CN202149628U - Heliostat tracking control device - Google Patents

Heliostat tracking control device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN202149628U
CN202149628U CN201120247916U CN201120247916U CN202149628U CN 202149628 U CN202149628 U CN 202149628U CN 201120247916 U CN201120247916 U CN 201120247916U CN 201120247916 U CN201120247916 U CN 201120247916U CN 202149628 U CN202149628 U CN 202149628U
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China
Prior art keywords
heliostat
transmission
motor
control
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CN201120247916U
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
韩蕾
贺赟辉
王威
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Nanjing Sciyon Automation Group Co Ltd
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Nanjing Sciyon Automation Group Co Ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • F24S50/20Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors for tracking
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/47Mountings or tracking

Abstract

The utility model discloses a heliostat tracking control device comprising a remote control center, a main controller, a transmission mechanism, a stepping motor and a heliostat position feedback device, wherein the heliostat position feedback device comprises an acceleration transducer and an absolute coder; the acceleration transducer is arranged on a corresponding surface of a heliostat; the absolute coder is arranged on a corresponding output shaft of the transmission mechanism; the output end of the heliostat position feedback device is connected with the corresponding input end of the man controller; the output end of the remote control center is connected with the input ends of the main controller; the output end of the main controller is connected with the input end of the stepping motor; and an input shaft and the output shaft of the transmission mechanism are respectively connected with a corresponding output shaft of the stepping motor and the heliostat. The heliostat tracking control device can precisely track the running orbit of the sun, and effectively reflect the sunlight into a heat collector, thereby improving the utilization rate of solar thermal energy.

Description

The heliostat follow-up control apparatus
Technical field
The utility model is specifically related to a kind of heliostat follow-up control apparatus.
Background technology
The energy is the foundation stone that modern society exists and develops.Along with the continuous development of global economy society, the also corresponding sustainable growth of energy-consuming.As time goes on, the scarcity of fossil energy more and more highlights, and this scarcity also reflects on the price of energy commodity gradually.Under the background that is becoming tight fossil energy supply day, large-scale development and utilization regenerative resource has become the important component part in the following various countries energy strategy.
Solar energy is human inexhaustible regenerative resource, has sufficient spatter property, absolute security, relative popularity, certain long-life and non-maintaining property, the abundance property of resource and potential advantages such as economy.See that theoretically solar energy arrives the energy on ground each second up to 800,000 kilowatts, as is converted into electric energy, then annual generated energy is equivalent to 40 times of present energy consumption in the world.Therefore, generally believe in the world that in long-term energy strategy, solar energy has prior status.
Tower-type solar thermal power generating system is also claimed the concentrated solar heat power generation system.The citation form of tower-type solar thermal power generating system is the heliostat crowd who utilizes the independently tracked sun; With solar ray collecting to being fixed on the heat collector that receives top of tower; In order to produce high temperature; Heating working medium produces superheated steam or high-temperature gas, the generating of driving steam turbine generating set territory Gas Turbine Generating Units, thus convert solar energy into electric energy.
Heliostat is the core at tower type solar energy thermal power generation station, is used to follow the tracks of the sun and sunshine is reflected in the heat collector of reception top of tower into, and it mainly contains speculum, support, transmission device and control system and forms.
The mode of following the tracks of at present the sun is divided into initiatively follows the tracks of and two kinds of feedback and trackings.Initiatively tracking is to utilize the position of sun moving law, heliostat exact position of living in (coordinate, longitude and latitude), thermal-arrest tower, heat collector and heliostat apart from the position of heat collector, calculates the real-time angle of the sun and the target location of heliostat, follows the tracks of the sun; Feedback and tracking is a current angle of utilizing the sensor feedback sun, follows the tracks of.Present heliostat control system mainly is to utilize to be installed in the encoder on the transmission mechanism output shaft, feeds back the current angle of heliostat dynamically, according to the sun angle that traces into, makes heliostat remain on angle on target constantly, reaches the effect of following the tracks of the sun.The shortcoming of this control is heliostat elevation angle encoder and heliostat disalignment, causes the feedback of elevation angle that error is arranged, and the different periods of this error in one day vary in size, add the gravitational settling of steel plate, this error can be bigger.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the utility model is the defective that exists in the prior art in order to solve, and little heliostat follow-up control apparatus of a kind of error and the tracking and controlling method that utilizes this device are provided.
In order to achieve the above object, the utility model provides a kind of heliostat follow-up control apparatus, and this device is used for sunshine is launched in the heat collector of reception top of tower into; Comprise remote control center, several master controllers, several transmission mechanisms, several stepper motors and several heliostat position feedback devices; Said each heliostat position feedback device includes acceleration transducer and absolute value encoder; Said acceleration transducer is installed in corresponding heliostat surface; Described absolute value encoder is installed on the output shaft of corresponding transmission mechanism; The output of said heliostat position feedback device links to each other with the input of corresponding master controller; Said remote control center links to each other with each master controller; The output of said master controller links to each other with the input of corresponding stepper motor; The power shaft of said transmission mechanism links to each other with heliostat with corresponding stepper motor output shaft respectively with output shaft.
Further improvement to the heliostat follow-up control apparatus is that remote control center is DCS scattered control system or PLC control system.Master controller comprises single-chip microcomputer, single chip machine controlling circuit, power-switching circuit, the outer ferroelectric memory circuit of sheet, motor-drive circuit, SSI communication interface and serial communication interface, and single chip machine controlling circuit links to each other with serial communication interface with single-chip microcomputer, power-switching circuit, the outer FeRAM circuit of sheet, motor-drive circuit, SSI communication interface respectively.Wherein, master controller links to each other with remote control center through serial communication interface, links to each other with absolute value encoder through the SSI communication interface, links to each other with stepper motor through motor-drive circuit.Stepper motor comprises elevation angle control motor and azimuth control motor.Transmission mechanism comprises elevation angle transmission mechanism and azimuth transmission mechanism.Elevation angle control motor links to each other with the azimuth transmission mechanism with the elevation angle transmission mechanism respectively with azimuth control motor; Absolute value encoder is installed on the output shaft of corresponding azimuth transmission mechanism.
The utility model is compared prior art and is had the following advantages: the method that adopts feedback and tracking or initiatively follow the tracks of, can follow the tracks of running track from sun accurately, and the sunshine usable reflection in heat collector, has been improved the solar thermal energy utilization ratio; Heliostat elevation angle and azimuthal evaluation work are distributed on the single-chip microcomputer of each heliostat master controller, have reduced the computing pressure of server, promoted the stability of system; Employing is installed in the elevation angle of the acceleration transducer feedback heliostat on each heliostat surface; The systematic error of having avoided steel construction to cause owing to gravitational settling and distortion; Also avoid simultaneously the systematic error that causes because of encoder and heliostat disalignment, can improve the tracking accuracy of heliostat greatly; Tracking accuracy is not influenced by weather condition, still can accomplish tracking at cloudy weather, and precision can reach 0.1 °, 1.7mrad.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is applied in heliostat field structure sketch map for the utility model heliostat follow-up control apparatus.
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of the single heliostat of main controller controls among Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the change curve of sun altitude in one day.
Fig. 4 is the change curve of solar azimuth in one day.
Fig. 5 is the change curve of heliostat elevation angle in one day.
Fig. 6 is the change curve of heliostat azimuth in one day.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the utility model heliostat follow-up control apparatus is elaborated.
In conjunction with Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the utility model heliostat follow-up control apparatus comprises remote control center, several master controllers, several transmission mechanisms, several stepper motors and several heliostat position feedback devices.Stepper motor is divided into elevation angle control motor and azimuth control motor.Transmission mechanism comprises elevation angle transmission mechanism and azimuth transmission mechanism, controls Electric Machine Control by elevation angle control motor and azimuth respectively, thereby adjusts the elevation angle and the azimuth of each heliostat.Each heliostat position feedback device comprises the acceleration transducer of record heliostat elevation angle (pitch orientation angle) and the absolute value encoder at record heliostat azimuth (with the angular separation, due south); Wherein acceleration transducer is directly installed on the surface of heliostat; Can accurately write down the elevation angle of heliostat; The angular error of having avoided gravitational settling and the distortion of invar structure and speculum and having caused; Can also avoid having improved the tracking accuracy of heliostat because of having the systematic error that encoder and heliostat disalignment cause now.Absolute value encoder is installed on the output shaft of corresponding azimuth transmission mechanism.The master controller that each heliostat position feedback device feeds back to each heliostat with the heliostat elevation angle and the azimuth information of correspondence.Remote control center is a DCS scattered control system or PLC control system, and the heliostat field longitude and latitude that time, heliostat coordinate and GPS are collected sends to the master controller of each heliostat through universal serial bus.It is the circuit board of control core with the single-chip microcomputer that each master controller is one, integrated single chip machine controlling circuit, power-switching circuit, sheet FeRAM circuit, motor-drive circuit, SSI communication interface, serial communication interface outward it on.Master controller receives after time, coordinate, longitude and the latitude information that universal serial bus sends elevation angle and the azimuth that calculates the current time sun through the sun angle computing formula; Go out the elevation angle and the azimuth of heliostat again through newton's optical computing; Signal be will drive simultaneously and elevation angle control motor and azimuth control motor sent to respectively; Thereby drive the motion of elevation angle transmission mechanism and azimuth transmission mechanism respectively; The heliostat that will link to each other with its output shaft is adjusted to the angle on target position, realizes the real-time tracking of heliostat.
Wherein, the SSI communication interface of master controller communicates with absolute value encoder through the SSI bus and links to each other, and links to each other with acceleration transducer through the A/D sampling apparatus.The serial communication interface of master controller communicates with remote control center through universal serial bus and links to each other.
Single chip machine controlling circuit is connected with power-switching circuit, the outer FeRAM circuit of sheet, stepper motor driving circuit, SSI communication interface, serial communication interface respectively.The outer FeRAM circuit of sheet is connected with single chip machine controlling circuit through the I2C bus, is used for depositing of director demon and data.
Send control impuls, drive stepping motor forward and reverse by single chip machine controlling circuit control motor-drive circuit.Because the stepper motor precision is high, start and stopped process noninertia error, so the design adopts stepper motor to drive the heliostat transmission mechanism, can further increase the tracking accuracy of heliostat.
The utility model adopts two-dimensional tracking control, controls the elevation angle and the azimuth of heliostat respectively.Give master controller through acceleration transducer and absolute value encoder elevation angle and the azimuth position feedback information that heliostat is real-time; Remote control center sends to master controller with the coordinate and the latitude and longitude information of time and heliostat through universal serial bus; After master controller receives the information that remote control center sends, calculate the elevation angle and the azimuth of the real-time sun, and then calculate the object height angle and the azimuth of heliostat through geometric optics through the solar angle computing formula; Real-time elevation angle and the azimuth information of heliostat according to heliostat position feedback device feedback sends to stepper motor with control impuls, and drive stepping motor is carried out forward or reverse, thereby the stepper motor drive transmission device is adjusted to the target location with heliostat.
In the heliostat tracing process; Master controller meeting certain interval of time feeds back to remote control center with the tracking situation of heliostat through universal serial bus; The heliostat trace information that remote control center feeds back to according to master controller; Carry out analyzing and processing, stop, resetting or trace command again if find that heliostat is followed the tracks of unusually then can send to the heliostat master controller.
Because the east of the sun rises the west and falls, the different time in a day is different with respect to the position of heliostat field.Therefore need calculate real-time sun altitude and azimuth.The utility model adopts a kind of precision higher, and the formula that range of application is wider calculates, and wherein elevation angle formula error variance can reach 0.0002 °, and azimuth formula error variance can reach 0.002 °:
Sun altitude:
(1)
Solar azimuth:
(2)
Wherein parameter is:
: sun altitude;
A: solar azimuth;
: geographic latitude;
: solar hour angle, to calculate the positive period of the day from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m =0;
: declination angle;
Solar elevation angle and azimuth calculation accuracy depends on the sun angle and solar declination angle .
Solar hour angle :
Can know the precision that the accuracy affects position of sun of solar hour angle calculates by formula (1)~(2).So-called solar hour angle is one of coordinate parameters that uses when confirming the position of the sun on celestial sphere with dependent equatorial coordinate system, is through the hour circle of the sun and the dihedral between observer's meridian circle.This angle can be used to measuring period, is called apparent solar time.
(3)
The computing formula of solar time is:
(4)
In the formula 4, :Formulate standard time accepted standard precision.
:Local precision.
Negative sign is got in the Eastern Hemisphere in the site, and positive sign is got in the Western Hemisphere.
China is the standard time with Beijing time, is that (4) are rewritten as:
(5)
In formula (4)~(5), EBe the time difference.
The used time system of our daily life is based on mean solar time (at ordinary times) system, so when solar hour angle calculated in real time, key was will be with converting apparent time at ordinary times into.The difference of apparent time and mean solar time is called the time difference EThe time difference is all changing all the time, and we can only calculate with the approximate formula of some different accuracies.Because the time difference has certain periodicity,,, need use notions such as sun ecliptic latitude, declination, right ascension, sidereal time and calculate for complicated algorithm so simple algorithm is approximate with the triangle periodic function usually.
The time difference accounting equation that W loof nineteen sixty-eight proposes is:
(6)
Wherein,
The estimation equation of the time difference that Spencer proposed in 1971 is:
(7)
Wherein,
The time difference algorithm that Whillier proposed in 1979 is following:
(8)
Wherein,
Through precision analysis and the comparison to formula (6)~(8), discovery Whillier algorithm is that the precision of formula (8) is the highest, so this instance adopts the time difference algorithm of formula (8).
Declination angle : the line at ground ball center and sun center and the angle of earth equatorial plane are called declination angle; It is one approximate be the amount that changes in the cycle with the year; Its excursion is about ± and 23. 45 °; Its value changes constantly; Again because the circumsolar characteristics of motion of the earth is extremely complicated; Even some irregular physical mechanism is still unclear at present, so will expect the actual value at declination angle, need carry out high-precision real-time astronomical surveing or from astronomical yearbook, table look-up obtaining.This calculates so generally summarize certain simple algorithm with the method for extrapolation in field of solar energy utilization that for very inconvenience of solar energy utilization it calculates that precision depends on the complexity of algorithm and calculates time span.
Cooper proposed the calculating of following formula as declination angle in 1969:
(9)
In the formula: n be the date of asking in 1 year the day subnumber.Like on January 1st, 1, n=1; December 31, n=365.For the leap year, the calculating of n changes slightly, can be with reference to pertinent literature.
1971, Spencer proposed following formula as declination angle algorithm:
(10)
In the formula: Γ is called a day angle, and n is day subnumber then.
Stine proposed following formula as declination angle algorithm in 1976:
(11)
In the formula: n is day subnumber then.
Bourges proposed following formula as declination angle algorithm in 1985:
(12)
In the formula: is a day angle.
More than four kinds of declination angle algorithms be typical simple algorithm; We are with a kind of multiprecision arithmetic--and SPA (the solar positi on algorithm) algorithm of Reda compares above four kinds of simple algorithms as standard; Find that the Bourges Algorithm Error is very little, its max calculation error is 0.025 °.
In sum, for the time difference, the arithmetic accuracy of Whillier also outclass other algorithms; For declination angle algorithm, the arithmetic accuracy of Bourges is much better than other algorithms.If with these two kinds of algorithm combination, can improve the precision of position of sun algorithm greatly, and the simplicity of the method for not miscalculating.Comprehensive these two kinds of algorithms, its error of calculation maximum is in 0.02 °, and error variance can reach 0.002 °.
Therefore, it is not extra high occasion that the present invention is recommended in required precision, use Whillier the time difference algorithm and Bourges declination angle algorithm.More high-precision if desired occasion can consider to use SPA (the solar positi on algorithm) algorithm of Reda, and this arithmetic accuracy is very high, but software algorithm is very complicated, and the computational burden of CPU is very heavy.
Calculate the real-time elevation angle and the azimuth that can calculate heliostat behind sun altitude and the azimuth through simple newton's optics formula, just can be according to the elevation angle of heliostat and azimuth just to the tracking of the sun.
Calculate the elevation angle and the azimuth of the sun through above-mentioned formula, the variation of sun altitude in one day is as shown in Figure 3, and the angle of solar azimuth in one day changes as shown in Figure 4, and Theoretical Calculation result and actual conditions compatibility are better.
Heliostat begins to follow the tracks of after every day, the sun came out; Also can directly be set at 6 begins to follow the tracks of; At this moment DCS control centre sends current time information for the heliostat master controller; Master controller receives the angle on target that temporal information can calculate heliostat later on according to correlation formula; According to the angle information that acceleration transducer and absolute value encoder feed back, the decision stepper motor is just to change or reverse, behind angle on target, will stop motor action when stepper motor rotates drive heliostat telemechanical.The certain hour rear motor will move again at interval; Forward heliostat to new target location; Be blanking time under the motionless situation of heliostat; Because the relative motion of the sun, the reflection ray of sunshine exceeds the time that error departs from feasible value, and can change to some extent this blanking time along with the parameter difference of Jing Chang.Fig. 5 is the change curve of heliostat elevation angle in one day.Fig. 6 is the change curve of heliostat azimuth in one day.
Heliostat stops to follow the tracks of after every day, the sun set, and also can directly be set at 18 and stop to follow the tracks of, and after stopping tracking, heliostat will rest on the hedging angle of a safety according to the instruction of master controller, thereby stops one day tracking.

Claims (4)

1. a heliostat follow-up control apparatus is characterized in that: comprise remote control center, several master controllers, several transmission mechanisms, several stepper motors and several heliostat position feedback devices; Said each heliostat position feedback device includes acceleration transducer and absolute value encoder; Said acceleration transducer is installed in corresponding heliostat surface; Described absolute value encoder is installed on the output shaft of corresponding transmission mechanism; The output of said heliostat position feedback device links to each other with the input of corresponding master controller; Said remote control center links to each other with each master controller; The output of said master controller links to each other with the input of corresponding stepper motor; The power shaft of said transmission mechanism links to each other with heliostat with corresponding stepper motor output shaft respectively with output shaft.
2. heliostat follow-up control apparatus according to claim 1 is characterized in that: said remote control center is DCS scattered control system or PLC control system.
3. heliostat follow-up control apparatus according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: said master controller comprises single-chip microcomputer, single chip machine controlling circuit, power-switching circuit, the outer ferroelectric memory circuit of sheet, motor-drive circuit, SSI communication interface and serial communication interface; Said single chip machine controlling circuit links to each other with serial communication interface with said single-chip microcomputer, power-switching circuit, the outer FeRAM circuit of sheet, motor-drive circuit, SSI communication interface respectively; Said master controller links to each other with remote control center through serial communication interface; Said master controller links to each other with said absolute value encoder through the SSI communication interface; Said master controller links to each other with stepper motor through motor-drive circuit.
4. heliostat follow-up control apparatus according to claim 3 is characterized in that: said stepper motor comprises elevation angle control motor and azimuth control motor; Said transmission mechanism comprises elevation angle transmission mechanism and azimuth transmission mechanism; Said elevation angle control motor links to each other with the azimuth transmission mechanism with the elevation angle transmission mechanism respectively with azimuth control motor; Said absolute value encoder is installed on the output shaft of corresponding azimuth transmission mechanism.
CN201120247916U 2011-07-14 2011-07-14 Heliostat tracking control device Expired - Lifetime CN202149628U (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102242980A (en) * 2011-07-14 2011-11-16 南京科远自动化集团股份有限公司 Heliostat tracking control device and tracking control method thereof
CN103968576A (en) * 2014-05-22 2014-08-06 成都博昱新能源有限公司 Sun tracking system for groove type solar thermal collector
CN109916097A (en) * 2019-02-14 2019-06-21 浙江中控太阳能技术有限公司 A kind of heliostat ultrasonic wave correction system and method

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102242980A (en) * 2011-07-14 2011-11-16 南京科远自动化集团股份有限公司 Heliostat tracking control device and tracking control method thereof
CN102242980B (en) * 2011-07-14 2012-09-12 南京科远自动化集团股份有限公司 Heliostat tracking control device and tracking control method thereof
CN103968576A (en) * 2014-05-22 2014-08-06 成都博昱新能源有限公司 Sun tracking system for groove type solar thermal collector
CN109916097A (en) * 2019-02-14 2019-06-21 浙江中控太阳能技术有限公司 A kind of heliostat ultrasonic wave correction system and method

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