CN201383787Y - Controller of brushless direct current motor - Google Patents

Controller of brushless direct current motor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN201383787Y
CN201383787Y CN200920136109U CN200920136109U CN201383787Y CN 201383787 Y CN201383787 Y CN 201383787Y CN 200920136109 U CN200920136109 U CN 200920136109U CN 200920136109 U CN200920136109 U CN 200920136109U CN 201383787 Y CN201383787 Y CN 201383787Y
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
motor
circuit
rotor
brushless motor
detection circuit
Prior art date
Application number
CN200920136109U
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王永禄
Original Assignee
深圳市拓邦电子科技股份有限公司
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Priority to CN200920136109U priority Critical patent/CN201383787Y/en
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Publication of CN201383787Y publication Critical patent/CN201383787Y/en

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Abstract

The utility model relates to a controller of a brushless direct current motor, which mainly comprises a driving circuit connected with a motor and used for driving the motor, as well as a control circuit connected with the driving circuit and a rotor position detection circuit which is simultaneously connected with the motor and the control circuit and used for detecting the position of a rotor in the motor, wherein, the rotor position detection circuit comprises a sensor rotor position detection circuit and a counter potential detection circuit which are connected with a single chip microcomputer for switching the sensor detection circuit to the counter potential detection circuit when the motor achieves the switching rotational speed. The controller of the brushless direct current motor is applicable to accurate detection of the position of the rotor at different rotational speeds of the motor, thereby realizing the accurate phase change of the motor, expanding the dynamic working range of the motor and improving the working efficiency of the motor.

Description

DC brushless motor controller

Technical field

The utility model relates to motor-driven and control field, relates in particular to a kind of DC brushless motor controller.

Background technology

Dc brushless motor is called for short BLDC, and it progressively replaces brush direct current motor.It is developed by brush direct current motor, and wherein, the stator of motor adopts coil windings, and rotor adopts permanent magnet.In the rotor operation process, use DC brushless motor controller detection rotor position, the power-up sequence of automatic switchover stator winding guarantees the rotor rotation and produces moment of torsion output.Wherein the key component that phase place switches to the Electric Machine Control process is carried out in the detection rotor position.The detection of rotor-position at present mainly contains two kinds:

One, sensor method:

Use the sensor rotor-position, the main at present hall device that uses.This kind method is converted to the signal of telecommunication with rotor-position signal, thereby conducting and the shutoff of commutation signal with the power device of control inverter is provided, thereby can control the rotation of rotor.But it is very accurate that it requires installation site of transducer, and alignment error will cause commutation inaccurate, and it is not suitable for motor and uses when high-speed cruising, because motor efficient when high-speed cruising descends fast, even can burn motor and controller.

Two, back electromotive force detection method:

P-m rotor is in rotary course, and stator coil produces induced electromotive force, and controller detects induced electromotive force and carries out commutation control to judge rotor-position.But when motor rotor speed was very low, the induced electromotive force amplitude was very low, make that the error that detects is bigger, thereby this method was not suitable for detection rotor position when the motor low cruise.

So for the detection of motor rotor position, first method is not suitable for the situation that motor runs up, and second method is not suitable for the situation of motor low-speed running.Therefore, the commutation control of above-mentioned two kinds of detection methods and dynamic adaptable all are subjected to certain restriction.

The utility model content

The technical problems to be solved in the utility model is the dynamically adapting scope smaller defect at DC brushless motor controller in the prior art, provide a kind of can be applicable to simultaneously motor at low speed and when running up accurate detection rotor position so that the DC brushless motor controller of the accurate commutation of motor.

The technical scheme that its technical problem that solves the utility model adopts is: construct a kind of DC brushless motor controller, it comprises and linking to each other with motor and in order to the drive circuit of drive motors, also comprise the control circuit that links to each other with described drive circuit, the rotor position detection circuit that links to each other with described motor and control circuit simultaneously in order to detection motor rotor position, described rotor position detection circuit comprises rotor sensor position detecting circuit and the back-emf sensing circuit that links to each other with motor, and described control circuit is included in the single-chip microcomputer that motor switches to described sensor detection circuit when reaching speed-changing back-emf sensing circuit.

In DC brushless motor controller described in the utility model, described rotor sensor position detecting circuit comprises position transducer, described position transducer be arranged at motor rotor the axle on.

In DC brushless motor controller described in the utility model, described position transducer is Hall switch sensor EW-632.

In DC brushless motor controller described in the utility model, the hall signal in the sensor input connection rotor position detection circuit of described single-chip microcomputer.

In DC brushless motor controller described in the utility model, described single-chip microcomputer is the MEGA48 single-chip microcomputer.

In DC brushless motor controller described in the utility model, described back-emf sensing circuit comprises zero cross detection circuit.

In DC brushless motor controller described in the utility model, described zero cross detection circuit comprises voltage comparator.

In DC brushless motor controller described in the utility model, described drive circuit comprise link to each other with motor in order to the control rotating speed of motor, turn to, and the power switch of torque.

In DC brushless motor controller described in the utility model, described drive circuit is the full bridge driving circuit that includes the electric power field effect transistor.

Implement DC brushless motor controller of the present utility model, have following beneficial effect: it mixes use rotor sensor position detecting circuit and back-emf sensing circuit, select to use different rotor position detecting methods by single-chip microcomputer in the control circuit and program with control under the different speeds of service of motor, thereby accurate detection rotor position, so that motor carries out accurate commutation, further control Driver Circuit is to the control of motor rotation, it has effectively adapted to motor and has started, low speed, the high speed different operating stage is to the requirement of commutation accuracy, widen motor dynamic duty scope, improved operating efficiency.

Description of drawings

The utility model is described in further detail below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, in the accompanying drawing:

Fig. 1 is the theory diagram of the utility model DC brushless motor controller;

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of the utility model DC brushless motor controller one embodiment;

Fig. 3 is the connection diagram of single-chip microcomputer in the control circuit among the utility model one embodiment;

Fig. 4 is the circuit theory diagrams of the back-emf sensing circuit of the utility model one embodiment;

Fig. 5 is the fundamental diagram that the back-emf of the utility model one embodiment detects;

Fig. 6 is the output waveform figure of the rotor sensor position detecting circuit of the utility model one embodiment.

Embodiment

DC brushless motor controller provided by the utility model is applicable to that motor makes it in accurate commutation of different phase and normal operation at low speed or when running up.

Referring to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, Fig. 1 is the theory diagram of the utility model DC brushless motor controller; Fig. 2 is the structural representation of the utility model DC brushless motor controller one embodiment.

The DC brushless motor controller that the utility model provides comprises: link to each other with motor 3 and in order to the drive circuit 2 of drive motors 3, the control circuit 1 that links to each other with drive circuit 2, the rotor position detection circuit 4 that links to each other with motor 3 and control circuit 1 simultaneously, rotor position detection circuit 4 is in order to detect the position of motor 3 rotors, and switching is the key of whole motor 3 control procedures because phase place is carried out in the detection rotor position.Rotor position detection circuit 4 comprises: rotor sensor position detecting circuit 41 that links to each other with motor 3 and back-emf sensing circuit 42; Control circuit 1 comprises and is used for switching according to the speed-changing of motor the single-chip microcomputer 11 of sensor detection circuit and back-emf sensing circuit 42.

Dc brushless motor 3 by the device for power switching in the control Driver Circuit 2 control motor 3 rotating speed, turn to, torque and the protection motor 3.Control circuit 1 mainly adopts single-chip microcomputer in the utility model, and controls the different rotor position detection circuit of switching by program.Different motors has different parameters, its coefficient of potential difference, the speed-changing of corresponding motor is also different, and promptly different motors carries out the switching from the sensor detection circuit to the back-emf sensing circuit when different speed-changings, and this switching is to realize by the plug-in of single-chip microcomputer.

The rotor sensor position detecting circuit comprises position transducer, position transducer be arranged at motor rotor the axle on.Hall signal in the sensor input connection rotor position detection circuit of single-chip microcomputer, promptly motor is when starting, and what it directly adopted is the rotor sensor position detecting circuit.Electric machine controller carries out the first location of rotor-position earlier according to the Hall output signal, stator current increases gradually, and rotor begins to quicken gradually, when speed reaches the motor speed-changing, back-emf is reliable and stable, and then single-chip microcomputer changes back electromotive force automatically over to and detects drive manner.Normally used motor speed (KV) value is more than 2000, if KV is 2000, then the motor speed-changing is 1000.When using the motor of other KV value, can change speed-changing.Therebetween, single-chip microcomputer will output signal make rotor position detection circuit enter back-emf sensing circuit according to the signal of position transducer.Concrete commutation principle is as follows:

In rotor position detection circuit 4, its by the rotor magnetic pole position signal as the commutation signal of electronic switch circuit, and and then give control circuit 1 with detected signal feedback, control circuit in time switches power device according to rotor-position.

Be installed on the position transducer on the armature spindle, realize the real-time detection of rotor-position.It is preferably the hall position sensor of Mageneto-sensitive type, and the utility model adopts Hall switch sensor EW-632, and its magnetic sensitivity reaches 3mT, and its output waveform such as Fig. 6 start and low-speed stage at motor 3 usually, uses hall signal to carry out commutation control.

In back-emf sensing circuit 42, preferably, the detection of back-emf adopts zero passage method to detect, and referring to Fig. 4, it is the circuit theory diagrams of the back-emf sensing circuit of an embodiment.It mainly detects the variation of pulse by single-chip microcomputer, present embodiment adopts four voltage comparator LM339, and input signal U, V, W are respectively three-phase voltage.When phase U back-emf arrives zero crossing, LM339 will produce a pulse; When back-emf is zero, 2uU=uV+uW is arranged, as seen from the figure, when uU from+→-process, LM339 exports a trailing edge pulse, when uU from-→+process, LM339 exports a rising edge pulse.So single-chip microcomputer can obtain the position of zero crossing by detecting the variation of pulse.Its operation principle as shown in Figure 5, Fig. 5 is the fundamental diagram that the back-emf of the utility model one embodiment detects.At any time, motor 3 three phase windings have only two to be conducted, the just anti-phase respectively 120 ° of electrical degrees of conducting of every phase winding.By measuring three-phase winding terminal and neutral point current potential with respect to dc bus negative terminal (or anode), when certain end points current potential equates with the neutral point current potential, then this this phase winding back electromotive force zero passage of moment just must be carried out commutation to power device after 30 ° of electrical degrees.Thereby learn the switching sequence of power device in the full bridge driving circuit.

From Fig. 5 as seen, each cycle is made up of 6 60 ° sector, 120 ° of each element conductive, i.e. conducting in two continuous sectors.Therefore two kinds of PWM modulation systems are arranged: half-bridge carrier wave and full-bridge carrier wave.The half-bridge carrier wave causes all the other biphase currents to produce fluctuation by all producing afterflow mutually.And adopt the full-bridge carrier wave, and then have two to be conducted all the time, by not producing afterflow mutually, current fluctuation and torque pulsation are all less.Preferably, adopt full bridge driving circuit, promptly use the field of electric force effect management and control system of a pair of P raceway groove and N raceway groove.

(reach as high as 250000r/min) when motor 3 runs up, the commutation of motor 3 realizes by Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) program control.When the control that enters the state during stage, program is estimated this zero crossing time at first according to the time of last commutation, waits back-emf zero crossing to be detected then.Zero crossing is after the time accurately when detecting, and program calculates the theoretical time (30 ° of commutation time) of this commutation point.Do correction according to the parameter exchange phase time that is provided with subsequently, with the maximum efficiency of performance motor 3.When the commutation time arrived, the on off operating mode of program switching mosfet pipe entered control stage of NextState then.

Referring to shown in Figure 3, it is the connection diagram of 1 li single-chip microcomputer of control circuit among the utility model one embodiment.This single-chip microcomputer adopts MEGA48, and it is the core of control circuit.This single-chip microcomputer price is suitable with low-grade single-chip microcomputer, has high performance-price ratio, and it has 8 path 10 position A/D conversion, and 23 programmable I/O mouths are arranged at most, can define the output and the input direction of I/O mouth arbitrarily.For recommending output, can directly drive large current load during output.The input of this single-chip microcomputer connects hall signal, sees HA among Fig. 3, HB, three hall signals of HC.The MEGA48 single-chip microcomputer has 3 hardware PWM passages, can realize arbitrarily<16, the PWM pulse-width modulation output of phase place and frequency adjustable.Program uses the MEGA48 timer internal as the reference clock that detects speed-regulating signal.When MEAGE48 is operated in 16MHz, timer is operated in the following time of pattern of 8 frequency divisions, and the time precision of timer is 0.5 μ s, and the precision that program detects control signal reaches 0.5%.This series monolithic has certain flexibility, and can simplify external circuit, and its signal processor speed is fast, peripheral circuit is few, and system forms simple and reliable, has simplified the composition of dc brushless motor, improve motor properties greatly, and helped the miniaturization and the intellectuality of motor.

Drive circuit 2 is controlled by control circuit 1 with electromotive power output, and then driving power switch 21 is with the armature winding of drive motors 3.Can adopt the device for power switching of full-control type, for example: can turn-off transistor (GTO), field of electric force effect transistor (MOSFET), metal gate bipolar transistor IGBT module, integrated gate commutated thyristor (IGCT), reach electronics IEGT (IEGT).Preferably, drive circuit 2 is for including the full bridge driving circuit 2 of electric power field effect transistor.This drive circuit 2 adopts the full-controlled switch device, can be convenient to drive circuit 2 and realize intellectuality, high frequencyization, miniaturization.

In sum, the utility model binding site detection method and back-emf detection method are mixed use with dual mode.When electric motor starting, low cruise, use the sensor method, when high-speed cruising, use the back electromotive force detection method.This method has improved the dynamically adapting scope of DC brushless motor controller greatly, and speed adjustable range can be more than from 0 to 100,000 rev/min.

The above only is a preferred embodiment of the present utility model, not in order to restriction the utility model, all any modifications of being done in spirit of the present utility model and principle, is equal to and replaces or improvement etc., all should be included in the protection range of the present utility model.

Claims (9)

1, a kind of DC brushless motor controller, comprise and linking to each other with motor and in order to the drive circuit of drive motors, it is characterized in that, also comprise the control circuit that links to each other with described drive circuit, the rotor position detection circuit that links to each other with described motor and control circuit simultaneously in order to detection motor rotor position, described rotor position detection circuit comprises rotor sensor position detecting circuit and the back-emf sensing circuit that links to each other with motor, and described control circuit is included in the single-chip microcomputer that motor switches to described sensor detection circuit when reaching speed-changing back-emf sensing circuit.
2, DC brushless motor controller according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described rotor sensor position detecting circuit comprises position transducer, described position transducer be arranged at motor rotor the axle on.
3, DC brushless motor controller according to claim 2 is characterized in that, described position transducer is Hall switch sensor EW-632.
4, DC brushless motor controller according to claim 1 is characterized in that, the hall signal in the sensor input connection rotor position detection circuit of described single-chip microcomputer.
According to claim 1 or 4 described DC brushless motor controllers, it is characterized in that 5, described single-chip microcomputer is the MEGA48 single-chip microcomputer.
6, DC brushless motor controller according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described back-emf sensing circuit comprises zero cross detection circuit.
7, DC brushless motor controller according to claim 6 is characterized in that, described zero cross detection circuit comprises voltage comparator.
8, DC brushless motor controller according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described drive circuit comprise link to each other with motor in order to the control rotating speed of motor, turn to, and the power switch of torque.
9, DC brushless motor controller according to claim 8 is characterized in that, described drive circuit is the full bridge driving circuit that includes the electric power field effect transistor.
CN200920136109U 2009-03-19 2009-03-19 Controller of brushless direct current motor CN201383787Y (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102012454A (en) * 2010-11-02 2011-04-13 中颖电子股份有限公司 Zero passage detection method and device of counter electromotive force of permanent magnet direct current brushless Hall motor
CN102412770A (en) * 2010-09-26 2012-04-11 德昌电机(深圳)有限公司 Motor device, electrical device and circuit
CN102751834A (en) * 2011-04-18 2012-10-24 浙江三花股份有限公司 Motor of direct current brushless motor pump and direct current brushless motor pump
CN104753411A (en) * 2013-12-26 2015-07-01 南京德朔实业有限公司 Brushless motor and control method thereof
CN104806531A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-07-29 江阴市富仁高科股份有限公司 Energy-saving oil-immersed pump and energy-saving control method thereof
CN105099297A (en) * 2015-08-27 2015-11-25 无锡雷利电子控制技术有限公司 Rotor position detection based starting method for brushless motor
CN105429531A (en) * 2014-09-10 2016-03-23 奥迪股份公司 Method for precise position determination
CN105763109A (en) * 2016-04-06 2016-07-13 深圳拓邦股份有限公司 Brushless DC motor phase conversion control method and brushless DC motor control system
CN105897085A (en) * 2014-12-23 2016-08-24 飞思卡尔半导体公司 Zero-crossing detection circuit and method thereof used for motor controller
CN107769631A (en) * 2017-11-04 2018-03-06 中山市普阳电子科技有限公司 A kind of single Hall control modes of three-phase permanent brshless DC motor
CN108039840A (en) * 2017-12-18 2018-05-15 峰岹科技(深圳)有限公司 Brushless DC motor control system and method

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102412770A (en) * 2010-09-26 2012-04-11 德昌电机(深圳)有限公司 Motor device, electrical device and circuit
CN102412770B (en) * 2010-09-26 2016-08-03 德昌电机(深圳)有限公司 Electric machine, electrical equipment and circuit
CN102012454A (en) * 2010-11-02 2011-04-13 中颖电子股份有限公司 Zero passage detection method and device of counter electromotive force of permanent magnet direct current brushless Hall motor
CN102012454B (en) * 2010-11-02 2012-04-25 中颖电子股份有限公司 Zero passage detection method and device of counter electromotive force of permanent magnet direct current brushless Hall motor
CN102751834A (en) * 2011-04-18 2012-10-24 浙江三花股份有限公司 Motor of direct current brushless motor pump and direct current brushless motor pump
CN104753411A (en) * 2013-12-26 2015-07-01 南京德朔实业有限公司 Brushless motor and control method thereof
CN105429531A (en) * 2014-09-10 2016-03-23 奥迪股份公司 Method for precise position determination
CN105429531B (en) * 2014-09-10 2019-07-19 奥迪股份公司 Method for being accurately determined position
US10298159B2 (en) 2014-12-23 2019-05-21 Nxp Usa, Inc. Zero crossing detection circuit for motor controller and method therefor
CN105897085B (en) * 2014-12-23 2019-07-12 恩智浦美国有限公司 Zero cross detection circuit and its method for electric machine controller
CN105897085A (en) * 2014-12-23 2016-08-24 飞思卡尔半导体公司 Zero-crossing detection circuit and method thereof used for motor controller
CN104806531A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-07-29 江阴市富仁高科股份有限公司 Energy-saving oil-immersed pump and energy-saving control method thereof
CN105099297B (en) * 2015-08-27 2017-10-17 无锡雷利电子控制技术有限公司 The startup method detected based on rotor-position of brushless electric machine
CN105099297A (en) * 2015-08-27 2015-11-25 无锡雷利电子控制技术有限公司 Rotor position detection based starting method for brushless motor
CN105763109A (en) * 2016-04-06 2016-07-13 深圳拓邦股份有限公司 Brushless DC motor phase conversion control method and brushless DC motor control system
CN107769631A (en) * 2017-11-04 2018-03-06 中山市普阳电子科技有限公司 A kind of single Hall control modes of three-phase permanent brshless DC motor
CN108039840A (en) * 2017-12-18 2018-05-15 峰岹科技(深圳)有限公司 Brushless DC motor control system and method

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Address after: 518057 Tsinghua Research Institute, Nanshan District hi tech Industrial Park, Shenzhen, Guangdong 403-414, B

Patentee after: Shenzhen Topband Co., Ltd.

Address before: 518057 Tsinghua Research Institute, Nanshan District hi tech Industrial Park, Shenzhen, Guangdong 403-414, B

Patentee before: Tuobang Electronic Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen City

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Owner name: SHENZHEN TOPBAND CO.,LTD

Free format text: FORMER NAME: SHENZHEN TOPBAND ELECTRONICS + TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.

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