A kind of bionic aquatic weed
The utility model belongs to water-treatment technology field, particularly a kind of bionic aquatic weed that purifies water.
At present, ubiquities such as river course, lake pollute, water quality lack of water especially severe.Owing to be subjected to the sanitary wastewater of people's discharging on every side and the pollution of trade effluent, add that water body lacks necessary circulation, the self-purification capacity of water body is reduced, the ecological overbalance in river course, lake, eutrophication appears in water body, and it is green that water body turns, the algae overgrowing, cause water body to produce peculiar smell, it is smelly to turn black.Therefore, must administer it.
Water pollution on the ecological significance is administered and is tended to diversified ecoscape from monistic physics view, is to be the city ecology construction of aim with the Sustainable development.The basic function not only will reach it is administered in water pollution, the more important thing is and improves water surrounding, for people provide a leisure space and an afforestation ecological space that cordiality is pleasant, reaches the harmonious development of man and nature, embodies " people-oriented, back to nature ".
Aspect the water pollution comprehensive regulation, many effective treatment processs are arranged both at home and abroad.As use physical method can administer river sewage, remove algae, bed mud dredging etc. as water transfer, machinery, but this method is just carried out the temporary transient transfer of source of pollution, cures the symptoms, not the disease.Chemical process has coagulating sedimentation, electrolysis, catalyzed oxidation etc., though it can handle waste water effectively, easily produces secondary pollution.Ecology-biological process development in recent years is very fast, and it comprises river aeration method, biomembrance process, bioremediation technology, soil facture etc. by the new technology that the water body self-purification ability of nature self is administered polluted water body.Technology is administered in the up-to-date water pollution that grows up at present, and as several different methods such as suspended filler moving bed, aeration ecological purification system and biological oxidation of sediment, this class technology is that biological process is combined with other technologies, has characteristics such as multi-functional, high-level efficiency.
Research and the practice to water ecological setting abroad has the history in more than 100 year, and obtained significant effect.It is based on the management of river ecosystem and keep the river discharge research of species diversity, improves the ecological environment by improving contents such as water quality of river, reconstruction and ecology recovering, as reducing the water diversion in low water season, reduces mining of groundwater significantly.
The simple target management being implemented in the river abroad is for fear of flood, to guarantee resident's safety, promptly based on mass transfer kinetics, by setting up engineering measures such as river and habitat, flood plain, the artificial dam of construction, reduce peak discharge, daily flow is tended towards stability.But problem is the river through operation for a long time, constantly accumulates from the settling of upstream, washes away flood discharge and reduces, and water and sedimentary flowing naturally are suppressed, and the silt lodging that current carry is in reservoir and area, downstream, aggravates in the habitat in river.In order to remedy the deficiency of simple target management, adopt flow increment method, Montana method, flow duration curve method, habitat drainage, hydromechanics evaluation assessment etc. in the river course, consider as a whole from research range and yardstick, river system classification and evaluation, river recovery, the diluting water in river and 5 aspects of river discharge of keeping species diversity, to keep the Balance of nature of river ecological environment.The most representative is the four-dimensional river ecosystem that Ward proposes, and promptly the river has continuity, reciprocity, amalgamation, duration characteristics on vertical, horizontal, vertical and time component.
With abroad compare, because the domestic correct understanding that lacks the river ecological environment, only pay attention to economic construction, ignorance is kept ecotope, the city has appearred and process water ties up agricultural water, agricultural water ties up the phenomenon of ecological water, causes the deterioration of the ecological environment, and then the Sustainable development of economy is constituted greatly threat.
In recent years, along with the enforcement that deeply reaches engineering of people to river understanding, to the ecological environment treatment in river from only the pollution of river being administered originally and being improved quality of water environment progressively to the expansion of aspects such as river ecological water, river ecological recovery and wetland, river basin ecological construction, as the Nanhe River, mansion in Chengdu, the Fenhe River in Taiyuan, the river water environmental betterment workss such as Xiaoqinghe River in Jinan.But from the basin and to carry out the achievement of synthetic study very few in aspect such as the social development of both sides, river, industrial adjustment, soil and planning control, ecoscape construction, there is not engineering practice basically.
Along with Chinese society and rapid development of economy, environmental problem becomes increasingly conspicuous, and the especially deterioration of Urban Water Environment has aggravated the shortage of water resources, affects the people's physical and mental health, has become the serious restraining factors of urban sustainable development.To be difficult to see that pasture and water flicker in the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River of beauty, worm for fishing is floating, the scene that egression flies swiftly and flies, the substitute is vary in color, river course water that stench assails the nostrils, do not have fishes and shrimps, even the organism that lives all is difficult to find trace, more very be to cause the water body that the people poisons.Therefore, very urgent to river regulation
Bionic aquatic weed forms the ecosystem efficiently to pollution control of water, reduce social synthesis's cost greatly and embody circular economy concept from aspects such as low investment, less energy-consumption, ecological properties, on very low relatively cost basis, obtain considerable economy, society and ecological benefits; Merge acquisition view amusement benefit mutually by the ecological property of sewage being handled with landscape water body construction; Water treatment and ecological water environmental construction are broken the whole up into parts, promote the masses and build together, obtain social benefit; Both reduced investment outlay and working cost, embodied the theory of the parkization of harnessing the river of sustainable development idea again.
The core concept of bionic aquatic weed sewage disposal will embody exactly that water resources is effectively utilized, comprehensive cost reduces, man and nature theory such as harmony more, improves water surrounding, repairs aquatic ecosystem, obtains permanent ecological environment benefit.
In the patent documentation, the bionic aquatic weed patent of open pollution control of water is arranged also at home and abroad.As China Patent No. is that ZL200620134335.3 discloses a kind of intelligent bionic aquatic weed, is made up of bionic aquatic weed, the miniature oxygenate apparatus that is fixed on the bionic aquatic weed root, the buoyancy aid that is fixed on the bionic aquatic weed top, receiver of remote-control sytem, solar receiver and accumulator.But there is shortcoming in this patent: because of it has solar receiver, cause the manufacturing cost height, and fragile, maintenance is difficult; In addition, it is subjected to weather effect big, as rainy weather, and then can't works better.
[summary of the invention]
The utility model discloses a kind of bionic aquatic weed that purifies water, its solved manufacturing cost height that existing bionic aquatic weed exists, fragile, be subjected to the big shortcoming of weather effect.
Technical solution adopted in the utility model: a kind of bionic aquatic weed, comprise stem, carrier, buoyancy aid and heavy hypophysis, carrier links to each other with stem, the stem upper end connects buoyancy aid, the stem lower end connects heavy hypophysis, and carrier is by the plastic cement injection moulding, and the carrier skin is a nano titanium oxide; Carrier is netted or bracketplant formula or banded formula.
Described bionic aquatic weed, the vinyon of carrier and the ratio of rubber are 10: 1～20: 1.
Described bionic aquatic weed, the thickness of the nano titanium oxide on carrier top layer are 50～150 nanometers.
Rotary type is connected between described bionic aquatic weed, bracketplant formula carrier and stem.
Link to each other by a dial rotation between described bionic aquatic weed, carrier and stem.
The utility model bionic aquatic weed is applied to water and pollutes water scenery engineerings such as process field, especially river course, lake, pond.Bionic aquatic weed and intensified purification method for water quality thereof are the Micro-polluted Water technology in the environmental engineering subject, are to be applied to waterhead area water quality strengthened purification technology such as eutrophic lake, micro-polluted riverway.Adopt nylon rope to flexibly connect between the buoyancy aid of bionic aquatic weed and the ecological fish shelter, make them can be with 360 ° of swings of current, nylon rope be with the plastics tubing that can prevent that bionic aquatic weed is intertwined outward; Packing sheet has a plurality of, is serially connected in respectively on the nylon rope between buoyancy aid and the ecological fish shelter.
The intensified purification method for water quality of bionic aquatic weed: bionic aquatic weed is directly rendered in eutrophication or the micropollutant water, thrown in density and decide according to the pollution level in lake and river course, general volume ratio is about 20%; The top of bionic aquatic weed adopts ball float to bubble through the water column, and the bottom is fixed on the ecological fish shelter, prevents drift, and the length of nylon rope slightly is longer than elevation of water surface.Utilize the microorganism and the algae of apposition growth, both played biofiltration and biotransformation effect, utilize lotus formula buoyancy aid, spin waterplant form to play the effect of beautifying the environment again.It can be used for contaminated lake, pond, stagnant water river, seasonal stagnant water river etc., help water body to recover balance of nature, make its good state of keeping fit for a long time, have the biomembrane activity advantages such as renewal that come off more by force, easily, also can be used for city domestic sewage, Industrial Wastewater Treatment, sewage disposal and controls such as agricultural, culture fishery, livestock industry.
Be used for from making, this bionic aquatic weed has the following advantages:
1. design concept is leading, is easy to implement.
2. can effectively remove the COD in the water body, removal effect is good, and denitrogenation dephosphorizing is also had effect preferably.
3. simple in structure, be convenient to installation and maintenance, do not need the electric power, Architectural Equipment and the mechanical means that provide any.
4. be easy to upgrading, easy and simple to handle.
5. suit measures to local conditions, utilize existing river course, pool, wetland etc., enlarge and extend the Sewage treatment systems function.
6. break the whole up into parts, solve effluent problem on the spot, reduce the pipeline network construction cost.
7. reduced flow velocity, for the precipitation of SS (suspended substance) has been created good condition.
8. effectively stop light, reduce the production of algae.
9. the specific surface area of bio-carrier is big, can make microorganism, algae implantation easy, has improved the effect of water treatment.
10. can coordinate good looking appearance mutually with whole water surrounding.
11. nanometer Tio
2Be widely used photocatalyst, nontoxic, good stability, cheap.The high light catalytic effect is arranged on the one hand, and effectively halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon, dyestuff, nitro-aromatic, substituted aniline, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterogeneous ring compound, hydro carbons, the phenols in the degrading waste water decomposes the organic compound of difficult degradation; On the other hand, the process that microorganism, active sludge, bacterium absorption, growth are decomposed is accelerated, and nanometer Tio
2High-specific surface area, make it have very strong adsorptivity, biofilm is fast, comprehensive treatment effect is good.
[description of drawings]
Fig. 1 is biomembranous structure and removes schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of net like carrier.
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of the bionic aquatic weed of bracketplant formula for carrier.
Fig. 4 is the side-view of bracketplant formula carrier.
Fig. 5 is the vertical view of bracketplant formula carrier.
Fig. 6 is the structural representation of the bionic aquatic weed of banded formula for carrier.
Fig. 7 is the local enlarging section figure of strip-like carrier.
Fig. 8 is the structure enlarging section of another strip-like carrier.
Fig. 9 is the square artwork of bionic aquatic weed.
Figure 10 is that the rectangle of bionic aquatic weed is laid figure.
Figure 11 is the circular artwork of bionic aquatic weed.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the utility model is elaborated.
As shown in Figure 1, bionic aquatic weed rests in the water and carries out mud and remove, its method for separating polluted particles belongs to the microbial film facture, essence is to make microorganisms such as bacterium and mushroom and microfaunas such as protista, metazoan attached to (as leaf, root, the stem of bionic aquatic weed) on filtrate or some carrier, and forms membranaceous biological sludge-microbial film thereon.Sewage contacts with microbial film, the organism in the sewage (BOD, COD, NH
3-N),, for the picked-up of the Institute of Micro-biology on the microbial film, sewage is purified, and microorganism self obtain procreation propagation as nutritive substance.
Fig. 1 is attached to biomembranous structure on the carrier and removes principle.Microbial film is along the distribution of water (flow) direction, thereon the ecosystem of being made up of bacterium and various microorganism and organic degradation function all reached balance and stable status.
Microbial film is the material of highly-hydrophilic, and sewage constantly under the condition of its Surface Renewal, always exists one deck in its outside and adheres to water layer.Microbial film is again the material of microorganism highly dense, is breeding various types of microorganisms and microfauna on the surface of film and the growth inside of certain depth, and is formed with organic pollutants-bacterium-protozoic food chain.
Microbial film its form with maturation after because microorganism constantly breeds, biomembranous thickness constantly increases, thicken to a certain degree after, promptly be converted into anaerobic state in the Proof inboard deep of oxygen, form the anaerobism film.Like this, microbial film just is made up of with anaerobism is two-layer aerobic, and the thickness of aerobic layer is generally about 2mm, and organic degraded mainly is to carry out in aerobic layer.
As can be seen from Figure 1, inside and outside at microbial film, carrying out the mass transfer process of multiple material between microbial film and the water layer.Airborne oxygen is dissolved in the water layer that flows, and passes to microbial film by adhering to water layer therefrom, is used for breathing for microorganism; Organic pollutant in the sewage is then passed to by mobile water layer and adheres to water layer, enters microbial film then, and is degraded by the Metabolic activity of bacterium.Sewage progressively is purified in its flow process.Meta-bolites of microorganism such as H
2O etc. then enter fluidised bed by adhering to water layer, and drain with it, and CO
2And the degradation production such as the H of anaerobic layer
4Then overflow Deng the gaseous state meta-bolites and to enter the air from water layer.
When anaerobic layer is also not thick, it and aerobic layer are keeping certain balance and stability relation, aerobic layer can be kept normal purification function, but when anaerobic layer is thickeied gradually, and after acquiring a certain degree, its meta-bolites also increases gradually, these products are overflowed laterally, must see through aerobic layer, the steady state of the ecosystem of aerobic layer is destroyed, thereby lose the equilibrium relationship between these two kinds of retes, again because of the continuous effusion of gaseous state meta-bolites, weakened microbial film at filtrate (carrier, filler) pull-out capacity on, the microbial film that is in this state is aging microbial film, and aging biomembrane purification function is relatively poor and be easy to come off.Generate new microbial film behind the biofilm detachment, new microbial film must just can given full play to its purification function after after a while.More satisfactory situation is: slow down biomembranous ager process, suppress the anaerobic layer aggregative growth, accelerate the renewal of aerobic film, and microbial film is not concentrated come off.
Carrier is the core of bionic aquatic weed, and the utility model is emphatically to the structure of carrier and make the improvement on the material and realize its function.The carrier structure of this bionic aquatic weed divides three kinds: net like, bracketplant formula and banded formula, these three kinds of structures are can adapt to different positions (if water body is divided into upper, middle and lower-ranking, then above-mentioned three kinds of bionic aquatic weeds are fit to place middle level, lower floor, the upper strata of water), it imitates real pasture and water more realistically.
As shown in Figure 2, the carrier 6 of this bionic aquatic weed is netted, it designs according to the net grass, passive is stem 3 longitudinally, and the centre is a stem 1, and the two ends of each stem 3 link to each other with stem 1, the irregular stem bar 8 of ining succession between the stem and between stem and the stem, thereby form irregular grid 2, the upper end of stem 1 connects buoyancy aid, and the lower end connects heavy hypophysis (not drawing among the figure).Such bionic aquatic weed is laid in the middle level of water.The specific surface area of this bionic aquatic weed is maximum relatively down of the same area, and the contact area and the time of itself and current also are maximum, and can bear bigger flow velocity.To a certain extent, this bionic aquatic weed can also play the barrier effect, tackles the impurity in a part of water.
Carrier 6 is made by following steps: vinyon melts down at 185 ℃, adds particulate state rubber then, and the ratio of vinyon and rubber is 12: 1, enter plasticator and mix compacting, behind the naturally cooling, top layer dip-coating nano titanium oxide, the thickness of sodium rice titanium dioxide is 60 nanometers.The carrier of this bionic aquatic weed uses Bioengineered and accurate aquatic matrix to select biotic population and useful algae, and helps their breedings; It not only has huge specific surface area, bigger porosity is arranged, and reliable, a desirable growth and breeding habitat is provided can for microorganism, algae, and implantation is easy.
Shown in Fig. 3,4,5, the carrier 6 of bionic aquatic weed is the bracketplant formula, and the upper end of stem 1 connects buoyancy aid 4, and buoyancy aid 4 adopts the open-cell foamed plastics of little density to make, and the lower end of stem 1 connects heavy hypophysis 5.Carrier 6 links to each other with stem 1 by branch 9, and carrier 6 is foliated lamellar, is fixed in a rotating disk 10, and 9 of rotating disk 0 and branches are rotatable.Therefore, the blade of bionic aquatic weed (being carrier) can arbitrarily rotate along with current.Such bionic aquatic weed is laid in the upper strata of water, and its attractive in appearance and practicality brings out the best in each other, and it can reach the effect that purifies water in conjunction with the design and the natural plant bracketplant of the free filler of swing, can beautify, coordinate surrounding environment again.
Carrier 6 is made by following steps: vinyon melts down at 195 ℃, adds particulate state rubber then, and the ratio of vinyon and rubber is 16: 1, enter plasticator and mix compacting, behind the naturally cooling, top layer dip-coating nano titanium oxide, the thickness of sodium rice titanium dioxide is 80 nanometers.
Certainly, carrier also can by the direct rotary type of rotating disk be connected in stem, also can reach same technique effect.
As shown in Figure 6, the carrier 6 of bionic aquatic weed is banded formula, and being linked to each other by stem bar 11 by numerous tapes 7 forms, and stem bar 11 links to each other with stem 1, and the upper end of stem 1 connects buoyancy aid 4, and the lower end connects heavy hypophysis 5.It designs according to pasture and water such as water sword common in the water, quillworts, and bionic aquatic weed shown in Figure 6 is laid in the middle level of water, and bionic aquatic weed shown in Figure 7 is laid in subsurface layer.This bionic aquatic weed can be elegant along with the current freedom, and the part that banded pasture and water are handled is the pollutent that discharges in the bed mud in river and the mud in the bottom, lake.
According to the type of polluted-water, the layout type of bionic aquatic weed in water body mainly is divided into run-in index, circular formula and square formula, generally in the river, adopts square or run-in index is laid; In the lake, then adopt circular the laying.The laying mode can change according to practical situation at the scene.
Shown in Fig. 9,10, its complete installation divided for three steps to bionic aquatic weed in the laying in the water bodys such as river course: the arrangement of fixed support 12 and heavy hypophysis 5, bionic aquatic weed, and the connection of stem 1.Fixed support 12 adopts vinyon to make, its fixing whole bionic aquatic weed layout state in water, and stem 1 adopts nylon rope as wire, and heavy hypophysis 5 usefulness are made hollow plastic circle or rectangular parallelepiped with plastics, and hollow space uses sand or earth to fill up.Buoyancy aid 4 adopts the low weight open-cell foamed plastics of density to be made into shape such as lotus body.
In the river course, its layout length is no less than 30m, and when the flow velocity of river during at 0.2m/s, the section pasture and water distributive law in river is about 60%.
In hydrostatic body or lake, adopt as the circle laying of Figure 11, lay according to 30% of the area of water body, after water quality improves, can be reduced to 20%.
The application of bionic aquatic weed is for a long time, and applying step divided for three steps: the cultivation of the layout of bionic aquatic weed, bionic aquatic weed surface biological film, bionic aquatic weed are to the removal of pollutent.
Layout for pasture and water is installed according to the method for introducing previously.The cultivation and the domestication of bionic aquatic weed surface biological film are important step, need the long time.Biomembranous cultivation can be divided into two kinds, and first kind is to throw in microorganism; Second kind is to be placed in the sewage to cultivate acclimated microorganism under the condition of nature.The first method time ratio is short, effective, can fast and effeciently cultivate and finish.The second method time is long.Pasture and water are removed pollutent ground, be meant the microbial film maturation on pasture and water surface after, the water of convection current process carries out removing pollutant and handles in water, after water quality improves, can stabilizing water quality, can not worsen.By formation microbial film, remove organism and particulate matter in the sewage on the bionic aquatic weed surface of flowing through attached to the bionic aquatic weed surface.The removal effect that reaches: BOD is 80%, and COD is 70%, and NH3-N is 70%,
This bionic aquatic weed be applied to the river course that all are subjected to little pollution, lake and hydrostatic body can make water quality become limpider, water quality steady in a long-term makes it to reach surface water III class water quality standard, even better.
This bionic aquatic weed is that no-power way carries out the sewage removal, installs simply, and easy to maintenance, weather is little to its influence.
This bionic aquatic weed can be avoided the drawback of biological pasture and water aspect disposing of sewage, and exists to be difficult to control, and pasture and water after death continue to worsen unfavorable factors such as water surrounding, and it can bring into play effect again aspect removal sewage.The core concept of bionic aquatic weed sewage disposal will embody exactly that water resources is effectively utilized, comprehensive cost reduces, man and nature theory such as harmony more, realizes improving water surrounding, repairs aquatic ecosystem, obtains long-range ecological environment benefit.Can realize good ecological benefits, social benefit and economic benefit.First:, realize becoming the hope of flood into water conservancy by river regulation.Second: the garden has been built one and has been complied with the nature, and embodies the green space system of region feature, for the view leisure of garden adds another scene.The 3rd: the improvement of campus environment, entering for attraction fund and factory provides strong guarantee.The 4th: the improvement of campus environment all has very big pushing effect for the life and the production quality that promote the garden.