CN202102316U - Equator type photovoltaic cell tracking device - Google Patents

Equator type photovoltaic cell tracking device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN202102316U
CN202102316U CN2011201327370U CN201120132737U CN202102316U CN 202102316 U CN202102316 U CN 202102316U CN 2011201327370 U CN2011201327370 U CN 2011201327370U CN 201120132737 U CN201120132737 U CN 201120132737U CN 202102316 U CN202102316 U CN 202102316U
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frame
photovoltaic cell
equatorial
tracking
outside framework
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CN2011201327370U
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徐之材
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徐之材
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Abstract

The present utility model discloses an equator type photovoltaic cell tracking device, a photovoltaic cell array can be formed by a plurality of tracking devices, and the tracking device can also be used individually. The tracking device comprises a photovoltaic cell panel, an inner frame, an outer frame and a main seat frame, the photovoltaic cell panel is fixed inside the inner frame, the inner frame is arranged on a declination shaft inside the outer frame and can rotated for 23.5 degrees clockwise or anticlockwise, a right ascension shaft is arranged on the outer frame, a bearing support of the shaft is arranged on the main seat frame to realize right ascension rotation and tracking, and the right ascension shaft is orthogonal with the declination shaft. The device has the following advantages, first, the performance is maintained, the manufacturing cost is reduced, the performance price ratio of equipment is increased; second, the tracking device has small energy consumption; third, the device is convenient for manufacturing, transporting and on-site installing; forth, the device is convenient for maintaining, the maintainability is strong and the failure rate is low; fifth, the device can be combined flexibly and has a wide range of application ranges; and sixth, the device is practical and easy to popularize and apply, and can facilitate the wide application of high-efficient tracking type photovoltaic cell power generation.

Description

A kind of equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means
Technical field
The utility model relates to the stationary installation of the solar photovoltaic cell panel in the solar energy photovoltaic system, the equatorial structure in the mounting of the tracking sun.
Background technology
Present most photovoltaic cell adopts non-tracking mode mounting.The generating efficiency of photovoltaic cell is relevant with the incident angle of sunshine.Incident angle θ is the angle of sunshine incident ray and the dull and stereotyped normal of photovoltaic cell, the generating relative efficiency η=cos θ of photovoltaic cell in theory.
Adopt the fixedly photovoltaic cell of mounting, because earth rotation and revolution, incident angle θ exists day to change and seasonal variations, causes the variation of photovoltaic cell capable of generating power efficient.If it is zero that the normal of photovoltaic battery panel falls into meridian ellipse and declination angle, this photovoltaic cell is constantly most effective that day at local high noon at equinox, and decrease in efficiency At All Other Times.Different time when table 1 provides the Spring Equinox (or Autumnal Equinox) and Winter Solstice (or Summer Solstice) (LZT) relative efficiency (maximal value is 100%) of photovoltaic cell.
Table 1
In the prior art, there is the altitude azimuth form of employing photovoltaic cell track frame can realize tracking to the sun.Owing to adopted tracking technique, daytime, the generating relative efficiency of photovoltaic cell almost can remain on 100% in theory, and Here it is, and present photovoltaic cell hopes to adopt tracking mode mounting reason.
Yet, a plurality of photovoltaic cells unit is installed on the horizon tracking frame, the scheme that constitutes medium-and-large-sized tracking generating set is feasible, but is not best, and it should not become the mainstream technology of modern tracing type photovoltaic generating.The subject matter that this medium-and-large-sized track frame exists has: 1, cost is high, the ratio of performance to price is not low; 2, track frame self energy consumption is higher; 3, manufacturing, transportation, the on-the-spot difficulty of installing; 4, be difficult for maintenance and repair; In case 5 track frames break down, have influence on all photovoltaic cells that are installed in above it; 6, track frame is heavier, and range of application is restricted.
The utility model content
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the utility model proposes a kind of equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means scheme.
A kind of equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means; It comprises more than one equatorial tracking mounting, and wherein, this equatorial is followed the tracks of mounting and is made up of photovoltaic battery panel, inner frame, outside framework and main seat frame; Photovoltaic battery panel is fixed in the inner frame; Inner frame is movably arranged in the outside framework can be changeed in the outside framework inward turning along declination axis simultaneously, and outside framework is movably arranged on the main seat frame and can in main seat frame, rotates along the right ascension axle simultaneously, and right ascension axle and declination axis quadrature are divided equally.
Wherein, outside framework can adopt any one mode in synchromesh gear motor, stepper motor, direct current steady speed motor and the AC servo motor to drive.
Wherein, the rotating speed of outside framework tracking solar time is 1/1440rpm
Wherein, inner frame adopts the low-power electro pull bar to drive.
Wherein, the main seat frame below is provided with auxiliary support frame, guarantees that the angle of right ascension axle and surface level equals the geographic latitude of installation place and is positioned at meridian ellipse.
Wherein, adopt N equatorial to follow the tracks of mounting, constitute N unit photovoltaic generation battle array, and adopt N unit frame of a central control box synchro control.
Wherein, the photovoltaic cell total area that is installed on the track frame of track frame is controlled at 6m 2Below.
A kind of equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means; It comprises more than one equatorial tracking mounting; Wherein, This equatorial is followed the tracks of mounting and is comprised photovoltaic battery panel, outside framework and main seat frame, and photovoltaic battery panel directly is fixed in the outside framework, and outside framework is movably arranged on the main seat frame and can in main seat frame, rotates along the right ascension axle simultaneously.
The principal feature of this scheme has:
1, adopt the equatorial track frame to follow the tracks of the sun.
This track frame has been compared following difference with altitude azimuth form track frame commonly used;
2, the two column equatorial track frames that adopt main support and auxiliary stand to constitute.Explain:
1) two (north and south) column track frame has advantages such as simple structure, Stability Analysis of Structures load-bearing capacity be big.
2) the equatorial track frame requires its right ascension axle parallel with earth's axis, and the geographic latitude and the right ascension axle that promptly require the elevation angle of right ascension axle to equal the installation place place in the meridian ellipse at this place.Adopt the reason of main support and auxiliary stand to be: main support is a standard component, for this equatorial track frame can be used for different geographic latitudes, can be installed on the Different Ground gradient, has adopted additional auxiliary stand.Auxiliary stand has the hard work kind, and they are highly different, and auxiliary stand has the highly footing spiral shell select of fine setting in addition, can guarantee the installation requirement of right ascension axle.
3, adopted the equatorial track frame of inside and outside two closed-in constructions.
The structure explanation:
1) on the inside casing photovoltaic cell is installed.
2) inside casing can rotate around declination axis in housing, and required corner is+23.5 °~-23.5 °, and start back fine setting every day once.Inside casing adopts the electronic pull bar of watt level power to drive the closed-loop fashion controlled motion.
3) housing drives inside casing and can rotate around the right ascension axle, the time angular region optional 6h~18h.Following the tracks of the solar time rotates with 1/1440rpm constant speed mode.Right ascension axle and declination axis quadrature.
Select the reason of two mount structures to be:
A) be fit to install flat photovoltaic battery panel.
B) adopt symmetrical structure, the turning moment that can make the generation of gravity and wind lotus reduces the output torque of drive motor is required (can select the motor of several watts of power for use) near null value.
C) in light weight, intensity good, be prone to produce, cost is low.
4, single track frame adopts middle-size and small-size design, and 2 square metres to 6 square metres photovoltaic battery panel promptly is installed on the track frame.When needing high-power generating, adopt N single track frame forming array, generated output is improved N doubly.N is optional to thousands of scopes 2.Adopt the reason of middle-size and small-size design to be: to reduce cost, be convenient to make, transport and install, improve versatility, maintainability and functional reliability.
The economical reduction procedure of another of the utility model is: remove above-mentioned inner frame and its drive unit, photovoltaic battery panel directly is fixed on (other is identical with basic design) in the outside framework.This variant can reduce manufacturing cost, but it becomes the one dimension tracking mode by the two-dimensional tracking mode, and the maximum error in pointing of declination direction becomes ± and 23.5 °, corresponding power conversion efficiency (pce) drops to 92% by 100%.
The utlity model has following advantage:
1, the ratio of performance to price that keeps the low manufacturing cost of performance decline, raising equipment;
2, track frame self energy consumption is low;
3, be convenient to manufacturing, transportation, the on-the-spot installation;
4, easy care, maintainability and less trouble;
5, combination is flexible, and practical ranges is wide: but nuclear family uses, also can be used for medium-and-large-sized photo-voltaic power generation station; Can be installed on the wide level land, also can be installed on the hillside, on the roof, inclined-plane, be applicable to each longitude and latitude area;
6, practical wide, be prone to apply, can promote the widespread use of high tracking formula photovoltaic cell capable of generating power.
Description of drawings
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment the utility model is done specifying further, the above-mentioned and/or otherwise advantage of the utility model will become apparent.
Fig. 1 is the utility model structural representation.
Fig. 2 is outside framework and an inner frame part-structure synoptic diagram in the utility model.
Fig. 3 is the fundamental diagram of programme control circut described in the utility model.
Embodiment
In order to verify the principle correctness of the utility model equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means, reasonable structure and servocontrol scheme (driving and simple circuit control with low-power machine) feasibility has been developed a model machine.The embodiment of this model machine is explained as follows:
1. above-mentioned internal and external frame and major-minor the two column equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means that are configured to have been adopted.
2. select the design that 1m * 2m photovoltaic battery panel can be installed for use.
3. internal and external frame adopts steel plate to tear curved angle steel section bar and channel-section steel section bar open.Employing is zero design for the turning moment of right ascension axle and declination axis gravity and the generation of wind lotus.Adopt low rotor inertia not have meter.
4. main support and auxiliary stand adopt general angle steel and channel-section steel to process.Auxiliary stand is selected the model of on 30~34 ° of level lands of geographic latitude, using for use.Auxiliary stand has two-dimensional adjustable mechanism, can realize that the right ascension axle correctly points to.
5. according to existence conditions, stepper motor (23HS2003 type) driving, worm gear pairs reducer casing (NRW030 type, i=60) deceleration scheme are adopted in the driving of right ascension axle.Following the tracks of the attitude rotating speed is 1/1440rpm.Angle range is 6h~18h (hour angle).Adopt ' CD at zero point ' to realize right ascension angle absolute measurement.Device drives the central control box control that is made up of single-chip microcomputer to stepper motor by driver drives, realizes regularly, regularly the angle starts and follows the tracks of, and program control program such as regularly stops to follow the tracks of and reset.
6. declination axis adopts the pull bar driving that the 5W direct current generator constitutes, ± 27 ° approximately of actual rotational angle scopes.Declination axis adopts simple analog closed-loop control.This moment, the actual angle value of declination axis was represented with the angle measuring potentiometer output voltage, and bid value replaces the digital quantity (single-chip microcomputer is obtained this magnitude of voltage according to astronomical year book) of digital closed loop with central control box output voltage.Servo control circuit is according to potentiometer output voltage and the rotation of command voltage difference control motor, and the difference that reaches two voltages is zero.The ratio mode is adopted in closed-loop control, adopts two-way controlled pwm circuit drive motor to realize.Finely tune behind declination axis opening device every day and once get final product, need not to transfer again up to the sunset shutdown.This be because the variation at declination angle because revolution of earth formation; Its changes maximum the variable quantity of declination angle every day when equinox; The declination angle in 12 hours changed and also had only 0.2 ° this moment, and the relative efficiency of the photovoltaic cell that it causes drops to 99.9994%, and should change almost nil near Winter Solstice, the Summer Solstice; Explanation adopts the equatorial track frame to follow the tracks of the solar time by day thus, and the declination angle need not to follow the tracks of or regularly revise.
7. the error in pointing design load of track frame is ± 5 °.The efficient of the photovoltaic cell when being 0 ° like error is 100%, the decrease in efficiency to 99.6% when error is ± 5 °, and this is acceptable fully.This is the design of economical rationality.
8. because the error in pointing design load of track frame is ± 5 °, require also to descend to right ascension axle installation accuracy this moment, so can be by the sensing of aid adjustment right ascension axle.
9. adopt the servo-drive system of central control box control track frame, realize the track frame Auto Power On, follow the tracks of the sun, stop tracking, reset and shut down function.Central authorities' control box may command separate unit track frame, but also every track frame in the synchro control N unit photovoltaic cell tracking array.Control box adopts single-chip microcomputer, and it has clock, year calendar function, has the astronomical year book data of the sun.Central authorities' control box has two kinds, can select wherein a kind of as required.First kind is adopted simple omnidistance prosecutor case.Its control mode is: the beginning hour angle that opens selected rotates with 1/1440rpm speed with constantly beginning, and follows the tracks of the sun.When the right ascension axle turns to the hour angle position of ' stopping to follow the tracks of ', the motor counter-rotating, track frame gets into reset mode.The right ascension axle is inverted to and opens when beginning during the position, and motor stops operating, and waits for next day and repeats said process.This scheme manufacturing cost is minimum, but overcast and rainyly still works, and wastes some electric energy.Second kind is adopted the program control automatic control schemes that adds.Its working method characteristics are: the photovoltaic cell track frame can stop to follow the tracks of when cloud sunlight automatically, once sky is put eyeball, track frame is caught the sun at once and got into the tracking attitude then, and other and such scheme duplicate.Owing to adopted the equatorial structure, and the declination angle mixes up with stored program control system in advance, so stop to follow the tracks of, the fast commentaries on classics catch the sun and follow the tracks of the sun and all adopt and control the right ascension axle and can realize.When adopting this mode of operation; The right ascension drive motor of track frame will have to be followed the tracks of and two grades of speed of quick seizure; Install two in addition on some track frames in the battle array and limit photosensitive device mutually; It is used for judging whether need following the tracks of the sun with the road signal, its poor road signal is used for judging whether to capture the sun.These two judgement signals are issued central controller with the 2bit digital signal.
Development through experimental prototype has proved:
1. scheme is feasible, structure is reasonable basically.
2. the rotary torque of gravity and wind lotus generation is very little.
3. this equatorial photovoltaic cell is followed the tracks of and is adopted motor below ten watts can accomplish the tracking driving.Oneself power consumption is little.
4. cost is low, and transportation, installation, maintenance are convenient with maintenance.
5. be fit to the application of different geographic latitudes, can be installed on the fundamental plane of the various gradients.
6. control system is simple.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the utility model discloses a kind of equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means, comprise more than one equatorial tracking mounting, and with two column unitized constructions and two mount structures.
Equatorial is followed the tracks of mounting and is comprised photovoltaic battery panel 1, inner frame 2, outside framework 3 and main seat frame 4; Photovoltaic battery panel 1 is fixed on inner frame interior 2; Inner frame 2 is movably arranged in the outside framework 3 and can in outside framework 3, rotates along declination axis (δ axle) simultaneously; Outside framework 3 is movably arranged on the main seat frame 4 and can in main seat frame 4, rotates along right ascension axle (t axle) simultaneously, and right ascension axle (t axle) is divided equally with declination axis (δ axle) quadrature.Specifically, two axles (off-axis structure) have been installed at outside framework 3 center line two ends, and diaxon inserts respectively in the ball-bearing housing that is installed on the main seat frame 4 north and south columns, constitute right ascension axle (t axle).Be contained in motor and reducer casing on the column of north, reduction gearbox output shaft links to each other with the right ascension axle, drives this rotation.Photovoltaic battery panel 1 is installed in the inner frame 2, and declination axis (δ axle) has been installed at the outer side center line place of inner frame 2, and this insertion is installed in the bearing seat of outside framework 3 another center lines, and formation is the declination framework of housing plane rotation relatively.Right ascension declination two axial lines quadrature.Declination axis adopts electronic pull bar to drive and control declination angle.Economical single shaft equatorial track frame does not have inner frame and declination axis drive system, and photovoltaic battery panel is directly installed in the outside framework.
Main seat frame 4 belows are provided with bracing frame 5, make right ascension axle and ground have angle.All height bracing frames or supporting platform etc., as long as can realize the inclined-plane setting, can be as the replacement that is equal in the utility model.
It is independent separately that single equatorial is followed the tracks of mounting, and be the array arrangement.
Any one driving that outside framework 3 adopts in synchromesh gear motor, stepper motor, direct current steady speed motor and the AC servo motor.Preferably adopt gear motor to drive and rotate, most preferably adopting rotating speed is the gear motor driving rotation of 1/1440rpm.
An embodiment as shown in Figure 3, said inner frame adopt programme control circut to drive, and this technical scheme can be suitable for separately, and one of various type of drive that also can combine outside framework are common to be used.Said programme control circut comprises reversible dc motor 11, loop amplifier 10, calendar code generator 6, register 7, digital-to-analog converter 8 and angle measuring potentiometer 9; Said calendar code generator, register, digital-to-analog converter connect successively; Said digital-to-analog converter one end is through angle measuring potentiometer linkloop amplifier; The direct linkloop amplifier of the other end, the loop amplifier connects the reversible dc motor, said reversible dc motor-driven inner frame rotation.
The utility model provides a kind of thinking and method of equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means; The method and the approach of concrete this technical scheme of realization are a lot, and the above only is the preferred implementation of the utility model, should be understood that; For those skilled in the art; Under the prerequisite that does not break away from the utility model principle, can also make some improvement and retouching, these improvement and retouching also should be regarded as the protection domain of the utility model.The all available prior art of each ingredient not clear and definite in the present embodiment realizes.

Claims (8)

1. equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means; It is characterized in that; It comprises more than one equatorial tracking mounting, and wherein, this equatorial is followed the tracks of mounting and is made up of photovoltaic battery panel (1), inner frame (2), outside framework (3) and main seat frame (4); Photovoltaic battery panel (1) is fixed in the inner frame (2); Inner frame (2) is movably arranged in the outside framework (3) and can outside framework (3) in, rotate along declination axis simultaneously, and outside framework (3) is movably arranged on the main seat frame (4) while and can in main seat frame (4), rotates along the right ascension axle, and right ascension axle and declination axis quadrature are divided equally.
2. equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means according to claim 1 is characterized in that, outside framework (3) can adopt any one mode in synchromesh gear motor, stepper motor, direct current steady speed motor and the AC servo motor to drive.
3. equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means according to claim 2 is characterized in that, the rotating speed that outside framework (3) is followed the tracks of the solar time is 1/1440rpm.
4. equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means according to claim 1 is characterized in that, inner frame (2) adopts the low-power electro pull bar to drive.
5. equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means according to claim 1 is characterized in that, main seat frame (4) below is provided with auxiliary support frame (5), guarantees that the angle of right ascension axle and surface level equals the geographic latitude of installation place and is positioned at meridian ellipse.
6. equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means according to claim 1 is characterized in that, adopts N equatorial to follow the tracks of mounting, constitutes N unit photovoltaic generation battle array, and adopts N unit frame of a central control box synchro control.
7. equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means according to claim 1 is characterized in that the photovoltaic cell total area that track frame is installed on the track frame is controlled at 6m 2Below.
8. equatorial photovoltaic cell tracking means; It is characterized in that; It comprises more than one equatorial tracking mounting, and wherein, this equatorial is followed the tracks of mounting and comprised photovoltaic battery panel (1), outside framework (3) and main seat frame (4); Photovoltaic battery panel (1) directly is fixed in the outside framework (3), and outside framework (3) is movably arranged on main seat frame (4) and upward can in main seat frame (4), rotates along the right ascension axle simultaneously.
CN2011201327370U 2011-04-29 2011-04-29 Equator type photovoltaic cell tracking device Expired - Fee Related CN202102316U (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN2011201327370U CN202102316U (en) 2011-04-29 2011-04-29 Equator type photovoltaic cell tracking device

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN2011201327370U CN202102316U (en) 2011-04-29 2011-04-29 Equator type photovoltaic cell tracking device

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102541095A (en) * 2012-02-22 2012-07-04 邱宝恕 Automatic solar focusing and condensing device
CN105322875A (en) * 2015-11-24 2016-02-10 成都九十度工业产品设计有限公司 Efficient solar panel system
CN105337559A (en) * 2015-11-24 2016-02-17 成都九十度工业产品设计有限公司 Combined solar panel
CN109782816A (en) * 2019-01-08 2019-05-21 双清阁(北京)科技有限公司 A kind of single-axis solar tracking device

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102541095A (en) * 2012-02-22 2012-07-04 邱宝恕 Automatic solar focusing and condensing device
CN105322875A (en) * 2015-11-24 2016-02-10 成都九十度工业产品设计有限公司 Efficient solar panel system
CN105337559A (en) * 2015-11-24 2016-02-17 成都九十度工业产品设计有限公司 Combined solar panel
CN109782816A (en) * 2019-01-08 2019-05-21 双清阁(北京)科技有限公司 A kind of single-axis solar tracking device

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Granted publication date: 20120104

Termination date: 20130429