CN203366096U - A microgrid monitoring and energy-managing device - Google Patents

A microgrid monitoring and energy-managing device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN203366096U
CN203366096U CN2013203943126U CN201320394312U CN203366096U CN 203366096 U CN203366096 U CN 203366096U CN 2013203943126 U CN2013203943126 U CN 2013203943126U CN 201320394312 U CN201320394312 U CN 201320394312U CN 203366096 U CN203366096 U CN 203366096U
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module
monitoring
data
micro
power
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CN2013203943126U
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窦晓波
王李东
吴在军
胡敏强
徐陈成
孙纯军
赵波
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东南大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P90/00Enabling technologies with a potential contribution to greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions mitigation
    • Y02P90/02Total factory control, e.g. smart factories, flexible manufacturing systems [FMS] or integrated manufacturing systems [IMS]

Abstract

The utility model discloses a microgrid monitoring and energy-managing device comprising a master controller module and a microclimate information monitoring module. The master controller comprises a central processor module, a storage module, a communication module, and an auxiliary module. The microclimate information monitoring module comprises a transfer module and a field monitoring module. Fully considering the convenience and the realtimeness of microclimate information acquisition, the microgrid monitoring and energy-managing device achieves real-time monitoring of various microclimate characteristic quantities and has characteristics of low cost, high convenience, strong realtimeness, and strong flexibility.

Description

Micro-power network monitoring and energy management apparatus
Technical field
The utility model belongs to the field of energy management of micro-electrical network aspect, relates to a kind of modularization monitoring and energy management apparatus that micro-electrical network is carried out to energy management optimization.
Background technology
Day by day highlighting of the environmental pollution brought along with the fossil energy generation mode and large-scale electrical power system drawback, the development of clean reproducible distributed energy has obtained increasing attention and application.Distributed power source (distributed generator, DG) is accessed to large electrical network with micro-electrical network form, can system, efficiently manage distributed power source, promote efficiency of energy utilization, improve power supply reliability, improve the quality of power supply etc.Electrical network adjustment based on micro-electric network composition can facilitate the large-scale distributed energy interconnected and the access In the distribution system of low voltage, a kind of mechanism that takes full advantage of the distributed power generation unit is provided.The now relatively main distribution of micro-electrical network can be used as a modular controllable, inside is provided to the electric energy that meets load and user's request.For realizing these advantages, micro-electrical network must have good data monitoring system, energy management system and control strategy flexibly.
Although the distributed power generation advantages, the uncontrollability of itself and stochastic volatility also exert a certain influence to the stability of electric system.DG and conventional power source have a great difference, as climate affects the discontinuity of photovoltaic and wind-power electricity generation, the miniature gas turbine generating is caught a cold, the impact of thermal load, and part DG accesses electrical network by inverter, and less inertia may cause adverse effect etc. to voltage and frequency.And, along with the increase of DG permeability, microgrid energy management system and traditional electrical network have a great difference.The tradition energy management system is by data acquisition and monitors (supervisory control and data acquisition, SCADA) the system acquisition real-time grid information of control, for scheduling, management and control.The microgrid energy management system is except possessing above basic function, also needs to comprise renewable energy power generation prediction, realtime power balance and to the important load reliable power supply etc.
In addition, because distributed power source in micro-electrical network will be realized grid-connectedly must carrying out the processes such as rectification, inversion, this wherein relates to a large amount of power electronic equipments, the characteristics that new forms of energy itself have in addition make the large electrical network of micro-power grid control and tradition that many differences be arranged, such as: the control data of distributed nature, magnanimity and flexible and changeable control mode etc.In order to guarantee that micro-electrical network can move and can bring into play to greatest extent the effect of new forms of energy safely and reliably, more intelligent monitoring and energy management system will be brought into play vital effect.Monitoring mainly is comprised of Information And Communication function, base application function (distributed power generation access monitoring, energy storage monitoring, load prediction, generated energy prediction) and senior application function (Optimized Operation, optimal control, distributed power supply management) with the energy management system function.Wherein the Information And Communication function refers to monitoring module from the aspects such as distributed power source, accumulator system, load, meteorology collection information and is uploaded to the primary application function by certain means of communication and analyzes for it, and the tissue of information is its key point with the realization of communicating by letter as can be seen here.IEC61850 standard (the unique international standard of the electric substation automation system based on the universal network communication platform) has the advantages such as interoperability, extensibility as the communication protocol of intelligent substation, obtained supporting energetically and developing in field of power, its modeling pattern and means of communication have been introduced to the inexorable trend that micro-electrical network field is development.The utility model is introduced micro-power system monitor and energy system by IEC61850, has realized collection and transmission to the micro-grid system internal information, has guaranteed that micro-electrical network can move safely and reliably.
The utility model content
Technical matters: the utility model provides a kind of and has monitored on the basis of micro-operation of power networks state in real time, take full advantage of Information Monitoring and make the energy management strategy, the endogenous storage of micro-electrical network lotus is optimized to configuration, make the microgrid energy management process smooth-out, accurate, also meet micro-power network monitoring and the energy management apparatus based on the Modular Flexible design of micro-power network safety operation requirement.
Technical scheme: micro-power network monitoring of the present utility model and energy management apparatus, comprise main controller module and microclimate information monitoring module, main controller module comprises CPU module, storage module, communication module and supplementary module, CPU module comprises central processor core, clock and reset circuit and JTAG debugging module, storage module comprises synchronous DRAM, NORFLASH storer and NANDFLASH storer, communication module comprises serial communication modular and ethernet communication module, supplementary module comprises the master controller power module, the A/D sampling module, controller local area network's bus module and input and output interface,
Microclimate information monitoring module is by transit module and field monitoring module composition, and transit module comprises a ZigBee chip, the first power module be connected with a ZigBee chip respectively, the first storage chip, a JTAG debugging interface and the first radio-frequency module; The field monitoring module comprises the 2nd ZigBee chip, the second source module be connected with the 2nd ZigBee chip respectively, the second storage chip, the 2nd JTAG debugging interface, the second radio-frequency module and sensor assembly, and sensor assembly comprises Temperature Humidity Sensor, obliquity sensor, wind speed and direction sensor and solar radiation sensor; The first radio-frequency module of transit module is connected with the second radio-frequency module of field monitoring module by wireless network.
In the utility model, in main controller module, clock all is connected with central processor core with reset circuit, JTAG debugging module, synchronous DRAM, NORFLASH storer, NANDFLASH storer, serial communication modular, ethernet communication module, master controller power module, A/D sampling module, controller local area network's bus module and input and output interface.
Transit module is realized and the communicating by letter of wireless sensor network node in the field monitoring module by self-contained radio-frequency (RF) transceiver, transit module is crossed the RS485 interface by the microclimate information exchange and is sent to main controller module to be processed after receiving the microclimate information that the field monitoring module sends.
In the field monitoring module, the 2nd ZigBee chip is connected with Temperature Humidity Sensor by the serial single bus interface, from being connected, Temperature Humidity Sensor reads temperature, humidity data according to the sequential of setting, the 2nd ZigBee chip adopts the RS485 interface of expansion to be connected with the wind speed and direction sensor, gather wind speed, wind direction data, the 2nd ZigBee chip is used 12 A/D converting units that carry to read inclination angle and the radiancy data in obliquity sensor and solar radiation sensor, then the data that receive is stored in the second storage chip.
Micro-power network monitoring of the present utility model and energy management apparatus, while being applied in energy management method, comprising:
Information monitoring and communication modeling procedure: by communication and is connected mutual inductor, sensor operation, fault and the configuration information of the distributed power source in micro-electrical network, points of common connection, energy conversion system, energy storage, protection, negative control switch and the microclimate information in the external world are monitored in real time and gathered, then utilize IEC61850 and IEC61400 (extension of IEC61850 standard in wind power generation field) to communicate modeling to collected information;
Ultra-short term power prediction step: at first, in predetermined period of setting, select historical data set under corresponding typical weather pattern and the real time data of described information monitoring collection step, adopt following formula to calculate in the data acquisition under the typical weather pattern of choosing every group of historical data and the prediction day variation tendency similarity r of image data ij, p:
r ij , p = Σ k = 1 n w ik w jk , p Σ k = 1 n w ik 2 Σ k = 1 n w jk , p 2 ,
Wherein i means the prediction counting of day, and j means typical weather pattern counting, and p means the counting of history data set in the data acquisition under j kind typical case weather pattern, and k means the timing node of choosing, and n means data sampling quantity, w ikthe data variation trend amount that means prediction i day k two adjacent timing nodes constantly, w jk, pmean p group historical data k two adjacent timing node data variation trend amounts constantly in the data acquisition under j kind typical case weather pattern,
Then therefrom take out all changes similar trend degree r ij, pthe front m of middle maximum, carry out the calculating of normalizing degree, then basis normalizing degree result of calculation is weighted to calculating, draws predicted value v i (k+1), according to predicted value v i (k+1)calculate the ultra-short term predicted power, finally according to the ultra-short term predicted power, determine whether start rolling optimization, if ultra-short term predicted power value surpasses the boundary value of setting, enter the rolling optimization step, otherwise do not process, in above formula, v i (k+1)mean prediction i k+1 on same day day predicted value constantly, a ikmean k corresponding actual value constantly, c means the counting of front m history data set selecting, w ckbe carved into the k+1 data variation trend amount in the moment in c history data set in front m the history data set that means to select during k;
Rolling optimization step: according to the following formula the follow-up generating predicted value of plan is a few days ago adjusted, obtained photovoltaic generation difference, wind power generation difference or the load difference of exerting oneself of exerting oneself of exerting oneself:
Δ P DG = 1 T 2 - T 1 ∫ T 1 T 2 P DG ( t ) - P DG , avg , P in formula dG(t) be wind power generation, photovoltaic generation, the actual variation of exerting oneself of load, T 2-T 1mean the rolling optimization duration, mean the average photovoltaic generated output value in this period, average wind energy generated output value or the average load value of exerting oneself, P dG, avgmean photovoltaic generation, wind power generation or the load of plan a few days ago in this period mean value of exerting oneself, be photovoltaic generation, wind power generation or the load difference of exerting oneself;
Then, according to the rolling optimization result, the gained difference of exerting oneself is revised plan a few days ago, and described plan a few days ago refers to take economic load dispatching as target, carries out optimum and solves, the optimum unit output scheduling scheme of the micro-electrical network of the whole day drawn.
In the ultra-short term power prediction step of said method, the variation tendency similarity r according to following formula to selecting ij, pcarry out the calculating of normalizing degree:
g c = r c / Σ d = 1 m r d
R wherein cc in front m the variation tendency similarity that means to select is individual.G cthe normalization data that means c variation tendency similarity value.D means counting, the summation that means this m variation tendency similarity.
In the ultra-short term power prediction step of said method, the real time data of information monitoring collection step is photovoltaic generation, each self-corresponding real-time microclimate data of wind power generation or loads the realtime power data corresponding, prediction i k+1 on same day day predicted value constantly is corresponding emittance value or the corresponding performance number of loading of air speed value, photovoltaic generation that wind power generation is corresponding, and k corresponding actual value constantly is the actual emanations degree value that actual wind speed value, photovoltaic generation that wind power generation is corresponding are corresponding or the real power value of loading corresponding.
The ultra-short term power prediction step of said method, a few days ago plan, the in real time energy management required in conjunction with micro-operation of power networks of rolling optimization step have formed the microgrid energy management method based on Multiple Time Scales.The function that the utility model is mainly realized has: (1) is by communication and connect mutual inductor, the sensor mode is monitored in real time and gathers the information such as operation, fault and configuration of micro-electrical network key equipments such as distributed power source (Distributed Generator), points of common connection (Point of Common Coupling), energy conversion system (Power Convert System), energy storage, protection, negative control switch; (2) designed multiple communication interface, built-in various protocols storehouse, be applicable to the monitoring demand of devices from different manufacturers; (3) accept GOOSE (towards the transformer substation case of the general object) order that higher level SCADA system or distribution automation system are assigned, and steering order is carried out to protocol conversion; (4) IEC61850 communication modeling; (5) microclimate monitoring and collection; (6) ultra-short term generating prediction; (7) rolling optimization; (8) coordinate based on Multiple Time Scales the energy management of controlling.
The power supply of whole main controller module and microclimate information monitoring module is provided by the electrical network busbar voltage.The 220V alternating current by change into+5V of linear power supply ,+15V ,-15V tri-road voltages, then supply with each several part by DC/DC conversion module and power supply module for communication and use.
The utility model has been equipped with a plurality of Ethernet interfaces, by catching and resolve the GOOSE message, and can the interlock with higher level SCADA system or distribution automation system according to the enforcement of GOOSE information.Utilize GOOSE can realize that the steering order of micro-electrical network issues and logic node between data communication, and then complete coordination control and the energy management of whole micro-electrical network.In addition, the utility model is except monitoring at the scene the parameters of micro-operation of power networks, also can Monitoring Data, logout be sent to distant place management of power use department in real time by reserved Ethernet interface, for monitoring and inquiry, micro-electrical network of simultaneously also supporting the online higher level of importing SCADA system to formulate is planned a few days ago.
Beneficial effect: the utility model compared with prior art, has the following advantages:
(1) the utility model is compared with existing energy management apparatus, take into full account convenience and the real-time of energy management and microclimate information acquisition, based on the ZigBee wireless sensor network technology, designed a set of micro-power network monitoring and energy management apparatus with the microclimate information collection function.The field monitoring main frame forms micro-wireless network with the node be connected on main controller module, detects the electric characteristic amount of microclimate environmental characteristic amount and circuit, has realized the Real-Time Monitoring of various characteristic quantities.Cost is low, convenience is high, real-time, there is very strong dirigibility.
(2) the utility model take full advantage of field real-time acquisition the microclimate information realization micro-electrical network ultra-short term power prediction, and then provide accurate power data for rolling optimization and in real time energy management.Energy management based on the microclimate monitoring can be revised each distributed power source in time remaining exerting oneself of period, progressively approaches the actual power state.Therefore, with the conventional energy management devices, compare, convenient, real-time microclimate monitoring function contributes to that micro-electrical network is carried out to more accurate energy management to be controlled, and makes energy management process smooth-out, accurate, more can draw the energy management instruction that possesses actual operation.
(3) the utility model takes full advantage of the realize means of GOOSE as micro electric network coordination control and energy management, take high-speed communication as basis, substitute hard wired communication mode between traditional intelligence electronic equipment (IED), for the communication between logic node in micro-electrical network provides fast and the method for high efficient and reliable.Arbitrary IED and other IED link by Ethernet, can be used as the subscriber and receive data, also can provide data to other IED for the publisher.
(4) the utility model solved the conventional energy operating strategy can not the active response wind energy and the shortcoming of photovoltaic generation randomness, adopt ultra-short term power prediction algorithm, according to historical meteorologic model and the real-time weather information under different microclimates, can realize the honourable ultra-short term generating prediction based on the min level, revise plan a few days ago according to predicting the outcome, reduced the harmful effect of randomness to micro-electrical network of exerting oneself of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.
(5) the utility model adopts the hardware platform of high unity, standardized information model, abstract communication service interface and the specific communication service mapping of standard, solved the interoperability issue in micro-electrical network, be easy to realize that system is seamless integrated, reduce installation, debugging and operating cost, farthest bring into play the benefit that micro-electrical network brings.
(6) the utility model has designed multiple communication interface, can adapt to existing various communication medias (RS232/RS485 serial ports, wireless network, controller local area network's bus and the network communication protocol TCP/IP etc. that comprise synchronous/asynchronous) in micro-electrical network, built-in various protocols storehouse, can carry out efficiently the communication Protocol Conversion of every aspect, be applicable to the monitoring demand of devices from different manufacturers.
(7) the utility model can the seamless access distribution automation system, accepts the control command that distribution automation system is assigned, through communication systems communicate to different functional units.If instruction is for single device (as DG or load switching), device directly is handed down to equipment; If instruction for micro-electrical network integral body, enters after the energy management algorithm optimization calculates and processed, further improved the accuracy of energy management.
(8) the utility model has solved the problem that conventional energy operating strategy precision is low, real-time is poor, the microgrid energy management method of controlling is coordinated in employing based on Multiple Time Scales, utilize the energy-optimised scheduling of different time yardstick, refinement energy management step by step, make original extensive energy management meticulousr accurately, possesses higher real-time simultaneously, can carry out in time feedback response to scene, load fluctuation information, both meet energy scheduling economy optimum, also met the requirement of security of system stable operation.
(9) the utility model is owing to having been used the Modular Flexible designing technique, and device volume reduces greatly, and wiring is simple.Design of Hardware Architecture has adopted the standard fastener of extension-based groove, can be according to user's request flexible configuration hardware resource.Installation and Debugging are convenient, flexible structure, and extensibility is strong, for further developing upgrading products, provides convenience.
The accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is micro-power network monitoring and energy management apparatus hardware design block diagram.
Fig. 2 is microclimate information monitoring modular design block diagram in micro-power network monitoring and energy management apparatus.
Fig. 3 is ultra-short term power prediction process flow diagram.
Fig. 4 is micro-electrical network Multiple Time Scales energy management structures block diagram.
Fig. 5 is based on the microgrid energy management method process flow diagram of Multiple Time Scales.
In figure, have: main controller module 1, microclimate information monitoring module 2, CPU module 11, storage module 12, communication module 13, supplementary module 14, central processor core 111, clock and reset circuit 112, JTAG debugging module 113, synchronous DRAM 121, NORFLASH storer 122, NANDFLASH storer 123, serial communication modular 131, ethernet communication module 132, master controller power module 141, A/D sampling module 142, controller local area network's bus module 143, input and output interface 144, transit module 21, field monitoring module 22, the one ZigBee chip 211, the first power module 212, the first storage chip 213, the one JTAG debugging interface 214, the first radio-frequency module 215, the 2nd ZigBee chip 221, second source module 222, the second storage chip 223, the 2nd JTAG debugging interface 224, the second radio-frequency module 225, sensor assembly 226, Temperature Humidity Sensor 2261, obliquity sensor 2262, wind speed and direction sensor 2263, solar radiation sensor 2264.
Embodiment
Micro-power network monitoring of the present utility model and energy management apparatus, comprise primary controller module 1 and microclimate information monitoring module 2.Described main controller module 1 comprises CPU module 11, storage module 12, communication module 13 and supplementary module 14.Described microclimate information monitoring module 2 comprises transit module 21 and field monitoring module 22, as shown in Figure 1.
(1) modularized hardware platform
1. CPU module
CPU module 11 is cores of whole device, comprises central processor core 111, clock and reset circuit 112, JTAG debugging module 113.
(1) central processor core introduction
Speed is fast except possessing on performance for central processor core 111, high reliability, also must carry out abstract modeling to data message etc., makes it to meet the communication standard of IEC61850.The AT91RM9200 chip that this central processor core 111 adopts ATMEL (liking special Mel) company to produce is as CPU (central processing unit).AT91RM9200 is a based on the ARM920T kernel, special 32 RISC (reduced instruction set computer) processor design for industrial occasions, it be take simply to design with efficient instruction set and sets up high-end communication system as the user provides a brand-new system scheme.AT91RM9200 mainly has the following advantages:
1) data of high speed are processed, and its dominant frequency is the highest can reach 180MHz, and instruction is handled up up to 200MIPS;
2) abundant external bus interface, support the storeies such as SDRAM (synchronous DRAM), NORFLASH (non-volatile flash technology) and NANDFLASH (non-volatile flash technology);
3) advanced in performance system peripheral, oscillator, real-time clock, DMA (direct memory access), PIO (data exchange mode) controller and high level interrupt controller etc. on clock generator and power source management controller, sheet;
4) MMU (memory management unit) of full performance, support the operating system of all kinds of main flows, as Linux, VxWorks, ucos, Palm OS etc.;
5) supported data buffer memory and instruction buffer, can improve the processing power of system data and instruction;
6) complete standard interface, integrated chip USB2.0 standard interfaces such as main frame and device port, 10/100M Ethernet interface, synchronous/asynchronous serial line interface at full speed, for the Function Extension of chip provides a lot of facilities.
(2) clock and reset circuit module
Clock and reset circuit module 112 are divided into clock part and reset circuit two parts.
What clock part: AT91RM9200 was used is passive crystal oscillator, its power-supply controller of electric is integrated two oscillators and two PLL (phaselocked loop), and the crystal oscillator frequency of king oscillator is 18.432MHz, the frequency of slow clock oscillator is 32.768kHz.It adopts different clock frequencies under different demands, can close king oscillator and PLL, in order to save power consumption, can close king oscillator and adopt slow clock.The frequency that PLL circuit in sheet has concurrently improves the effect with purifying signal, double frequency function by it can be brought up to 180MHz by the maximum operation frequency of AT91RM9200 chip, and, by the input of outside lower clock signal, avoided due to the caused high-frequency signal noise of the input of high frequency clock.In addition, the frequency of operation in sheet can also, by internal register is set, obtain the needed clock signal of peripheral hardware with this.
Reset circuit part: although the AT91RM9200 chip carries real-time clock and WatchDog Timer; but can't under power-down conditions, work; in order to strengthen operational reliability of the present utility model; the utility model has extended out WatchDog Timer chip DS1501; not only can guarantee accurate timing and reliably supervision effect, and provide independently protection system for microcontroller.The application of house dog can assurance device continuous working under the unmanned state, DS1501 is connected with the corresponding data bus of AT91RM9200, address bus, in the application program of carrying out, hello the dog of timing just can guarantee the accurate execution of program, do not obtain signal if surpass the official hour house dog, assert that program runs and fly, DS1501 can send to the reseting pin of AT91RM9200 a reset signal and make it to restart, just realize the autoboot of device like this, recovered normal operation.
(3) JTAG module
JTAG means debugging and test interface.Though JTAG debugging module 113 is not that the system operation is necessary, modern system is more and more emphasized measurability, especially particularly important in the design and development stage of device.JTAG debugging module 113 mainly contains the purposes of two aspects: the one, can connect the emulator accuracy of test procedure in real time when debugged program, because test procedure often needs modification and change repeatedly, by jtag circuit, can realize easily real-time simulation repeatedly; The 2nd, program determine errorless after by emulator by the programming file of generation through the jtag interface programming in the storer set, power on and can move the program that programming is good after the good suitable Starting mode of Array selection.
2. storage module
Storage module 12 mainly comprises synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) 121, NORFLASH storer 122 and NANDFLASH storer 123, and the three completes different functions according to characteristics separately.
Synchronous DRAM 121 part categories are various, and native system has been selected chip I S42S16400 as required.This chip is the high speed SDRAM device of American I SSI company, and memory capacity is the 8M byte, 16 bit data width, working power 3.3V, it is fast that it has read or write speed, stable performance, but easily lose program and the data that can be used in storage running, the travelling speed of elevator system.In native system, two IS42S16400 are composed in parallel to the storage system of 32 bit wides.
That NORFLASH storer 122 adopts is chip SST39VF160, and memory capacity is 2M, and bit wide is 16bit, and operating voltage is 3.3V, and power down is not lost, for program and some value data of solidification equipment.The utility model is expanded NORFLASH storer 122, and its storage space has increased one times.
The characteristics such as that NANDFLASH storer 123 adopts is the K9K2G08U0M of Samsung, and it is large that it has a capacity, non-volatile, can be used to the microclimate data of storage area for micro-electric network information modeling at this device.
3. communication module
Communication module 13 comprises serial communication modular 131 and ethernet communication module 132.
(1) serial communication modular
Serial communication modular 131 of the present utility model comprises three road serial ports: a road RS232 interface (a kind of standard for serial communication) and two-way RS485 interface (a kind of standard for serial communication).
The universal synchronous that AT91RM9200 carries/asynchronism transceiver USART0, Three-State door, high-speed light every, RS232 level transferring chip MAX203, standard nine kinds of needles socket DB9 form a road RS232 standard serial passage, for the communicating by letter of display system.
The universal synchronous that AT91RM9200 carries/asynchronism transceiver USART1, Three-State door, high-speed light form first via RS485 serial-port every, RS485 (standard for serial communication two) level transferring chip MAX485, bipod socket, for issuing of the operation information that gathers equipment in micro-electrical network and control command.
The universal synchronous that AT91RM9200 carries/asynchronism transceiver USART2, Three-State door, high-speed light form a road RS485 serial-port every, RS485 level transferring chip MAX485, bipod socket, are used for communicating by letter with transit module.With the RS232 bus, compare, the RS485 bus communication except the sending and receiving two paths of signals, Hai Xu mono-tunnel control signal.This device adopts the pin (PB22, RTS0) of AT91RM9200 to control transmission and the acknowledge(ment) signal of RS485 bus.
In order to strengthen anti-interference, between each universal synchronous/asynchronism transceiver and corresponding level shifting circuit, all design high-speed light every.
(2) ethernet communication module
Ethernet communication module 132 of the present utility model has designed the two-way optical-fibre channel.Ethernet belongs to LAN (LAN (Local Area Network)) protocol architecture (IEEE802 series), and it is based upon on the basis of OSI (open system interconnection) model, corresponding to the Physical layer in osi model and data link layer.Difference wherein is that lan protocol is divided into data link layer again logic link control (Logic Link Control, LLC) and medium access control (Media Access Control, MAC) two sublayers, the benefit of segmentation is when the transmission medium of network or access control method change like this, only need to change mac-layer protocol, and without changing the LLC layer protocol.
The primary equipment of micro-electrical network often is in the rugged surroundings of strong electromagnetic, and optical fiber communication is not subject to electromagnetic interference (EMI), is with roomy, long transmission distance, good confidentiality, utilizes it as transmission medium, can well meet the requirement of the utility model communication.In the utility model, the composition of two-way optical-fibre channel is not identical, owing to carrying 10/100M Base-T (twisted-pair feeder to) type Ethernet interface (MII) in AT91RM9200, so the first via can utilize MII to realize the function of MAC layer, use MII to be connected with PHY (Physical layer) chip LXT971, LXT971 had both supported twisted-pair feeder also to support the physical layer transceiver of optical fiber, isolating transformer, finally connect RJ45 joint, fiber optical transceiver formation first via ethernet channel in addition.LXT971 provides 3 signal lamp pins, and the utility model is configured as SPEED, LINK, RECEIVE signal, means respectively speed, connection, reception signal.
The second tunnel is expanded by the external bus interface of AT91RM9200.Choose the LAN9215 chip as ethernet controller.Its data line/address wire can directly be connected with AT91RM9200, although contain the control function of MAC and PHY layer in LAN9215, but its PHY layer for be that twisted-pair feeder is not supported optical fiber, realize the PHY layer function so need to connect in addition LXT971 after LAN9215, finally connect isolating transformer and RJ45 joint, fiber optical transceiver and realize the second road Ethernet optical fiber communication.
4, microclimate information monitoring module
Microclimate information monitoring module 2 consists of transit module 21 and field monitoring module 22.
(1) CC2530, DHT21, WJ-3A, MMA7361, TBQ-2 chip are introduced
CC2530 is ZigBee (wireless communication technology) chip of TI company.It take 8051 microprocessors as kernel, and self-contained radio-frequency (RF) transceiver is used for realizing the communication of wireless sensor network node.Its encapsulation volume is little, has improved RF output power, sensitivity, selectivity and anti-interference.
Digital hygro sensor DHT21 is a humiture compound sensor of calibrating digital signal output that contains, and has that response is fast, antijamming capability is strong, the cost performance advantages of higher.Its one wire system serial line interface, make the system integration become simple and easy quick.
Angular transducer MMA7361 chip is 3 axle small-range acceleration transducers, can inspected object direction and the angle of motion.It changes the magnitude of voltage of output signal according to object motion and direction, with A/D (analog quantity/digital quantity) converter of processor, read output voltage signal, just can detect direction of motion or angle, can be used for measuring the shaft tower inclination angle.
Wind speed and direction sensor WJ-3A adopts the transmitter of advanced circuit module technological development, for realizing the measurement to ambient wind velocity and wind direction, and the RS485 signal of outputting standard, the convenient use.There is precision high, broad quantum, input resistance is high, good stability, the plurality of advantages such as volume is little, and the linearity easy for installation is good, and transmission range is long, and antijamming capability is strong.
Solar radiation sensor TBQ-2 type pyranometer is used for the total solar radiation that the measure spectrum scope is 0.3-3 μ m.This table is the thermoelectric effect principle, and sensing element adopts wire winded electroplating formula multiple-contact thermoelectric pile, and its surface scribbles the black coating of high-absorbility.In the range of linearity, output signal is directly proportional to solar irradiance.
(2) transit module
Transit module 21 comprises a ZigBee chip 211, the first power module 212, the first storage chip 213, a JTAG debugging interface 214 and the first radio-frequency module 215.The first power module 212 comprises the first voltage stabilizing chip 2121, the first solar panel 2122, the first power-supply controller of electric 2133 and the first rechargeable battery 2124.The one ZigBee chip 211 adopts CC2530, and the first voltage stabilizing chip 2121 adopts AMS1117.Transit module 21 sends to main controller module 1 to be processed by the RS485 interface after receiving the microclimate information that field monitoring module 22 sends.
(3) field monitoring module
Field monitoring module 22 adopts modular design, comprises that the 2nd ZigBee chip 221, second source module 222, the second storage chip 223, the 2nd JTAG debugging interface 224, the second radio-frequency module 225 and sensor assembly 226 form.Second source module 222 comprises the second voltage stabilizing chip 2221, the second solar panel 2222, second source controller 2233 and the second rechargeable battery 2224.Sensor assembly 226 comprises that Temperature Humidity Sensor 2262, obliquity sensor 2262, wind speed and direction sensor 2263, solar radiation sensor 2264 form.
The 2nd ZigBee chip 221 adopts CC2530, the second voltage stabilizing chip 2221 adopts AMS1117, and Temperature Humidity Sensor 2262 adopts DHT21, and obliquity sensor 2262 adopts MMA7361, wind speed and direction sensor 2263 adopts WJ-3A, and solar radiation sensor 2264 adopts TBQ-2.
The 2nd ZigBee chip 221 is connected with DHT21 by the serial single bus interface, with specific sequential, reads high-precision temperature, humidity data from DHT21; Adopt RS485 interface and the WJ-3A communication of expansion, gather wind speed, wind direction data; 12 A/D converting units that use carries read inclination angle and the radiancy data in MMA7361 and TBQ-2; TBQ-2 is output as the 0-20mv d. c. voltage signal in addition, need its scope be delivered to the 2nd ZigBee chip 221 after whole increasing through modulate circuit.The data that the 2nd ZigBee chip 221 receives are stored in the second storage chip 223 of 1Mbyte, are timed afterwards and are sent to transit module 21.Fig. 2 is transit module and field monitoring module hardware design frame chart.
5, supplementary module
Supplementary module comprises main control power supply power module 141, A/D sampling module 142, controller local area network's bus module 143 and input and output interface 144.Master controller power module 141 is mainly digital signal 3.3V and 1.8V voltage partly is provided; Input and output interface 144 is for the switching value of deriving means outside and carry out relevant control.
Micro-power network monitoring of the present utility model and energy management apparatus, while being applied in energy management method, comprising:
(1) information monitoring and the modeling procedure of communicating by letter
By communication and connect mutual inductor, sensor is monitored in real time and gathers operation, fault and configuration information and the extraneous microclimate information of the distributed power source in micro-electrical network, points of common connection, energy conversion system, energy storage, protection, negative control switch.
There is significant difference between different vendor's equipment in micro-electrical network, the content of the communication information, tissue and interactive mode are also without unified standard, therefore in order to realize information interaction in micro-electrical network and the interoperability of different vendor's equipment room, IED in micro-electrical network (Intelligent Electronic Device) is as modeling object, adopt OO modeling technique, based on IEC61850 and IEC61400 (extension of IEC61850 standard in wind power generation field), set up micro-electric network information model.Which function clear and definite IED has, and which function is used for swap data, and micro-electrical network function modeling that each will be carried out to exchanges data becomes information model.The hierarchical structure of information model comprises 5 subdivisions: server, logical device, logic node, data object and data attribute.The enforcement that is established as various energy management methods of information model provides the data sharing basis.
(2) the ultra-short term power prediction step based on the microclimate monitoring
The ultra-short term power prediction comprises: wind power generation prediction, photovoltaic generation prediction, load fluctuation prediction.Need to utilize microclimate information prediction wind power generation and photovoltaic generation power, exert oneself randomness to the impact of micro-electrical network to reduce wind power generation and photovoltaic generation, need fluctuation according to load realtime power data prediction load side to strengthen the stable operation of micro-electrical network simultaneously.
The time scale of ultra-short term prediction is 5~15min, therefore need to adopt the data interpolating method based on historical data, it is the interpolation time interval that the logarithm value weather forecast information be take predetermined period of ultra-short term power prediction, carry out data interpolating, improve data resolution, to meet the requirement of ultra-short term power prediction.
In said method, it is reference that the required historical data of wind power generation ultra-short term power prediction is selected the history data set cooperation of certain season under eight kinds of typical weather patterns in fan operation.Suppose that eight kinds of main weather conditions under this season (summer) are: clear to cloudy, fine, drying, the moon, overcast to light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain, cloudy turn to fine, fine, sultry etc.
Take wind power generation as example, the step of ultra-short term power prediction is described.For obtaining its ultra-short term power prediction data, need first prediction of wind speed to change, its implementation procedure is: 1) wind-force data acquisition in real time select the wind speed historical data under corresponding typical weather pattern; 2) historical wind speed selected and the historical wind speed on the same day are carried out to data interpolating (prediction same day that historical wind speed gathered day same day is the actual wind speed value of time of origin section, and the wind speed of future time adopts the numerical interpolation prediction) and obtain wind speed variation tendency amount; 3) calculation of wind speed variation tendency similarity; 4) the historical data set of selecting based on similarity is carried out to normalization calculating; 5) calculate each wind speed variation tendency amount of the historical data set of selecting; 6) be weighted average computation and draw prediction interpolation wind speed.As shown in Figure 3.The concrete grammar process is as follows:
At first according to the weather forecasting situation, select the historical data set under corresponding weather condition, can carry out the selection of one or more weather according to the situation of weather forecasting, as weather forecasting is that drizzle to moderate rain can be selected overcast to light rain and two data set of moderate rain.
The wind speed setting variation tendency is each day character vector, supposes A i=[a i1, a i2, a i3..., a in] for predicting the air speed data of i day, B j, p=[b j1, p, b j2, p, b j3, p..., b jn, p] be the p group historical wind speed in the data acquisition under j kind typical case weather pattern, in formula, i means the prediction counting of day, j means typical weather pattern counting, p means the counting of history data set in the data acquisition under j kind typical case weather pattern, n means the wind speed number of samples, by the sampling time interval of choosing, is determined.
Set W i=[w i1, w i2, w i3..., w in] for predicting n the proper vector of i day, wherein w ik=a i (k+1)-a ikthe wind speed variation tendency amount that means prediction k on the same day two adjacent timing nodes constantly.K ∈ [1, n-1] means the timing node of choosing.
Set W j, p=[w j1, p, w j2, p, w j3, p..., w jn, p] mean the p group historical wind speed proper vector in the data acquisition under j kind typical case weather pattern, corresponding to n proper vector of prediction i day data sampling time point, wherein w jk, p=b j (k+1), p-b jk, p, k ∈ [1, n-1] means p group historical data k two adjacent timing node wind speed variation tendency amounts constantly in the data acquisition under j kind typical case weather pattern.In data acquisition under j kind typical case weather pattern, p organizes historical data and the variation tendency similarity r that predicts data on the same day so ij, pcan be calculated by formula (1):
r ij , p = Σ k = 1 n w ik w jk , p Σ k = 1 n w ik 2 Σ k = 1 n w jk , p 2 - - - ( 1 )
Then to the wind speed variation tendency similarity r under typical weather pattern ij, presult of calculation contrasted, therefrom take out front m history data set of similarity maximum.If r cmean c in m variation tendency similarity (front m the history data set of selecting is corresponding).At first the variation tendency similarity is carried out to the calculating of normalizing degree, suc as formula (2):
g c = r c / Σ d = 1 m r d - - - ( 2 )
R wherein cc in front m the variation tendency similarity that means to select is individual, g cthe normalization data that means c variation tendency similarity value.D means counting, the summation that means this m variation tendency similarity.
Finally, in the front m selected possesses the historical wind speed data group of higher similarity, suppose B c=[b c1, b c2, b c3..., b cn] be c historical wind speed data group wherein; Make w ck=b c (k+1)-b ck, k ∈ [1, n-1] is carved into (k+1) wind speed variation tendency amount constantly while meaning k in this c historical wind speed data group.
Next prediction of wind speed is the weighted mean value sum of prediction actual value constantly with corresponding this moment historical data variation tendency amount, by formula (3), is meaned:
v i ( k + 1 ) = a ik + Σ c = 1 m g c w ck - - - ( 3 )
V wherein i (k+1)mean prediction day k+1 on same day prediction of wind speed constantly; a ikmean k corresponding wind speed actual value constantly.Can solve like this and obtain next ultra-short term prediction wind-force value constantly, resolution can reach the min level.Same method is where applicable in photovoltaic generation ultra-short term power prediction, and air speed data is made into to the radiancy data, and where applicable in the ultra-short term power prediction of load side makes air speed data into load power fluctuation data.。
Predict the outcome according to the ultra-short term of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation and load side, compare with the preset value of the corresponding period of setting in the works a few days ago, to determine whether, enable rolling scheduling.
(3) rolling optimization step
Rolling optimization is to take 30-60min as start-up period, its main target is to utilize the information of latest update (load side information and wind energy and photovoltaic go out force information), through forecast model, calculate, revising follow-up scene and load exerts oneself, thereby draw the energy operation plan of residue period, to revise plan a few days ago, reduce its uncertainty.
Rolling scheduling need to monitor that the same day, scene was exerted oneself and the implementation status of generation schedule, thereby carries out following operation:
1. in the situation that actual load occurs to depart from more greatly with the prediction load, complete in time and remained the adjustment of period load prediction value the same day;
2. in the situation that scene is actual exerts oneself and relatively large deviation occurs actual exerting oneself, complete in time the exert oneself adjustment of predicted value of follow-up scene;
3. for the variable quantity summation in above-mentioned 2, according to rolling scheduling objective function optimization result, revise each micro-source exerting oneself in the residue period, thereby progressively approach the actual power state, it is rolling scheduling of every execution, revise once plan a few days ago, produce a follow-up operation plan of having revised;
Start rolling scheduling and the follow-up scene predicted data of exerting oneself adjusted to two kinds of entry conditions of existence:, one, the ultra-short term predicted data crosses the border; Two, take 30-60min starts rolling scheduling segment data when follow-up to adjust voluntarily as the cycle.
The correction of rolling mould blocks of data as shown in the formula:
Δ P DG = 1 T 2 - T 1 ∫ T 1 T 2 P DG ( t ) - P DG , avg - - - ( 4 )
P wherein dG(t) be wind power generation, photovoltaic generation and the actual variation of exerting oneself of load, T 2-T 1mean the rolling optimization duration, the average output value that means wind power generation, photovoltaic generation and load in this duration, P dG, avgmean in this duration a few days ago the mean value of exerting oneself of wind power generation, photovoltaic generation and load in the works, be wind power generation, photovoltaic generation and the load difference of exerting oneself.The utility model according to the rolling optimization result difference of exerting oneself, is revised the required plan a few days ago of micro-operation of power networks again.
Above-mentioned energy management method, a few days ago plan and the in real time energy management required in conjunction with micro-operation of power networks have formed the microgrid energy management method of coordinating control based on Multiple Time Scales:
Ultra-short term power prediction scheme is to take 5-15min to draw ultra-short term power prediction value as the cycle, and compares with the rolling scheduling result, thereby adjust, exerts oneself.
The rolling scheduling scheme is to take 30-60min as start-up period, its main target is to utilize the information of latest update (load side information and wind energy and photovoltaic go out force information), through forecast model, calculate, revising follow-up wind energy and photovoltaic and load exerts oneself, thereby draw the energy operation plan of residue period, to revise plan a few days ago.
In micro-electrical network, in real time management scheme is in second level yardstick, according to the minor fluctuations of mains side and load side, set more among a small circle in, carry out Automatic dispatching, ensure micro-electrical network realtime power balance.This process be take safe and stable operation as main target.
In micro-electrical network, plan is in hour yardstick a few days ago, refers to take that economic load dispatching is as target, carry out optimum and solve, and the optimum unit output scheduling scheme of micro-electrical network of the whole day drawn, micro-electrical network is with reference to plan operation a few days ago.
Therefore, proposed Multiple Time Scales on above-mentioned basis and coordinated the microgrid energy management method of controlling, as shown in Figure 4.Plan take hour (h) is yardstick a few days ago, and target is to guarantee system stability and overall economy, optimizes the basic dispatch curve that obtains each micro-source; Rolling scheduling be take 30min~1h as yardstick, by wind energy, photovoltaic and load prediction, revises follow-up scene and load variations, optimizes the adjustment in each micro-source and exerts oneself, and target is for adjusting the integrated cost optimum; The ultra-short term Real-Time Scheduling is to take 5~10min as yardstick, and load and scene fluctuation are carried out to the ultra-short term prediction, take that to meet the lower supply and demand fluctuation of ultra-short term prediction be regulation goal; Energy management is in real time adjusted in min~s level yardstick, transfers the buffered sources fine setting and supplies to be required to be target with the micro-electrical network of balance, belongs to micro-process scheduling and controls.
Said method carries out the energy coordinated management to plan a few days ago, rolling optimization and ultra-short term scheduling, real-time four time scales of energy management.The ultra-short term scheduling is calculated in the scope that plan limits a few days ago, rolling optimization is responsible for coordination, energy management in real time is responsible for formulating the real-time energy-optimised strategy of micro-electrical network according to optimum results, energy management process is refinement step by step, and the energy management method that coordination is controlled based on Multiple Time Scales as shown in Figure 5.
Energy management method based on Multiple Time Scales, utilize ultra-short term power prediction, rolling optimization to coordinate plan a few days ago and energy management in real time, contribute to further refinement microgrid energy management, make the microgrid energy management possess higher real-time and accuracy, can carry out in time feedback response to scene, load fluctuation information, both meet energy management economy optimum, also met the requirement of security of system stable operation.

Claims (4)

1. a micro-power network monitoring and energy management apparatus, it is characterized in that, this device comprises main controller module (1) and microclimate information monitoring module (2), described main controller module (1) comprises CPU module (11), storage module (12), communication module (13) and supplementary module (14), described CPU module (11) comprises central processor core (111), clock and reset circuit (112) and JTAG debugging module (113), described storage module (12) comprises synchronous DRAM (121), NORFLASH storer (122) and NANDFLASH storer (123), described communication module (13) comprises serial communication modular (131) and ethernet communication module (132), described supplementary module (14) comprises master controller power module (141), A/D sampling module (142), controller local area network's bus module (143) and input and output interface (144),
Described microclimate information monitoring module (2) consists of transit module (21) and field monitoring module (22), and described transit module (21) comprises a ZigBee chip (211), the first power module (212), the first storage chip (213), a JTAG debugging interface (214) and the first radio-frequency module (215) that are connected with a described ZigBee chip (211) respectively, described field monitoring module (22) comprises the 2nd ZigBee chip (221), the second source module (222) be connected with described the 2nd ZigBee chip (221) respectively, the second storage chip (223), the 2nd JTAG debugging interface (224), the second radio-frequency module (225) and sensor assembly (226), described sensor assembly (226) comprises Temperature Humidity Sensor (2261), obliquity sensor (2262), wind speed and direction sensor (2263) and solar radiation sensor (2264), first radio-frequency module (215) of described transit module (21) is connected with second radio-frequency module (225) of field monitoring module (22) by wireless network.
2. micro-power network monitoring and energy management apparatus according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in described main controller module (1), clock and reset circuit (112), JTAG debugging module (113), synchronous DRAM (121), NORFLASH storer (122), NANDFLASH storer (123), serial communication modular (131), ethernet communication module (132), master controller power module (141), A/D sampling module (142), controller local area network's bus module (143) all is connected with central processor core (11) with input and output interface (144).
3. according to the described micro-power network monitoring of claim 1 or 2 and energy management apparatus, it is characterized in that, described transit module (21) is realized and the communicating by letter of wireless sensor network node (225) in field monitoring module (22) by self-contained radio-frequency (RF) transceiver (215), transit module (21) is crossed the RS485 interface by described microclimate information exchange and is sent to main controller module (1) to be processed after receiving the microclimate information that field monitoring module (22) sends.
4. according to the described micro-power network monitoring of claim 1 or 2 and energy management apparatus, it is characterized in that, described the 2nd ZigBee chip (221) is connected with Temperature Humidity Sensor (2261) by the serial single bus interface, and read temperature according to the sequential of setting from Temperature Humidity Sensor (2261), humidity data, the 2nd ZigBee chip (221) adopts the RS485 interface of expansion to be connected with wind speed and direction sensor (2263) and gathers wind speed, the wind direction data, the 2nd ZigBee chip (221) is used 12 A/D converting units that carry to read inclination angle and the radiancy data in obliquity sensor (2262) and solar radiation sensor (2264), then the data that receive are stored in the second storage chip (223).
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103345227A (en) * 2013-07-02 2013-10-09 东南大学 Micro grid monitoring and energy management device and method
CN106329697A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-01-11 天津天大求实电力新技术股份有限公司 New energy power supply and power storage micro-grid system
CN106681501A (en) * 2016-12-14 2017-05-17 天津阳泽科技有限公司 Data exchange system of wearable device in human-computer interaction in computer field
CN106679734A (en) * 2017-03-10 2017-05-17 衢州学院 Micro-grid on-line monitoring and fault diagnosis system
CN106936769A (en) * 2015-12-31 2017-07-07 上海防灾救灾研究所 Multifunctional access is by the method with transmission data in a kind of system for fire protection

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103345227A (en) * 2013-07-02 2013-10-09 东南大学 Micro grid monitoring and energy management device and method
CN103345227B (en) * 2013-07-02 2015-09-09 东南大学 A kind of micro-capacitance sensor monitoring and energy management apparatus and method
CN106936769A (en) * 2015-12-31 2017-07-07 上海防灾救灾研究所 Multifunctional access is by the method with transmission data in a kind of system for fire protection
CN106329697A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-01-11 天津天大求实电力新技术股份有限公司 New energy power supply and power storage micro-grid system
CN106681501A (en) * 2016-12-14 2017-05-17 天津阳泽科技有限公司 Data exchange system of wearable device in human-computer interaction in computer field
CN106679734A (en) * 2017-03-10 2017-05-17 衢州学院 Micro-grid on-line monitoring and fault diagnosis system

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