CN203052646U - Combustion system of heavy oil fired boiler - Google Patents

Combustion system of heavy oil fired boiler Download PDF

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Publication number
CN203052646U
CN203052646U CN 201220634123 CN201220634123U CN203052646U CN 203052646 U CN203052646 U CN 203052646U CN 201220634123 CN201220634123 CN 201220634123 CN 201220634123 U CN201220634123 U CN 201220634123U CN 203052646 U CN203052646 U CN 203052646U
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
pipe
combustion
air
spray
flue gas
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Withdrawn - After Issue
Application number
CN 201220634123
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈灿
张定海
谢佳
王军
刘泰生
叶恩清
莫春鸿
张山鹰
陈阳
李亚鹏
吉彦鹏
徐磊
李家全
倪刚
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Dongfang Boiler Group Co Ltd
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Dongfang Boiler Group Co Ltd
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Priority to CN 201220634123 priority Critical patent/CN203052646U/en
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Publication of CN203052646U publication Critical patent/CN203052646U/en
Withdrawn - After Issue legal-status Critical Current
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Abstract

The utility model discloses a combustion system of a heavy oil fired boiler. The combustion system comprises an air inlet pipe, an air fan, more than one bellows outside a hearth, over-fire air nozzles on the bellows, a plurality of burners and an igniter. Each burner comprises an atomized oil gun, a primary air pipe and a secondary air pipe which are sleeved from inside to outside, wherein the atomized oil gun comprises an oil pipe and a nozzle which are connected with each other, a combustion stabilizer is arranged at the front end in the primary air pipe, a cyclone is arranged in the secondary air pipe, two circles of spray orifices are concentrically formed in the front end face of the nozzle, each circle of spray orifices comprise a plurality of spray orifices at equal intervals, the two circles of spray orifices are arranged on the circumference at an interval, and the apertures and the spray angles of the outer circle of spray orifices are greater than those of the inner circle of spray orifices. A coal economizer outlet of the boiler is connected with the air inlet pipe through a smoke circulating pipe, and a circulating fan is arranged on the smoke circulating pipe. The combustion system can greatly reduce nitrogen oxides and meet the increasing environment-friendly requirement, and has wider market prospect.

Description

The heavy oil boiler combustion system
Technical field
The utility model relates to a kind of combustion system for heavy oil boiler.
Background technology
Heavy oil is a kind of liquid fossil fuel, compares burning net heating value height with conventional pulverized-coal; Compare with gaseous fuel such as natural gas, system is more simple and safe, be easy to store and not limited by the region, compares with light oil, because the difference of manufacture craft is more economical cheaply.In recent years, along with the price of high-quality fuel oil and natural gas rises steadily, heavy oil is in the attention that more and more is subjected to of power fuel as an alternative of oil producing countries such as the Middle East.In bigger countries of heavy oil reserves such as the Middle East, be the first-selection that the boiler of main fuel is newly built a power station especially with heavy oil, so the fuel oil unit also have sizable market at some oil producing countries.
At present, station boiler mainly uses is heavy oil or residual oil in the petroleum product, it is that crude oil goes out the residue that is left behind gasoline, kerosene and the diesel oil through adding the heat refining aftercut, it catches fire easier than coal dust with burnout characteristic, but existing heavy oil boiler is easy to generate the pollutant emissions such as (NOx) of high nitrogen oxide in burning, the discharging of nitrogen oxide often reaches 800mg/Nm 3, because in the combustion process of fuel, the generation of nitrogen oxide is the part of combustion reaction, the nitrogen oxide that burning generates mainly is NO and NO2, is referred to as NOx.The NOx that generates in the combustion process of boiler oil, its generating mode mainly contain three: heating power type, quick type and fuel type.
During burning, nitrogen oxidation at high temperature produces in the air, and generative process wherein is not branch's chain reaction, and its formation mechanism is called the strange mechanism of multidimensional in the victory of expansion, and along with the rising of reaction temperature T, its reaction rate press the index law increase.When ° C of T<1500, the growing amount of NO seldom, and as T during 1500 ° of C, 100 ° of C of the every increase of T, reaction rate increases 6-7 doubly.Temperature is very tangible to the influence of heating power NOx, and in addition, excess air coefficient, the time of staying, pressure etc. have certain influence to the heating power type, and heating power type NOx growing amount is maximum in the general oil firing process, accounts for the 70%-80% of total amount.
Quick type
Fenimores in 1971 have proposed the reaction of formation mechanism of quick type NOx.During the hydrocarbon fuels burning, if the concentration of hydrocarbon is higher, type NOx can generate rapidly near conversion zone fast, the quick type NOx fecund of NO is born in the lower fuel-rich combustion situation of oxygen concentration, simultaneously fast the dependence on temperature of type NOx a little less than, only consider just when low temperature that it accounts for the 15%-20% of total amount.Heating power type NOx is more during high temperature, and type can be ignored fast.The fuel NO proportion is less.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this utility model is at the prior art above shortcomings, and a kind of heavy oil boiler combustion system is provided, and it can significantly reduce the generation of nitrogen oxide, satisfies the environmental requirement that improves day by day, has wider market prospects.
For achieving the above object, heavy oil boiler combustion system of the present utility model, comprise blast pipe, air blower, place the more than one bellows in the burner hearth outside, be located at the after-flame wind snout on each bellows, be positioned at several burners and the igniter of after-flame wind snout below, each burner includes sheathed from inside to outside atomized oil gun, airduct and secondary air channel, atomized oil gun comprises continuous oil pipe and nozzle, front end in airduct is provided with stabilizer, in secondary air channel, be provided with cyclone, it is characterized in that the concentric two circle spray orifices that are provided with on the front end face of nozzle, every circle spray orifice includes several spray orifices of spaced set, two circle spray orifices are spaced at circumference, and the aperture of outer ring spray orifice and spray angle all aperture and the spray angle than inner ring spray orifice is bigger; The economizer exit of boiler also links to each other with blast pipe by the flue gas recirculation pipe, is provided with circulating fan at the flue gas recirculation pipe.
During use: by flue gas recirculation pipe and circulating fan, extract the more than one bellows of sending into the burner hearth outside after the 5%-20% flue gas mixes with air again from economizer exit, the oxygen concentration of gaseous mixture is controlled at 13-20%; By actual internal area is set, the 65%-90% of control gaseous mixture air quantity enters each burner, in each burner, feed heavy oil in the oil pipe of atomized oil gun, nozzle through the oil gun front end forms several strands by interior, the light outer dense spraying outer ring concentric arrangement and interior, the spray angle of outer ring spraying is greater than inner ring, and in inciting somebody to action, being sprayed on the circumference of outer ring arranges at interval, after igniter is lighted, form the number stock and cut burned flame, and the flame of inner ring is little, the flame of outer ring is big, and gaseous mixture forms wind of advection and the secondary wind of eddy flow around the oil gun of each burner from inside to outside; The 10%-35% of control gaseous mixture air quantity enters the after-flame wind snout of burner top, and after-flame wind is blown in burner hearth at 1350-1500 ℃ temperature section place.
Adopt said method, flue gas recirculation wind is with after combustion air evenly mixes, the utilization of flue gas recirculation, reduced the oxygen concentration of combustion air, its oxygen concentration control is 13~20%, and combustion zone temperature is at 1600-1700 ℃, and this is lower than normal combustion zone temperature, its excess air coefficient is lower, can significantly reduce the heating power type; The spraying of the inside and outside circle that on circumference, arranges at interval and the difference of spray angle, several strands of flames of burning are cut apart in formation, can avoid mutual firing up, because flame is little, the flame cooling surface area increases again, and cooling condition improves, thereby flame temperature is reduced, on the other hand, the time of staying of gas in flame such as N and O have been shortened in the share split burning, make the NOx growing amount further reduce; A wind is advection, and secondary wind is eddy flow, and interior light outer dense spraying forms the fired state that inner hypoxemia lacks oil, peripheral oxygen enrichment heavy wool, all can suppress the generation of prompt NO; Simultaneously the flammule angle is little, and fine size can form the flame of smooth combustion, does not increase dust concentration and incomplete combustion loss; After-flame wind position is 1350-1500 ℃ temperature section, both can make that fuel combustion was complete, reduces dust concentration, can avoid producing new nitrogen oxide again;
As further improvement of the utility model, outside secondary air channel, also be arranged with tertiary-air pipe, in tertiary-air pipe, also be provided with cyclone, the blade angle of this cyclone is bigger than the blade angle of the cyclone in the secondary air channel; During use, outside the secondary wind of each burner, also form the tertiary air of eddy flow, and the swirl strength of tertiary air is greater than secondary wind; The particle diameter that little oilhole comes out is thin, and carefully elaioleucite can enter primary and secondary air, thereby can form the flame of smooth combustion, and the particle diameter that the oilhole of wide-angle comes out is thick, further facilitates the formation separated flame thereby can penetrate into tertiary air; Set up tertiary air, the implementation phase oxygen supply reaches that the burner region center is oxygen debt, the effect of peripheral oxygen enrichment, can guarantee can mix fully before dense, light two parts flue gas leaves burner hearth, to prevent incomplete combustion loss; The swirl strength of tertiary air is greater than secondary wind, can postpone two, the blending of tertiary air, makes the time lengthening of low oxygen combustion in the secondary wind, and ignition temperature is lower, is conducive to suppress the generation of nitrogen oxide;
As further improvement of the utility model, the spray angle of described outer ring spray orifice is 80-100 °, and the spray angle of inner ring spray orifice is 60-80 °; This angle inner ring flame can enter secondary wind, and flue gas mixes, and can realize that again inside and outside circle flame cuts apart, and further reduces flame temperature;
As further improvement of the utility model, described flue gas recirculation pipe links to each other by static mixer with blast pipe, static mixer comprises that several piece is located at the deflector on the blast pipe two lateral walls at interval, wherein sidewall of blast pipe is positioned at the flue gas recirculation pipe, has several smoke inlets between adjacent two deflectors of this sidewall; Can realize the even mixing of flue gas and air;
As further improvement of the utility model, the flame that is provided with outside bending at the front end mouth of pipe of an airduct is cut apart ring; Flame is cut apart ring and is changed secondary wind send into direction when cutting apart ring by flame, can postpone the incorporation time of secondary wind and flame, and soon flame is divided into two parts in diametric(al), realizes that better flame cuts apart;
As further improvement of the utility model, also be provided with the combustion-supporting airduct that connects boiler bottom and flue gas recirculation pipe, on combustion-supporting airduct and the flue gas recirculation pipe before the blast pipe be equipped with pressure regulator valve; It is combustion-supporting to send into burner hearth from boiler bottom from the flue gas part that economizer exit extracts, and can reach better fired state, the oxygen concentration when being convenient to again regulate burning;
In sum, the utility model can significantly reduce the generation of nitrogen oxide, satisfies the environmental requirement that improves day by day, has wider market prospects.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the utility model heavy oil boiler combustion system embodiment.
Fig. 2 is the structure diagram of burner among Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the end view of atomized oil gun nozzle among Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of atomized oil gun nozzle spray angle.
Fig. 5 is the partial cutaway stereochemical structure sketch of static mixer.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the utility model is described in further detail.
Extremely shown in Figure 5 as Fig. 1, this heavy oil boiler combustion system, comprise blast pipe 1, air blower 2, two bellows 4 that place burner hearth 3 outsides to be oppositely arranged, be located at the after-flame wind snout 5 on each bellows 4, be positioned at several burners 6 and the igniter 17 of after-flame wind snout 5 belows, after-flame wind snout 5 on two bellows 4, the setting that liquidates of several burners 6, each burner 6 includes sheathed from inside to outside atomized oil gun 7, an airduct 8, secondary air channel 9 and tertiary-air pipe 10, link to each other by connecting rod between the adjacent airduct, atomized oil gun 7 comprises continuous oil pipe 71 and nozzle 72, front end in airduct 8 is provided with stabilizer 11, the flame that is provided with outside bending at the front end mouth of pipe of an airduct 8 is cut apart ring 12, in secondary air channel 9 and tertiary-air pipe 10, be equipped with cyclone 13 or 14, the blade angle of cyclone 14 is bigger than the blade angle of the cyclone 13 in the secondary air channel 9 in the tertiary-air pipe 10, the concentric two circle spray orifices that are provided with on the front end face of nozzle 72, every circle spray orifice includes three spray orifices 15 or 16 of spaced set, two circle spray orifices are spaced at circumference, and the aperture of outer ring spray orifice 15 is bigger than the aperture of inner ring spray orifice 16, the spray angle b of described outer ring spray orifice 15 is 80-100 °, and the spray angle a of inner ring spray orifice 16 is 60-80 °; The outlet of boiler economizer 18 also links to each other with blast pipe 1 by flue gas recirculation pipe 19, be provided with circulating fan 20 at flue gas recirculation pipe 19, junction at flue gas recirculation pipe 19 and blast pipe 1 is provided with static mixer 21, static mixer 21 comprises that several piece is located at the deflector 22 on blast pipe 1 two lateral walls at interval, wherein 1 one sidewalls of blast pipe are positioned at flue gas recirculation pipe 19, have several smoke inlets 23 between adjacent two deflectors 22 of this sidewall; Boiler bottom links to each other with flue gas recirculation pipe 19 by combustion-supporting airduct 24, on combustion-supporting airduct 24 and blast pipe 1 before flue gas recirculation pipe 19 be equipped with pressure regulator valve 25.
During use: by flue gas recirculation pipe 19 and circulating fan 20, extract the 5%-20% flue gas from the outlet of economizer 18, send into two bellows 4 in the burner hearth outside again after static mixer 20 and air mix, the oxygen concentration control of gaseous mixture is at 13-20%; By the actual internal area in the bellows 4 is set, the 65%-90% of control gaseous mixture air quantity enters each burner 6, the 10%-35% of gaseous mixture air quantity enters the after-flame wind snout 5 of burner 6 tops, in each burner, feed heavy oil in the oil pipe 71 of atomized oil gun 7, two circles are arranged on oil gun front end nozzle 72 six are big, little spray orifice 15 or 16, form six strands press in, the light outer dense spraying outer ring concentric arrangement and interior, the spray angle of outer ring spraying is 80-100 °, the spray angle of inner ring spraying is 60-80 °, in, being sprayed on the circumference of outer ring arranges at interval, after igniter 17 is lighted, form six stocks and cut burned flame, because aperture difference, the flame of inner ring is little, the flame of outer ring is big, gaseous mixture forms wind of advection and secondary wind and the tertiary air of eddy flow around the oil gun of each burner 6 from inside to outside and since in the tertiary-air pipe 10 blade angle of cyclones 14 than be that the swirl strength of tertiary air is greater than secondary wind greatly in the secondary air channel 9; The after-flame wind of after-flame wind snout 5 ejections is blown in burner hearth at 1350-1500 ℃ temperature section place, and it is combustion-supporting to send into burner hearth from boiler bottom from the flue gas part that economizer exit extracts by combustion-supporting airduct 24.
Adopt said method, after-flame wind snout 5 and several burners 6 of liquidating and arranging, have good fuel, air-distribution, opposed firing is not because flame need form the rotation fireball at burner hearth, can avoid the cigarette temperature deviation therefore brought, and the chance of airflow scouring water-cooling wall is less, can avoid burner region to produce slagging scorification and corrosion; The flue gas recirculation suction opeing is arranged in the outlet of economizer 18, flue-gas temperature is 350-380 ℃ herein, comparatively suitable, can't tolerate as the too high blower fan that will make of extraction opening temperature, the words that temperature is low excessively very easily cause the corrosion of blower fan again, and are excessive to temperature effect in the boiler stove simultaneously, flue gas recirculation exhausting amount proportion control is at 5%-20%, its ratio is too small not obvious to reducing the NOx effect, and its ratio is excessive, and is excessive to the heated surface at the end of boiler influence in the energy consumption that increases recirculation blower 20;
Flue gas recirculation wind evenly mixes with combustion air, the utilization of flue gas recirculation, reduced the oxygen concentration of combustion air, its oxygen concentration control is 13~20%, combustion zone temperature is at 1600-1700 ℃, this is lower than normal combustion zone temperature, and its excess air coefficient is lower, can significantly reduce the heating power type; In on circumference, arranging at interval, the spraying of outer ring and the difference of spray angle, several strands of flames of burning are cut apart in formation, flame is cut apart ring 12 and is changed the secondary wind and cutting apart the direction of sending into of ring 12 o'clock by flame, can postpone the incorporation time of secondary wind and flame, be about to flame and be divided into two parts in diametric(al), better realization flame is cut apart, flame is cut apart can avoid mutual firing up, because flame is little, the flame cooling surface area increases again, and cooling condition improves, thereby flame temperature is reduced, on the other hand, the time of staying of gas in flame such as N and O have been shortened in the share split burning, make the NOx growing amount further reduce; A wind is advection, two, tertiary air is eddy flow, and interior light outer dense spraying forms the fired state of the few oil of inner hypoxemia, peripheral oxygen enrichment heavy wool, all can suppress the generation of prompt NO; The particle diameter that little oilhole comes out is thin, and thin elaioleucite can enter primary and secondary air, the flammule angle is little simultaneously, thereby can form the flame of smooth combustion, do not increase dust concentration and incomplete combustion loss, the dutycycle of stabilizer 11 in airduct 8 is 50%-80%, can improve steady combustion effect; The particle diameter that the spray orifice 15 of wide-angle comes out is thick, further facilitates the formation separated flame thereby can penetrate into tertiary air; Two, also implementation phase oxygen supply of the formation of tertiary air reaches that the center, combustion zone is oxygen debt, the effect of peripheral oxygen enrichment, can guarantee can mix fully before dense, light two parts flue gas leaves burner hearth, to prevent incomplete combustion loss; The swirl strength of tertiary air is greater than secondary wind, can postpone two, the blending of tertiary air, makes the time lengthening of low oxygen combustion in the secondary wind, and ignition temperature is lower, is conducive to suppress the generation of nitrogen oxide; The spray angle of outer ring spray orifice 15 is 80-100 °, and the spray angle of inner ring spray orifice 16 is 60-80 °, and this angle inner ring flame can enter secondary wind, and flue gas mixes, and can realize that again inside and outside circle flame cuts apart, and further reduces flame temperature; After-flame wind position is 1350-1500 ℃ temperature section, both can make that fuel combustion was complete, reduces dust concentration, can avoid producing new nitrogen oxide again; It is combustion-supporting that combustion-supporting airduct 24 will be sent into burner hearth from boiler bottom from the flue gas part that economizer exit extracts, and can reach better fired state, the oxygen concentration when being convenient to again regulate burning, the generation of control nitrogen oxide; By the employing of this invention, can make the NOx discharging drop to 250mg/Nm 3Below, far below the early stage oil firing 800mg/Nm of system 3Above nitrogen oxide emission.

Claims (6)

1. heavy oil boiler combustion system, comprise blast pipe, air blower, place the more than one bellows in the burner hearth outside, be located at the after-flame wind snout on each bellows, several burners and igniter, each burner includes sheathed from inside to outside atomized oil gun, airduct and secondary air channel, atomized oil gun comprises continuous oil pipe and nozzle, front end in airduct is provided with stabilizer, in secondary air channel, be provided with cyclone, it is characterized in that the concentric two circle spray orifices that are provided with on the front end face of nozzle, every circle spray orifice includes several spray orifices of spaced set, two circle spray orifices are spaced at circumference, and the aperture of outer ring spray orifice and spray angle all aperture and the spray angle than inner ring spray orifice is bigger; The economizer exit of boiler also links to each other with blast pipe by the flue gas recirculation pipe, is provided with circulating fan at the flue gas recirculation pipe.
2. heavy oil boiler combustion system as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that also being arranged with tertiary-air pipe outside secondary air channel, also is provided with cyclone in tertiary-air pipe, and the blade angle of this cyclone is bigger than the blade angle of the cyclone in the secondary air channel.
3. heavy oil boiler combustion system as claimed in claim 2, the spray angle that it is characterized in that described outer ring spray orifice is 80-100 °, the spray angle of inner ring spray orifice is 60-80 °.
4. as the arbitrary described heavy oil boiler combustion system of claim 1 to 3, it is characterized in that described flue gas recirculation pipe links to each other by static mixer with blast pipe, static mixer comprises that several piece is located at the deflector on the blast pipe two lateral walls at interval, wherein sidewall of blast pipe is positioned at the flue gas recirculation pipe, has several smoke inlets between adjacent two deflectors of this sidewall.
5.. heavy oil boiler combustion system as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that the flame that the front end mouth of pipe at an airduct is provided with outside bending cuts apart ring.
6. as the combustion system of heavy oil boiler as described in the claim 5, it is characterized in that also being provided with the combustion-supporting airduct that connects boiler bottom and flue gas recirculation pipe, on combustion-supporting airduct and the flue gas recirculation pipe before the blast pipe be equipped with pressure regulator valve.
CN 201220634123 2012-11-27 2012-11-27 Combustion system of heavy oil fired boiler Withdrawn - After Issue CN203052646U (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN 201220634123 CN203052646U (en) 2012-11-27 2012-11-27 Combustion system of heavy oil fired boiler

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN 201220634123 CN203052646U (en) 2012-11-27 2012-11-27 Combustion system of heavy oil fired boiler

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102927561A (en) * 2012-11-27 2013-02-13 东方电气集团东方锅炉股份有限公司 Burning system of heavy oil boiler and method thereof
CN106122954A (en) * 2016-06-30 2016-11-16 肖锐 A kind of high accuracy buner system
CN106594716A (en) * 2016-12-05 2017-04-26 王立臣 Flue gas and air premixing pipe bundle self-cooling low-nitrogen combustion device and combustion method thereof

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102927561A (en) * 2012-11-27 2013-02-13 东方电气集团东方锅炉股份有限公司 Burning system of heavy oil boiler and method thereof
CN102927561B (en) * 2012-11-27 2015-02-18 东方电气集团东方锅炉股份有限公司 Burning system of heavy oil boiler and method thereof
CN106122954A (en) * 2016-06-30 2016-11-16 肖锐 A kind of high accuracy buner system
CN106594716A (en) * 2016-12-05 2017-04-26 王立臣 Flue gas and air premixing pipe bundle self-cooling low-nitrogen combustion device and combustion method thereof
CN106594716B (en) * 2016-12-05 2018-11-27 王立臣 A kind of cigarette wind premix restrains self cooling but low nitrogen combustion apparatus and its combustion method

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Granted publication date: 20130710

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