CN204706265U - Gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism - Google Patents

Gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism Download PDF

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Publication number
CN204706265U
CN204706265U CN201520433526.9U CN201520433526U CN204706265U CN 204706265 U CN204706265 U CN 204706265U CN 201520433526 U CN201520433526 U CN 201520433526U CN 204706265 U CN204706265 U CN 204706265U
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gas
molar
reaction vessel
quality
cylinder
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CN201520433526.9U
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王发应
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王发应
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Abstract

The utility model provides a kind of gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism, relates to chemical experimental instrument field, comprises support, reaction vessel, gas collector and liquid adder; Described reaction vessel and support are fixed or are removably connected; Described gas collector and support are fixed or are removably connected; Described gas collector is all communicated with reaction vessel with liquid adder; Described gas collector comprises cylinder and slip is embedded the piston in cylinder, and described gas collector has the scale of measurement gas volume.Gas molar quality of the present utility model and molar volume measurement mechanism easy to use, be convenient to promote.

Description

Gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism
Technical field
The utility model relates to chemical experimental instrument field, in particular to gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism.
Background technology
Perceptual knowledge is changed into from theoretic knowledge in order to make the teaching of molal weight, student is understood by experiment veritably and grasps concept and the origin of molal weight and molar volume, usually can organize the student while explanation knowwhy and carry out molal weight determination experiment, usually adopt volumetric method mensurated gas composition molal weight and molar volume at middle school period.
See Fig. 1, existing molar volume of gas measurement mechanism comprises: gas generator 01, liquid storage bottle 02, liquid measuring bottle 03; Gas generator 01 is connected by rubber tube 04 with liquid storage bottle 02, and the two ends mouth of pipe of rubber tube 04 lays respectively at the top of gas generator 01 and liquid storage bottle 02; The outer wall of liquid measuring bottle 03 is communicated with right-angled glass pipe 05, and this right-angled glass pipe 05 is wholely set with liquid measuring bottle 03, and the mouth of pipe of right-angled glass pipe 05 inserts the bottom in liquid storage bottle 02, and then is communicated with liquid storage bottle 02 and liquid measuring bottle 03.During experiment, take the magnesium rod (quality is approximately 0.1071g ~ 0.1286g) of certain mass with electronic balance, put into gas generator 01, then inject dilute sulfuric acid; Magnesium rod and dilute sulfuric acid react the hydrogen produced and enter in liquid storage bottle 02 via right-angled glass pipe 05; Progress in the process of liquid storage bottle 02 at hydrogen, the liquid in liquid storage bottle 02 is discharged in liquid measuring bottle 03 by right-angled glass pipe 05.Like this, by reading the volume of the liquid collected in liquid measuring bottle 03, and then molar volume of gas is calculated according to correlation theory.
In experimentation, if make the liquid in liquid storage bottle 02 be drained in liquid measuring bottle 03 gradually, air pressure then in liquid storage bottle 02 must overcome the hydraulic pressure sum that fluid column that the liquid in the atmospheric pressure in the external world and liquid measuring bottle 03 that liquid measuring bottle 03 is communicated with formed produces, it can thus be appreciated that the air pressure of the gas in liquid storage bottle 02 is greater than external atmosphere pressure.
Existing molar volume of gas measurement mechanism complicated operation, is not easy to student and uses, and is not easy to promote.
Utility model content
The purpose of this utility model is to provide a kind of gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism, to improve above-mentioned problem.
The utility model is achieved in that
A kind of gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism, comprise support, reaction vessel, gas collector and liquid adder; Described reaction vessel and support are fixed or are removably connected; Described gas collector and support are fixed or are removably connected; Described gas collector is all communicated with reaction vessel with liquid adder; Described gas collector comprises cylinder and slip is embedded the piston in cylinder, and described gas collector has the scale of measurement gas volume.
Usually adopt solid-liquid reaction or liquid to add the generated reactive gas of catalyzer when testing.Such as superoxol produces oxygen under the catalytic action of manganese dioxide, calculates molar volume and molal weight by measuring oxygenous volume in conjunction with other parameters such as consumption of hydrogen peroxide.
In reaction vessel, add the material such as reactant and catalyzer by material inlet, reaction vessel interior is the place that material reaction produces gas, and the gas from gas gatherer produced after reaction is collected.
Piston can be free to slide in cylinder, the space of piston side is communicated with reaction vessel, the space of opposite side is communicated with air, when there being gas to produce in reaction vessel, because the air pressure size of piston both sides is unequal, piston is moved, until the pressure of piston both sides is equal, the pressure now in reaction vessel is equal with external atmospheric pressure.Read scale value after piston stopping is mobile, thus know the volume of the gas collected.In addition in order to increase the activity of piston, lubricating oil can also be applied at cylinder inner wall, to reduce the friction force of piston and cylinder, improving the accuracy that gas volume is measured.
In order to improve the accuracy of gasmetry, as the preferred version of such scheme, described cylinder horizontally set.
As preferably, the bottom of described reaction vessel is provided with the draining switch of waste liquid collection vessel, discharging tube and the opening and closing of control discharging tube;
The liquid feeding end of described discharging tube is communicated with described reaction vessel, and the outlet end of described discharging tube stretches in described waste liquid collection vessel.
Reacted material discharges reaction vessel by discharging tube.Collect waste liquid by arranging liquid waste collector, convenient process, avoids contaminated environment.
As preferably, described discharging tube is flexible pipe, and described draining switch is tongs; Or described discharging tube is hard tube, described draining switch is piston switch.
Described flexible pipe can adopt rubber tube, when clamping flexible pipe with tongs, can realize the disconnection of drain line.Rubber tube and tongs are all more common test articles for use, and draw materials conveniently, student can assemble voluntarily, are conducive to the manipulative ability increasing student.
As preferably, described gas collector also comprises piston rod; Described piston rod to be stretched in cylinder by the open end of described cylinder and is connected with described piston.
Piston rod is connected with piston, promotes piston when being convenient to the impermeability of testing fixture.
In order to the more convenient volume knowing the gas that gas collector is collected, scale can be set on cylinder or piston rod.When scale is arranged on cylinder, cylinder is preferably made up of transparent material, and when scale is arranged on the piston rod, cylinder can be transparent material or opaque material.
As preferably, described scale is arranged on the piston rod.When scale is arranged on the piston rod, no matter cylinder is the volume that transparent material or transparent materials can read the gas collected in cylinder.
Preferred as another kind, described cylinder is made up of glass, and described scale is arranged on cylinder.
The cylinder of glass material is sensitive to stress reaction, and glass surface is smooth, and the friction force between the cylinder of glass material and piston is little, and impermeability is good, can improve the accuracy of gas collection.
As preferably, described support comprises panel and the feet with panel hinged, described panel horizontally set.
In this preferred version, support can fold, and can strut, drawn in by support-folding when not using during use, can reduce volume and be convenient to deposit.Gas collector and reaction vessel can be placed on panel.It should be noted that in addition and can offer mounting hole on panel, the bottom of reaction vessel can be embedded in mounting hole.
As preferably, described gas collector is graduated first syringe of tool, and the syringe of described first syringe is described cylinder, being tightly connected for the one end and described reaction vessel of installing syringe needle of described first syringe.
Syringe is preferably injector for medical purpose, and injector for medical purpose specification is generally 1ml, 2ml, 5ml, 10ml, 20ml and 50ml, can selecting according to the feature of instrument itself and requirement of experiment of injector for medical purpose specification.
As preferably, described reaction vessel is provided with dismountable gland bonnet.
Dismountable gland bonnet is adopted to be convenient to add solid reactant or catalyzer.
As preferably, described gland bonnet is quality of rubber materials.
As preferably, described liquid adder is the second syringe being provided with syringe needle, and described syringe needle is located on gland bonnet.
Liquid adder can arrange scale, facilitates quantitative liquid getting, also facilitates quantitative adding liquid.During use, second syringe piston can not be free to slide, therefore piston and the larger syringe of syringe frictional resistance can be selected, such as medical plastic syringe, the piston of medical plastic syringe and the frictional resistance of syringe are large, so the gas produced in reaction vessel can not enter in the second syringe.
It should be noted that liquid adder is not limited to syringe, also can be other structures, such as liquid adder can also be dropper, and dropper mainly comprises the glass tube being with sharp mouth and the rubber nipple being arranged on glass tube end, preferably selects dropper with a scale.During use, by the glass tube of dropper by gland bonnet intercalation reaction container.
The beneficial effect that the utility model realizes:
Compared with prior art, gas molar quality of the present utility model and molar volume measurement mechanism, need not by measuring the volume of liquid volume measurement gas indirectly, but adopt gas collector directly to collect gas; The bottom of reaction vessel is provided with leakage fluid dram, once after experiment, can effluent discharge and gas fast by leakage fluid dram, and be convenient to test next time.The more important thing is that gas collector can collect gas automatically, and the volume of the gas collected can be known by reading scale value fast, simple to operate; Whole gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism can utilize inventory to assemble, and experimental cost is low, easy to utilize.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 shows the structural representation of molar volume of gas measurement mechanism in background technology;
Fig. 2 shows the gas molar quality of the utility model embodiment and the structural representation of molar volume measurement mechanism.
Wherein, the Reference numeral in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 is:
Gas generator 01; Liquid storage bottle 02; Liquid measuring bottle 03;
Rubber tube 04; Right-angled glass pipe 05; Support 101;
Reaction vessel 102; Gas collector 103; Liquid adder 104;
Waste liquid collection vessel 105; Material inlet 106; Gas vent 107;
Waste liquid outlet 108; Cylinder 109; Piston 110;
Piston rod 111; Draft tube 112; Gland bonnet 113;
Discharging tube 114; Tongs 115.
Embodiment
Also by reference to the accompanying drawings the utility model is described in further detail below by specific embodiment.Obviously, described embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the present utility model, instead of whole embodiments.
In description of the present utility model, it should be noted that, term " on ", D score, "left", "right", " vertically ", " level ", " interior ", the orientation of the instruction such as " outward " or position relationship be based on orientation shown in the drawings or position relationship, only the utility model and simplified characterization for convenience of description, instead of the device of instruction or hint indication or structure must have specific orientation, with specific azimuth configuration and operation, therefore can not be interpreted as restriction of the present utility model.In addition, term " first " and " second " only for describing object, and can not be interpreted as instruction or hint relative importance.
Figure 2 shows that the gas molar quality of a kind of embodiment of the utility model and the structural representation of molar volume measurement mechanism.As shown in Figure 2, a kind of gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism, comprising: support 101, reaction vessel 102, gas collector 103, liquid adder 104 and waste liquid collection vessel 105.
Reaction vessel 102 and gas collector 103 are directly fixed on support 101, and liquid adder 104 is connected with support 101 indirectly by reaction vessel 102.
Reaction vessel 102 is reacting environment that chemical reaction produces gas, and whether the reaction for the ease of observing response container 102 inside terminates, the material preferably clear material of reaction vessel 102.
The top of reaction vessel 102, sidewall and bottom are respectively equipped with material inlet 106, gas vent 107 and waste liquid outlet 108 successively.
Gas collector 103 comprises cylinder 109, piston 110 and piston rod 111.The axial line of cylinder 109 is along being horizontally disposed with.The left end of cylinder 109 is connected with draft tube 112, and draft tube 112 is located in gas vent 107 and the inner conducting of reaction vessel 102.Draft tube 112 realizes sealing by rubber ring and reaction vessel 102.Draft tube 112 can be detachable with cylinder 109, also can be integrated with cylinder 109.
As shown in Figure 2, piston 110 to be arranged in cylinder 109 and to be slidably matched with cylinder inner wall.The left end of cylinder 109 is open end, and piston rod 111 right-hand member is connected with piston 110, and the left end of piston rod 111 stretches out cylinder 109.Piston 110 and piston rod 111 can be detachable, also can be one.
The rightward space of piston 110 and the inside conducting of reaction vessel 102, the left side of piston 110 is communicated with air, and the inner space of the rightward space of piston 110 and reaction vessel 102 is not all communicated with air.When after generated reactive gas in reaction vessel 102, the rightward space air pressure of piston 110 increases, and piston 110 is moved to the left, and stops mobile when on the right side of piston 110, pressure is equal with atmospheric pressure.The material of cylinder 109 is transparent, can adopt plastics or glass.In order to reduce the friction force between piston 110 and cylinder, cylinder 109 preferably adopts glass.The outer wall of cylinder 109 is provided with scale, is convenient to the distance reading piston movement, thus directly can reads out the volume of the gas collected.
Gas collector 103 is the glass syringe of employing not with syringe needle preferably, and broken end glass syringe being installed syringe needle is tightly connected by gas vent 107 and reaction vessel 102.
If the scale precision of existing syringe is inadequate, in order to improve the degree of accuracy of measurement, scale can be increased between existing minimum scale.Such as minimum scale value (i.e. precision) is 1mL, increases by 2 scale marks, minimum precision can be brought up to 0.33mL between the scale mark that minimum scale value is corresponding.In addition, if glass material syringe, be not easy at glass surface processing scale, distance between scale mark corresponding to two minimum scale values can be measured on it with ruler, then calculating the spacing needing the scale mark increased, being attached to the outer wall of syringe by printing scale mark.The spacing of the scale mark that such as minimum scale value is corresponding is 3mm, so print one to have the paper slip that spacing is the scale mark of 1mm, and is posted on the corresponding scale of glass syringe by paper slip, thus the degree of accuracy of glass syringe has been brought up to 0.33mL.
Material inlet 106 place be provided with removably connect with reaction vessel 102 gland bonnet 113, gland bonnet 113 is preferably rubber stopper.Liquid adder 104 is preferably syringe with a scale, and by the needle pierces gland bonnet 113 of syringe.
Waste liquid collection vessel 105 is arranged on the below of reaction vessel 102.The bottom of reaction vessel 102 is provided with discharging tube 114.Liquid feeding end and the waste liquid outlet 108 of discharging tube 114 are tightly connected, and the outlet end of discharging tube 114 stretches in waste liquid collection vessel 105.Discharging tube 114 is preferably rubber tube, rubber tube is provided with and controls the pipeline connection of rubber tube or the tongs 115 of disconnection.Waste liquid collection vessel 105 can select beaker or useless medicine bottle etc.
Below in conjunction with a kind of concrete gas molar quality and molar volume experiments of measuring, the gas molar quality of the present embodiment and molar volume measurement mechanism are described.
Gas molar quality of the present utility model and molar volume measurement mechanism can measure molal weight and the molar volume of multiple gases.The molal weight of the gas in the utility model and molar volume are by calculating after measurement mechanism measurement gas volume, and non-immediate is measured, below to measure molal weight and the molar volume of oxygen, the catalysis decomposing hydrogen dioxide solution of manganese dioxide is adopted to generate oxygen.
The principle that decomposing hydrogen dioxide solution generates oxygen is:
If under the status of criterion, the molar volume of oxygen is V m, after the hydrogen peroxide of molal weight to be M, V milliliter Solute mass fraction be a% decomposes completely, produce V 0milliliter oxygen, then have:
2×34 V m(M)
ρ 1Va% V 0×10-3(V 0ρ 2×10-3)
68V 0×10-3=ρ 1VV ma%
V m = 6.8 ρ 1 a × V 0 V ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ( * )
3%M=2×34×10-3Vρ 2
M=2.27Vρ 2(g/mol)………………………(**)
(*) ρ in formula 1for the density of hydrogen peroxide used, check in by " the density-concentration table of comparisons of hydrogen peroxide ".ρ in (* *) formula 2for oxygen density under normal temperature, be 1.43g/L.
The concentration of hydrogen peroxide and consumption directly determine the volume of the oxygen produced in reaction, thus also determine the selection of experiment equipment, so first should estimate the consumption of hydrogen peroxide.
If the state of gas is P under the status of criterion 0(101.3KPa), T 0(273K), V 0(22.4L) state, under experiment condition is P 1(98.8KPa), T 1(289K), V 1.Then under experiment condition, the molar volume of oxygen is:
P 0 V 0 P 1 V 1 = T 0 T 1 ⇒ V 1 = P 0 T 1 V 0 P 1 T 0 = 101.3 × 22.4 × 289 98.8 × 273 ≈ 24.3 ( L )
As produced 10mL oxygen under the status of criterion, in like manner according to the Ideal-Gas Equation, then these oxygen volume is at normal temperatures and pressures:
P 0 V 0 P 1 V 1 = T 0 T 1 ⇒ V 1 = P 0 T 1 V 0 P 1 T 0 = 101.3 × 10 × 289 98.8 × 273 ≈ 10.9 m l
From practicality and the operability consideration of experiment, the author selects 3% hydrogen peroxide as reactant preparing gas.And the volume of 3% hydrogen peroxide under required normal temperature and pressure (check in the density of 3% hydrogen peroxide under normal temperature and pressure and be about 1.0g/cm3) is:
V m = 6.8 V 0 ρ V a ⇒ V = 6.8 V 0 ρaV m = 6.8 × 10.9 1 × 3 × 24.3 ≈ 1.0 m l
That is, as long as record the volume of oxygen produced after 1mL3% hydrogen peroxide decomposes at normal temperatures and pressures completely, the molar volume of oxygen under normal temperature and pressure can be tried to achieve, then by the Ideal-Gas Equation, the molar volume of oxygen under the status of criterion can be tried to achieve.
Derive according to above-mentioned theory, add the volume of the hydrogen peroxide added the factor such as change of the gentle temperature that takes up space, volume for collecting the container of gas should be greater than 10ml, and conventional injector for medical purpose specification is generally 1mL, 2mL, 5mL, 10mL, 20mL, 50mL, according to feature and the requirement of experiment of instrument itself.
For easy to use, select the glass syringe of 20ml to collect oxygen as gas collector 103, add hydrogen peroxide with the syringe of 5mL as liquid adder 104.
The gas molar quality of the present embodiment and the use procedure of molar volume measurement mechanism comprise the following steps:
(1) impermeability is checked.
As shown in Figure 2, open waste liquid outlet, pull a certain amount of air of piston suction of liquid adder 104, close waste liquid outlet, push away, draw the piston of liquid adder 104, if the registration of the piston movement of gas collector 103 is identical with liquid adder 104, shows that device impermeability is good, just can be used for having tested.Otherwise should first the rubber stopper as gland bonnet 113 be taken off, turn back to original position again after the inwall of the outer of rubber stopper and reaction vessel 102 is wetting to screw, then aforesaid operations is repeated, till liquid adder 104 is identical with the registration of the piston movement of gas collector 103 correspondence, just can test.It should be noted that the registration of piston movement as described herein does not refer to the distance of piston movement, and refer to the gas volume that the distance of piston movement is corresponding.
(2) experimental implementation
1. Preparatory work of experiment
Take off the rubber stopper of reaction vessel 104 top as gland bonnet 113, add characteristic of modest manganese particle, be again stoppered the rubber stopper as gland bonnet 113; Then take off the hydrogen peroxide that liquid adder 104 extracts 4-5mL3% normal concentration, turn back to original position.
2. produce and collect oxygen
Open waste liquid outlet, the piston of gas collector 103 is made zero, close waste liquid outlet, promote the piston of liquid adder 104, in reaction vessel 2, inject 1mL3% hydrogen peroxide standard solution.Under the catalytic action of manganese dioxide, decomposing hydrogen dioxide solution generates oxygen, while reaction carries out, is slowly moved to the left under the pressure that the piston of gas collector 103 is formed at the oxygen produced.No longer produce bubble in question response container 102, after returning to room temperature, read the volume of the oxygen collected, read atmospheric pressure now and room temperature simultaneously from barometer or temperature-pressure transducer, record in Table 1.
Repeat this single stepping three to four times.The volume (because the air that the hydrogen peroxide that adds is discharged also can enter glass syringe) mean value of testing the oxygen volume recorded several times being deducted the hydrogen peroxide added substitutes in (*) and (* *) formula, can draw molal weight and the molar volume of oxygen under normal temperature.
Table one, Experiment Data Records and process (experiment condition: 98.8KPa, 16 DEG C)
Experiment number 1 2 3 4
Atmospheric pressure (KPa) 98.8 98.8 98.8 98.8
Hydrogen peroxide volume (mL) 1 1 1 1
Glass syringe registration (mL) 11.2 11.1 11.1 11.1
The volume (mL) of oxygen 10.2 10.1 10.1 10.1
The average external volume (mL) of oxygen 10.125
The molar volume (L/mol) of oxygen 22.95
The molal weight (g/mol) of oxygen 32.82
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present utility model, be not limited to the utility model, for a person skilled in the art, the utility model can have various modifications and variations.All within spirit of the present utility model and principle, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection domain of the present utility model.

Claims (10)

1. gas molar quality and a molar volume measurement mechanism, is characterized in that, comprises support, reaction vessel, gas collector and liquid adder; Described reaction vessel and support are fixed or are removably connected; Described gas collector and support are fixed or are removably connected; Described gas collector is all communicated with reaction vessel with liquid adder; Described gas collector comprises cylinder and slip is embedded the piston in cylinder, and described gas collector has the scale of measurement gas volume.
2. gas molar quality as claimed in claim 1 and molar volume measurement mechanism, is characterized in that, the bottom of described reaction vessel is provided with the draining switch of waste liquid collection vessel, discharging tube and the opening and closing of control discharging tube;
The liquid feeding end of described discharging tube is communicated with described reaction vessel, and the outlet end of described discharging tube stretches in described waste liquid collection vessel.
3. gas molar quality as claimed in claim 2 and molar volume measurement mechanism, it is characterized in that, described discharging tube is flexible pipe, and described draining switch is tongs; Or described discharging tube is hard tube, described draining switch is piston switch.
4. gas molar quality as claimed in claim 1 and molar volume measurement mechanism, it is characterized in that, described gas collector also comprises piston rod; Described piston rod to be stretched in cylinder by the open end of described cylinder and is connected with described piston.
5. gas molar quality as claimed in claim 1 and molar volume measurement mechanism, it is characterized in that, described support comprises panel and the feet with panel hinged, described panel horizontally set.
6. gas molar quality as claimed in claim 1 and molar volume measurement mechanism, it is characterized in that, described cylinder is made up of glass, and described scale is arranged on cylinder.
7. gas molar quality as claimed in claim 6 and molar volume measurement mechanism, it is characterized in that, described gas collector is graduated first syringe of tool, the syringe of described first syringe is described cylinder, being tightly connected for the one end and described reaction vessel of installing syringe needle of described first syringe.
8. the gas molar quality as described in claim 1-7 any one and molar volume measurement mechanism, is characterized in that, described reaction vessel is provided with dismountable gland bonnet.
9. gas molar quality as claimed in claim 8 and molar volume measurement mechanism, it is characterized in that, described gland bonnet is quality of rubber materials.
10. gas molar quality as claimed in claim 9 and molar volume measurement mechanism, it is characterized in that, described liquid adder is the second syringe being provided with syringe needle, and described syringe needle is located on gland bonnet.
CN201520433526.9U 2015-06-23 2015-06-23 Gas molar quality and molar volume measurement mechanism Expired - Fee Related CN204706265U (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105825749A (en) * 2016-06-15 2016-08-03 蒲元昊 Experimental instrument for researching ideal gas state equation and operating method

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105825749A (en) * 2016-06-15 2016-08-03 蒲元昊 Experimental instrument for researching ideal gas state equation and operating method
CN105825749B (en) * 2016-06-15 2019-06-14 威海泰华智能科技有限公司 A kind of laboratory apparatus that probing into The Ideal-Gas Equation and operating method

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