Central heating system with low-temperature backwater
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- Prior art date
- Y02B30/08—Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] relating to domestic heating, space heating or domestic hot water heating or supply systems [DHW]
- Y02B30/00—Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]
- Y02B—INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. INCLUDING HOUSING AND APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
- Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
- Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
- Y02B30/12—Hot water central heating systems using heat pumps
一种低温回水的集中供热系统 A cryogenic backwater central heating system
 本实用新型属于集中供热领域，涉及一种低温回水的集中供热系统。  The present invention belongs to the field of district heating, central heating system relates to low temperature return water. 背景技术 Background technique
 随着城市规模的不断发展，城市集中供热面积不断增大，带来了两个方面的问题： 一是集中供热热源的能力不足，新建大型的热源投资高、建设周期长，并且受到环境容量的强烈制约，一些地方盲目发展小型燃煤锅炉房，给大气带来了严重的污染，一些地方盲目发展燃气采暖、甚至电采暖，在带来采暖高成本的同时，造成了燃气、电力的全面紧张；二是热源产生的高温热水往往需要经过较长距离的输送才能到达末端用户，目前城市集中供热的一次网供、回水温度一般为120〜60°C，由于受到二次网用热要求的限制，回水温度利用常规的换热器已经无法再降低了，因此热水的输送量非常大，使得供热半径小、管道投资大以及水泵运行电耗大等问题日益凸现。  With the continuous development of urban scale, urban central heating area is increasing, brought two aspects: First, lack of capacity central heating heat source, high source of new large-scale investment, long construction period, and subjected to Qiang Lie environmental capacity constraints, some local blind development of small coal-fired boiler room, to the atmosphere caused serious pollution, the blind development of some local gas heating, electricity and even heating, while heating brings high costs, resulting in gas , overall tension electricity; the second is to produce high temperature hot water heat source is often transported long distances need to go through to reach the end user, currently a network of urban central heating supply and return water temperature is generally 120~60 ° C, due to heat requirements of the secondary network with limited return temperature using a conventional heat exchangers can no longer reduced, and therefore the delivery amount of the hot water is very large, so that small radii heating, pipes large investment and operating the pump power consumption and other issues become more apparent.
 此外，火力发电厂在发电过程中，汽轮机乏汽中的余热资源没有得到有效利用，被循环水带到冷却塔散热或直接进入空冷岛冷却，热量直接排向大气，白白的浪费掉。  Further, during power generation power plant, waste heat of the turbine exhaust steam is not effectively utilized, the circulating water is taken directly into the cooling tower or air-cooled heat island cooled heat directly to the atmosphere, is wasted in vain . 如果能够利用火力发电厂的这部分汽轮机乏汽热量，相当于在不增加电厂容量、不增加当地排放的情况下，扩大了热源的供热能力，但因为其热能品质较低目前尚没有得到有效的利用。 If you can take advantage of this part of the steam turbine power plant exhaust steam heat, equivalent without increasing the capacity of power plants, not to increase local emissions, expanding the heating capacity of the heat source, but because of its low quality heat energy is currently no effective It uses.
 针对上述问题，本实用新型提出了一种能够有效降低热网回水温度，并在电厂内利用汽轮机乏汽余热来加热一次网热水的集中供热方式，不但能够缓解集中供热热源能力不足的问题，还能够大幅提高热网的输送能力，降低输送能耗。  In view of the above problems, the present invention proposes a network can effectively reduce the heat return water temperature, and the use of turbine exhaust steam in a power plant waste heat to heat the hot water central heating network a manner, not only can alleviate the central heating the problem of insufficient heat capacity, as well as significantly improve the transmission capacity of the heating network to reduce transport energy consumption.
 本实用新型的技术方案是在热网的各个热力站中设置热泵型换热机组（专利号： ZL200810101064. 5)，高温的一次网供水送出电厂后，进入到所述热泵型换热机组中，加热二次网热水供给热用户，同时实现一次网热水降温，并远远低于二次网的回水温度，这为利用电厂汽轮机乏汽余热提供了可能；低温的一次网回水回到电厂后，首先进入凝汽器中，被汽轮机乏汽加热，加热到一定温度后再进入汽-水换热器中，被来自汽轮机抽汽管路的高温蒸汽进一步加热，加热后的高温一次网热水作为一次网供水再送出电厂，完成循环。  The technical solution of the present invention is a heat pump heat exchanger unit is provided (Patent No.: ZL200810101064 5) at each heating station in the heating network, a network of high-temperature water out of the plant, into the heat pump type heat exchanger unit, hot water supply heated secondary network user, while achieving a cooling water network, and far below the return temperature of the secondary network, which provides the possibility of using waste heat exhaust steam turbine plant; low primary network after the water heat exchanger, is further heating high-temperature steam from the turbine extraction steam line, heated - after the return back to the plant, first into the condenser, the steam turbine is heated spent, heated to a temperature before entering the steam a network of high-temperature hot water as a water supply network and then sent power plant, completing the cycle.
 所述凝汽器为电厂已有的发电系统凝汽器或增设的第一凝汽器，当增设第一凝汽器时，第一凝汽器与电厂已有的发电系统凝汽器或空冷岛并联。  The condenser is a condenser system existing power plants or the additional first condenser, the first condenser when the additional, existing power plants and the first condenser condensing system Cooling Island or in parallel.
 对于热网的各个热力站，可以全部设置热泵型换热机组，也可以部分设置热泵型换热机组，其余部分仍然采用常规的水-水换热器，此时，一次网的回水温度会随设置热泵型换热机组比例的提高而降低。  For each heating station heating network, can be provided all the heat pump heat exchanger unit may be provided partially heat pump heat exchanger unit, the rest still use conventional water - water heat exchanger, In this case, a mesh back water temperatures with improved heat pump heat exchanger unit disposed ratio decreases.
 本实用新型系统不但适应于汽轮机乏汽水冷模式，即乏汽热量通过循环水带到冷却塔散热，还适应于乏汽空冷模式，即乏汽直接进入空冷岛中冷却。  The present invention is adapted to the steam turbine system is only spent soda cold mode, i.e., the waste steam heat by circulating cooling water to the cooling tower, further adapted to exhaust steam air cooling mode, i.e., directly into the waste steam cooling air cooling island.
 对于汽轮机乏汽采用水冷模式的发电系统，可以增设第一凝汽器与原有发电系统凝汽器并联，专门用于加热一次网回水，不会影响电厂原有发电系统；也可以通过系统切换，利用电厂已有的发电系统凝汽器加热一次网回水。  For the steam turbine power generation system using exhaust steam water cooling mode, a first condenser may be an additional condenser connected in parallel with the existing power generation system, a network dedicated to heating return, the system will not affect the existing power plants; also by switching system, the existing power plants using a network system condenser heat return.
 对于汽轮机乏汽采用空冷模式的发电系统，增设第一凝汽器与空冷岛并联，用于加热一次网回水。  For the steam turbine power generation system using exhaust steam air cooling mode, the first additional air-cooled condenser in parallel with the island, for heating a return network.
 当乏汽余热不能全部回收时，剩余部分的乏汽热量仍然可以通过循环水带到冷却塔散热或直接进入空冷岛中冷却，不会对原有发电系统造成不利影响。  When the heat exhaust steam can not fully recovered, the remaining portion of the waste steam heat may still be taken by the circulating water cooling tower or directly into the air-cooled heat sink island cooled, it does not adversely affect the original power generation system.
 本实用新型的有益效果体现在两个方面：第一，在热网各个热力站中设置热泵型换热机组，较常规集中供热方式，进一步降低了一次网回水温度，使得一次网热水的供、回水温差进一步增大，提高了热网输送能力，并且低温的一次网回水为回收电厂汽轮机乏汽余热提供了可能；第二，在电厂中利用凝汽器初级加热一次网回水，有效回收了汽轮机乏汽余热，电厂的供热能力得到提高。  Advantageous effects of the present invention in two aspects: first, the heat pump heat exchanger unit provided in the respective heating station heating network, than conventional central heating, to further reduce a net return water temperature, so that a hot water supply network, the return water temperature is further increased, increasing the heat transport network capacity, and low temperature return to a net recovery of turbine exhaust steam power plant waste heat may be provided; second, heated in a primary condenser using plant a network backwater, effective recovery of the turbine exhaust steam heat, heat capacity of the plant is improved.
附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION
 图1为本实用新型系统用于乏汽水冷模式时设置第一凝汽器加热一次网回水的流程示意图； Setting a network diagram of a first condenser heating return water flow when cold soda Mode for lack  of the present invention FIG. 1 system;
 图2为本实用新型系统用于乏汽空冷模式时设置第一凝汽器加热一次网回水的流程示意图；  FIG. 2 of the present invention is provided a system for heating a network of a first condenser schematic flow return air cooling mode when the exhaust steam;
 图3为本实用新型系统在热网热力站中部分设置热泵型换热机组的流程示意图；  FIG. 3 is a flow portion is disposed disclosure system heat pump heat exchanger unit in a schematic network heating station;
 图4为本实用新型系统用于乏汽水冷模式时利用已有发电系统凝汽器加热一次网回水的流程示意图；  FIG. 4 using the existing system of the present invention a power generation system schematic heated condenser return water flow when a network for lack of cold soda mode;
 图中标号：l_a、第一凝汽器；l_b、发电系统凝汽器；2、汽-水换热器；3、热泵型换热机组；4、水-水换热器；5、汽轮机；6、冷却塔；7、空冷岛。  FIG numeral: l_a, a first condenser; L_B, the power generation system condenser; 2, steam - water heat exchanger; 3, heat pump heat exchanger unit; 4, water - water heat exchanger; 5 , turbine; 6, cooling towers; 7, cold air island.
具体实施方式 detailed description
 下面的实施例可以使本专业技术人员更全面的理解本实用新型，但不以任何方式限制本实用新型。  The following examples may enable those skilled in the art more complete understanding of the present invention, but do not limit the present invention in any way.
 实施例1 ：如图1所示，电厂内汽轮机乏汽采用水冷模式，汽轮机的乏汽出口与发电系统凝汽器Ι-b相连，汽轮机的抽汽管路与汽-水换热器2相连，本实施例在热网的各个热力站中均设置热泵型换热机组3 (专利号：ZL200810101064. 5)，在电厂内设置第一凝汽器Ι-a与已有的电厂发电系统凝汽器l_b并联。  Example 1: 1, the water-cooled power plant exhaust steam turbine model, connected to turbine exhaust steam outlet of the condenser power generation system Ι-b, and the steam turbine bleed line - water heat exchanger 2 is connected, the present embodiments are provided in the respective heat pump heat exchanger unit in the heating network stations 3 (patent number:. ZL200810101064 5), a first condenser Ι-a plant in the existing power plants l_b parallel condenser system.
 高温的一次网供水送出电厂后，进入到上述热泵型换热机组3中，加热二次网热水供给热用户，同时实现一次网热水回水降温，低温的一次网回水返回电厂后，首先进入第一凝汽器l_a中，被汽轮机5的乏汽加热，再进入汽-水换热器2中，被来自汽轮机5抽汽管路的高温蒸汽继续加热，加热后的高温一次网热水作为一次网供水送出电厂，完成循环。  After the high temperature primary water supply network feeding the plant, into the heat pump type heat exchanger unit (3), hot water supply heated secondary network user, while achieving a return cooling water network, a network of low temperature returns backwater after the plant, the first condenser into the first l_a, the heated spent steam turbine 5, and then enters the steam - water heat exchanger 2, high-temperature steam from the turbine extraction steam conduit heating was continued for 5, a high temperature after heating a network of hot water as a water supply network sends power plant, completing the cycle.
 当汽轮机5的乏汽余热无法全部回收时，仍然可以通过发电系统凝汽器l_b中的循环水将剩余部分的乏汽余热带到冷却塔6中排放掉，因此，不会对电厂原有发电系统造成不利影响。  When the heat exhaust steam of the turbine 5 can not recover all of the circulating water can still l_b condenser power generation system in the remaining portion of the exhaust steam heat to the cooling tower drained 6, therefore, the power plant will not adversely affect the existing power generation system.
 实施例2 ：如图2所示，电厂内汽轮机乏汽采用空冷模式，汽轮机的乏汽出口与空冷岛7相连，本实用新型系统在热网的各个热力站中均设置热泵型换热机组3，在电厂内设置第一凝汽器Ι-a与电厂空冷岛7并联。  Example 2: 2, the turbine exhaust steam plant air cooling mode, the outlet is connected to the steam turbine exhaust steam and air cooling island 7, the present invention is the system thermal station in each network in both heat pump type transducer is provided thermal unit (3), a first condenser 7 disposed in parallel with the cold air island Ι-a plant in the plant. 与实施例1相比较，本实施例的电厂汽轮机乏汽采用了空冷模式，其它与实施例1相同。 Compared with Example 1, the steam turbine exhaust steam power plant according to the present embodiment employs air cooling mode, the same as in Example 1 other.
 当汽轮机5的乏汽余热无法全部回收时，剩余部分的乏汽仍然可以直接进入到电厂空冷岛7中冷却，因此，不会对电厂原有发电系统造成不利影响。  When the waste steam heat recovery steam turbine 5 can not all, of the remaining part of the exhaust steam can still go directly to the air-cooled Island power plant cooling 7, therefore, will not adversely affect the existing power plant systems.
 实施例3 ：如图3所示，在热网的各个热力站中部分设置了热泵型换热机组3，另一部分设置了常规的水-水换热器4，在电厂内设置第一凝汽器Ι-a与已有的电厂发电系统凝汽器l_b并联。  Example 3: As shown, each of the heat station heating network portion provided heat pump heat exchanger unit 33, another portion of the conventional water - water heat exchanger 4, provided in the first power plant Ι-a condenser and a conventional power generation system in Condenser l_b parallel. 与实施例1相比较的不同之处在于，本实施例的热网热力站中部分设置了常规的水-水换热器4，无法使一次网回水降温至低于二次网的回水温度，这部分高温一次网回水将与经过热泵型换热机组3降温的低温一次网回水混合后再返回电厂中加热，因此，热网热力站中设置热泵型换热机组3的比例越高，一次网的回水温度就越低，就越有利于回收汽轮机5的乏汽余热。 Comparison with Example 1 is different from the embodiment in that the thermal heating network station according to the present embodiment is provided in part of a conventional water - water heat exchanger 4, the primary network can not be lowered to below the return of the secondary network backwater temperature, this part of the return water temperature to a network through the heat pump heating and cooling the low temperature heat exchanger unit (3) mixing a net return then return the plant, therefore, provided in the heating station heating network heat pump heat exchanger unit of the Comparative Example 3 high, the lower the return water temperature of the primary network, the more conducive to the recovery of waste heat exhaust steam turbine 5.
 实施例4 ：如图4所示，电厂内汽轮机乏汽采用水冷模式，汽轮机的乏汽出口与发电系统凝汽器l_b相连，汽轮机的抽汽管路与汽-水换热器2相连，在热网的各个热力站中均设置热泵型换热机组3，高温的一次网供水送出电厂后，进入到上述热泵型换热机组3 中，加热二次网热水供给热用户，同时实现一次网热水回水降温，并远远低于二次网的回水温度，低温的一次网回水返回电厂后，首先进入发电系统凝汽器l_b中，被汽轮机5的乏汽加热，再进入汽-水换热器2中，被来自汽轮机5抽汽管路的高温蒸汽继续加热，加热后的高温一次网热水作为一次网供水送出电厂，完成循环。  Example 4: As shown, the water-cooled power plant exhaust steam turbine mode 4, is connected to the outlet of the waste steam of the steam turbine power generation system l_b condenser, the steam turbine with extraction conduit - water heat exchanger 2 connected, are provided in each heat exchanger unit-type heating station 3 in the heating network, a network of high-temperature water supply plant after feeding, into the heat pump type heat exchanger unit (3), hot water supply heated secondary network users, and to achieve a net return of hot water to cool, and far below the return water temperature of the secondary network, a network of low-temperature power plant to return after return, first into the condenser l_b power generation system, the lack of heating steam turbine 5, re-entering the steam - water heat exchanger 2, high-temperature steam from the turbine extraction steam conduit heating was continued for 5, a network of high-temperature heated water as a primary network water feed plant, completing the cycle.
 与实施例1相比较，本实施例在电厂内不另外设置第一凝汽器Ι-a，而是通过系统切换，将低温的一次网回水引入到电厂已有的发电系统凝汽器Ι-b中，被汽轮机5的乏汽加热，当乏汽余热无法全部回收时，可以通过阀门调节，使得剩余部分乏汽热量通过循环水带到冷却塔6中排放，不会影响发电安全。  Compared with Example 1, the present embodiment does not additionally provided a first Ι-a condenser in the power plant, but by the switching system, the existing network of a low-temperature power plants return condensate system into Ι-b is steam, the turbine exhaust steam is heated for 5 when all of the exhaust steam heat can not be recovered, the valve can be adjusted, so that the remaining portion of the heat to the waste steam 6 discharged by the cooling tower circulating water, does not affect the generation Safety.
 以上所述，仅为本实用新型较佳的具体实施方式，但本实用新型的保护范围并不局限于此，任何熟悉本技术领域的技术人员在本实用新型揭露的技术范围内，可轻易想到的变化或替换，都应涵盖在本实用新型的保护范围之内。  As described above, the present invention is only exemplary specific embodiments, but the scope of protection of the present invention is not limited, within the technical scope of any skilled in the art in the art disclosed in the present invention, changes or replacements can be easily thought, it should fall within the scope of protection of the present invention. 因此，本实用新型的保护范围应该以权利要求的保护范围为准。 Accordingly, the scope of protection of the present invention should be defined by the scope of the claims.
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Owner name: BEIJING TSINGHUA TONGHENG PLANNING + DESIGN INSTIT
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Effective date: 20150526
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