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用于处理地下岩层的方法

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CN1946917B
CN1946917B CN 200580012729 CN200580012729A CN1946917B CN 1946917 B CN1946917 B CN 1946917B CN 200580012729 CN200580012729 CN 200580012729 CN 200580012729 A CN200580012729 A CN 200580012729A CN 1946917 B CN1946917 B CN 1946917B
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wellbores
method
formation
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CN1946917A (zh )
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M·D·费尔班克斯
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国际壳牌研究有限公司
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B36/00Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones
    • E21B36/04Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones using electrical heaters
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/12Methods or apparatus for controlling the flow of the obtained fluid to or in wells
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/12Methods or apparatus for controlling the flow of the obtained fluid to or in wells
    • E21B43/121Lifting well fluids
    • E21B43/122Gas lift
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection
    • E21B43/2401Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection by means of electricity
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection
    • E21B43/2405Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection in association with fracturing or crevice forming processes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/34Arrangements for separating materials produced by the well
    • E21B43/38Arrangements for separating materials produced by the well in the well
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/10Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor
    • H05B3/12Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material
    • H05B3/14Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material the material being non-metallic
    • H05B3/141Conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitrous compounds

Abstract

本发明提供了一种用于使用加热器形成岩层的受热部分的方法。生产管道用于将处于气相的岩层流体从岩层的受热部分导向岩层的表面。折流器将气相岩层流体的凝结物导向期望的位置。在某些实施例中,凝结物导向岩层受热部分上方的位置。在某些实施例中,凝结物导向岩层受热部分下方的位置。凝结物可以从岩层泵送到表面。

Description

用于处理地下岩层的方法

技术领域

[0001] 本发明基本涉及用于从含烃岩层生产烃、氢和/或其它产品的方法和系统。某些实施例涉及禁止材料回流到岩层的受热部分。

背景技术

[0002] 从地下岩层获得的烃经常用作能源,如原料和消费产品。对现有烃资源耗尽的关注和生产的烃的整体质量改变已经导致现有烃资源的更加有效恢复、处理和/或使用的方法的改进。原地处理可以用于从地下岩层去除烃材料。地下岩层中烃材料的化学和/或物理属性可能需要改变,以允许烃材料更加容易从地下岩层去除。化学和物理改变可以包括: 生产可去除流体的原地反应,成分变化,溶解度变化,密度变化,相位变化,和/或岩层中烃材料的粘性变化。流体可以是但不局限于气体、液体、乳状液、浆液和/或具有类似于液流的流动特征的固体颗粒流。

[0003]在 Ljungstrom 的美国专利 Nos. 2,923,5;35 和 Van Meurs 等的 4,886,118 中描述了对油页岩岩层的加热。热量可以应用到油页岩岩层,以热解油页岩岩层中的油母。热量也可以使岩层破裂,以增强岩层的渗透率。增强的渗透率可以允许岩层流体移动到生产井,流体在生产井处从油页岩岩层去除。在Ljimgstrom公开的过程中,含氧气态介质导入到可渗透地层,最好是此时可渗透地层仍然通过预热步骤受热,以开始燃烧,加热该可渗透地层。

[0004] 如上所述,已经作出大量努力改进从含烃岩层经济生产烃、氢,和/或其他产品的方法和系统。为了从受热岩层经济生产烃、氢,和/或其他产品,需要限制岩层的受热部分的热量损失。限制岩层的受热部分的热量损失具有减少加热器的数量和/或加热任务的技术优点,该加热器需要升高或保持岩层的受热部分的温度。

发明内容

[0005] 本发明提供用于处理岩层的方法,包括:使用加热器形成地下岩层的受热部分; 使用生产管道将处于气相的岩层流体从地下岩层的受热部分导向地下岩层的表面;在生产管道中或其附近形成气相岩层流体的凝结物;及将气相岩层流体的凝结物导向期望位置。

[0006] 在某些实施例中,收集装置包括将处于气相的岩层流体转移到生产管道的立管。 生产管道中的凝结物禁止流过岩层的受热部分。液体从生产管道泵送或被气体提升。

[0007] 在某些实施例中,收集装置包括对岩层的受热部分下面的凝结物进行导向的导流片。液体沿着该导流片导向,从而液体不会随着液体通过与岩层的受热部分相邻的生产井而从岩层吸收热量。

[0008] 根据本发明的一个方面,提供了一种用于处理地下岩层的方法,包括:使用加热器形成地下岩层的受热部分;使用生产管道将处于气相的岩层流体从地下岩层的受热部分导向地下岩层的表面;以及在生产管道中或其附近形成气相岩层流体的凝结物;其特征在于,该方法还包括:将形成为气相岩层流体的凝结物的液体转向到岩层的受热部分下面的位置;将稀释剂导入到岩层的受热部分下方;以及防止凝结物返回到地下岩层的受热部分。

[0009] 优选地,该方法还包括从生产管道泵送液体。

[0010] 优选地,该方法还包括从生产管道气体提升所述液体。

[0011] 优选地,通过导管去除所述液体。

[0012] 优选地,该方法还包括将稀释剂添加到导管中。

[0013] 优选地,该方法还包括将稀释剂添加到生产管道中。

[0014] 优选地,该方法还包括使用导流片将液体沿着该导流片导向,从而液体不会随着液体通过与岩层的受热部分相邻的生产井而从岩层吸收热量,其中该导流片包括在收集装置中,对岩层的受热部分下面的凝结物进行导向。

[0015] 优选地,该方法还包括使用立管对凝结物进行导向。

[0016] 优选地,所述立管的一部分受到加热,以确保通过该立管的岩层流体是蒸汽。

[0017] 优选地,该方法还包括用位于岩层的受热部分下方的泵泵送液体。

附图说明

[0018] 参照下面的详细描述和附图,本领域技术人员将清楚本发明的优点,其中:

[0019] 附图1说明了加热岩层中烃的步骤。

[0020] 附图2示出了用于处理岩层中烃的原地转换系统的一部分的实施例的示意性视图。

[0021] 附图3说明了生产井中收集装置的实施例的图示。

[0022] 附图4说明了生产井中导流片的实施例的图示。

[0023] 附图5说明了生产井中导流片的实施例的图示。

[0024] 尽管本发明易于进行各种修改和备选形式,但是在附图中利用例子示出了其特定实施例,并且在此处可以对其详细描述。附图不对范围进行限定。然而,应当理解的是,附图及其详细描述不将本发明局限于所公开的特定形式,但是相反,试图包括所有落入本发明的精神和范围内的修改、等效物和备选方案。

具体实施方式

[0025] 下面的描述基本涉及用于处理岩层中的烃的系统和方法。这些岩层可以处理成生产烃产品、氢和其它产品。

[0026] “烃”基本上定义为主要由碳和氢原子形成的分子。烃还可以包括其它元素,如但不局限于卤素、金属元素、氮、氧和/或硫。烃可以是但不局限于油母、浙青、焦浙青、油、天然矿物蜡和浙青岩。烃可以位于地球中的矿物矩阵中或其附近。矩阵可以包括但不局限于水成岩、沙子、沉积石英岩、碳酸盐、硅藻土和其他多孔介质。“烃流体”是包括烃的流体。烃流体可以包括、夹带或夹带到非烃流体中(例如,氢、氮、一氧化碳、二氧化碳、硫化氢、水和氨)°

[0027] “岩层”包括一个或多个含烃层,一个或多个无烃层,上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层。该 “上覆岩层”和/或“下伏岩层”包括一个或多个不同类型的不渗透材料。例如,上覆岩层和 /或下伏岩层可以包括岩石、页岩、泥岩或湿/紧碳酸盐。在原地转换过程的某些实施例中, 上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层可以包括含烃层或多个含烃层,它们在原地转换处理期间是不渗透的并不受到加温,这导致了上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层的含烃层的显著特性变化。例如,下伏岩层可以含有页岩或泥岩,但是下伏岩层在原地转换过程期间不允许加热到热解温度。 在某些情况下,上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层可以是稍微渗透的。

[0028] “岩层流体”和“采出液”指的是从岩层去除的流体,并可以包括热解流体、合成气、 流动烃和水(蒸汽)。岩层流体可以包括烃流体以及非烃流体。

[0029] “热源”是用于基本通过传导和/或辐射热量传递向岩层的至少一部分提供热量的任何系统。例如,热源可以是电加热器,如绝缘导体,伸长构件,和/或设置在导管中的导体。某些热源可以通过燃烧燃料在岩层外部或内部产生热量。这种热源可以包括但不局限于表面燃烧炉、井底气体燃烧器、无焰分布式燃烧室和自然分布式燃烧室。

[0030] “加热器”是用于在井或近似井筒区域中产生热量的任何系统。加热器可以是但不局限于电加热器、循环的热传递流体或蒸汽、燃烧器、与其中的材料或岩层的生成物和/或其组合反应的燃烧室。词语“井筒”指的是岩层中的孔,通过将导管钻孔或插入到岩层中制成。如此处所使用的那样,词语“井”和“开口”,当指的是岩层中的开口时,可以与词语“井筒”互换使用。

[0031] “热解”是化学键由于受热而断裂。热解包括只通过加热将化合物转换成一种或多种其它物质。热量可以传递给一部分岩层以导致热解。“热解流体”或“热解产品”指的是在烃的热解期间产生的流体。通过热解反应产生的流体可以与岩层中其它流体混合。该混合物可以看作热解流体或热解产物。热解流体包括但不局限于,烃、氢、二氧化碳、一氧化碳、硫化氢、氨、氮、水和其混合物。

[0032] “可冷凝烃”是在25摄氏度IOlkPa绝对压力下冷凝的烃。可冷凝烃可以包括具有大于4的碳数的烃的混合物。“非可冷凝烃”是在25摄氏度和IOlkPa绝对压力下不冷凝的烃。非可冷凝烃可以包括具有小于5的碳数的烃。

[0033] 可以以各种方式处理岩层中的烃,以产生多种不同产物。在某些实施例中,分步处理这些岩层。附图1说明了加热含烃岩层的几个步骤。附图1还说明了来自岩层的每吨岩层流体的油等效物的桶产量(“Y”)(y轴)与受热岩层的摄氏温度(“τ”)(X轴)对比的例子。

[0034] 在第1阶段加热期间发生甲烷的解吸和水的蒸发。通过第1阶段可以尽快进行岩层的加热。例如,当含烃岩层最初受热时,岩层中的烃将吸附的甲烷解吸。岩层可以产生解吸的甲烷。如果含烃岩层进一步受热,则含烃岩层中的水受到蒸发。在某些含烃岩层中,水可能占到岩层中孔隙体积的10%至50%。在其它岩层中,水占孔隙体积的更大或更小的部分。水通常在岩层中在160°C至285°C之间600kPa绝对压力至7000kPa绝对压力下蒸发。 在某些实施例中,蒸发的水在岩层中产生湿度变化和/或增大的岩层压力。湿度变化和/ 或增大的压力可以影响岩层中的热解反应或其他反应。在某些实施例中,岩层产生蒸发的水。在其它实施例中,蒸发的水用于岩层中或岩层外的抽汽和/或蒸汽蒸馏。从岩层中去除水和增大岩层中孔隙体积增大了孔隙体积中烃的存储空间。

[0035] 在某些实施例中,在步骤1加热之后,岩层进一步受热,从而岩层中的温度达到 (至少)初始热解温度(如步骤2所示温度范围低端处的温度)。岩层中的烃可以通过步骤2热解。热解温度范围根据岩层中烃的类型而改变。该热解温度范围可以包括250°C至 900°C之间的温度。用于产生期望产品的热解温度范围可以只延伸通过总热解温度范围的一部分。在某些实施例中,用于产生期望产品的热解温度范围可以包括250°C至400°C之间的温度或270°C至350°C之间的温度。如果岩层中烃的温度通过250°C至400°C的温度范围缓慢升高,则当温度达到400°C时热解产品的产生可以基本完成。用数个热源加热含烃岩层可以在热源周围建立热梯度,该热梯度缓慢升高岩层中烃的温度使其通过热解温度范围。

[0036] 在某些原地转换实施例中,岩层的一部分加热到期望温度,而不是缓慢加热温度使其通过温度范围。在某些实施例中,期望温度是300°C、325°C或350°C。也可以选择其它温度作为期望温度。来自热源的热量的叠加允许在岩层中较快和较有效地建立期望温度。 可以调节从热源输入到岩层中的能量,以将岩层中的温度基本保持在期望的温度。岩层的受热部分基本保持在期望温度,直到热解衰退为止,从而来自岩层的期望岩层流体的产品变得不经济。进行热解的岩层的部分可以包括通过只从一个热源传递的热量达到热解温度范围的区域。

[0037] 在某些实施例中,岩层产生包括热解流体的岩层流体。随着岩层的温度升高,所产生的岩层流体中可冷凝烃的数量可能降低。在高温下,岩层可能主要产生甲烷和/或氢。如果含烃岩层加热穿过整个热解范围,则岩层可能朝热解范围的上限只产生少量氢。在大多数现有的氢用尽之后,将通常发生岩层产生最少量的流体产品。

[0038] 在烃的热解之后,在岩层中可能仍然存在大量的碳和一些氢。含在岩层中的碳的主要部分可以从岩层生产成合成气的形式。合成气的产生可以发生在附图1中所示第3阶段加热期间。第3阶段可以包括将含烃岩层加热到足以允许合成气产生的温度。例如,合成气可以在从400°C到1200°C、500°C到1100°C,或550°C到1000°C的温度范围中产生。合成气产生流体导入岩层时岩层的受热部分的温度决定岩层中所产生的合成气的成分。所产生的合成气体可以通过一个或多个生产井从岩层去除。

[0039] 附图2说明了用于处理含烃岩层的原地转换系统的一部分的实施例的示意图。热源20放置在岩层的至少一部分中。热源20可以包括如绝缘导体之类的电加热器、导管中的导体加热器、表面燃烧器、无焰分布式燃烧室,和/或自然分布式燃烧室。热源20也可以包括其它类型的加热器。热源20向岩层的至少一部分提供热量,以加热岩层中的烃。能量可以通过供料管线22供给热源20。供料管线22可以根据用于加热岩层的热源或多个热源的类型而结构不同。用于热源的供料管线22可以为电加热器传送电流,可以为燃烧室传输燃料,或者可以传输在岩层中循环的热交换流体。

[0040] 生产井M用于从岩层去除岩层流体。生产井M所产生的岩层流体可以通过收集管沈输送到处理设备观。岩层流体也可以从热源20产生。例如,流体可以从热源20产生,以控制与热源相邻的岩层中的压力。从热源20产生的流体可以通过管道或管输送到收集管沈,或者产生的流体可以通过管道或管直接输送到处理设备观。处理设备观可以包括分离单元、反应单元、浓缩单元、燃料井、涡轮、贮存罐,和/或用于处理所产生的岩层流体的其它系统和单元。

[0041] 该用于处理烃的原地转换系统可以包括栅栏井30。栅栏井用于在处理区域周围形成栅栏。该栅栏禁止流体流入和/或流出处理区域。栅栏井包括但不局限于脱水井、真空井、捕获井、喷射井、灌浆井、冻结井或其组合。在某些实施例中,栅栏井30为脱水井。脱水井可以去除液体水和/或禁止液体水进入将加热的岩层的一部分,或正在加热的岩层。在附图2中所示的实施例中,脱水井示出为只沿着热源20的一侧延伸,但是脱水井通常环绕用于或将用于加热岩层的所有热源20。

[0042] 如附图2中所示,除了热源20之外,一个或多个生产井M放置在岩层中。岩层流体可以通过生产井M生产。在某些实施例中,生产井M包括热源。生产井中的热源可以加热生产井处或其附近的岩层的一个或多个部分,并允许岩层流体的气相去除。可以减少或消除对液体从生产井的高温泵送的需要。避免或限制液体的高温泵送可以明显降低生产成本。倘若在生产井处或通过生产井加热:(1)当这种生产流体在生产井中移动接近超载时,禁止生产流体的凝结和/或回流,(¾增加输入到岩层中的热量,和/或C3)增强生产井处或其附近岩层的渗透率。在某些原地转换过程的实施例中,每米生产井从生产井供给岩层的热量少于从热源应用到岩层的热量,该热源加热每米热源的岩层。

[0043] 受热岩层的热量损失的潜在源头是井中的回流。当蒸汽在井中凝结并流到与岩层的受热部分相邻的井的部分中时发生回流。蒸汽可能在井中与岩层的上覆岩层相邻凝结。 流入到井中与受热岩层相邻的凝结流体从岩层吸收热量。凝结流体所吸收的热量冷却了岩层,并需要将另外的能量输入到岩层中,以将岩层保持在期望的温度。在上覆岩层中凝结并流入到井与受热岩层相邻部分中的某些流体可以反应,产生意外化合物和/或焦炭。禁止流体回流可能明显提高原地转换系统的热效率和/或该原地转换系统生产的产品的质量。

[0044] 对于某些井的实施例,井与岩层的上覆岩层区域相邻的部分接合到岩层上。在某些井的实施例中,井包括填充材料,该填充材料放置在从岩层的受热部分到上覆岩层的过渡区附近。该填充材料禁止岩层流体通过岩层的受热区域进入到与上覆岩层相邻的井筒区域。电缆、导管、装置和/或仪器可以通过该填充材料,但是填充材料禁止岩层流体通过与岩层的上覆岩层部分相邻的井筒。

[0045] 生产流体从井到表面的流动适用于多种类型的井,尤其是生产井。生产流体的流动也适用于用于控制岩层中压力的某些加热器井。上覆岩层,或用于将岩层流体从岩层的受热部分输送到表面的井中导管可以受热,以禁止在导管上或导管中凝结。然而,由于岩层流体由岩层产生,所以提供上覆岩层中的热量可能成本较高和/或可能导致岩层的流体裂化或焦化增加。

[0046] 为了避免需要加热上覆岩层或加热通过上覆岩层的导管,一个或多个折流器可以放置在井筒中,以禁止流体回流到与岩层的受热部分相邻的井筒中。在某些实施例中,该折流器将流体保持在岩层的受热部分上方。可以用泵、气体提升,和/或其它流体去除技术将保持在折流器中的流体去除。在某些实施例中,该折流器将流体导向位于岩层的受热部分下面的泵、气体提升组件,或其它流体去除装置。

[0047] 附图3说明了生产井中折流器的实施例。生产井M包括生产管道32。在某些实施例中,折流器34连接到上覆岩层36中生产管道32上或定位在其附近。在某些实施例中, 折流器放置在岩层的受热部分中。折流器34可以定位在上覆岩层36和烃层38的界面处或其附近。烃层38由位于岩层中的热源加热。折流器34可以包括填料40、立管42和生产管道32中的密封件44。来自受热岩层的气相岩层流体从烃层38移到立管42中。在某些实施例中,立管42在填料40下面穿孔,以有利于流体移动到立管中。填料40禁止气相岩层流体进入到生产井M的上部中。气相岩层流体移过立管42,进入生产管道32。岩层流体的非可凝结部分通过生产管道32到达表面。随着生产管道32中的气相岩层流体在该生产管道中朝表面升高,该气相岩层流体可能冷却。如果气相岩层流体的一部分在生产管道32中凝结成液体,则该液体利用重力朝密封件44流动。密封件44禁止液体进入岩层的受热部分。利用泵46通过导管48将汇集在密封件44上方的液体去除。泵46可以是但不局限于杆式泵、电子泵、螺杆泵(Moyno类型)。在某些实施例中,密封件44上方的液体为通过导管48升高的气体。产生凝结流体可以减少与将在生产井的井口处从流体去除热量相关的成本。

[0048] 在某些实施例中,生产井M包括加热器50。加热器50提供热量,以将生产井M 与烃层38的相邻部分中的液体汽化。加热器50可以位于生产管道32中或者可以联接到生产管道的外侧上。在加热器位于生产管道外侧的实施例中,加热器的一部分通过填充材料。

[0049] 在某些实施例中,可以将稀释剂导入到生产管道32和/或导管48中。该稀释剂用于禁止生产管道32、泵46和/或导管48中堵塞。该稀释剂可以是但不局限于水、酒精、 溶剂或表面活性剂。

[0050] 在某些实施例中,立管42延伸到生产井M的表面。位于密封件44上方的立管42 中的穿孔和和导流片将凝结液体从立管导入生产管道32中。

[0051 ] 在某些实施例中,两个或多个折流器可以位于生产井中。两个或多个折流器提供将从原地转换系统生产的凝结流体的最初部分分离的简单方式。泵可以放置在每个折流器中,以将凝结流体从折流器去除。

[0052] 在某些实施例中,可以用折流器将流体(气体和液体)导向生产井的底部。流体可以从生产井的底部生产。附图4说明了将流体导向生产井的底部的折流器的实施例。折流器34可以包括定位在生产管道32中的填充材料40和导流片52。导流片可以是环绕导管48定位的管。生产管道32可以具有开口 54,该开口允许流体从烃层38进入生产管道。 在某些实施例中,所有或一部分开口与受热岩层流体流过的岩层的非烃层相邻。开口讨包括但不局限于筛网、穿孔、狭缝和/或狭槽。可以使用位于岩层的其他部分中的加热器和/ 或位于生产管道32中的加热器加热烃层38。

[0053] 导流片52和填充材料40将进入生产管道32的岩层流体导向到未受热区域56。 未受热区域56处于岩层的下伏岩层中。岩层流体的一部分可以凝结在导流片52的外表面上或凝结在与未受热区域56相邻的生产管道32的壁上。来自岩层的液体流体和/或凝结流体可以利用重力流到生产管道32的底部。生产管道32的底部中的液体和凝结物可以使用泵46通过导管48泵送到表面。泵46可以在下伏岩层中放置在1米、5米、10米、20米或更深处。在某些实施例中,泵可以放置在井筒的未覆盖(开放)部分中。非凝结流体最初移动穿过导流片52和导管48之间的环形空间,然后穿过生产管道32和导管48之间的环形空间到达表面,如附图4中箭头所示。如果非凝结流体的部分与上覆岩层36相邻凝结, 同时移动到表面,则凝结流体将利用重力流向生产管道32的底部,以由泵46吸入。随着流体通过岩层的受热部分,凝结流体所吸收的热量来自与导流片52接触,不形成与岩层的直接接触。导流片52由岩层流体和从岩层传递的辐射热加热。随着流体流过与受热部分相邻的导流片52,比如果凝结流体能够接触岩层明显较少的来自岩层的热量传递给凝结流体。流下导流片的凝结流体可以从井筒中的蒸汽吸收足够热量,以将蒸汽的一部分凝结在导流片52的外表面上。蒸汽的凝结部分可以流下导流片,到达井筒的底部。

[0054] 在某些实施例中,稀释剂可以导入到生产管道32和/或导管48中。稀释剂用于禁止生产管道32、泵46和导管48中堵塞。稀释剂可以包括但不局限于水、酒精、溶剂、表面活性剂或其组合。可以在不同时间导入不同稀释剂。例如,当产品第一次开始溶解最初从岩层生产的高分子量烃时,可以导入溶剂。稍后,可以用水替换溶剂。

[0055] 在某些实施例中,单独的导管可以将稀释剂导入到井筒中下伏岩层附近,如附图5 中所示。生产管道32将岩层产生的蒸汽通过上覆岩层36导向到表面。如果一部分蒸汽在生产管道32中凝结,则凝结物能够流下导流片52,用泵46吸入。包括填充材料40和导流片52的折流器34将来自受热烃层38的岩层流体流导向未受热区域56。液态岩层流体由泵46通过导管48输送到表面。气态岩层流体通过导流片52输送到生产管道32。导管58 可以捆扎到导流片52上。导管58可以将稀释剂导入到与未受热区域56相邻的井筒60。 稀释剂可以提高岩层流体的凝结和/或防止泵46堵塞。导管58中的稀释剂可以处于高压。 如果稀释剂从液态变相到气态,同时通过岩层的受热部分,则由于稀释剂离开导管58所产生的压力变化允许稀释剂凝结。

[0056] 在该描述的基础上,本领域技术人员将清楚本发明的各个方面的其他修改和备选实施例。因此,该描述将构造成只是说明性的,并出于向本领域技术人员说明实现本发明的基本方式的目的。应当理解的是,此处所示和所描述的本发明的形式用作优选实施例。此处说明和描述的元件和材料可以替换,部件和过程可以颠倒,并且本发明的某些特征可以单独使用。在不脱离本发明的精神和范围的情况下,可以在此处所述元件中进行改变。另夕卜,将理解的是,此处所述特征可以是独立的,在某些实施例中可以组合。

Claims (10)

1. 一种用于处理地下岩层的方法,包括: 使用加热器形成地下岩层的受热部分;使用生产管道将处于气相的岩层流体从地下岩层的受热部分导向地下岩层的表面;以及在生产管道中或其附近形成气相岩层流体的凝结物; 其特征在于,该方法还包括:将形成为气相岩层流体的凝结物的液体转向到岩层的受热部分下面的位置; 将稀释剂导入到岩层的受热部分下方;以及防止凝结物返回到地下岩层的受热部分。
2.如权利要求1所述的方法,该方法还包括从生产管道泵送液体。
3.如权利要求1所述的方法,该方法还包括从生产管道气体提升所述液体。
4.如权利要求2至3中任意一项所述的方法,其特征在于,通过导管去除所述液体。
5.如权利要求4所述的方法,该方法还包括将稀释剂添加到导管中。
6.如权利要求1至3中任意一项所述的方法,该方法还包括将稀释剂添加到生产管道中。
7.如权利要求1至3中任意一项所述的方法,该方法还包括使用导流片将液体沿着该导流片导向,从而液体不会随着液体通过与岩层的受热部分相邻的生产井而从岩层吸收热量,其中该导流片包括在收集装置中,对岩层的受热部分下面的凝结物进行导向。
8.如权利要求1至3中任意一项所述的方法,该方法还包括使用立管对凝结物进行导向。
9.如权利要求8所述的方法,其特征在于,所述立管的一部分受到加热,以确保通过该立管的岩层流体是蒸汽。
10.如权利要求1所述的方法,该方法还包括用位于岩层的受热部分下方的泵泵送液体。
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