CN1960118A - Power generation system of hybrid energy sources based on photovoltaic effect, and thermoelectric effect of solar energy - Google Patents

Power generation system of hybrid energy sources based on photovoltaic effect, and thermoelectric effect of solar energy Download PDF

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CN1960118A
CN1960118A CN 200610114707 CN200610114707A CN1960118A CN 1960118 A CN1960118 A CN 1960118A CN 200610114707 CN200610114707 CN 200610114707 CN 200610114707 A CN200610114707 A CN 200610114707A CN 1960118 A CN1960118 A CN 1960118A
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generation module
lithium
heat
energy
semi
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CN 200610114707
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CN1960118B (en
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尚永红
李艳秋
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中国科学院电工研究所
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Abstract

The system mainly consists of the solar energy photo-volt battery (PV) and the semi-conductor thermo electric generator module (SG). The hot end insulated heat-lead board of SG contacts with the bottom electrode of PV via the heat-lead silica gel. PV and SG connect to the power supply circuit via a lead. The hot end insulated heat-lead board of SG contacts with the radiator via the heat-lead silica gel. The energy produced by PV and the energy output by SG and boosted by a DC/DC circuit are stored respectively into the different lithium ion batteries. Via control and distribution by the consequent power circuit, these energies are converted into the DC working voltage. The invention utilizes fully the low-level heat energy and solves the problem of PV performance under hi temperature. The invention raises the generating efficiency and extends PV life.

Description

Energy mix electricity generation system based on photovoltaic effect and thermoelectric effect

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of energy mix electricity generation system, particularly a kind of energy mix electricity generation system based on photovoltaic effect and thermoelectric effect.

Background technology

Solar-energy photo-voltaic cell is the device that luminous energy is changed into electric energy by photoelectric effect, the operation principle of photovoltaic cell is: solar irradiation is tied at semiconductor P-N and is formed hole-duplet, under P-N knot effect of electric field, the hole flows to the P district by the N district, electronics flows to the N district by the P district, just forms electric current behind the connection circuit.Can obtain the output voltage of different numerical value by the connection in series-parallel form that changes PN junction, the area that changes photovoltaic cell can obtain different power outputs.It is a kind of cleaning, regenerative resource.

The scale that has high input at present commercial applications mainly be that silicon is solar cell, silicon be photovoltaic cell surface for dark, absorb certain solar radiation after battery temperature can raise.As document 1: " solar-energy building Study on Technology and exploitation (I)---the investigation of photovoltaic roof hot property " (Zhao Chunjiang, Cui Rongqiang, solar energy journal, 2003 the 24th the 3rd phases of volume: introduce 352-356): the monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell is tested, when ambient temperature is 33~35 ℃, the difference variation numerical value of the back temperature of photovoltaic cell and environment from 9 of mornings to afternoon 3 excursions be 5~20 ℃; Document 2: " temperature of solar photovoltaic array and infrared characteristic analysis " (Wang Peizhen, Shen Yu Beam, Yang Weihan, solar energy journal, 2005 the 26th the 1st phases of volume: 82-85) propose: when January, ambient temperature was 0 ℃ in the winter time, silicon photovoltaic cell component operate as normal portion temperature is 12 ℃, when April in spring, ambient temperature was about 22 ℃, the temperature of battery component operate as normal part is 46 ℃, and this makes photovoltaic cell back of the body temperature with environment 10~15 ℃ the temperature difference be arranged.

The temperature of photovoltaic cell has directly influenced output voltage, conversion efficiency and the useful life of photovoltaic cell.Therefore to make photovoltaic cell keep working at a lower temperature, improve its power output.

Semiconductor temperature differential generating is to be thermal power transfer the device of electric energy by Seebeck effect, its operation principle is: in the loop that constitutes by the series connection of N type and P type semiconductor if there is temperature gradient in two joints, temperature end hole and electron concentration lower temperature end height, under the driving of carrier concentration gradient, hole and electronics spread to low-temperature end, thereby form electrical potential difference at the high and low temperature end, when the loop is connected, have electric current output.Many P type and N type thermoelectric semiconductor material are coupled together formed output voltage and the power that module just can obtain different numerical value.

At present, solar energy power generating and the commercialization of thermo-electric generation technology, especially solar energy power generating has obtained to use widely, and the thermo-electric generation technology then is applied in the higher situation of hot-side temperature, does not directly utilize photovoltaic cell back of the body temperature as thermo-electric generation power.Most of area hours of daylights of China are longer relatively, solar energy resources is abundant, form hybrid power system with utilizing solar-energy photo-voltaic cell back of the body temperature as the thermo-electric generation system and the solar photovoltaic generation system of generation driving force, not only made full use of this clean energy resource of solar energy power generating, also solve photovoltaic cell and carried on the back the warm too high battery heat dissipation problem that influences generating efficiency, open up new application space for semiconductor temperature differential generating, had energy-conservation, pollution-free, security and stability advantages of higher.

U.S. Pat 3,956,017 has proposed a kind of light electric transducer of being made up of solar-energy photo-voltaic cell and temperature-difference power generation module, as shown in Figure 1.It is characterized in that utilizing and be fixed on bottom the photovoltaic cell, have the heat transferred temperature-difference power generation module of the metal material of high heat conductance with the photovoltaic cell generation, the advantage of this patent is that the metal heat-conducting layer has increased the heat conduction between photovoltaic cell and temperature-difference power generation module, make photovoltaic cell that heat is more passed to temperature-difference power generation module, but restricted by the performance of thermoelectric material, temperature-difference power generation module power generation performance under lower temperature poor (≤30 ℃) condition is relatively poor, if will obtain to satisfy the operating voltage and the electric current of loading demand, must tie connection in series-parallel to P-N with many, and photovoltaic cell and temperature-difference power generation module are not considered in the design of this patent metal heat-conducting layer, electric insulation problem in the temperature-difference power generation module between the P-N junction electrode.And the metal heat-conducting layer has also increased the production cost and the structure complexity of little energy electricity generation system.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is to overcome existing thermo-electric generation technology and under the lower temperature difference, can't obtain the operating voltage of load needs and the shortcoming of electric current, propose a kind of energy mix system that constitutes by solar-energy photo-voltaic cell and semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module newly.

The present invention adds the insulating heat-conductive pottery on temperature-difference power generation module, link with insulating heat-conductive silica gel between photovoltaic cell and temperature-difference power generation module, and charged photovoltaic cell is separated with thermoelectric generator, the problem that has solved insulation and conducted heat.Cold junction increases the temperature difference by adding radiator.

Volume of the present invention is little, easy to carry, may be used on providing power supply for micro device such as devices such as wireless sensor network, illumination in the technical fields such as open-air and military affairs, aviation, also be suitable for away from electrical network, independently the small-power using electricity system has application promise in clinical practice for tour in the field, isolated island power supply etc.

The present invention includes solar-energy photo-voltaic cell, semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module and power circuit, the semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module hot junction links to each other by heat conductive silica gel with the solar-energy photo-voltaic cell back side, and photovoltaic cell links to each other with power circuit by lead with temperature-difference power generation module.Solar-energy photo-voltaic cell sunny slope resin-encapsulated, cell backside encapsulates with the heat conduction copper sheet; The semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module cool and heat ends is the good alumina ceramic plate of insulation heat-conducting property, and the edge is provided with the insulation die sleeve.Even coated with thermally conductive silica gel on the hot junction alumina insulation potsherd that contacts with the photovoltaic cell back side is to increase the heat conduction between photovoltaic cell and semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module.The semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module cold junction is provided with radiator to keep consistent with external ambient temperature.Described power circuit is provided with: the DC/DC booster circuit that is connected on the semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module output; Lithium ion battery constant-current constant-voltage charging circuit; And the commutation circuit of forming by A/D converter, single-chip microcomputer and control switch.

Principle of the present invention is: photovoltaic cell absorbs sunray, and luminous energy is changed into electric energy output.And photovoltaic cell absorbs behind the sunlight temperature and raises and become the thermal source of semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module, heat is passed to semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module by heat conductive silica gel continuously, cold junction at semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module uses aluminium matter fin fan-cooled radiator, make cold junction temperature be lower than hot-side temperature all the time, formation temperature gradient between P type, N type semiconductor can realize thermo-electric generation.By the direct voltage of semiconductor temperature difference power supply output, according to load need for electricity and lithium-ions battery charging requirement, export the direct voltage that is higher than 4.2V by the DC/DC booster circuit, store through behind the booster circuit electric weight being flowed to lithium-ions battery B.The energy density of photovoltaic is higher, can not only satisfy the need for electricity of load when sunshine is strong by day, also can be with a large amount of power storage in lithium-ions battery A.When the voltage of solar-energy photo-voltaic cell output was lower than 3V and can not satisfies the load need for electricity, lithium-ions battery A then was the load output dc voltage by the commutation circuit discharge.When the electric weight among the lithium-ions battery A can not satisfy the load need for electricity, can be by commutation circuit with lithium-ions battery B as power supply, above-described AC-battery power source electric power output handoff functionality realized by state switching circuit, such circuit design be for guarantee that power-supply system can be continual and steady for to supply electric power with electric loading.

The present invention is a kind of small-power, small size AC-battery power source of electric loading that is applicable to, it has made full use of the luminous energy and the heat energy of the sun, and the present invention also has following advantage:

1, made full use of because the photovoltaic cell temperature rise that illumination causes is converted into electric energy with heat energy; In time with the heat transferred temperature-difference power generation module, solved the photovoltaic cell heat dissipation problem simultaneously, avoided owing to the high power output that causes of temperature reduces.

2, the volume of energy mix is less, is applicable to the using electricity system little to the functional unit volume requirement; Power output can be according to using the electric loading flexible.

3, the AC-battery power source circuit logic is reasonable in design, can realize that directly output is for load electricity consumption and power storage; That the charge and discharge road has is anti-overcharge, cross put, functions such as backflow, excess temperature, guaranteed lithium-ions battery and with the operate as normal of electric loading; Can realize AC-battery power source power supply and lithium-ions battery power supply automatic switchover, reduce Operating Complexity.

4, can place the open air throughout the year, when the energy mix energy supply is sufficient, can be embodied as lithium-ions battery and powers simultaneously with electric loading; When the energy mix energy supply is not enough, be the electricity consumption electric then by lithium-ions battery.Then, the using electricity system that needs real-time working had special meaning in the continuous operation of a plurality of overcast and rainy equal energy.

Description of drawings

Further specify the present invention below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments.

Fig. 1 is a U.S. Pat 3,956,017 AC-battery power source structural representation.

Fig. 2 is the solar-energy photo-voltaic cell schematic cross-section, and among the figure: 100 is photovoltaic cell, and 101 is top electrode, and 102 is antireflective coating, and 103 is N type semiconductor, and 104 is P type semiconductor, and 105 is bottom electrode.

Fig. 3 is the semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module structural representation, and among the figure: 200 is temperature-difference power generation module, and 201 is cold junction insulating heat-conductive plate, and 202 is hot junction insulating heat-conductive plate, and 203 is flow deflector, and 204 is N type semiconductor, and 205 is P type semiconductor.

The energy mix of Fig. 4 for being made of solar-energy photo-voltaic cell and semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module, among the figure: 301 is radiator.

Fig. 5 is the circuit logic theory diagram, and among the figure: 401 is the DC/DC booster circuit, and 402 is that lithium-ions battery 1,403 is an A/D converter, and 404 is that lithium-ions battery 2,405 is a control switch, and 406 is single-chip microcomputer, and 407 is voltage stabilizing circuit, and 408 are load.

Embodiment

Fig. 2 is the solar-energy photo-voltaic cell structural representation, sunlight sees through antireflective coating [102] and impinges upon semiconductor P[104], N[103] tie and form new hole-duplet, the hole flows to the P district by the N district under the knot effect of electric field, electronics flows to the N district by the P district, just can output current after top electrode [101] and bottom electrode [105] are connected circuit.The operating voltage of a pair of P-N knot is about 0.45~0.5V, and operating current is about 20~25mA/cm 2

Fig. 3 semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module structural representation, by N type [204] and P[205] in the loop that constitutes of N-type semiconductor N series connection, the temperature of hot junction insulating heat-conductive plate [202] is higher than cold junction insulating heat-conductive plate [201], under the driving of carrier concentration gradient, thereby hole and electronics form electrical potential difference to the low-temperature end diffusion, have electric current output when using flow deflector [203] to connect the loop.The operating voltage of a pair of P-N knot is V=α (T 1-T 2), α is that Seebeck coefficient is determined by material properties, T 1, T 2Be heat, cold junction temperature; Operating current is I = α ( T 1 - T 2 ) R L + R , R L, R is temperature-difference power generation module internal resistance and load resistance.

If will obtain to satisfy the photovoltaic cell component and the temperature-difference power generation module of loading demand power, just need will to use after a plurality of P-N knot connection in series-parallel in photovoltaic cell and the temperature-difference power generation module respectively, they follow the principle of the stack of series current fixed voltage, the stack of shunt voltage invariable current.

As shown in Figure 4, the bottom electrode [105] of solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100] and the hot junction insulating heat-conductive plate [202] of semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] hold tightly together by heat conductive silica gel, so that the heat free of losses that solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100] is absorbed, pass to semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] apace.The cold junction insulating heat-conductive plate plate [201] of semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] holds tightly together by heat conductive silica gel with aluminium radiator [301], the effect of aluminium radiator [301] is that the heat of will be come by the hot junction conduction, Joule heat and the Thomson heat that semiconductor electricity generation module [200] self produces are derived, make that semiconductor electricity generation module [200] cold junction temperature is consistent with ambient temperature, guarantee that semiconductor electricity generation module [200] cool and heat ends has certain temperature gradient.

The present invention constitutes energy mix with solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100] and semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] form by the circuit parallel connection.As shown in Figure 5, photovoltaic cell [100] output directly connects lithium-ions battery A[402], A/D converter [403] and control switch [405]; And semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] output directly connects DC/DC booster circuit [401] back and lithium-ions battery B[404] be connected lithium-ions battery B[404] be connected with control switch [405] with A/D converter [403] respectively again.A/D converter [403] is detecting photovoltaic cell [100], lithium-ions battery A[402] and lithium-ions battery B[404] output voltage after, give single-chip microcomputer [406] with signal, by the on-off circuit of single-chip microcomputer according to intrinsic programming control switch circuit [405], realize three kinds of power supply photovoltaic cells [100], lithium-ions battery A[402] and lithium-ions battery B[404] interleaved power, make that load [408] all can continual work when having or not illumination.

The present invention once was that load is tested with the wireless sensor node, and the operating voltage of wireless sensor node is at 2.7V~5.0V, and average operating current is 8mA.Concrete parameter is as follows:

1, monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell [100]: what select in the experiment is the monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell of 63mm * 69mm * 3.12mm, and at AM1.5, under the t=25 ℃ of condition, open circuit voltage is 7.11V, and short circuit current is 93.78mA.Under the sunny weather condition, the output voltage of this battery is at 3.8~4.5V, and output current is 50mA~60mA (changing with intensity of sunshine).

2, semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200]: what select in the experiment is by the temperature-difference power generation module that 4 30mm * 30mm * the 3.92mm series connection constitutes, and every is made of 126 pairs of thermocouple series connection again.As introducing in the document 1, when ambient temperature is 33~35 ℃, the difference variation numerical value of the back temperature of photovoltaic cell and environment from 9 of mornings to afternoon 3 excursions be 5~20 ℃, therefore estimate this electricity generation module the cool and heat ends temperature difference during 5 ℃, 10 ℃ and 20 ℃ obtainable open circuit voltage be respectively 0.97V, 1.95V and 3.91V, maximum output current is 16.67mA, 33.33mA and 66.67mA.

3, DC/DC booster circuit: in order to make full use of the electric energy of temperature-difference power generation module output, boost to greater than being lithium-ions battery B[404 behind the 4.2V through the DC/DC booster circuit by semiconductor electricity generation module [200] output voltage] charging, charging current is 10mA~30mA.

4, lithium-ions battery charging circuit:, can be lithium-ions battery A[402 with the charging current of 50mA~60mA (depending on intensity of sunshine) when photovoltaic cell [100] when output voltage is higher than 4.2V] charging; Along with the charging interval prolongs, when cell voltage rose to 4.2V, the charging circuit defencive function starts did not recharge storage battery, and the anti-adverse current diode of storage battery input is started working and prevented that battery current from refluxing.

5, state switching circuit: A/D converter [403] is detecting photovoltaic cell [100], lithium-ions battery A[402] and lithium-ions battery B[404] output voltage after, give single-chip microcomputer [406] with signal, by the on-off circuit of single-chip microcomputer according to intrinsic programming control switch circuit [405], realize three kinds of power supply photovoltaic cells [100], lithium-ions battery A[402] and lithium-ions battery B[404] interleaved power, make that load [408] all can continual work when having or not illumination.For the power supply design priority of electric is: photovoltaic cell [100] has precedence over lithium-ions battery A[402], lithium-ions battery A[402] have precedence over lithium-ions battery B[404].

6, voltage stabilizing circuit: this voltage stabilizing circuit is voltage and the lithium-ions battery A[402 with photovoltaic cell [100] output], lithium-ions battery B[404] output voltage stabilization at 3V, for load provides direct current.

It is simple that the present invention operates control, only needs the PN junction connection in series-parallel form according to load need for electricity appropriate design photovoltaic cell and semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module, and the control of the follow-up power circuit of process can obtain the required direct voltage of electricity consumption loaded work piece.Through Theoretical Calculation, if the employing capacity is the lithium-ions battery A[402 of 1400mAh] and the lithium-ions battery B[404 of 500mAh] be that wireless sensor network node is powered as energy-storage travelling wave tube, can realize that node is 5 overcast and rainy lasting non-stop runs.

Claims (3)

1, a kind of energy mix electricity generation system based on photovoltaic effect and thermoelectric effect is characterized in that comprising solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100], semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] and power circuit; The hot junction insulating heat-conductive plate [202] of semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] links to each other by heat conductive silica gel with the hearth electrode [105] of solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100], and solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100] links to each other with power circuit by lead with semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200]; The hot junction insulating heat-conductive plate [205] of semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] links to each other by heat conductive silica gel with radiator [301].
2,, it is characterized in that solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100] output directly connects lithium-ions battery A[402 according to the described energy mix electricity generation system of claim 1 based on photovoltaic effect and thermoelectric effect], A/D converter [403] and control switch [405]; Semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] output directly connects DC/DC booster circuit [401] back and lithium-ions battery B[404] be connected lithium-ions battery B[404] be connected with control switch [405] with A/D converter [403] respectively again; A/D converter [403] is detecting photovoltaic cell [100], lithium-ions battery A[402] and lithium-ions battery B[404] output voltage after, give single-chip microcomputer [406] with signal, by the on-off circuit of single-chip microcomputer according to intrinsic programming control switch circuit [405], realize three kinds of power supply photovoltaic cells [100], lithium-ions battery A[402] and lithium-ions battery B[404] interleaved power, make that load [408] all can continual work when having or not illumination.
3, according to the described energy mix electricity generation system of claim 1 based on photovoltaic effect and thermoelectric effect, it is characterized in that the sunny slope resin-encapsulated of solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100], the back side encapsulates with the heat conduction copper sheet; Semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] cool and heat ends is the good alumina ceramic plate of insulation heat-conducting property, and the edge is provided with the insulation die sleeve; With hot junction alumina insulation potsherd that solar-energy photo-voltaic cell [100] back side contacts on even coated with thermally conductive silica gel; Semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module [200] cold junction is provided with radiator [301]; Described power circuit is provided with: the DC/DC booster circuit that is connected on the semi-conductor thermo-electric generation module output; Lithium ion battery constant-current constant-voltage charging circuit; And the commutation circuit of forming by A/D converter, single-chip microcomputer and control switch.
CN 200610114707 2006-11-22 2006-11-22 Power generation system of hybrid energy sources based on photovoltaic effect, and thermoelectric effect of solar energy CN1960118B (en)

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