CN202487587U - 在正面和背面上具有成形导电层的正面接触太阳能电池 - Google Patents

在正面和背面上具有成形导电层的正面接触太阳能电池 Download PDF

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CN202487587U
CN202487587U CN2011204267846U CN201120426784U CN202487587U CN 202487587 U CN202487587 U CN 202487587U CN 2011204267846 U CN2011204267846 U CN 2011204267846U CN 201120426784 U CN201120426784 U CN 201120426784U CN 202487587 U CN202487587 U CN 202487587U
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彼得·约翰·卡曾斯
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太阳能公司
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Abstract

一种双极性太阳能电池,包括由硅基底(101)和位于太阳能电池背面上的第一掺杂剂类型的第一掺杂层(108)所形成的背面结。第二掺杂剂类型的第二掺杂层(106)从太阳能电池(100)的正面电连接到基底(101)。第一电极性的第一金属触点(110)电连接到太阳能电池背面上的第一掺杂层(108),并且第二电极性的第二金属触点(102)电连接到太阳能电池(100)的正面上的第二掺杂层(106)。外部电路可以电连接到第一和第二金属触点以由太阳能电池(100)供电。

Description

在正面和背面上具有成形导电层的正面接触太阳能电池

[0001] 本申请是基于2009年6月23日提交的、国家申请号为2009901000357. X(国际申请号为PCT/US2009/048295)、发明创造名称为“在正面和背面上具有成形导电层的正面接触太阳能电池”的中国专利申请的分案申请。

技术领域

[0002] 本发明一般地涉及太阳能电池,更具体而非排除性地涉及太阳能制造工艺和结构。

背景技术

[0003] 太阳能电池是公知的用于将太阳能辐射转化为电能的装置。可以采用半导体工艺技术在半导体晶片上制造它们。太阳能电池包括形成了一个结的P型和N型扩散区。太阳 能辐射撞击在太阳能电池上产生了向扩散区迁移的电子和空穴,从而在扩散区之间产生电压差。在背面接触太阳能电池中,无论扩散区还是耦接到扩散区的金属触点均位于太阳能电池的背面。金属触点使得外部电路能够耦接到太阳能电池并由其供电。

[0004] 在正面接触太阳能电池中,与扩散区进行电连接的至少一个金属触点位于太阳能电池的正面。尽管背面接触太阳能电池由于金属触点不在正面而比正面接触太阳能电池具有更美观的优势,并因此更适于住宅应用,但是对于主要关注于发电的发电厂和其它应用而言,美观却并非重要的要求。本文公开了用于相对高效和节省成本的正面接触太阳能电池的结构以及用于制造这种太阳能电池的工艺。

发明内容

[0005] 在一个实施例中,双极太阳能电池包括由硅基底形成的背面结和位于太阳能电池背面上的第一掺杂剂类型的第一掺杂层。第二掺杂剂类型的第二掺杂层形成从太阳能电池的正面到基底的电连接。第一电极性的第一金属触点电连接到太阳能电池的背面上的第一掺杂层,第二电极性的第二金属触点电连接到太阳能电池的正面上的第二掺杂层。例如,第一掺杂层可以是掺杂了 P型掺杂剂的多晶硅,而第二掺杂层可以是掺杂了 N型掺杂剂的多晶硅。可以将一个外部电路电连接到所述第一和第二金属触点,以通过太阳能电池对其供电。

[0006] 在另一个实施例中,提供了一种太阳能电池,其具有在正常工作期间面对太阳以收集太阳能辐射的正面和与所述正面相对的背面,所述太阳能电池的特征在于包括:硅基底;在基底的背面表面上形成的第一掺杂多晶娃层,所述第一掺杂多晶娃层与基底形成背面结;在基底的正面表面上形成的第二掺杂多晶硅层,所述第二掺杂多晶硅层电连接到基底;第一电介质层,位于所述第一掺杂多晶娃层与基底的背面表面之间,所述第一电介质层包括厚度为10埃到50埃的第一二氧化硅层,所述第一二氧化硅层生长于所述基底背面表面上;第二电介质层,位于所述第二掺杂多晶硅层与基底的正面表面之间,所述第二电介质层包括厚度为10埃到50埃的第二二氧化硅层,所述第二二氧化硅层生长于所述基底正面表面上;第一金属触点,电连接到太阳能电池背面上的所述第一掺杂多晶娃层;和第二金属触点,电连接到太阳能电池正面上的所述第二掺杂多晶硅层,所述第一金属触点和所述第二金属触点构造来使得外部电路能够被太阳能电池供电。

[0007] 在又一个实施例中,提供了一种太阳能电池,其具有在正常工作期间面对太阳以收集太阳能辐射的正面和与所述正面相对的背面,所述太阳能电池的特征在于包括:N型硅基底;在所述太阳能电池的正面上的所述N型硅基底上的带纹理的表面;在所述N型硅基底的带纹理的表面上的防反射层;P型多晶硅层,其与所述N型硅基底形成背面结;在所述太阳能电池的正面上的N型多晶硅层;负极性金属触点,其从所述太阳能电池的正面电连接到所述N型多晶硅层;和正极性金属触点,其从所述太阳能电池的背面电连接到所述P型多晶硅层。

[0008] 在一个实施例中,基底包括N型硅基底,所述第一掺杂多晶硅层包括P型掺杂多晶硅,并且所述第二掺杂多晶硅层包括N型掺杂多晶硅。

[0009] 在一个实施例中,所述第一金属触点包括形成于所述第一电介质层上的铝。

[0010] 在一个实施例中,太阳能电池还包括形成于所述第一金属触点上的第三金属触点。

[0011] 在一个实施例中,太阳能电池还包括形成于所述第一掺杂多晶硅层上的氧化物层,并且其中所述第一金属触点与所述太阳能电池的背面上的氧化物层一起形成了红外线反射层。

[0012] 本发明提供了一种低成本、高效率的太阳能电池。

[0013] 本领域技术人员在阅读了本公开所有内容(包括所附附图和权利要求书)之后会很容易地理解本发明的这些和其它特征。

附图说明

[0014] 图I示意性地示出根据本发明实施例的太阳能电池的横截面。

[0015] 图2是示意性地示出图I的根据本发明实施例的太阳能电池的正面的平面图。

[0016] 图3是示意性地示出图I的根据本发明实施例的太阳能电池的背面的平面图。

[0017] 图4至图19示意性地示出图I的根据本发明实施例的太阳能电池的制造过程。

具体实施方式

[0018] 在本公开中,提供了许多具体的细节,比如设备的示例、工艺参数、材料、工艺步骤和结构,以提供对本发明实施例的透彻理解。但是,本领域技术人员将理解可以不采用一个或多个具体细节来实现本发明。在其它例子中,没有示出或描述出公知的细节,以避免模糊了本发明的各个方面。

[0019] 本发明属于低成本、高效率的正面接触太阳能电池。在由Peter John Cousins (快递号为No. EM142856406US)于2008年2月20日提交的申请号为No. 12/070,742、标题为“FRONT CONTACT SOLAR CELL WITH FORMED EMITTER”的共同所有的美国专利申请中也公开了另一种这样的正面接触太阳能电池。

[0020] 图I示意性地示出根据本发明实施例的双极正面接触太阳能电池100的横截面。太阳能电池100具有金属触点102所处的正面和与金属触点110在同一面的背面。与背面相对的正面在正常工作期间面对太阳以收集太阳能辐射。太阳能电池的正面包括形成于基底101正面表面上的多个层,并且太阳能电池的背面包括形成于基底101背面表面上的多个层。

[0021] 在图I的示例中,太阳能电池100包括由用作P型扩散区的P型掺杂多晶硅层108和用作N型扩散区的N型硅基底101所形成的背面结。在一个实施例中,多晶硅层108具有大约IOfA. cm_2的发射极饱和电流。N型硅基底101可以包括长寿命(例如2至5ms)的N型硅晶片,并且可以具有从基底的背面表面到带纹理的正面表面的顶端所测得的大约100至250 μ m的厚度(见尺寸D24)。基底101的正面表面可以随机地形成纹理(标记为113)并包括形成于基底中的N型掺杂区105。N型掺杂区105提供了低的正面表面复合并提高了横向导电率而无需对太阳能电池的蓝光响应(blue response)折衷。N型掺杂区105可以具有100至500 Ω/sq的薄膜电阻。

[0022] 处于太阳能电池100正面上的N型掺杂多晶硅层106提供了低的接触电阻并使接 触复合最小化。多晶硅层106还被称为“N点(N-dot)”,因为,在一个实施例中,其形成为点的形状以使基底101正面表面上的重度扩散区面积最小。在一个实施例重,多晶硅层106具有大约5fa. cnT2的发射极饱和电流。多晶娃层106可以形成于薄电介质层402上。薄电介质层402可以包括在基底101正面表面上热生长为厚度大约10至50埃的二氧化硅。在一个实施例中,在带纹理的正面表面113上没有薄电介质层402,因为通过形成纹理的步骤将其去除了。

[0023] 在基底101的带纹理的正面表面113上可以形成氮化硅层103的防反射涂层(ARC)。带纹理的正面表面113和防反射涂层有助于提高太阳能辐射收集的效率。在带纹理的正面表面113上可以在氮化硅层103之下形成钝化氧化物135。在一个实施例中,钝化氧化物135在基底101的带纹理的正面表面上热生长成大约10至250埃的厚度。

[0024] 在一个实施例中,在薄电介质层107上形成多晶娃层108。可以通过以化学气相沉积(CVD)(比如低压CVD (LPCVD)或等离子增强CVD (PECVD))和热退火形成多晶硅层来形成多晶娃层108。多晶娃层108可以具有大约100 Ω/sq的薄膜电阻。薄电介质层107可以包括在基底101背面表面上热生长为厚度大约10至50埃的二氧化硅。金属触点110通过接触孔123电连接到多晶硅层108,接触孔123穿过了包括二氧化硅层109的电介质而形成。二氧化硅层109提供电隔离并且允许金属触点110用作红外线反射层以增加太阳能辐射收集。如下文更明显的,二氧化硅层109还可以用作掺杂剂向多晶硅层108中进行扩散的掺杂剂源。

[0025] 在一个实施例中,金属触点110包括薄膜电阻大约15m Ω/sq并且通过印刷工艺形成为厚度大约10至30 μ m的铝。汇流条112电连接到金属触点110以提供用于将外部电路电连接到太阳能电池100的正极性端子。在一个实施例中,汇流条112包括银并具有大约5至25m Ω . cm的电导率和大约15至35 μ m的厚度。

[0026] 金属触点110还可以包括多种材料的叠层,包括朝向基底101形成的铝、包括了形成于铝上的钛-钨的扩散阻挡层、和形成于扩散阻挡层上的铜的种子层。在这种配置中,汇流条112可以包括电镀到种子层上的铜。

[0027] 在太阳能电池100的正面上,每个金属触点102通过接触孔120电连接到多晶硅层106,接触孔120穿过二氧化硅层104而形成。与二氧化硅层109类似,二氧化硅层104可以用作掺杂剂向多晶娃层106中进行扩散的掺杂剂源。可以理解,多晶娃层108和106还可以在形成于基底101上之前进行预掺杂。

[0028] 金属触点102提供了负极性端子以允许外部电路耦接到太阳能电池100并由其供电。在一个实施例中,金属触点102包括具有大约5至25Ωπι. cm的薄膜电阻和大约15至35 μ m的厚度的银。

[0029] 被带纹理的正面表面113隔开的相邻金属触点102之间的间距(见尺寸D21)可以为大约4200 μ m。多晶硅层104的直径(见尺寸D22)可以为大约390 μ m。

[0030] 图2是示意性地示出根据本发明实施例的太阳能电池100的正面的平面图。在图2的示例中,两个汇流条201在基底101的正面上平行地走线。其中形成了金属触点102的接触孔120每一个可以具有大约50至200 μ m的直径。多个金属触点102与汇流条201垂直地形成。每个金属触点102可以具有大约60至120 μ m的宽度(见图I中的尺寸D23)。

[0031] 图3是示意性地示出根据本发明实施例的太阳能电池100的背面的平面图。在图3的示例中,汇流条112在背面上平行地走线。实际上,汇流条201和112将会电连接到相邻太阳能电池的对应汇流条,以形成太阳能电池阵列。

[0032] 太阳能电池作为可实施再生能源在能源消费者中已赢得了广泛认可。诚然,为了与其它能源竞争,太阳能电池制造商必须能够以相对低的成本制造高效率的太阳能电池。带着这一目的,现在参考图4至图19讨论用于制造太阳能电池100的工艺。

[0033] 图4至图19示意性地示出根据本发明实施例的太阳能电池100的制造过程。

[0034] 在图4中,准备一个N型硅基底101,以通过经历损伤蚀刻步骤来加工成太阳能电池。基底101在该例子中是晶片形式的,因此典型地在得到时具有晶片供应商使用切割工艺将基底101从其坯料上成片状切下而造成的损伤的表面。基底101可以是在从供应商处得到时的大约100至250微米的厚度。在一个实施例中,损伤蚀刻步骤包括使用湿式蚀刻工艺(包括氢氧化钾)从基底101的每一面去除大约10至20 μ m。损伤蚀刻步骤还可以包括清洗基底101以去除金属污染物。

[0035] 在图5中,分别在基底101的正面和背面表面上形成薄电介质层402和107。薄电介质层402和107可以包括在N型硅基底101的表面上热生长为大约10至50埃厚度的二氧化硅。随后在薄电介质层402和107上形成多晶硅层,以分别在正面上形成多晶硅层106和在背面上形成多晶娃层108。多晶娃层106和多晶娃层108的每一个可以通过CVD形成为大约1000至2000埃的厚度。

[0036] 在图6中,在太阳能电池背面上的多晶硅层108上形成P型掺杂剂源403。如其名称所示,P型掺杂剂源403提供了用于在后续掺杂剂引入步骤中扩散进入多晶硅层108中的P型掺杂剂的源。在P型掺杂剂源403上形成电介质覆盖层404,以防止掺杂剂在引入步骤期间从太阳能电池的背面渗漏。在一个实施例中,P型掺杂剂源403包括通过大气压CVD(APCVD)而沉积到大约500至1000埃的厚度的BSG(硼硅酸玻璃),并具有占重量5%至10%的掺杂剂浓度,而覆盖层404包括也通过APCVD而形成为大约2000至3000埃的厚度的无掺杂的二氧化硅。在形成P型掺杂剂源403和覆盖层404之后,可以通过清洗步骤来从太阳能电池正面去除可能的污染物,为在太阳能电池正面上形成N型掺杂剂源而作好准备。

[0037] 在图7中,在太阳能电池正面上的多晶硅层106上形成了 N型掺杂剂源405。如其名称所示,N型掺杂剂源405提供了用于在后续掺杂剂引入步骤中扩散进入多晶硅层106中的N型掺杂剂的源。在N型掺杂剂源405上形成电介质覆盖层406,以防止掺杂剂在引入步骤期间从太阳能电池的正面渗漏。在一个实施例中,N型掺杂剂源405包括通过大气压CVD (APCVD)而沉积到大约500至1000埃的厚度的PSG (磷硅酸玻璃),并具有占重量5%至10%的掺杂剂浓度,而覆盖层406包括也通过APCVD而形成为大约2000至3000埃的厚度的无掺杂的二氧化硅。

[0038] 在图8中,在太阳能电池正面上的覆盖层406上形成了掩膜407。掩膜407对在覆盖层406和N型掺杂剂源405的后续蚀刻期间将会形成金属触点102的区域进行定义和保护。

[0039] 在图9中,在太阳能电池背面上的覆盖层404上形成了掩膜408。在太阳能电池正面上的覆盖层406和N型掺杂剂源405的蚀刻期间,掩膜408保护太阳能电池的背面表面。在图9的示例中,太阳能电池背面的边缘没有被掩膜408覆盖,即被暴露以允许在太阳能电池边缘上形成隔离沟槽。掩膜407和408可以包括耐酸有机材料,比如抗蚀剂,并且采用 印刷工艺(比如丝网印刷或喷墨印刷)来形成。

[0040] 在图10中,覆盖层406和N型掺杂剂源405没有被掩膜407 (见图9)覆盖的部分、以及覆盖层404和P型掺杂剂源403没有被掩膜408覆盖的部分在氧化蚀刻步骤中被蚀刻。氧化蚀刻步骤使后面将形成的带纹理的正面表面113 (见图I)的区域暴露。在一个实施例中,氧化蚀刻步骤包括BOE (缓冲氧化蚀刻)工艺。掩膜407和408在氧化蚀刻步骤之后被去除。

[0041] 在图11中,基底101在正面上的暴露部分被随机地形成纹理,以形成带纹理的正面表面113。在一个实施例中,使用包括氢氧化钾和异丙醇的湿式蚀刻工艺来将基底101的正面表面形成随机的角锥状纹理。形成纹理的工艺将多晶硅层106的暴露部分蚀刻掉。

[0042] 在图12中,执行掺杂剂引入步骤来将N型掺杂剂从N型掺杂剂源405 (见图11)扩散到多晶硅层106中,将P型掺杂剂从P型掺杂剂源403扩散到多晶硅层108中,以及将N型掺杂剂扩散到基底101的正面中以形成N型掺杂区105。二氧化硅层109代表了该引入步骤之后的P型掺杂剂源403和覆盖层404。类似地,二氧化硅层104代表了该引入步骤之后的N型掺杂剂源405和覆盖层406。

[0043] 在引入步骤之后,多晶硅层108成为P型掺杂层,多晶硅层106成为N型掺杂层。例如,可以通过在引入步骤期间将图11的样本暴露于扩散炉中的磷来形成N型掺杂区105。采用了 N型掺杂剂源405,而非仅仅将多晶硅层106暴露在磷氛围中,有利于针对N型掺杂多晶硅层106的更好控制的和更集中的N型扩散。在引入工艺期间,可以在带纹理的表面113上生长钝化氧化物层(在图11中未示出;见图I中的层135)。

[0044] 在一个实施例中,对背面上的多晶娃层108进行掺杂、对正面上的多晶娃层106进行掺杂、以及形成N型掺杂区105的所述引入步骤可以就在原地形成,这在本公开的上下文中指的是单个人工(即通过制造人员)将基底101装入炉子或其它单室或多室的处理工具。在一个实施例中,在扩散炉中执行引入步骤。导致引入步骤的之前的步骤顺序允许原地的扩散,这优越地有助于降低制造成本。

[0045] 在图13中,在带纹理的正面表面113上面形成氮化硅层103的防反射涂层。例如,可以通过PECVD将氮化硅层103形成为大约450埃的厚度。[0046] 在图14中,在太阳能电池正面上形成掩膜409。掩膜409定义了后面将会形成接触孔120 (见图I)的区域。

[0047] 在图15中,在太阳能电池背面上形成掩膜410。掩膜410定义了后面将会形成接触孔123(见图I)的区域。掩膜409和410可以包括耐酸有机材料,比如抗蚀剂,并且可以采用比如丝网印刷或喷墨印刷之类的印刷工艺来形成。

[0048] 在图16中,通过去除二氧化硅层104和109分别经由掩膜409和410而暴露的部分来形成接触孔120和123。在一个实施例中,通过使用对二氧化硅层104的暴露部分进行去除并停止于多晶硅层106的可选的接触蚀刻工艺来形成接触孔120。相同的接触蚀刻工艺去除了二氧化硅层109的暴露部分并停止于多晶硅层108。在一个实施例中,接触蚀刻工艺包括BOE (缓冲氧化物蚀刻)工艺。在接触蚀刻工艺之后掩膜409和410被去除。

[0049] 在图17中,在二氧化硅层109上形成金属触点110以填充接触孔123,并且电连接到多晶硅层108。可以采用比如丝网印刷之类的印刷工艺来形成金属触点110。金属触点110可以包括铝,其与二氧化硅层109—同形成了优良的背面红外线反射体以增大太阳 能辐射收集效率。

[0050] 在图18中,在金属触点110上形成金属触点123以电连接到多晶硅层108。可以采用比如丝网印刷之类的印刷工艺来形成金属触点123。金属触点110可以包括例如银。

[0051] 在图19中,在二氧化硅层104上形成金属触点102以填充接触孔120并通过多晶硅层106电连接到基底101。金属触点120可以包括银并使用比如丝网印刷之类的印刷工艺来形成。

[0052] 在形成金属触点102和110之后,可以进行焙烧步骤。当使用丝网印刷的银糊剂(silver paste)作为金属触点时可以应用焙烧步骤,但当使用其它工艺或金属时不能应用焙烧步骤。随后可以直观地检查和测试太阳能电池100。

[0053] 已经公开了一种改进的正面接触太阳能电池及其制造方法。尽管已经提供了本发明的具体实施例,然而应当理解,这些实施例是用于说明而非限制。本领域技术人员在阅读本公开后,许多其它实施例将是显而易见的。

Claims (7)

1. 一种太阳能电池,其具有在正常工作期间面对太阳以收集太阳能辐射的正面和与所述正面相对的背面,所述太阳能电池的特征在于包括: 硅基底; 在基底的背面表面上形成的第一掺杂多晶娃层,所述第一掺杂多晶娃层与基底形成背面结; 在基底的正面表面上形成的第二掺杂多晶硅层,所述第二掺杂多晶硅层电连接到基底; 第一电介质层,位于所述第一掺杂多晶硅层与基底的背面表面之间,所述第一电介质层包括厚度为10埃到50埃的第一二氧化硅层,所述第一二氧化硅层生长于所述基底背面表面上; 第二电介质层,位于所述第二掺杂多晶硅层与基底的正面表面之间,所述第二电介质 层包括厚度为10埃到50埃的第二二氧化硅层,所述第二二氧化硅层生长于所述基底正面表面上; 第一金属触点,电连接到太阳能电池背面上的所述第一掺杂多晶硅层;和第二金属触点,电连接到太阳能电池正面上的所述第二掺杂多晶硅层,所述第一金属触点和所述第二金属触点构造来使得外部电路能够被太阳能电池供电。
2.如权利要求I的太阳能电池,还包括在基底的带纹理的正面表面上的防反射层。
3.如权利要求2的太阳能电池,其中所述防反射层包括氮化硅。
4.如权利要求I的太阳能电池,其中基底包括N型硅基底,所述第一掺杂多晶硅层包括P型掺杂多晶硅,并且所述第二掺杂多晶硅层包括N型掺杂多晶硅。
5.如权利要求I的太阳能电池,其中所述第一金属触点包括形成于所述第一电介质层上的铝。
6.如权利要求I的太阳能电池,还包括形成于所述第一金属触点上的第三金属触点。
7.如权利要求I的太阳能电池,还包括形成于所述第一掺杂多晶硅层上的氧化物层,并且其中所述第一金属触点与所述太阳能电池的背面上的氧化物层一起形成了红外线反射层。
CN2011204267846U 2008-07-01 2009-06-23 在正面和背面上具有成形导电层的正面接触太阳能电池 CN202487587U (zh)

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WO2010002635A1 (en) 2010-01-07
US20170033251A1 (en) 2017-02-02
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US20140034122A1 (en) 2014-02-06
US8207444B2 (en) 2012-06-26
US10475945B2 (en) 2019-11-12
EP2311102A1 (en) 2011-04-20
JP2014068034A (ja) 2014-04-17
CN202094163U (zh) 2011-12-28
JP5438104B2 (ja) 2014-03-12
JP6111290B2 (ja) 2017-04-05
US20100000597A1 (en) 2010-01-07
US9437755B2 (en) 2016-09-06
EP2311102A4 (en) 2016-06-08
JP5763159B2 (ja) 2015-08-12
KR20110038092A (ko) 2011-04-13
KR101481858B1 (ko) 2015-01-13
EP2311102B1 (en) 2019-01-16

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