedding both sides In the hollow out of steel plate, outer steel plate outer surface is provided with stop collar cuffs, and described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc stretches out outer sheet steel sections with spacing Cuff elements is connected with.

Further, described cuff elements is positioned at the outside of outer steel plate and is welded on the lateral surface of outer steel plate, described cuff High-strength bolt is used to connect between part and mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc, in order to fixing described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc.

Further, described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc uses the steel between yield strength 100MPa~225MPa to make.

Further, described interior steel plate, outer steel plate and cuff elements use yield strength to be not less than the steel system of 235MPa Become.

Further, the steel that described end plate uses yield strength to be not less than 235MPa are made.

The utility model proposes a kind of high-performance nodal connection device being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure, be mainly suitable for Cut in assembly concrete framework, frame, the beam column of framed-tube structure and beam wall node.

Prefabricated frame trestle is set a roof beam in place with prefabricated frame, Core Walls Structure shear wall is connected by node between setting a roof beam in place with prefabricated frame, node Power is transmitted by antivibrator, has got around beam column, Liang Qiang node area, changes prefabricated assembled concrete Structure Beam-column, beam wall node Internal force pipeline, reduce node end moment of flexure and shear value, make prefabricated concrete structure system stress the most reasonable;From And changing the design controlling sections position of beam column, Liang Qiang end so that " strong node, weak component " mechanism during Aseismic Design is able to reality Existing, the reduction of node area internal force can be optimized design to it, reaches to simplify the purpose of design.Can effectively reduce and postpone Wall, the crack developing of Column border node core space, make plastic hinge at joint cores, protects relatively weak joint cores With beam-ends Hou Jiao district.

Novel joint connects can be directly mounted at Structure Beam-column, Liang Qiang node area, it is to avoid use other attached installation and Support rod member, node connect built-in fitting can in prefabricated components manufacturing process the most pre-buried wherein, it is ensured that device install essence Degree.In work progress, novel joint connects the end plate connection steel plate of side and is connected, no with the built-in fitting of frame column or shear wall Need separately to set support.The most hoisting prefabricated Vierendeel girder, is shelved on precast beam on the end plate of the opposite side that novel joint connects also Fixing with the built-in fitting of bolt with precast beam, now node damping device is as the temporary support of beam, so can remove tradition from Support system, reduces working procedure and time, it is to avoid waste of material, saves duration and cost.

Under frequently occurred earthquake level, this novel joint can provide certain rigidity for structure, reduces the lateral deformation of structure, But damping is not provided;Damping at basic intensity, rarely occurred earthquake level lower node plays a role, it is achieved the effect of energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing, Thus protect other main bearing member.Antivibrator can improve prefabricated assembled concrete structure and connect the power consumption energy of node Power, controls the cracking of node location beam, and can dissipate again protecting energy agent structure, improves integrally-built anti-seismic performance, it is to avoid Structure produces heavy damage in earthquake or collapses, it is achieved " doulbe-sides' victory " effect that component improves with overall structure anti-seismic performance.Shake Rear reparation is convenient, changes and connects beam column and the energy-consumption shock-absorption device of Liang Qiang, provides hardware guarantee for structure restorability.

This high-performance nodal connection device cancels the auxiliary support rod member in conventional damper, by the junction steel plate of both sides Being connected with the built-in fitting in beam, post, wall, antivibrator is arranged at beam column or beam wall node, small volume, uses flexibly, no Building can be affected and use function.Only need to placing embedded parts, installation when prefabricated components (prefabricated post, precast beam, dry wall) make Time the junction steel plate of antivibrator is connected with prefabricated components by bolt, simple to operate quickly.This type of connected mode is suitable for factory Produce in enormous quantities, it is ensured that degree of accuracy.This is just meeting the industrialized requirement of assembled architecture.

The high-performance node connection of prefabricated concrete structure disclosure satisfy that design specification and design based on performance Requirement.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 show the friction of joint damper structure schematic diagram of this utility model preferred embodiment.

Fig. 2 show the node metal damper structure schematic diagram of this utility model preferred embodiment.

Fig. 3 show the nodal connection device schematic layout pattern of this utility model preferred embodiment.

Fig. 4 show the nodal connection device structure Path of Force Transfer schematic diagram of this utility model preferred embodiment.

Detailed description of the invention

Provide detailed description of the invention of the present utility model below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, but this utility model is not limited to following enforcement Mode.According to following explanation and claims, advantage of the present utility model and feature will be apparent from.It should be noted that, accompanying drawing All use the form simplified very much and all use non-ratio accurately, being only used for conveniently, aid in illustrating this utility model lucidly The purpose of embodiment.

Refer to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, Fig. 1 and show the friction of joint damper structure signal of this utility model preferred embodiment Figure.Fig. 2 show the node metal damper structure schematic diagram of this utility model preferred embodiment.It is suitable that utility model proposes one For the novel joint attachment means of prefabricated concrete structure, including: node damping device, it is friction of joint antivibrator 100 Or node metal antivibrator 600;End plate 200, it includes the first connecting plate 210 and the second connecting plate 220, is respectively arranged at described The two ends of node damping device 100;Connecting bolt 300, described both sides end plate 200 is separately mounted to reserving hole channel precast beam, In prefabricated post or shear wall.

According to this utility model preferred embodiment, described friction of joint antivibrator 100 is provided with friction sheet 400, its bag Including six friction sheet 410 and five friction sheet 420, described five friction sheet 420 and six friction sheet 410 are interlocked and are combined and through Bolt 500 connects fixing.Both sides end plate 200 is rectangular slab, friction sheet 400 is fixed on end plate 200.

Further, described six friction sheet 410 are to be disposed in parallel in six fanning strips on end plate 200 surface, each fan It is respectively arranged with arc round end slideway along its arc angle on shape plate.Described five friction sheet 420 are for being disposed in parallel in end plate 200 Five fanning strips on surface, its arc angle and plate thickness arc angle and spacing with six friction plates 410 respectively matches.? On the end plate 200 being connected with friction sheet 400, installation screw is set, uses connector such as screw, screw rod etc. to pass through installation screw The both sides end plate 200 of friction sheet 400 is separately mounted on the precast beam of reserving hole channel, prefabricated post or shear wall.Node rubs Wipe the angle of antivibrator 100 two end plates and size shape needs and need to install the precast beam of this antivibrator, prefabricated post, shear wall Pre-installation face size and angle match, need correspondence processing be six friction plates 410 and the fan angle of five friction plates 420, Interval and thickness, to ensure the Stable sliding of friction plate.

Described node metal antivibrator 600 is by 610, two blocks of outer steel plates 620 of steel plate, mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc 630 and in one piece Cuff elements 640 forms, wherein, described interior steel plate 620 in hollow out form, two blocks of outer steel plates 620 also in hollow out form, interior steel plate 610 and outer steel plate 620 be placed in parallel, the middle part of described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc 630 is vertically embedded into the hollow out on interior steel plate 610 In, two ends are respectively perpendicular and embed outside both sides in the hollow out of steel plate 620, and outer steel plate 620 outer surface is provided with stop collar cuffs 640, institute State mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc 630 to stretch out outer sheet steel sections and be connected with stop collar cuffs 640.Both sides end plate 700 is rectangular slab, Interior steel plate 610 and outer steel plate 620 are fixedly linked with two end plates 700 respectively, and end plate 700 is provided for the screw installed, and passes through High-strength bolt 800 is connected with Vierendeel girder, frame column, Core Walls Structure shear wall.

Further, described cuff elements 640 is positioned at the outside of outer steel plate 620 and is welded on the lateral surface of outer steel plate 620, High-strength bolt is used to connect between described cuff elements 640 and mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc 630, in order to fixing described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc 630.Described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc 630 uses the steel between yield strength 100MPa~225MPa to make, its size and thickness Should determine according to the physical dimension in actual damping scheme and power consumption requirement.Described interior steel plate 610, outer steel plate 620, cuff elements 640 and both sides end plate 700 steel that use yield strength to be not less than 235MPa make.

Refer to Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, Fig. 3 show the nodal connection device layout signal of this utility model preferred embodiment Figure.Fig. 4 show the nodal connection device structure Path of Force Transfer schematic diagram of this utility model preferred embodiment.Prefabricated frame trestle with Prefabricated frame is set a roof beam in place, shear wall is connected by this novel joint between setting a roof beam in place with prefabricated frame, and nodal force is transmitted by this device, gets around Beam column, Liang Qiang node area, make beam column, the beam wall joints reduce, such that it is able to carry out simplifying design, reaches to simplify node structure The purpose made.In work progress, novel joint connection is fixed on frame column or shear wall beforehand through junction steel plate, then Prefabricated frame is set a roof beam in place on the junction steel plate being fixed on node, remove the support of Vierendeel girder from.

At present, for ensureing the globality of prefabricated concrete structure, beam column, Liang Qiang node area connecting structure are complicated, reinforcing bar Quantity is more, and this is brought a lot of trouble to designing, produce, constructing, and constrains the development of building industrialization.Use this practicality new The high-performance node interconnection technique of type, by arranging novel joint device, changes prefabricated assembled concrete Structure Beam-column, Liang Qiang The internal force pipeline of node, reduces node end moment of flexure and shear value, makes prefabricated concrete structure system stress more close Reason;Thus change the design controlling sections position of beam column, Liang Qiang end so that " strong node, weak component " mechanism during Aseismic Design Being achieved, the reduction of node area internal force can be optimized design to it, reduces beam column, the arrangement of reinforcement quantity of Liang Qiang node area, Reach to simplify the purpose of design, the most also reduce prefabricated components production, the difficulty of construction assembling.For prefabricated assembled concrete Beam-column joint in structure, arranges that the shearing of antivibrator posterior nodal point position reduces, it is achieved " cut by force weak in Aseismic Design Curved " requirement, the external force that antivibrator produces simultaneously can mutually balance substantially, and the axial force of node component will not be produced impact.

High-performance nodal connection device can be directly mounted at Structure Beam-column, Liang Qiang node area, it is to avoid use other attached Install and support rod member, the built-in fitting of connection damper can in prefabricated components manufacturing process the most pre-buried wherein, it is ensured that resistance Buddhist nun's device installation accuracy.Traditional prefabricated concrete structure, in work progress, can arrange a lot of support, impact construction speed under beam Degree.Use high performance node interconnection technique of the present utility model, support under beam, can be removed from.In work progress, antivibrator The end plate connection steel plate of side is connected with the built-in fitting of frame column or shear wall, it is not necessary to arrange support.The most hoisting prefabricated framework Beam, fixes on the end plate of the opposite side that precast beam is shelved on antivibrator and with the built-in fitting of bolt with precast beam, now node Antivibrator, as the temporary support of beam, so can remove conventional support system from, reduces working procedure and time, it is to avoid material wave Take, save duration and cost.

The energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing principle that this novel high-performance node connects is described as a example by node metal antivibrator.Under geological process Prefabricated concrete structure side-move distortion makes beam column, Liang Qiang node area produce relative rotation displacement, drives novel metal node Antivibrator mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc produces shearing lag return deformation, and this becomes protection structure node district first anti-vibration defense lines, thus subtracts The sidesway of little structure and story drift, protect beam column, beam wall node effectively.Novel metal node damping device is by connecting Inside and outside steel plate is fixedly connected to form Structural System With Energy Dissipative Devices, mild-steel energy-consumption steel with the connection member of structure built-in fitting or rear anchoring Sheet is fixed between outer steel plate and interior steel plate, and inside and outside steel plate produces relative displacement and drives mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc detrusion to consume Can, inside and outside steel plate itself is not involved in deformation power consumption.Under frequently occurred earthquake level, this novel joint antivibrator provides certain for structure Rigidity, reduce structure lateral deformation, damping is not provided;Under basic intensity, rarely occurred earthquake level, realize power consumption mechanism, send out Wave the effect of energy-dissipating and shock-absorbing, thus protect other main bearing member.Antivibrator can improve prefabricated assembled concrete structure Connecting the energy dissipation capacity of node, control the cracking of node location beam, can dissipate again protecting energy agent structure, improves overall structure Anti-seismic performance, it is to avoid structure produces heavy damage in earthquake or collapses, it is achieved component and overall structure anti-seismic performance improve " doulbe-sides' victory " effect.

The volume of conventional damper is big, takies building and uses space, executes man-hour requirement and install some Accessory Members or support, These extra supporting members add antivibrator installation operation and time, and waste material.Arrange support also can make In building structure, the layout of door and window is restricted, and takies too much space, affects the use function of structure, to people spatially Sense of depression, hinder building attractive in appearance.Use this high-performance nodal connection device can cancel the auxiliary support in conventional damper Rod member, is connected with the built-in fitting in beam, post, wall by the junction steel plate of both sides, and antivibrator is arranged on beam column or beam wall node Place, small volume, use flexibly, do not interfere with building and use function.Only need to be (prefabricated post, precast beam, prefabricated at prefabricated components Wall) placing embedded parts when making, during installation, the junction steel plate of antivibrator is connected with prefabricated components by bolt, simple to operate soon Speed.This type of connected mode is suitable for factory mass and produces, it is ensured that degree of accuracy.This is just meeting the industrialized requirement of assembled architecture.

Although this utility model is disclosed above with preferred embodiment, so it is not limited to this utility model.This reality With novel art has usually intellectual, without departing from spirit and scope of the present utility model, each when making The change planted and retouching.Therefore, protection domain of the present utility model is when being as the criterion depending on those as defined in claim.

Claims (9)

1. the novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure, it is characterised in that including:
Node damping device, it is friction of joint antivibrator or node metal antivibrator;
End plate, it includes the first connecting plate and the second connecting plate, is respectively arranged at the two ends of described node damping device;
Connecting bolt, is separately mounted to described both sides end plate on the precast beam of reserving hole channel, prefabricated post or shear wall.
The novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that Described friction of joint antivibrator is provided with friction sheet, and it includes six friction sheet and five friction sheet, described five friction sheet Be combined and through bolt staggered with six friction sheet connects fixing composition friction sheet.
The novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that Described six friction sheet are to be disposed in parallel in six fanning strips of end sheet surface, and each fanning strip sets respectively along its arc angle It is equipped with arc round end slideway.
The novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that Described five friction sheet are to be disposed in parallel in five fanning strips of end sheet surface, and its arc angle and plate thickness rub with six respectively Arc angle and the spacing of sheet match.
The novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that Described node metal antivibrator is made up of steel plate in a piece, two blocks of outer steel plates, mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc and cuff elements,
Wherein, described interior steel plate is hollow out form, and two blocks of outer steel plates are also in hollow out form, and interior steel plate is parallel with outer steel plate to be put Putting, the middle part of described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc is vertically embedded in the hollow out on interior steel plate, and two ends are respectively perpendicular steel outside embedding both sides In the hollow out of plate, outer steel plate outer surface is provided with stop collar cuffs, and described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc stretches out outer sheet steel sections and stop collar Cuffs is connected with.
The novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure the most according to claim 5, it is characterised in that Described cuff elements is positioned at the outside of outer steel plate and is welded on the lateral surface of outer steel plate, described cuff elements and mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc it Between use high-strength bolt to connect, in order to fixing described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc.
The novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure the most according to claim 5, it is characterised in that Described mild-steel energy-consumption steel disc uses the steel between yield strength 100MPa~225MPa to make.
The novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure the most according to claim 5, it is characterised in that The steel that described interior steel plate, outer steel plate and cuff elements use yield strength to be not less than 235MPa are made.
The novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that The steel that described end plate uses yield strength to be not less than 235MPa are made.
CN201620652170.2U 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 A kind of novel joint attachment means being applicable to prefabricated concrete structure CN205857376U (en)

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CN106869357B (en) * 2017-03-23 2018-06-29 中国石油大学(华东) A kind of replaceable curved plate damper of two benches energy consumption damping sheet
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