CN202869028U - Power driving and separation heat pipe split type panel solar water heater - Google Patents

Power driving and separation heat pipe split type panel solar water heater Download PDF

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Publication number
CN202869028U
CN202869028U CN2012205588868U CN201220558886U CN202869028U CN 202869028 U CN202869028 U CN 202869028U CN 2012205588868 U CN2012205588868 U CN 2012205588868U CN 201220558886 U CN201220558886 U CN 201220558886U CN 202869028 U CN202869028 U CN 202869028U
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
heat
described
liquid
water heater
solar water
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Application number
CN2012205588868U
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
蒋绿林
陈俊华
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常州市康舒环境科技有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems

Abstract

The utility model discloses a power driving and separation heat pipe split type panel solar water heater. The power driving and separation heat pipe split type panel solar water heater comprises an outdoor heat collector and an indoor hot water storing box, wherein the outdoor heat collector comprises an evaporator, the indoor hot water storing box comprises a condenser, the evaporator is connected with the condenser through an air conducting pipe and a liquid conducting pipe, the liquid conducting pipe is provided with a liquid receiver, a liquid delivery pump, a control valve and a liquid sealing device, a vapor liquid separator is arranged on the air conducting pipe of an upper steam outlet of the evaporator and is connected with the evaporator through a liquid return pipe. With the adoption of the technical scheme, the power driving and separation heat pipe split type panel solar water heater can solve problems that work efficiency of a solar water heater without a phase-change heat transfer is lower in low temperature and high temperature, problems of anti-freezing of the heat collector under a zero degree environmental temperature, and problems that the hot water storing box of a gravity separation pipe solar water heater is installed higher than the outdoor heat collector.

Description

The split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube

Technical field

The utility model relates to the solar water heater field, particularly relates to the split type flat plate solar water heater of a kind of power drive separating heat tube.

Background technology

The technology path of solar water heater urban applications implementation is that solar heat-collection plate is installed in the outer facade (such as balcony, metope, sunshade etc.) of building south orientation, heat storage water tank is installed in indoor, arranges the thermal-arrest circulation line between collecting plate and the heat storage water tank.

Solar heat-collection plate is installed in facade and must and builds perfect adaptation, namely satisfies the demand of architecture-integral.At numerous collecting plate middle plateform collecting plates with its distinctive advantage---daylighting area is large, bulk strength is high, bearing operation, anticorrosive and appearance looks elegant and show one's talent.But also because of the popularization of its intrinsic defective effect city solar water heater, these defectives comprise existing flat panel solar heat collecting plate:

One, efficient is low under the low temperature environment, and hot operation district efficient is low;

Two, the antifreeze problem of environment temperature collecting plate below 0 ℃.Antifreeze is the problem that the plate solar collecting plate needs most solution, solving antifreeze problem the best way in the prior art is to adopt anti-icing fluid as heating carrier, but anti-icing fluid can produce the cracking inefficacy through being exposed to the sun of summer high-temperature, so anti-icing fluid must annual (at the most 2-3) be changed the normal operation that once could fully guarantee system;

Three, adopt the solar water heater of Gravity Separation hot pipe technique, the setting height(from bottom) of its solar heat-collection plate must be lower than the height of indoor water tank; What collecting plate and water tank must be installed simultaneously is more near better.Because actual water tank always wishes to be installed in the kitchen and toilet of building north side, this is so that collecting plate is relative very long with the pipeline between the water tank, and pipeline is tortuous, thereby greatly reduces the efficiency of thermal transfer of Gravity Separation heat pipe solar energy water heater, even makes its cisco unity malfunction.

The utility model content

The technical problem that the utility model mainly solves provides the split type flat plate solar water heater of a kind of power drive separating heat tube, adopt the suitable working medium of design and use of separating heat tube technology, employing full-liquid type evaporation technique, solar energy tube wing type evaporimeter, can solve without ineffective problem under the low temperature of the solar water heater system of phase-change heat-exchange and the high temperature, solve the problem such as antifreeze of environment temperature collecting plate below 0 ℃.

For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical scheme that the utility model adopts is: provide a kind of power drive separating heat tube split type flat plate solar water heater, comprise: outdoor heat collector and indoor heat storage water tank, described outdoor heat collector comprises evaporimeter, described indoor heat storage water tank comprises condenser, interconnect between evaporimeter and the condenser, connect liquid delivery pump on the described fluid catheter, be provided with vapour liquid separator on the airway of steam (vapor) outlet on the described evaporimeter, described vapour liquid separator connects evaporimeter by liquid back pipe.

In preferred embodiment of the utility model, the gas phase of described evaporimeter part is by the gas phase part of airway connection condenser, and the liquid phase part of described evaporimeter connects the liquid phase part of condenser by fluid catheter.

In preferred embodiment of the utility model, described evaporimeter comprise heat-absorbing plate core and with the evaporator section of the integrally formed separating heat tube of heat-absorbing plate core, described condenser comprises the condensation segment of separating heat tube, described evaporimeter is the full liquid evaporimeter of tube wing type.

In preferred embodiment of the utility model, also be connected with liquid reservoir, control valve and liquid seal device on the described fluid catheter, described liquid reservoir is connected to the exit of indoor heat storage water tank, described control valve is arranged on the centre of fluid catheter, described liquid seal device is arranged on the junction of fluid catheter and evaporimeter, and described liquid delivery pump is connected to the below of liquid reservoir.

In preferred embodiment of the utility model, described evaporimeter comprises heat-absorbing plate core, frame, backboard and transparent cover plate, the upper surface of described heat-absorbing plate core is provided with transparent cover plate, and the back of heat-absorbing plate core is provided with backboard, is provided with frame around the described evaporimeter.

In preferred embodiment of the utility model, be provided with the thermal insulation separation thermosphere between the heat-absorbing plate core of described evaporimeter and backboard and the frame.

In preferred embodiment of the utility model, be provided with evaporating heat-exchanging pipe and heat absorbing fins on the described heat-absorbing plate core, the one-body molded setting of described evaporating heat-exchanging pipe and heat absorbing fins.

In preferred embodiment of the utility model, described evaporating heat-exchanging pipe and heat absorbing fins are provided with a plurality of, are interconnected to a whole plate between described a plurality of heat absorbing fins, and the up and down two ends of described a plurality of evaporating heat-exchanging pipes are connected with separating tube by discharge respectively.

In preferred embodiment of the utility model, described liquid delivery pump is the powder actuated liquid delivery pump.

The beneficial effects of the utility model are:

One, adopts the suitable working medium of design and use of separating heat tube technology, employing full-liquid type evaporation technique, solar energy tube wing type evaporimeter, solution is without ineffective problem under the low temperature of the solar water heater system of phase-change heat-exchange and the high temperature, and the problem such as antifreeze that solves environment temperature collecting plate below 0 ℃;

Two, the setting of liquid reservoir, control valve, liquid seal device, vapour liquid separator etc., and the malleation mode of operation of separating heat tube, realize exploitativeness and the operability of separating heat tube technology in the application of Solar Enercy Fission Geyser, thereby solved the common separation hot pipe technique can not get fine application in solar water heater problem;

Three, the use of power-actuated equipment for liquid transportation, broken away from the limitation that must rely on gravity force liquid-supply of Gravity Separation heat pipe, the infield of heat storage water tank and outdoor solar heat-collection plate can be selected arbitrarily, greatly widened the application of Solar Enercy Fission Geyser;

Four, the power supply of equipment for liquid transportation is from solar energy, and is so that the utility model is more energy-conservation, more reasonable.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of split type flat plate solar water heater one preferred embodiment of the utility model power drive separating heat tube;

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of outdoor solar thermal collector in the split type flat plate solar water heater of the utility model power drive separating heat tube;

The mark of each parts is as follows in the accompanying drawing: 1, airway, 2, heat storage water tank, 3, condenser, 4, controller, 5, liquid reservoir, 6, liquid delivery pump, 7, control valve, 8, fluid catheter, 9, liquid seal device, 10, separating tube, 11, outdoor heat collector, 12, evaporimeter, 13, heat absorption type page, 14, evaporating heat-exchanging pipe, 15, discharge, 16, vapour liquid separator, 17, liquid back pipe, 21, frame, 22, heat absorbing fins, 23, thermal insulation separation thermosphere, 24, backboard, 25, transparent cover plate.

The specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing preferred embodiment of the present utility model is described in detail, thereby so that advantage of the present utility model and feature can be easier to be it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that protection domain of the present utility model is made more explicit defining.

See also Fig. 1 to Fig. 2, the utility model embodiment comprises:

The split type flat plate solar water heater of a kind of power drive separating heat tube is installed in outdoor heat collector 11 sun-drenched outdoor, and heat storage water tank 2 is installed in convenient operation or uses the indoor of hot water.The relative position that outdoor heat collector 11 and indoor heat storage water tank 2 are installed without limits.

Wherein, described outdoor heat collector 11 comprises evaporimeter 12, and described indoor heat storage water tank 2 comprises condenser 3, interconnects by airway 1 and fluid catheter 8 between evaporimeter 12 and the condenser 3.

Be provided with liquid reservoir 5, liquid delivery pump 6, control valve 7 and liquid seal device 9 on the described fluid catheter 8, be provided with vapour liquid separator 16 on the airway 1 of steam (vapor) outlet on the described evaporimeter 12, described vapour liquid separator 16 connects evaporimeter 12 by liquid back pipe 17.

Described evaporimeter 12 comprise heat-absorbing plate core 13 and with the evaporator section of the integrally formed separating heat tube of heat-absorbing plate core 13, described condenser 3 comprises the condensation segment of separating heat tube.The heat of dissociation intraductal working medium adopts refrigerant R134a, R22 etc., and wherein evaporimeter 12 is the full liquid evaporimeter of tube wing type.

The utility model has adopted the separating heat tube technology, solves the solar water heater system ineffective problem under low temperature and high temperature without phase-change heat-exchange, solves the problem such as antifreeze of environment temperature heat-collecting plate core below 0 ℃.

After the heat-absorbing plate core 13 absorption solar energy of tube wing type evaporimeter changed into heat, the cold-producing medium working medium in the heat transferred evaporimeter 12, working medium heat absorption evaporation became gaseous state by liquid state; Gaseous refrigerant working medium flows to condenser 3 through tracheae, is condensed into liquid state in condenser 3 interior heat releases, simultaneously heat transferred hot water; Liquid refrigerant working medium flows back to evaporimeter 12 through the liquid pipe again, enters next circulation.Because the separating heat tube utilization is phase-change heat-exchange, the separating heat tube heat transfer power is the twice of general heat pipe through-put power, 20 times of heat convection, this just so that the solar water heating system of the more non-phase-change heat-exchange of its heat exchange efficiency have significant improvement, thereby solved ineffective problem without the solar water heater system of phase-change heat-exchange.

Because separating heat tube has adopted such as cold-producing mediums such as R134a, R22 as working medium, (freezing point temperature of R134a is-40 ℃ as can be known by the hot physical property of these working medium, the freezing point temperature of R22 is-50 ℃), system has thoroughly solved the antifreeze problem of environment temperature collecting plate below 0 ℃.

The utility model has adopted the full-liquid type evaporation technique, system configuration liquid reservoir 5, vapour liquid separator 16, control valve 7, liquid seal device 9 etc., adopt the mode of operation of malleation, ensure effective stable operation of separating heat tube solar water heater, thereby solved the common separation hot pipe technique can not get fine application in solar water heater problem.

Adopted the full-liquid type evaporation technique, made evaporation evenly fully, whole heat-collecting plate core surface temperature is even, greatly reduces the surface heat migration loss.The full-liquid type evaporation technique has improved the evaporation efficiency of evaporimeter 12 greatly with respect to the separating heat tube of less charging amount, becomes the basic guarantee that separating heat tube is used at solar water heater.

At fluid catheter 8 liquid reservoir 5 is set, two problems that the separating heat tube system can normally move have been solved: one, more owing to rushing liquid measure in the separating heat tube, and the operating temperature of solar water heater zone span is large, and arranging of liquid reservoir 5 guaranteed along with temperature rising expansion of liquids space; Two, when system's needs are out of service, the storage of liquid working media.

Particularly, liquid reservoir 5 is key equipments that system can be worked, it has ensured that the space of the volumetric expansion under large warm area work is (because evaporimeter has adopted the form of full liquid on the one hand, when operating temperature raises, the increase of working media specific volume can cause reducing of the effective condensation area of condenser, thereby the operating efficiency of system falls at the end in deterioration condensation process greatly.The impact of adopting liquid reservoir 5 just to avoid the working media specific volume to change, thereby the assurance system is in efficient running status all the time); On the other hand, the setting of liquid reservoir 5 has also ensured the storage of system's working media when initiatively quitting work, and liquid reservoir 5 is arranged on the fluid catheter 8, the form that also can be made of one with condenser 3.

At airway 1 vapour liquid separator 16 is set, avoids gas-liquid delivery in the airway 1, improve heat exchange efficiency.Vapour liquid separator 16 also can be made of one with evaporimeter 12, and vapour liquid separator 16 is not must configuration, when controlling the full liquid degree of evaporimeter 12 well, when making its outlet steam have certain degree of superheat, can save vapour liquid separator 16.

Control valve 7 is set on the fluid catheter 8, control and protection to the separating heat tube operation have been realized, can cut off the operation of separating heat tube by closed control valve 7 according to the isoparametric requirement of temperature on the one hand, thereby realize the protection of temperature control with maximum working pressure; On the other hand, according to the working media state of evaporimeter 12 outlet, control the flow of working media by control valve 7, to adapt to the variation of solar energy load.

Fluid catheter 8 at evaporimeter 12 arranges liquid seal device 9, also can be made of one with evaporimeter 12, and the working media of assurance separating heat tube in accordance with regulations direction flows.

Adopt the mode of operation (working media is the conventional cold-producing mediums such as R134a, R22) of malleation, make the separating heat tube system of water heater in operating temperature range, avoided conventional separating heat tube vacuum operation to the too strict requirement of system's seal, make system's processing and fabricating convenient and easy, avoid vacuum system to bring to such an extent that produce and the problem of moving.

Adopt the powder actuated equipment for liquid transportation, having solved conventional Gravity Separation formula heat pipe must be that condenser 3 is higher than evaporimeter 12 and the more short better restriction of connecting line, because the no longer restriction of gravitate of conveying of liquid, thereby greatly widened the application of separating heat tube on solar water heater, also greatly widened the applicable situation of Solar Enercy Fission Geyser.

The powder actuated equipment for liquid transportation refers to comprise the conveying device of the various liquid of pump.Preferably, described liquid delivery pump 6 is the powder actuated liquid delivery pump.

The power resources of equipment for liquid transportation can be power frequency electric powers, also can be the electric energy that directly adopts the solar energy photovoltaic panel conversion.When the power source of equipment for liquid transportation during still from solar energy, this solar water heater will rely on solar energy to drive without any need for external energy fully, realize the circulation of separating heat tube, realize utilizing solar energy to the heating of water in the water tank.In addition, the electric power source of power-actuated equipment for liquid transportation also can be other form, such as mechanical energy etc.

In the utility model, described evaporimeter 12 comprises heat-absorbing plate core 13, frame 21, backboard 24 and transparent cover plate 25, the upper surface of described heat-absorbing plate core 13 is provided with transparent cover plate 25, and the back of heat-absorbing plate core 13 is provided with backboard 24, is provided with frame 21 around the described evaporimeter 12.

Be provided with evaporating heat-exchanging pipe 14 and heat absorbing fins 22 on the described heat-absorbing plate core 13, be provided with thermal insulation separation thermosphere 23 between the heat-absorbing plate core 13 of described evaporimeter 12 and backboard 24 and the frame 21, they adopt the polyurethane integral foaming, stopped heat bridge, reduce heat waste, greatly improved the collecting efficiency of heat collector.

Magnetron sputtering titanium oxynitrides or electroplating black chromium solar coating for selective absorption are adopted in the surface of described heat absorbing fins 22, and heat absorption rate reaches 95% ± 2%, and emissivity is lower than 8%, stable performance.Described transparent cover plate 25 adopts low iron, woven design, safety glass, and high transmission rate and woven design diffuse reflection be so that form greenhouse effects between heat-absorbing plate core and the glass inner chamber, and tempering is so that intensity is higher, not easy damaged.

Described evaporating heat-exchanging pipe 14 and heat absorbing fins 22 one-body molded settings, described evaporating heat-exchanging pipe 14 and heat absorbing fins 22 are provided with a plurality of, be interconnected to a whole plate between described a plurality of heat absorbing fins 22, connection is connected by discharge 15 respectively in the up and down two ends of described a plurality of evaporating heat-exchanging pipes 14 with separating tube.

Be provided with liquid seal device 9 on the described separating tube, arranging of liquid seal device 9 ensured that working media flows by set direction all the time.

The operation principle of the split type flat plate solar water heater of the utility model power drive separating heat tube is:

Sunlight sees through cover plate 25 and shines on the heat-absorbing plate core 13, solar selectively absorbing coating absorbs solar radiation and is converted into heat energy on the heat absorbing fins 22 at this moment, with the working media of heat transferred evaporating heat-exchanging pipe 14 inside, make it to become gaseous state by the liquid state heat absorption simultaneously;

Cold water in the working media condensation liberated heat heating heat storage water tank of gaseous state, liquid working media enters liquid reservoir 5 under Action of Gravity Field, under the effect of powder actuated liquid delivery pump, enter the evaporating heat-exchanging pipe 14 of evaporimeter 11 through control valve 7, fluid catheter 8, liquid seal device 9 and separating tube 10, thereby the solar energy that again absorbs 13 conversions of self-priming hot plate core enters next heat transmission circulation.

The beneficial effect of the split type flat plate solar water heater of the utility model power drive separating heat tube is:

One, adopts the suitable working medium of design and use of separating heat tube technology, employing full-liquid type evaporation technique, solar energy tube wing type evaporimeter, solution is without ineffective problem under the low temperature of the solar water heater system of phase-change heat-exchange and the high temperature, and the problem such as antifreeze that solves environment temperature collecting plate below 0 ℃;

Two, the setting of liquid reservoir 5, control valve 7, liquid seal device 9, vapour liquid separator 16 etc., and the malleation mode of operation of separating heat tube, realize exploitativeness and the operability of separating heat tube technology in the application of Solar Enercy Fission Geyser, thereby solved the common separation hot pipe technique can not get fine application in solar water heater problem;

Three, the use of power-actuated equipment for liquid transportation, broken away from the limitation that must rely on gravity force liquid-supply of Gravity Separation heat pipe, heat storage water tank 2 and the infield of outdoor solar thermal collector can be selected arbitrarily, greatly widened the application of Solar Enercy Fission Geyser;

Four, the power supply of equipment for liquid transportation is from solar energy, and is so that the utility model is more energy-conservation, more reasonable.

The above only is embodiment of the present utility model; be not so limit claim of the present utility model; every equivalent structure or equivalent flow process conversion that utilizes the utility model specification and accompanying drawing content to do; or directly or indirectly be used in other relevant technical fields, all in like manner be included in the scope of patent protection of the present utility model.

Claims (9)

1. split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube, it is characterized in that, comprise: outdoor heat collector and indoor heat storage water tank, described outdoor heat collector comprises evaporimeter, described indoor heat storage water tank comprises condenser, interconnects by airway and fluid catheter between evaporimeter and the condenser, connects liquid delivery pump on the described fluid catheter, be provided with vapour liquid separator on the airway of steam (vapor) outlet on the described evaporimeter, described vapour liquid separator connects evaporimeter by liquid back pipe.
2. the split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the gas phase part of described evaporimeter is by the gas phase part of airway connection condenser, and the liquid phase part of described evaporimeter connects the liquid phase part of condenser by fluid catheter.
3. the split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described evaporimeter comprise heat-absorbing plate core and with the evaporator section of the integrally formed separating heat tube of heat-absorbing plate core, described condenser comprises the condensation segment of separating heat tube, and described evaporimeter is the full liquid evaporimeter of tube wing type.
4. the split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, also be connected with liquid reservoir, control valve and liquid seal device on the described fluid catheter, described liquid reservoir is connected to the exit of indoor heat storage water tank, described control valve is arranged on the centre of fluid catheter, described liquid seal device is arranged on the junction of fluid catheter and evaporimeter, and described liquid delivery pump is connected to the below of liquid reservoir.
5. the split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described evaporimeter comprises heat-absorbing plate core, frame, backboard and transparent cover plate, the upper surface of described heat-absorbing plate core is provided with transparent cover plate, the back of heat-absorbing plate core is provided with backboard, is provided with frame around the described evaporimeter.
6. the split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube according to claim 5 is characterized in that, is provided with the thermal insulation separation thermosphere between the heat-absorbing plate core of described evaporimeter and backboard and the frame.
7. the split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube according to claim 6 is characterized in that, is provided with evaporating heat-exchanging pipe and heat absorbing fins on the described heat-absorbing plate core, the one-body molded setting of described evaporating heat-exchanging pipe and heat absorbing fins.
8. the split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube according to claim 7, it is characterized in that, described evaporating heat-exchanging pipe and heat absorbing fins are provided with a plurality of, be interconnected to a whole plate between described a plurality of heat absorbing fins, the up and down two ends of described a plurality of evaporating heat-exchanging pipes are connected with separating tube by discharge respectively.
9. the split type flat plate solar water heater of power drive separating heat tube according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described liquid delivery pump is the powder actuated liquid delivery pump.
CN2012205588868U 2012-10-29 2012-10-29 Power driving and separation heat pipe split type panel solar water heater CN202869028U (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103453679A (en) * 2013-08-15 2013-12-18 常州市康舒环境科技有限公司 Household wall-mounted flat solar heat-pump water heater and control method thereof
CN103925817A (en) * 2014-05-04 2014-07-16 阳光电源股份有限公司 Separating type heating pipe system
CN103994591A (en) * 2013-04-17 2014-08-20 庞怡 Multifunctional solar energy system
CN104019566A (en) * 2013-03-30 2014-09-03 庞怡 Solar system having phase-change type heat collection
CN105202781A (en) * 2015-10-15 2015-12-30 南京苏佰能能源科技有限公司 Active heat pipe flat solar water heater

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104019566A (en) * 2013-03-30 2014-09-03 庞怡 Solar system having phase-change type heat collection
CN103994591A (en) * 2013-04-17 2014-08-20 庞怡 Multifunctional solar energy system
CN103994591B (en) * 2013-04-17 2016-04-13 庞怡 Multifuctional solar system
CN103453679A (en) * 2013-08-15 2013-12-18 常州市康舒环境科技有限公司 Household wall-mounted flat solar heat-pump water heater and control method thereof
CN103453679B (en) * 2013-08-15 2018-04-20 常州海卡太阳能热泵有限公司 The control method of household wall-mounted flat solar heat-pump water heater
CN103925817A (en) * 2014-05-04 2014-07-16 阳光电源股份有限公司 Separating type heating pipe system
CN105202781A (en) * 2015-10-15 2015-12-30 南京苏佰能能源科技有限公司 Active heat pipe flat solar water heater

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Granted publication date: 20130410

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