CN1926487A - Abnormal situation prevention in a process plant - Google Patents

Abnormal situation prevention in a process plant Download PDF

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CN1926487A
CN1926487A CN 200580006842 CN200580006842A CN1926487A CN 1926487 A CN1926487 A CN 1926487A CN 200580006842 CN200580006842 CN 200580006842 CN 200580006842 A CN200580006842 A CN 200580006842A CN 1926487 A CN1926487 A CN 1926487A
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CN100555136C (en
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伊文瑞·埃尔于雷克
卡迪尔·卡瓦卡里欧卢
约翰·P·米勒
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费舍-柔斯芒特系统股份有限公司
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Abstract

一种检测与加工厂相关的异常状况的系统。 A system associated with the abnormal condition detection process plant. 该系统接收由多个设备实现的信号处理数据收集模块产生的信号处理数据。 The system receives signal processing data implemented by a plurality of signal processing data collection module devices produced. 所述信号处理数据收集模块可以产生诸如统计数据、频率分析数据、自回归数据、小波数据之类的数据。 The signal processing data collection blocks may generate data such as statistical, frequency analysis data, auto regression data type, the data of the wavelet. 该系统包括配置分析机以检测与加工厂相关的至少一个异常状况。 The system comprises at least one abnormal condition analysis unit configured to detect related plants. 该信号处理数据提供给分析机,并且分析机决定是否应该采取措施。 The signal processing data to analyze machine and machine analysis to decide whether measures should be taken.

Description

加工厂中的异常状况预防 Processing plant in the abnormal situation prevention

相关申请的交叉参考本申请要求于2004年3月3日提交、题为“加工厂中的异常状况预防”的美国临时专利申请No.60/549,796的权利,其全部公开内容全文合并于本申请中以用作各种目的。 CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application claims the March 3, 2004 filed US provisional patent entitled "factory of the abnormal situation prevention," the right to apply No.60 / 549,796, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated in this application to be used as a variety of purposes.

本申请还涉及到以下专利申请:美国专利申请号:__,(代理备案号No.30203/39746),其与本申请同日提交、题为“用于加工厂中的异常状况预防的配置系统和方法”;美国专利申请号:__,(代理备案号No.30203/40056),其与本申请同日提交、题为“用于在加工厂中预防异常状况的数据呈现系统”。 This application is also related to the following patent applications: US Patent Application Number: __, (agent for the record number No.30203 / 39746), submitted on the same day as the present application, entitled "Configuring the system for processing plants in the abnormal situation prevention and method "; US Patent application number: __, (agent for the record number No.30203 / 40056), submitted on the same day as the present application, entitled" data processing plants for the prevention of abnormal conditions rendering system. "

以上参考的专利申请的全部公开内容全文合并于本申请请中以用作各种目的。 The entire disclosures of the above referenced patent application is hereby incorporated in the present application used to make a variety of purposes.

技术领域 FIELD

本发明总体上涉及加工厂中诊断和维护的执行,具体涉及以减少或防止加工厂中的异常状况的方式来提供加工厂的预测性诊断能力。 The present invention relates to performing diagnostics and maintenance in a process plant on the whole, particularly relates to reduce or prevent abnormal plant condition is provided by way of plant predictive diagnostics capabilities.

背景技术 Background technique

过程控制系统,例如用于化学、石油或其它过程中的过程控制系统,通常包括一个或更多个集中式或分布式过程控制器,这些过程控制器通过模拟、数字或模拟/数字混合总线,通信连接到至少一个主机或操作员工作站以及一个或更多个过程控制和仪器设备,例如现场设备等。 Process control systems, such as for chemical, petroleum or other processes in the process control system typically includes one or more centralized or decentralized process controllers, the process controller via analog, digital or combined analog / digital buses, communicatively coupled to the at least one host or operator workstation and to one or more process control and instrumentation devices, such as field equipment. 现场设备可以是例如阀、阀门定位器、开关、变送器以及传感器(例如,温度、压力以及流速传感器),它们设置于加工厂环境中并且在过程中执行各种功能,例如打开或关闭阀、测量过程参数、增加或降低流体流动等。 Field devices may be, for example valves, valve positioners, switches, transmitters, and sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, and flow rate sensors), are provided in the plant environment, and perform various functions in the process, such as opening or closing valves , measuring process parameters, increasing or decreasing fluid flow, etc. 智能现场设备,例如符合公知的FOUNDATIONTM现场总线(下文中称为Fieldbus)协议或HART协议的现场设备,还可以执行控制计算、警示功能以及通常在过程控制器中实现的其它控制功能。 Smart field devices, such as compliance FOUNDATIONTM known Fieldbus field devices (hereinafter Fieldbus) HART protocol or protocol, may also perform control calculations, alarm functions, and other control functions commonly implemented in a process controller.

通常设置于加工厂环境中的过程控制器,接收表示由现场设备产生或与现场设备有关的过程测量或过程变量的信号和/或属于现场设备的其它信息,并执行控制器应用程序。 Plant environment is typically provided in the process controller, receives a process generated by the field device or field device or the associated measurement signals and / or other information pertaining to the field devices of process variables, and the application execution controller. 举例来说,该控制器应用程序实现不同的控制模块,这些控制模块根据接收到的信息进行过程控制决策、产生控制信号,并与正在诸如HART和Fieldbus现场设备之类的现场设备中执行的控制模块或块(block)协调工作。 For example, the controller application to realize different control modules, control modules for process control decisions, generate control signals, and controls the field devices are HART and Fieldbus field devices or the like executed according to the received information such as the modules or blocks (block) coordination. 过程控制器中的控制模块通过通信线路或信号通路发送控制信号到现场设备,从而控制过程的操作。 Control modules in the process controllers send the control signal to the field devices via the communication line or signal path, to control the operation of the process.

来自现场设备和过程控制器的信息通常可用于一个或更多其它硬件设备,例如操作员工作站、维护工作站、个人计算机、便携式设备、数据历史记录器、报告发生器、集中数据库等,以使操作员或维护人员能够执行与过程有关的所需功能,例如改变过程控制程序的设置、修改过程控制器或智能现场设备中控制模块的操作、查看过程或加工厂中特定设备的当前状态、查看由现场设备和过程控制器产生的警报、仿真过程的操作以培训人员或测试过程控制软件、诊断加工厂中的问题或硬件故障等。 Information from the field devices and the process controllers is typically made available to one or more other hardware devices, such as operator workstations, maintenance workstations, personal computers, portable devices, data historian, report generators, centralized databases, etc. to enable an operator or maintenance personnel capable of performing the necessary functions associated with the process, such as changing the operation setting process control routine, modifying the process controllers or the smart field devices in the control module, to view the current state of the process plant or a specific device, viewed by alarm field devices and process controllers generated operating simulation to train personnel or testing the process control software, diagnosing problems or hardware processing plant in failure.

一个典型的加工厂在具有连接到一个或更多过程控制器的许多过程控制和测量设备,例如阀、变送器、传感器等的同时,还有许多其它对于过程操作来说必需或相关的辅助设备。 In a typical process plant has many process control and measurement devices connected to one or more process controllers, for example, while the valves, transmitters, sensors, etc., there are many other processes for the operation is necessary or related auxiliary device. 这些附加设备包括,例如电源设备、发电和配电设备、诸如涡轮机、电动机之类的转动设备等,它们设置于一个典型工厂的多个地方。 These additional devices include, for example, power supply equipment, power generation and distribution equipment, such as a turbine, a motor and other rotating equipment and the like, which are arranged in a plurality of places in a typical plant. 虽然这些附加设备不需要产生或使用过程变量,并且在许多情况下,会为了影响过程操作而不受过程控制器控制甚或不连接到过程控制器,但是对于过程的适当操作而言,这些设备不但是重要的而且最终是必需的。 Although these devices need to generate additional or use process variables and, in many cases, even without the process controller is not connected to the process controller to affect the operation, but for proper operation of the process, these devices do not but it is important and ultimately necessary.

已知的,问题经常出现在加工厂环境中,特别是出现在具有大量现场设备和辅助设备的加工厂中。 Known, problems frequently arise within a process plant environment, especially the emergence of a large number of field devices in the plant and auxiliary devices. 这些问题可表现为使设备、逻辑部件故障或失灵,例如处于不当模式的软件程序、进行了不适当调整的过程控制环、加工厂内设备之间通信的一个或更多故障等。 These problems can be expressed as that the device failure or malfunction of logic elements, such as the program mode is inappropriate, an inappropriate adjustment process control loop, one or more of a communication failure between the plant apparatus. 这些或其它问题虽然实际上有多种,但是它们通常导致过程在通常与加工厂的次最优性能有关的异常状态操作(即,加工厂处于异常状况)。 These and other issues, although in fact there are many, but they are usually in the process leading to an abnormal state is usually associated with suboptimal performance of plant operation (ie processing plant is in an abnormal condition). 已开发许多诊断工具和应用程序,以便检测并且确定加工厂中的问题的原因,并且在问题已经发生并且被检测到时,帮助操作员或维护人员诊断和改正这些问题。 It has developed a number of diagnostic tools and applications, in order to detect and identify problems processing plants in the cause, and the problem has occurred and is detected to help the operator or maintenance personnel to diagnose and correct these problems. 例如,通常通过诸如直接或无线总线、以太网、调制解调器、电话线之类的通信连接连接到过程控制器的操作员工作站,具有适于运行软件或固件的处理器和存储器,例如由爱默生过程管理出售的DeltaTM和Ovation控制系统,这些系统包括众多控制模块和控制环诊断工具。 For example, generally by such wireless bus, Ethernet, modem, communications operator workstations connected to the process controller is connected directly or telephone line or the like, having a processor and a memory adapted to run software or firmware, for example Emerson process management DeltaTM and Ovation control systems sold, these systems includes numerous control module and control loop diagnostic tools. 同样地,可通过与控制器应用程序相同的通信连接或通过诸如用于过程控制的对象链接与嵌入技术(OPC)连接、便携式连接之类的不同通信连接连接到诸如现场设备的过程控制设备的维护工作站,通常包括一个或更多应用程序,这些应用程序设计为查看由加工厂中的现场设备产生的维护警报和警示,以测试加工厂中的设备并执行对加工厂中的现场设备和其它设备的维护活动。 Similarly, connected or connectable and Embedding (OPC) to a subject, such as by linking process control application by the same communication controller, the portable communication connections connecting different such as field devices connected to the process control device maintenance station, typically include one or more applications, these applications are designed to be viewed by the maintenance alarms and alerts generated by field devices within the process plant to test the process plant equipment and perform on-site processing plant and other equipment equipment maintenance activities. 已经开发了相似的诊断应用程序,以诊断加工厂中辅助设备的问题。 We have developed a similar diagnostic applications to diagnose problems in the plant auxiliary equipment.

因此,例如由爱默生过程管理出售的资产管理解决方案(AMS)应用程序(至少部分公开在题为“用在现场设备管理系统中的集成通信网络”的美国专利NO.5,960,214中),能够与现场设备通信并且存储属于现场设备的数据以确定并跟踪现场设备的操作。 Thus, for example, sold by Emerson Process Management Asset Management Solutions (AMS) application (at least partially disclosed in, entitled "as used in the field device management system integrated communications network," U.S. Patent No. NO.5,960,214), can be communication with the field device and stores data pertaining to field devices to identify and track the operation of the field device. 在某些例子中,AMS应用程序可以用于与现场设备通信以改变该现场设备中的参数,从而使得该现场设备运行自身的应用程序,例如自校准程序或自诊断程序,以获得关于该现场设备的状态或健全程度(health)的信息。 In some instances, the AMS application may be used to communicate with a field device to change parameters of the field device, the field device to run such applications itself, such as self calibration routines or self diagnostic routines, to obtain information about the scene status information, or the sound level of the device (Health) a. 该信息可以包括,例如状态信息(例如,警报或其它相似事件是否已经发生)、设备配置信息(例如,现场设备当前的方式或可被配置的方式以及由该现场设备使用的测量单元的类型)、设备参数(例如,现场设备范围值以及其它参数)等。 This information may include, for example, status information (e.g., an alarm or other similar event has occurred), device configuration information (e.g., field device current manner or in a manner that can be configured and the type of the measuring unit of the field device used) , device parameters (e.g., the field device range values ​​and other parameters) and the like. 当然,这些信息可以由维护人员使用以监控、维护、以及/或诊断现场设备中的问题。 Of course, this information can be used by maintenance personnel to monitor, maintain, and / or diagnose problems in the field device.

相似地,许多加工厂包括设备监控和诊断应用程序,例如由CSI系统提供的RBM产品(ware),或用于监控、诊断以及优化各种转动设备的操作状态的任何其它已知的应用程序。 Similarly, many process plants include equipment monitoring and diagnostic applications, such as the product offered by CSI RBM system (Ware), or to monitor, diagnose, and optimize the operating state of various rotating equipment in any other known applications. 维护人员通常使用这些应用程序以维护和检查工厂中的转动设备的性能,以确定转动设备的问题,并且确定转动设备何时以及是否必须要修理或替换。 Maintenance personnel usually use these applications to maintain and performance of rotating equipment in the plant inspection, rotating equipment to identify problems, and to determine when and if the rotating equipment must be repaired or replaced. 同样地,许多加工厂包括电力控制和诊断应用程序,例如由Liebert以及ASCO公司提供的应用程序,以控制和维护发电和配电设备。 Similarly, many process plants include power control and diagnostic applications such as applications provided by the Liebert and ASCO companies, to control and maintain the power generation and distribution equipment. 公知地,在加工厂中运行控制优化应用程序,例如实时优化器(RTO+),以优化加工厂的控制活动。 It is known, in the plant control optimization applications such as real time optimizers (RTO +), to optimize the control activities of the plant. 这样的优化应用程序通常使用复杂的算法和/或加工厂的模型,来预测如何改变输入来优化加工厂的与某些需要优化的变量例如利润相关的操作。 Such optimization applications typically use complex algorithms and / or shop model to predict how to change the input to optimize plant operating profit associated with certain variables such as the need to optimize.

在一个或更多操作员工作站或维护工作站中,这些以及其它的诊断和优化应用程序通常以泛系统(system-wide)为基础来实现,并且可以根据加工厂或加工厂中的设备和装置的操作状态,向操作员工作站或维护工作站提供预先配置的显示。 In one or more operator workstations, maintenance workstations or These and other diagnostic and optimization applications are typically flood system (system-wide) basis to achieve, and may be based on plant or process plant equipment and devices operation state, to provide preconfigured displays to the operator or maintenance workstations workstations. 典型的显示包括:警报显示,其接收由加工厂中的过程控制器或其它设备产生的警报;控制显示,其表示加工厂中的过程控制器和其它设备的操作状态;维护显示,其表示加工厂中各个设备的操作状态等。 Typical display comprising: a warning display which receive alerts generated by the plant process controllers or other devices; controlling a display, which indicates the operating state of the plant process controllers and other devices; maintenance display, indicating processing and other plant operation state of each device. 同样地,这些和其它诊断应用程序可以使操作员或维护人员重新调整控制环或复位其它控制参数,以对一个或更多现场设备运行测试,确定这些现场设备的当前状态,从而校准现场设备或其它装置,或执行对加工厂中各个设备和装置的其它问题的检测以及改正活动。 Similarly, these and other diagnostic applications may enable an operator or maintenance personnel to re-adjust the control loop or to reset other control parameters, to one or more field device to run tests to determine the current state of the field devices, thereby calibrate field devices or other devices, or to perform detection and correction activities on other issues of each plant and equipment apparatus.

虽然各种应用程序和工具对识别以及改正加工厂中的问题是非常有帮助的,但这些诊断应用程序通常配置为在问题已经出现在加工厂中之后才使用,因此就是在异常状况已经存在于加工厂中以后。 Although a variety of applications and tools to identify and correct problems within the process plant is very helpful, but these diagnostic applications are typically configured after the problem has occurred in the processing plant only in use, so that is an abnormal situation already exists in the processing plants in the future. 令人遗憾地,在使用这些工具检测、识别以及改正异常状况之前,异常状况可能就存在一段时间了,这导致在问题被检测、识别以及改正过程的时间段中加工厂性能为次最优。 Unfortunately, before using these tools to detect, identify and correct anomalies, abnormal condition might exist for some time, which leads to a problem is detected, the time period to identify and correct performance of the process plant is sub-optimal. 在许多情况下,根据警报、警示或加工厂不佳性能,控制操作员会首先检测到存在一些问题。 In many cases, according to an alert, warning, or poor plant performance, control operator will first have some problems detected. 该操作员之后会将潜在问题通知给维护人员。 The operator will then notify maintenance personnel of potential problems. 该维护人员可能检测到也可能检测不到真正的问题,并且可能需要在真正运行测试或其它诊断应用程序之前进一步提示(prompt),或执行识别这些真正问题所需的其它活动。 The maintenance personnel may also be detected may not detect the real problem and may need further prompting before actually running tests or other diagnostic applications (prompt), or performing other activities required to identify the real problem with these. 一旦识别出问题,维护人员可能需要确定部件并规划一份维护流程,所有的这些都会导致在一个问题出现和该问题得到改正之间出现一个明显的时间段,在该时间段内,加工厂运行在通常与工厂的次最优操作有关异常状况下。 Once a problem is identified, the maintenance personnel may be required to determine the components and plan a maintenance process, all of which will result in the emergence of a problem and the problem is a significant time period occurs between corrections and run in that time period, processing plant in a typical plant with twice the optimal operation under abnormal conditions related.

另外,许多加工厂会经历一种导致加工厂在相对短的时间内出现重大的花费或损害的异常状况。 In addition, many plants will undergo one cause abnormal plant conditions materially damage or cost in a relatively short period of time. 例如,如果存在某些异常状况,那么即便它们存在很短时间,这些异常状况也能够带来对设备的重大损害、原材料的损失、或加工厂中非预期的重大停工期。 For example, if certain abnormal conditions exist, even if they are very short period of time, these abnormal conditions can also bring significant damage to equipment, loss of raw materials, or plant-Africa expected significant downtime. 因此,仅在加工厂中问题已经出现之后检测问题,不管问题改正得有多快,都可能导致加工厂中的重大损失或损害。 Therefore, only the detection problem after the problem has occurred processing plants, no matter how fast the problem corrected, could result in significant loss or damage to the process plant. 因此,理想的情况是首先尽力防止异常状况出现,而不是简单地在异常状况出现后尽力反应和改正加工厂中的问题。 Therefore, the ideal situation is to first try to prevent abnormal situations arise, rather than simply trying to react and correct problems within the process plant after an abnormal situation occurs.

目前,存在一种可以用于采集数据的技术,该技术能使用户在异常状况真正出现以前,预测在加工厂中发生的某些异常状况,从而在加工厂中出现任何重大损失之前,采取措施以防止所预测的异常状况。 Before Currently, there is a technology can be used to collect data, the technology enables users before abnormal conditions occur and predict the occurrence of certain abnormal conditions in the plant, so that any significant loss occurs in plants, measures are taken to prevent the predicted abnormal situation. 这个流程公开在题为“根源诊断”的美国专利申请序号No.09/972,078(部分基于美国专利申请NO.08/623,569,现美国专利No.6,017,143)中。 US Patent Application Serial No. This process exposes entitled "root cause diagnosis" No.09 / 972,078 (based in part on US Patent Application NO.08 / 623,569, now US Patent No.6,017,143) in. 这两个申请的全部公开内容合并于此以资参考。 All disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. 一般地,该技术在加工厂的许多设备,例如现场设备的每一个中,设置统计数据采集和处理模块或统计处理监控(SPM)模块。 Generally, the number of devices in the process plant technology, for example in each field device, provided statistical data collection and processing blocks or statistical processing monitoring (SPM) block. 例如,统计数据采集和处理模块采集过程变量数据,并且确定某些与采集的数据有关的统计测量值,例如平均值、中间值、标准偏差等。 For example, statistical data collection and processing blocks collect process variable data and determine certain data relating to the acquisition of statistical measure such as average, median, standard deviation. 这些统计测量值随后可以发送给用户,并且被分析以识别用于暗示已知异常状况即将发生的模式(pattern)。 The statistical measure may then be sent to the user and analyzed to recognize patterns suggesting a known abnormal situation impending (pattern). 若检测到一个特定的可疑的将要发生的异常状况,则首先采取措施以改正潜在的问题,从而避免异常状况。 If detected suspicious of a particular abnormal situation will happen, first take measures to correct potential problems in order to avoid anomalies. 但是,对于典型的维护人员来说,采集和分析数据可能是耗时并沉闷的,尤其是在具有大量用来采集统计数据的现场设备的加工厂中。 However, for a typical maintenance personnel, data collection and analysis can be time consuming and tedious, especially in plants with a large number of field devices used to collect statistical data. 而且进一步地,当一名维护人员能够采集统计数据时,该维护人员可能不知道怎样去最好地分析或查看数据,或确定这些数据都暗示了哪些即将发生的异常状况,如果有的话。 Still further, when a maintenance personnel to collect statistical data, the maintenance person may not know how best to analyze or view data, or to determine what these data imply an impending anomalies go, if any.

而且,一般地,配置工厂以收集和查看由各个SPM产生的全部统计过程数据是非常麻烦和沉闷的,尤其是在大型加工厂中。 And, in general, all statistical data configuration process plant to collect and view generated by each SPM is very cumbersome and tedious, especially in large processing plants. 事实上,目前用户通常必须创建分别监控不同现场设备中感兴趣的每一个参数的OPC客户端,这意味着每个现场设备都必须分别配置以采集这些数据。 In fact, users often have to create an OPC client separately monitor each parameter of interest in a different field devices, which means that each field device must be configured separately to collect these data. 这一配置过程非常耗时并且易受到人为错误的损害。 This configuration process is very time consuming and prone to human errors damage.

发明内容 SUMMARY

一方面是一种检测与加工厂相关的异常状况的系统。 On the one hand is a method of detecting an abnormal situation associated with the process plant system. 该系统接收由多个设备实现的信号处理数据收集模块产生的信号处理数据。 The system receives signal processing data implemented by a plurality of signal processing data collection module devices produced. 该信号处理数据收集模块可以产生诸如统计数据、频率分析数据、自回归数据、小波数据之类的数据。 The signal processing data collection blocks may generate data such as statistical, frequency analysis data, auto regression data type, the data of the wavelet. 该系统包括配置分析机以检测与加工厂相关的至少一个异常状况。 The system comprises at least one abnormal condition analysis unit configured to detect related plants. 该信号处理数据提供给分析机,并且分析机决定是否应该采取措施。 The signal processing data to analyze machine and machine analysis to decide whether measures should be taken.

另一方面是一种用于配置分析机来检测与加工厂相关的异常状况的系统,包括用于指定待由分析机分析的信号处理参数的用户接口机构。 Another aspect is a configuration analysis unit for detecting an abnormal situation associated with the system of the plant, comprising a user interface means for specifying signal processing parameters to be analyzed by the analysis machine. 这些信号处理参数可以由加工厂中的多个设备实现的信号处理数据收集模块来产生。 The signal processing parameter may be implemented by a plurality of devices within the process plant signal processing data collection blocks to generate. 另一用户接口机构可用来指定对特定信号处理参数的分析。 Another user interface mechanism may be used to specify an analysis of the particular signal processing parameters. 配置数据通过用户接口机构来接收并存储。 And stores the configuration data received through the user interface mechanism.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1是一个加工厂的示例方框图,该加工厂具有一个分布式控制和维护网络,其中该网络包括一个或更多个操作员和维护工作站、控制器、现场设备以及辅助设备;图2是图1的加工厂的一部分的示例方框图,其示出了位于加工厂的不同部件中的异常状况预防系统的各个元件之间的通信互联; 1 is an example block diagram of a processing plant, the plant having a distributed control and maintenance network, wherein the network includes one or more operator and maintenance workstations, controllers, field devices and auxiliary equipment; FIG. 2 is a diagram example 1 a portion of a plant block diagram illustrating a plant located in different parts of the abnormal situation prevention in a communication network between the various elements of the system;

图3是在图1或图2的加工厂的一种设备中的一组统计过程监控模块的配置的显示;图4是配置加工厂中的统计过程采集模块并且在加工厂的操作期间从这些模块采集统计数据的技术的流程图;图5是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了图1或图2的加工厂中OPC服务器所采集的工厂分级结构(hierarchy);图6是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了与具有统计过程监控模块的设备有关的工厂部件的分级结构;图7是一幅显示屏幕图,其使用户能够选择在统计过程监控模块中待监控的一组统计过程监控参数;图8是一幅显示屏幕图,其可以被提供以示出在具有统计过程监控模块的设备中产生的采集统计过程监控数据;图9是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了浏览器分级结构,该分级结构包括从设备中数据采集模块采集的统计数据元素;图10是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了在现场设备中增加或配置统 FIG 3 is a graph showing the configuration of a statistical process monitoring module is set in a processing plant or apparatus of FIG. 1 in FIG. 2; FIG. 4 is a configuration of the process plant and the statistics acquisition module from the process during operation of the plant flowchart art statistical data collection module; FIG. 5 is a screen display diagram that shows the hierarchical structure of the plant (hierarchy) processing plant in FIG 1 or FIG. 2 acquired OPC server; FIG. 6 is a display FIG screen, which shows the hierarchy of factory member having statistical process monitoring module associated apparatus; FIG. 7 is a display screen in FIG, which enables a user to select a set of statistical process to be monitored in the statistical process monitoring module monitoring parameters; FIG. 8 is a display screen view that may be provided to illustrate collected statistical process monitoring data generated in an apparatus having statistical process monitoring module; FIG. 9 is a display screen diagram which illustrates a browser device hierarchy, the hierarchy including statistical data elements acquisition module from the data device; FIG. 10 is a screen display diagram showing a system configuration or increasing in the field device 数据采集模块的方式;图11是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了用户可以操纵以查看趋势数据的方式;图12是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了用户可以操纵以查看从统计采集模块所采集的原始数据的方式;图13是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了统计过程监控参数对时间的曲线图;图14是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了一组不同统计过程监控数据对时间的四条曲线,其中每个都具有在同一曲线上描述的一个或更多参数;图15是一幅显示屏幕图,其示出了统计过程监控参数的直方图,包括控制界限和规定界限;图16是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了统计过程监控数据对时间的X管制图;图17是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了统计过程监控数据对时间的S管制图; Data acquisition module embodiment; FIG. 11 is a screen display diagram showing a user can manipulate the way to view trend data; FIG. 12 is a screen display diagram showing a user can manipulate to view the statistics collected from module embodiment of the collected raw data; FIG. 13 is a screen display diagram showing a statistical process monitoring parameter versus time; Figure 14 is a screen display diagram that illustrates a set of different statistical process monitoring data of four versus time, each having one or more parameters depicted on the same curve; FIG. 15 is a screen display diagram that shows a histogram of statistical process monitoring parameter, including control and limits predetermined boundaries; FIG. 16 is a screen display showing a statistical process monitoring data versus time X control; Figure 17 is a screen display showing a statistical process monitoring data versus time S control chart;

图18是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一组统计过程监控参数的二维散布图;图19是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一组三个统计过程监控参数的三维散布图;图20是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一组四个统计过程监控参数的四维散布图;图21是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一组统计过程监控参数的相关矩阵;图22是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了描述图21的相关矩阵的一部分的三维条形图;图23是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了表示与期望相关域偏差的相关域曲线;图24是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一色码相关度矩阵;图25是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一个提供了对所选择设备的过程变量的两种测量值之间进行比较的比较图表,以及使用户能够查看其它比较的用户接口部件;图26是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了两个统计监控过程参数对时间的曲线,表明了这些参数之间已知的相关性;图27是一幅显 FIG 18 is a display screen showing a set of two-dimensional scatter diagram of statistical process monitoring parameters; FIG. 19 is a display screen showing a set of three-dimensional scatter plot of three statistical process monitoring parameters; FIG. 20 is a display screen showing a set of four-dimensional scatter diagram of four statistical process monitoring parameters; FIG. 21 is a display screen showing a set of correlation matrix of statistical process monitoring parameters; FIG. 22 is a web screen display showing a portion of a three-dimensional bar graph of the correlation matrix described in FIG. 21; FIG. 23 is a display screen showing a correlation domain plot showing the deviation of a desired correlation domain; FIG. 24 is a a display screen showing the same color code correlation matrix; FIG. 25 is a display screen showing a comparison chart providing a comparison between the two measured values ​​of the selected process variable of the device, and causing comparing the user can view other user interface components; FIG. 26 is a display screen showing two statistical monitoring process parameters versus time, indicating that these parameters are known correlations between; FIG. 27 is a show 示屏幕图,示出了一个相关值对时间的曲线;图28是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了多个相关值对时间的曲线;图29是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一个相关值和一个基准值对时间的曲线;图30是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了对于一组统计过程监控参数的相关变化矩阵;图31是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一个色码相关度变化矩阵;图32是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一个总相关值对时间的曲线;图33是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一个色码相关度变化矩阵和一个总相关值对时间的曲线;图34是一幅相关值和对应于最佳拟合线的斜率的角的极坐标图;图35是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了多个相关值以及对应于各个最佳拟合线的斜率的角的极坐标图;图36是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了多个相关变化值和对应于各个最佳拟合线的斜率的角的极坐标图;图37是准则机开发和执行系统的方框图,该 Display screen showing a correlation value versus time; FIG. 28 is a display screen showing a plurality of correlation values ​​versus time; FIG. 29 is a display screen showing a correlation value and a reference value versus time; FIG. 30 is a display screen showing a correlation change matrix for a set of statistical process monitoring parameters; FIG. 31 is a display screen showing a color code associated degree change matrix; FIG. 32 is a display screen showing a graph of total correlation value versus time; FIG. 33 is a display screen showing a color-coded correlation change matrix and a total correlation value versus time curve; FIG. 34 is a correlation value corresponding to the slope of the best fit line in FIG polar angle; FIG. 35 is a display screen showing a plurality of correlation values ​​corresponding to respective optimum, and the slope of the fitted line in FIG polar angle; FIG. 36 is a display screen showing a plurality of correlation polar plot changes slope values ​​corresponding to the respective best-fit line angle; FIG. 37 is a block diagram of rules engine development and execution system that 统使用户能够创建并将准则应用到从加工厂采集的统计过程监控数据;图38是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了一个使用户能够为图37的准则机开发和执行系统创建准则的配置屏幕;图39是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了准则执行机操作概要,该概要总结了由图37的准则机所使用的准则以及由该准则机所产生的警报;图40是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了使用户能够为图37的准则机开发和执行系统创建准则的第二配置屏幕;图41是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了使用户能够为图37的准则机开发和执行系统的创建准则的第三配置屏幕;图42是一幅显示屏幕图,示出了加工厂的一部分,该显示包括报警/警示信息;图43是另一幅显示屏幕图,示出了加工厂的一部分,该显示包括报警/警示信息;图44是再一幅显示屏幕图,示出了加工厂的一部分,该显示包括报警/警示信息;图45是又一幅显示 The system allows users to create and apply criteria to the statistical process monitoring data collected from a plant; FIG. 38 is a display screen showing an enable users to create guidelines for the rules engine development and execution system configuration of Figure 37 a screen; FIG. 39 is a display screen showing an outline of the operation guidelines for the actuator, which summarized the guidelines by the rules engine 37 and an alarm to be used by the rules engine that generated; FIG. 40 is a display FIG screen, shows the criteria to enable a user to create rules engine development and execution system of FIG. 37 is a second configuration screen; FIG. 41 is a display screen showing a user to enable to FIG. 37 and rules engine development a third configuration screen creation criteria execution system; FIG. 42 is a display screen showing a part of the plant, the display including alert / alarm information; FIG. 43 is a display screen of another view showing the processing part of the plant, the display including alert / alarm information; FIG. 44, then a display screen showing a part of the plant, the display including alert / alarm information; FIG. 45 is a display and 屏幕图,示出了加工厂的一部分,该显示包括报警/警示信息;图46是连接在另一加工厂中以执行异常状况检测和预防的接口设备的图;以及图47是连接在又一加工厂中以执行异常状况检测和预防的接口设备的图。 Screen view showing a part of the plant, the display including alert / alarm information; FIG. 46 is connected to the other plants in the interface device to perform abnormal situation detection and prevention FIG; and FIG. 47 is further connected FIG plant to perform abnormal situation detection interface device and prevention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

参照图1,在其中可以执行异常状况预防系统的示例性的加工厂10,包括通过一个或更多通信网络与辅助设备互相连接的许多控制和维护系统。 Referring to FIG. 1, in which the abnormal situation prevention system may be performed in an exemplary plant 10, it comprises a number of control and maintenance systems by one or more communications network interconnected with the auxiliary device. 特别地,图1的加工厂10包括一个或更多过程控制系统12和14。 In particular, FIG plant 101 comprises one or more process control systems 12 and 14. 过程控制系统12可以是传统的过程控制系统,例如PROVOX或RS3系统或任何其它的控制系统,过程控制系统12包括操作员接口12A,该操作员接口连接到控制器12B和输入/输出(I/O)卡12C,该输入/输出(I/O)卡依次连接到各种现场设备,例如模拟现场设备和高速可寻址远程传感器(HART)现场设备15。 Process control system 12 may be a traditional process control system, e.g. PROVOX or RS3 system or any other control systems, process control system 12 includes an operator interface. 12A, the operator interface connected to the controller 12B and input / output (I / O) cards 12C, the input / output (the I / O) card in turn connected to various field devices, field devices such as analog and Highway addressable remote transducer (HART) field devices 15. 可以是分布式过程控制系统的过程控制系统14,包括一个或更多操作员接口14A,操作员接口14A通过总线,例如以太网总线,连接到一个或更多分布式控制器14B。 May be a distributed process control system, the process control system 14, includes one or more operator interfaces 14A, operator interfaces 14A via a bus, such as an Ethernet bus, to one or more distributed controllers 14B. 控制器14B可以是,例如由奥斯汀(Austin)、德克萨斯(Texas)的爱默生过程管理出售的DeltaVTM控制器或任何其它所需类型的控制器。 The controllers 14B may be, for example, sold Austin (Austin), Texas (Texas) Emerson Process Management's DeltaVTM controller or any other desired type of controllers. 控制器14B通过I/O设备连接到一个或更多现场设备16,例如Hart或Fieldbus现场设备或任何其它智能或非智能的现场设备,其包括,例如那些使用PROFIBUS、WORLDFIP、Device-Net、AS-Interface以及CAN协议的设备。 The controllers 14B are connected via I / O devices to one or more field devices 16, for example Hart or Fieldbus field devices or any other smart or non-smart field devices including, for example, those used PROFIBUS, WORLDFIP, Device-Net , AS-Interface and apparatus CAN protocol. 如已知的,现场设备16可以向控制器14B提供与过程变量以及与其它设备信息有关的模拟或数字信息。 As is known, the field devices 16 may provide analog or digital process variables as well as information about the other device information to the controller 14B. 操作员接口14A可以存储并且执行对该过程控制操作员来说可用的工具(tools),用于控制包括例如控制优化器(optimizers)、诊断专家、神经网络、调谐电路等在内的过程的操作。 The operator interfaces 14A may store and execute the operator to process tools available (Tools) control, for example, control optimizers comprising controlling (or more of optimizers), operation of the process, including the diagnosis expert, neural networks, and so the tuning circuit .

而且进一步地,维护系统,例如执行AMS应用程序或任何其它设备监控和通信应用程序的计算机,可以连接到过程控制系统12和14,或连接到其中的各个设备,以执行维护和监控活动。 Still further, maintenance systems, such as the AMS application or any other computer device monitoring and communication applications in execution, can be connected to the process control system 12 and 14, or connected to the respective device therein to perform maintenance and monitoring activities. 例如,通过任何需要的通信线路或网络(包括无线或便携式设备网络),维护计算机18可以连接到控制器12B和/或设备15,以便与设备15通信,并且在某些情况下,对设备15重配置或执行其它维护活动。 For example, any desired communication lines or networks (including wireless portable device or network), a maintenance computer 18 may be connected to the controller 12B and / or device 15, 15 to communicate with the device, and in some cases, the device 15 reconfiguration or perform other maintenance activities. 同样地,维护应用程序,例如AMS应用程序,可以安装在与分布式过程控制系统14有关的一个或更多用户接口14A中,并且由这些用户接口来运行,以执行维护和监控功能,这些功能包括与设备16的操作状况有关的数据采集。 Similarly, maintenance applications such as the AMS application may be installed in a distributed process control system 14 relating to one or more user interface 14A, and run by the user interfaces in order to perform maintenance and monitoring functions, these functions including data acquisition device 16 with operating conditions associated.

加工厂10还包括各种转动设备20,例如涡轮机、电动机等,它们通过一些永久性的或暂时性的通信链路(例如,连接到设备20以进行读取并在之后移除的总线、无线通信系统或便携式设备)连接到维护计算机22。 Plant 10 also includes various rotating equipment 20, such as turbines, motors, etc., which through some permanent or temporary communication link (e.g., connected to a device 20 for reading and removed after a bus, a wireless communication system or a portable device) connected to a maintenance computer 22. 维护计算机22可以存储并且执行已知的由例如CSI(爱默生过程管理公司)提供的监控和诊断应用程序23,或其它任何已知的用于诊断、监控以及优化转动设备20的操作状态的应用程序。 Maintenance computer 22 may store and execute known monitoring and diagnostic, for example, by the CSI application (Emerson Process Management) to provide 23, or any other known method for the diagnosis, monitoring, and optimize the operating state of the rotating equipment 20 application. 维护人员通常使用应用程序23来维护并且检查工厂10中转动设备20的性能,以确定转动设备20的问题,并且确定转动设备20何时以及是否必须要修理或替换。 Maintenance personnel usually use the applications 23 to maintain and check performance of rotating equipment 20 in the plant 10 to determine the rotational device 20 of the problem and determine when and if the rotating equipment 20 must be repaired or replaced. 在某些情况中,外部的咨询或服务组织可以暂时获取或测量与设备20有关的数据,并且使用该数据对设备20进行分析,从而检测问题、性能不佳或其它影响设备20的难题。 In some cases, outside consultants or service organizations may temporarily acquire or measure data pertaining to 20 with the device, and use this data to analyze the equipment 20 to detect problems, poor performance or other problems affecting the device 20. 在这些情况中,运行分析的计算机可以不通过任何通信线路连接到系统10的其余部分,或可以只是暂时连接到系统10的其余部分。 In these cases, the computer running the analyzes may be any communication line 10 is connected to the rest of the system, or may be only temporarily connected to the rest of the system 10 does not pass through.

同样地,具有与加工厂10有关的发电和配电设备25的发电和配电系统24,通过例如总线连接到其它计算机26,计算机26运行并检查加工厂10中的发电和配电设备25。 Similarly, the plant 10 having power generating and distribution equipment related to the power generation and distribution system 25, 24, for example, by a bus 26 is connected to another computer, computer 26 runs and checks the process plant 10 in power generation and distribution equipment 25. 计算机26可以执行已知的电力控制和诊断应用程序27,例如那些由Liebert以及ASCO或其它公司提供的程序,以控制和维护发电和配电设备25。 The computer 26 may execute known power control and diagnostics applications 27 such as those provided by the program Liebert and ASCO or other companies to control and maintain the power generation and distribution equipment 25. 而且,在许多情况下,外部的咨询员或服务组织可以使用暂时获取或测量的与设备25相关的数据的服务应用程序,并且使用该数据对设备25进行分析以检测问题、性能不佳或影响设备25的其它难题。 Moreover, in many cases, outside consultants or service organizations may temporarily acquire or use of measuring equipment and related services 25 application data, and use this data to analyze the equipment 25 to detect problems, poor performance or influence other equipment problems 25. 在这些情况中,运行分析的计算机(例如,计算机26)可以不通过任何通信线路连接到系统10的其余部分,或可以只是暂时连接到系统10的其余部分。 In these cases, the computers running the analyzes (e.g., computer 26) may not be connected by any communication line 10 to the remainder of the system, or may be only temporarily connected to the rest of the system 10.

如图1所示,计算机系统30执行异常状况预防系统35的至少一部分,并且特别地,计算机系统30存储并执行配置和数据采集应用程序38、可以包括统计采集和处理模块的查看或接口应用程序40、以及准则机开发和执行应用程序40,并且附加存储统计处理监控数据库43,统计处理监控数据库43存储过程中的某些设备中产生的统计数据。 As shown, the computer system 130 performs at least a portion of the abnormal situation prevention system 35, and in particular, the computer system 30 stores and executes configuration and data collection application 38 may include a viewing or interface application module statistics collection and processing 40, and a rules engine development and execution application 40, additional storage and statistical process monitoring database 43, the data of some apparatus 43 stores a statistical process monitoring database generated in the process. 一般地,配置和数据采集应用程序38配置并且与许多统计数据采集和分析模块(图1中未示出)中的每个进行通信,这些模块位于现场设备15、16、控制器12B、14B、转动设备20或其辅助计算机22、发电设备25或其辅助计算机26以及加工厂中任何其它需要的设备和装置中,从而从这些模块中的每一个采集统计数据(或在某些情况中,采集过程变量数据),并利用这些数据来执行异常状况预防。 Generally, the configuration and data collection application 38 and is configured with a number of statistical data collection and analysis module (not shown in FIG. 1) each of the communicating modules 15, 16 are located in the field devices, controllers 12B, 14B, 22 is rotated, the auxiliary power device 25, or a process plant computer 26 and any other desired devices and equipment, or the auxiliary computer device 20, thereby collecting statistical data from each of these modules (or in some cases, collected process variable data), and use these data to perform abnormal situation prevention. 配置和数据采集应用程序38可以通过硬布线总线45通信连接到加工厂中的每一个计算机或设备,或可替代地,可以通过任何其它需要的通信连接,包括例如无线连接、使用OPC的专用连接、例如依靠便携式设备以采集数据的间歇式连接等来通信连接。 Configuration and data collection application 38 may be connected through a communication hardwired bus 45 to each of the computers or devices within the process plant, or alternatively, may be connected by any other communication needs, including for example, wireless connections, dedicated connections using OPC , for example by means connected to the portable device to communicate data acquisition intermittent connections. 同样地,通过LAN或公共连接,例如以太网、电话连接等(图1所示为因特网连接46),应用程序38可以获得与加工厂10中现场设备和装置相关的数据,这些数据由例如第三方服务提供者采集。 Similarly, over a LAN or a public connection, such as Ethernet, a telephone connection, etc. (illustrated in FIG. 1 is an Internet connection 46), the application 38 may obtain data associated with the field devices and equipment 10 plants, for example, the first data party service providers collect. 而且,通过各种技术和/或协议,包括例如以太网、Modbus、HTML、XML、专有技术/协议等,应用程序38可以通信连接到工厂10中的计算机/设备。 Further, by various techniques and / or protocols, including for example, Ethernet, Modbus, HTML, XML, proprietary techniques / protocols, etc., the application 38 may be communicatively connected to the computer 10 in the plant / equipment. 因此,尽管在此处描述了使用OPC将应用程序38通信连接到加工厂10中的计算机/设备的具体示例,但是本领域的普通技术人员应该知道,也可使用将应用程序38连接到加工厂10中的计算机/设备的各种其它方法。 Thus, although described herein in the specific examples using OPC computers / devices in the plant 10 to 38 communication connections to applications, but those of ordinary skill in the art should know that, 38 may also be used to connect the application to the plants various other computer-implemented method / device 10. 通常,应用程序38可以在数据库43中存储所采集的数据。 Typically, the application data 38 can be collected in a database memory 43.

若采集到统计数据(或过程变量数据),则可使用查看应用程序40,以便以不同方式处理该数据和/或显示所采集或处理的统计数据(例如,存储在数据库43中的),以使用户例如维护人员,能够更好地确定异常状况存在或预测在将来存在,并且采取抢先的改正措施。 If the statistical data (or process variable data) is collected, the viewing application 40 may be used to process the data and / or display the collected or processed statistical data in different ways (e.g., stored in the database 43), to allowing users such as maintenance personnel, better able to determine the presence or in the future to predict the presence of an abnormal situation, and to take preemptive corrective action. 准则机开发和执行应用程序42可以使用一个或更多存储在其中的准则,以分析采集的数据,从而确定加工厂10中异常状况存在或预测异常状况在将来存在。 Rules engine development and execution application 42 may use one or more criteria stored therein to analyze the collected data to determine or predict the presence of an abnormal plant condition 10 in the presence of an abnormal situation in the future. 另外,准则机开发和执行应用程序42可以使操作员或其它用户创建待由准则机执行的附加准则,从而检测或预测异常状况。 Further, the rules engine development and execution application 42 may enable an operator or other user to create additional criterion to be performed by a rules engine to detect or predict abnormal situations.

图2示出了图1的示例性加工厂10的一部分50,以说明异常状况预防系统35执行统计数据采集的方式。 FIG 2 illustrates an exemplary plant 1 of FIG. 10 the part 50, to illustrate the abnormal situation prevention system 35 implementation of statistical data collection. 虽然图2示出了异常状况预防系统应用程序38、40、42和数据库43以及HART和Fieldbus现场设备中的一个或更多数据采集模块之间的通信,但是可以理解,相似通信可以发生在异常状况预防系统应用程序38、40、42和加工厂10中的其它设备以及装置之间,包括图1所示的设备和装置中的任何一个。 While FIG 2 illustrates the abnormal situation prevention system applications and a communication between HART and Fieldbus field devices or more data acquisition modules 38, 40 and database 43, it will be understood that similar communications can occur in abnormal between a situation prevention system applications 38, 40, 10 and other equipment in the plant and equipment, including equipment and apparatus shown in FIG any one.

图2所示的加工厂10的一部分50包括分布式过程控制系统54,该系统具有一个或更多过程控制器60,通过输入/输出(I/O)卡或设备68和70,其可以是符合任何所需的通信或控制器协议的任何所需类型的设备,过程控制器60连接到一个或更多现场设备64和66。 Plant shown in Figure 2 includes a portion 5010 of a distributed process control system 54, the system has one or more process controllers 60, through input / output (I / O) cards or devices 68 and 70, which may be any type of equipment required to conform to any desired communication or controller protocol process controller 60 is connected to one or more field devices 64 and 66. 尽管现场设备64在图中示为HART现场设备,而现场设备66在图中示为Fieldbus现场设备,但是这些现场设备可以使用任何其它所需的通信协议。 While field device 64 is shown in FIG HART field devices and the field devices 66 are illustrated as Fieldbus field devices, but these field devices may use any other desired communication protocols. 另外,现场设备64和66可以是任何类型设备,例如传感器、阀、变送器、定位器等,并且可以符合任何所需的开放的、专有的或其它通信或程序化协议,应该理解,I/O设备68和70必须与现场设备64和66所使用的需要的协议兼容。 Additionally, the field devices 64 and 66 may be any type of device, such as sensors, valves, transmitters, positioners, etc., and may conform to any desired open, proprietary or other communication or programming protocol, it should be understood that, I / O devices 68 and 70 must be compatible with the protocol used 64 and 66 required field devices.

无论如何,可由例如配置工程师、过程控制操作员、维护人员、工厂管理者、监督者等的工厂人员访问的一个或更多用户接口或计算机72和74(其可以是任何类型的个人计算机、工作站等),通过可以使用任何需要的硬布线或无线通信结构并使用任何需要的或适合的通信协议,例如以太网协议来实现的通信线路或总线76,连接到过程控制器60。 In any case, the configuration engineer may, for example, process control operators, maintenance of one or more user interfaces or computers personnel, plant managers, supervisors and other plant personnel access 72 and 74 (which may be any type of personal computers, workstations etc.), by using any desired hardwired or wireless communication structure, and using any desired or suitable communication protocol, such as a communication line or bus 76 to implement Ethernet protocols, connected to the process controller 60. 另外,数据库78可以连接到通信总线76,以作为数据历史记录器来工作,其采集并且存储配置信息以及在线过程变量数据、参数数据、状态数据、以及与加工厂10中的过程控制器60和现场设备64和66有关的其它数据。 Further, the database 78 may be connected to the communication bus 76 to a data historian to work, and that collects and stores configuration information in the on-line process variable data, parameter data, status data, and the controller 60 and the process plant 10 the field devices 64 and 66 other relevant data. 因此,数据库78可以作为配置数据库来工作以存储当前配置,该当前配置包括过程配置模块以及用于过程控制系统54的控制配置信息,它们被下载并存储在过程控制器60以及现场设备64和66中。 Thus, the database 78 may be configured as a database to store the current configuration to work, the current process configuration includes a configuration module for process control and control system 54 configuration information, which are downloaded and stored in the process controllers 60 and field devices 64 and 66 in. 同样地,数据库78可以存储历史异常状况预防数据,其包括由加工厂10中的现场设备64和66采集的统计数据,或根据现场设备64和66采集的过程变量所确定的统计数据。 Similarly, the database 78 may store historical abnormal situation prevention data, including statistical data collected by the field devices 10 in the plant 64 and 66, or statistical data determined from the process variable field acquisition devices 64 and 66.

虽然过程控制器60、I/O设备68和70、以及现场设备64和66通常向下设置于并遍布在有时严酷的工厂环境中,但是工作站72和74以及数据库78通常设置于控制室、维护室、或其它易于操作员、维护人员等使用的不太严酷的环境中。 While the process controllers 60, I / O devices 68 and 70, and field devices 64 and 66 disposed generally downwardly to and distributed throughout the sometimes harsh plant environment, the workstations 72 and 74 and the database 78 are usually provided in control rooms, maintenance rooms or other less harsh environments easy to operators, maintenance personnel and other use of.

一般地,过程控制器60存储和执行一个或更多控制器应用程序,其使用许多不同的、独立执行的控制模块或块(block)以实现控制策略。 Generally, the process controllers 60 store and execute one or more controller applications that use many different control modules or blocks (block) to achieve independent execution of the control strategy. 这些控制模块的每个都可以由通常所称的功能块组成,其中每个功能块是整体控制程序的一部分或一个子程序,并且与其它功能块协作(通过所谓的链路通信),以实现加工厂中的过程控制环。 The control modules may each be made generally referred to as function blocks wherein each function block is a part or a subroutine of an overall control program, and in collaboration with other functional blocks (via communications called links) to implement plant process control loop. 如公知的,功能块可以是面向对象程序化协议中的对象,其通常执行输入功能、控制功能或输出功能中的一项功能,其中输入功能例如与变送器、传感器或其它过程参数测量设备有关的功能,控制功能例如与执行PID、模糊逻辑等控制的控制程序有关的功能,输出功能控制某些设备,例如阀的操作,以便在加工厂10中执行某些物理功能。 As is well known, function blocks may be objects in an object oriented programming protocol, typically perform input, control output function, or a function of, for example, wherein the input function transmitter, a sensor or other process parameter measurement device For the function, and control functions such as control program executed by PID, fuzzy logic, etc. control functions related to the control of certain output devices such as operation of the valve, to perform some physical function in the plant 10. 当然,也存在混合以及其它类型的复合功能块,例如模型预测控制器(MPC)、优化器等。 Of course, there are also hybrid and other types of complex function blocks, such as model predictive controllers (the MPC), or the like to optimize. 可以理解,虽然Fieldbus协议以及DeltaTM系统协议使用面向对象程序化协议中所设计和实现的控制模型和功能块,但控制模块可以使用任何需要的控制程序化方案来设计,包括例如时序功能块、梯形逻辑等,并且不限于使用功能块或任何其它特定程序化技术来设计。 It will be appreciated that while the Fieldbus protocol and DeltaTM system protocol using object oriented programming protocol as designed and implemented control model and function blocks, the control module may use the control program scheme of any desired design, including, for example, the timer function block, ladder logic, etc., and is not limited to using function blocks or any other particular programming technique designed.

如图2所示,维护工作站74包括处理器74A、存储器74B以及显示设备74C。 2, the maintenance workstation 74 includes a processor 74A, a memory 74B and a display device 74C. 存储器74B以这样一种方式存储参照图1所述的异常状况预防应用程序38、40和42,即,使得这些应用程序能在处理器74A上执行,以便通过显示器74C(或任何其它显示设备,例如打印机)向用户提供信息。 The memory 74B is an abnormal condition of the memory in such a manner with reference to FIGS. 38, 40 and 42 preventive applications, i.e., so that these applications can be executed on the processor 74A, 74C through the display order (or any other display device, such as printers) to provide information to the user.

另外,如图2所示,现场设备64和66中的某些(并且可能全部的)包括数据采集和处理模块80和82。 Further, as shown in Figure 2, the field devices 64 and 66 in some (and potentially all) comprises a data acquisition and processing module 80 and 82. 虽然为了讨论的目的,模块80和82已作为预先诊断模块(ADB)参照图2来描述,其中ADB是已知的可以增加到Fieldbus设备以采集和处理Fieldbus设备中的统计数据的基础现场总线(Foundation Fieldbus)功能块,但是模块80和82可以是或可以包括位于过程设备中的任何其它类型块或模块,它们采集设备数据并计算或确定针对该数据的一个或更多统计测量值或参数,而不论这些功能块是否位于Fieldbus设备中或符合Fieldbus协议。 While, for purposes of discussion, the module 80 and 82 has (ADB) will be described with reference to FIG 2 as a pre-diagnostic module, which may be added are known ADB Fieldbus devices to collect and process statistical data of the Fieldbus devices Foundation Fieldbus ( Foundation Fieldbus) function blocks, modules 80 and 82 may be or may include any other type of block or module located within the process equipment, they acquisition device data and calculates or determines one or more statistical measures or parameters for that data, regardless of whether these functional blocks are located in Fieldbus devices or conform to the Fieldbus protocol. 尽管图2的模块80和82显示为位于设备64之一中以及设备66之一中,但是这些或相似的模块可以位于许多现场设备64和66中,可以位于其它设备中,例如控制器60、I/O设备68、70或图1所示的任何设备。 Although the module of FIG. 2 and 80 in the apparatus 82 is shown as one of one of the devices 66 and 64, or these modules may be located in many similar field devices 64 and 66, may be located in other devices, such as a controller 60, I / O devices, or any device 68, 70 shown in FIG. 另外,模块80和82可以位于设备64和66的任何子集(subset)中。 Further, the module 80 and devices 64 and 82 may be located in any subset (subset) 66 in.

一般地,模块80和82或这些模块的子部件,采集设备中例如过程变量数据的数据,这些模块位于设备中,并且出于许多原因对数据执行统计处理或分析。 Generally, these modules or subassembly, the data acquisition device, for example, process variable data modules 80 and 82, the modules in the apparatus, and for many reasons to perform statistical processing or analysis data. 例如,示作与阀相关的模块80,可以具有阻塞阀检测程序,该程序分析阀过程变量数据以确定该阀是否处于阻塞状态。 For example, as shown in block 80 associated with the valve, the choke valve may have a detection program which analyzes the valve process variable data to determine if the valve is in the blocked state. 另外,模块80包括一组四个统计过程监控(SPM)模块或单元SPM1~SPM4,采集该阀中的过程变量或其它数据,并且对所采集的数据执行一项或更多统计计算,从而确定所采集数据的例如平均值、中间值、标准偏差、均方根值(RMS)、变化率、范围、最小值、最大值等,和/或检测所采集数据中的诸如漂移、偏差、噪声、峰值等事件。 In addition, the module 80 includes a set of four statistical process monitoring (SPM) modules or units SPM1 ~ SPM4, the valve acquisition process variable or other data, and perform one or more statistical calculations on the collected data to determine collected e.g. mean, median, standard deviation, root mean square value (the rMS), a rate of change, a range, minimum, maximum, etc., and / or detection data acquired data, such as drift, bias, noise, peak and other events. 所产生的具体统计数据不是必须的,产生该数据的方法也不是必须的。 Methods specific statistical data generated is not necessary to generate this data is not necessary. 因此,可以产生不同类型的统计数据以补充或代替上述具体类型的数据。 Thus, it is possible to produce different types of statistical data in addition to or instead of the particular type of data. 另外,各种技术,包括公知的技术,可以用于产生这些数据。 Further, a variety of techniques, including known techniques, can be used to generate these data. 统计过程监控(SPM)模块这个术语在这里被用来描述对至少一个过程变量或其它过程参数执行统计过程监控的功能,并且可以由位于设备中甚至位于采集数据的设备外部的所需要的任何软件、固件或硬件来执行。 Statistical process monitoring (SPM) block is used herein this term to describe any software least one process variable or other process parameter perform statistical process monitoring function, and may even be located in a device located outside the required data acquisition devices , firmware or hardware. 可以理解,由于SPM通常设置于设备数据被采集的设备中,所以SPM能获取数量更多且质量上更准确的过程变量数据。 It will be appreciated, since the device is usually provided SPM data collected by the machine, you can obtain a greater number of SPM and more accurate process variable data quality. 结果,SPM模块通常能够比采集过程变量数据的设备外部的模块,更好地确定关于所采集的过程变量数据的统计计算。 A result, the SPM module can be external to the device modules typically collected process variable data than to better determine the statistical variables on the collected process data is calculated.

在另一个示例中,图2的模块82示作与变送器相关,其可以具有堵塞线路检测单元,该单元分析由变送器采集的过程变量数据,以确定工厂中是否有线路被堵塞。 In another example, FIG. 2 module 82 illustrated as associated with the transmitter, which may have a plugged line detection unit, the unit analyzes the process variable data collected by the transmitter, to determine whether the line is blocked in the plant. 另外,模块82包括一组四个SPM模块或单元SPM1~SPM4,它们可以采集变送器中的过程变量或其它数据,并且对所采集的数据执行一个或更多统计计算,以确定所采集数据的例如平均值、中间值、标准偏差等。 Further, the module 82 includes a set of four SPM blocks or units SPM1 ~ SPM4, they may collect process variable or other data in the transmitter and perform one or more statistical calculations on the collected data to determine whether the collected data for example, average, median, standard deviation. 如果需要,可以按以上提及的美国专利NO.6,017,143所描述的方式执行或实现模块80和82的可能操作。 If desired, the operation may be performed or implemented modules 80 and 82 in the manner described in U.S. Patent No. NO.6,017,143 mentioned above. 虽然模块80和82被示作每个模块都包括四个SPM模块,然而模块80和82可能在其中具有任何其它数目的SPM模块,用于采集并且确定统计数据。 While the modules 80 and 82 are shown as each module comprises four SPM blocks, modules 80 and 82 but may be any other number having SPM blocks, for collecting and determining statistical data. 同样地,尽管模块80和82被示作包括检测软件,以用于检测加工厂10中的特定状况,但是模块80和82也可以不具有这样的软件。 Likewise, although the modules 80 and 82 is shown as including detection software for detecting particular conditions within the process plant 10, but modules 80 and 82 may not have such software. 而且更进一步,虽然此处讨论的SPM模块被示作ADB的子部件,但是它们可以替换为位于设备中的单独设置(stand-alone)的模块。 Still further, while the SPM blocks discussed herein are illustrated as sub-member ADB, but they may be alternatively located separately provided (stand-alone) device module. 而且,虽然此处讨论的SPM模块可以是公知的基础现场总线SPM模块,但是这里使用的统计过程监控(SPM)模块这个术语是指采集例如过程变量数据之类的数据,并对该数据执行某种统计处理以确定例如平均值、标准偏差等的统计测量值的任何类型的模块或部件。 Also, while the SPM blocks discussed herein may be known Foundation Fieldbus SPM blocks, the statistical process monitoring used herein (SPM) Module This term refers to the class of the data collection, for example, the process variable data, and performs the data a kinds of statistical processing to determine the type of, for example, any statistical measure of the mean, standard deviation, etc. of modules or components. 因此,这个术语趋于覆盖软件或固件或其它执行该功能的部件,不论这些部件是否是功能块、或其它类型模块、程序、例行程序或部件的形式,并且不论这些元件是否符合基础现场总线协议或其它协议,例如PROFIBUS、WORLDFIP、Device-Net、As-Internet、HART、CAN等协议。 Thus, this term is intended to cover software or firmware or other components that perform this function, regardless of whether these components are functional blocks, or other types of modules, in the form of programs, routines or components, whether these elements and Foundation Fieldbus Meets protocol or other protocols, such as PROFIBUS, WORLDFIP, Device-Net, As-Internet, HART, CAN, etc. protocol.

在一个实施例中,在ADB 80和82中的每个SPM模块可以是激活的(active)或未激活的。 In one embodiment, the ADB 80 and 82 in each of the SPM blocks may be active (active) or inactive. 激活的SPM模块是当前监控过程变量(或其它过程参数)的模块,而未激活的SPM模块是当前没有监控过程变量的模块。 Active SPM block is currently monitoring a process variable (or other process parameter) of the module, without the active SPM block is not currently monitoring a process variable module. 一般地,SPM模块默认为未激活,并且因此,通常每一个都必须被单独配置以监控过程变量。 Generally, the SPM module is inactive by default, and therefore, each one must generally be individually configured to monitor a process variable. 图3示出了示例性配置显示84,其可以提供给用户、工程师等,以描述和改变设备的当前SPM配置。 FIG 3 illustrates an exemplary configuration of the display 84, which may be provided to a user, engineer, etc., and changes to the device described in the current SPM configuration. 如显示84所示,对特定设备的SPM模块1、2和3已经全部被配置,而SPM模块4还没有被配置。 As shown in the display 84, SPM block for a particular device, 2 and 3 have all been configured, while SPM block 4 has not been configured. 被配置的SPM模块SPM1、SPM2和SPM3中的每一个与一设备(由模块标签(block tag)表示)中的一特定模块、模块类型、该模块中的参数索引(即被监控的参数)以及表示SPM模块监控功能的用户命令有关。 SPMl configured SPM blocks, each with SPM2 and SPM3 in a device (represented by a block tag (block tag)) of a particular module, module type, the module parameter index (i.e. parameters monitored) and SPM module represents the monitoring functions related to user commands. 而且更进一步地,每个被配置的SPM模块包括被确定的统计参数待与之比较的一组门限值,包括例如,平均值界限、高偏差界限(其规定表示信号中偏差太大的一个值)以及低动态(low dynamics)界限(其规定表示信号中偏差太小的一个值)。 Still further, each configured SPM block includes determining statistical parameters to be compared with a set threshold value, including, for example, an average value limit, a high variation limit (which is a predetermined signal indicating a too large deviation value) and a low dynamic (low dynamics) limit (which indicates a predetermined deviation value signal too small). 根本上,检测平均值的变化可以表示该过程向上偏移或向下偏移,检测高偏差意味着该过程中的部件正在经历未预见的噪声(例如,由增加的振动引起的),并且检测低偏差意味着过程信号正在被滤波,或部件正在变成可疑的静止,例如阻塞了阀。 Essentially, detecting a change in the average may indicate that the process is shifted up or shifted down, detecting a high variation in the process means that the parts are subjected to unforeseen noise (e.g., caused by increased vibration) and detecting low deviation signal process means is being filtered, or is becoming questionable stationary member, for example, blocking the valve. 而且更进一步地,可以为每个SPM模块设置基准值,例如平均值以及标准偏差。 Still further, the reference value may be set for each SPM block, such as a mean and a standard deviation. 这些基准值可以用于确定是否满足或超出设备中的各个界限。 These reference values ​​can be used for determining whether or exceeds the respective limits of the device. 图3的SPM模块1和3都是激活的,因为它们已经接收到用户的命令以启动监控。 SPM block 3 of FIG. 1 and 3 are active because they have received user commands to start monitoring. 另一方面,SPM模块2是未激活的,因为它处于空闲状态。 On the other hand, the SPM block 2 is inactive because it is in an idle state. 而且,在该示例中,SPM功能对整个设备都是启用的,如方框86所示,并且被设置为每隔五分钟监控或计算,如方框88所示。 Further, in this example, the SPM functionality is enabled for the entire device, as shown in block 86, and is set to be monitored or calculated every five minutes, as shown in block 88. 当然,被授权的用户可以重配置设备中的SPM模块,以监控其它模块以及具有其它门限值、基准值等,例如监控设备中的其它功能块、与设备中的这些或其它模块相关的其它参数。 Of course, the user may be authorized device reconfiguration module SPM to monitor other modules having other threshold value, the reference value or the like, such as monitoring devices other functional blocks associated with these or other devices other modules parameter.

虽然某些统计监控模块如图3的显示84所示,然而可以理解其它参数也可以或另外被监控。 While certain statistical monitoring module 843 is displayed as shown in FIG, however, it is understood that other parameters may also be monitored or otherwise. 例如,参照图2讨论的SPM模块或ADB可以计算与过程有关的统计参数,并且可以基于这些值的变化触发某些告警。 For example, 2 discussed with reference to FIG ADB or SPM blocks may calculate statistical parameters associated with the process, and may trigger some alarms based on changes in these values. 通过示例的方式,Fieldbus类型的SPM模块可以监控过程变量并且提供与该监控有关的15个不同的参数。 By way of example, Fieldbus type SPM blocks may monitor process variables and provide 15 different parameters associated with that monitoring. 这些参数包括模块标签、模块类型、平均值、标准偏差、均差、标准偏差变化、基准平均值、基准标准偏差、高偏差界限、低动态界限、平均值界限、状态、参数索引、时间戳以及用户命令。 These parameters include the module label, module type, mean, standard deviation, average deviation, standard deviation change, a reference average value, the reference standard deviation, the deviation high limit, low limit dynamic average limit, status, parameter index, time stamp, and user commands. 当前,两个最有用的参数被认为是平均值和标准偏差。 Currently, the two most useful parameter is considered to be mean and standard deviation. 但是,通常有用的其它SPM参数是基准平均值、基准标准偏差、均差、标准偏差变化以及状态。 However, other SPM parameters is often useful to average the reference, the reference standard deviation, are poor, and the standard deviation of the status change. 当然,SPM模块可以确定任何需要的统计测量或参数,并且可以向用户或请求应用程序提供有关一特定模块的其它参数。 Of course, the SPM module may determine any desired statistical measures or parameters, and other parameters may be provided about a specific module to a user or requesting application. 因此,SPM模块不限于此处所讨论的这些。 Thus, SPM module those discussed herein is not limited thereto.

参照图2,通过总线或通信网络76以及控制器60,现场设备中的SPM模块(SPM1-SPM4)对外部客户来说是可利用的,例如对工作站74来说。 Referring to Figure 2, via a bus or communication network 76 and the controllers 60, field devices SPM blocks (SPM1-SPM4) for external client is available, for example, the workstation 74. 附加地或者可替代地,通过例如OPC服务器89,由ADB 80和82中的SPM模块(SPM1~SPM4)所产生或采集的参数以及其它信息,对工作站74是可利用的。 Additionally or alternatively, the OPC server 89 by, for example, the ADB 80 and 82 produced by the SPM blocks (SPM1 ~ SPM4) or acquisition parameters and other information on the workstation 74 is available. 该连接可以是无线连接、硬布线连接、间歇式连接(例如,使用一个或更多便携式设备的连接)或使用任何需要或适当的通信协议的任何其它需要的通信连接。 The connection may be a wireless connection, a hardwired connection, an intermittent any other desired communication connection (e.g., using one or more portable device connection), or using any desired or appropriate communication protocol connection. 当然,此处描述的任何通信连接可以使用OPC通信服务器,按照普通或相容的格式整合(integrate)从不同类型设备接收的数据。 Of course, any communication connections described herein may use OPC communication server, data (integrate) received from different types of integrated devices according to a common format or compatible.

而且更进一步地,SPM模块可以设置在主机设备中、其它不是现场设备的设备中、或其它现场设备中,以对采集或产生例如原始过程变量数据的原始数据的设备外部执行统计过程监控。 And further, the SPM module may be provided in the host device, a device other than field devices, or other field devices, or to generate the collected raw data to an external device, for example, the raw process variable data to perform statistical process monitoring. 因此,例如图2的应用程序38可以包括一个或更多SPM模块,其通过例如OPC服务器89,采集原始过程变量数据,并且计算某些统计测量或参数,例如该过程变量数据的平均值、标准偏差等。 Thus, for example, FIG. 2 application 38 may include one or more SPM blocks, the OPC server 89 by, for example, collect raw process variable data, and calculate some statistical measure or parameter, such as the process variable data mean, standard deviation. 虽然这些SPM模块不位于采集数据的设备中,并由于对于该数据的通信需要,因此使得SPM模块通常不能采集尽可能多的过程变量数据以执行统计计算,但是这些模块有助于为设备确定统计参数,或者不具有或不支持SPM功能的设备中的过程变量。 While these SPM blocks are not located in the data acquisition device, and because of the need for the communication data, so that the collected SPM blocks not usually as much process variable data to perform the statistical calculations, these modules to help determine a statistical device parameter or process variable device does not have or support SPM functionality in. 另外,随着技术的提高,网络的可利用吞吐量可以随着时间增加,因此不位于采集原始数据的设备中的SPM模块能够采集更多过程变量数据,以执行统计计算。 Moreover, as technology improves, the network may utilize a certain time may increase, which is not located in the original data collection device SPM blocks can collect more process variable data to perform the statistical calculations. 因此,在以下讨论中,可以理解,所述由SPM模块产生的任何统计测量或参数,可以由SPM模块产生,例如由ADB 80和82中的SPM1-SPM4模块产生,或者由主机或包括其它现场设备的设备中的SPM模块产生。 Thus, in the following discussion, it will be appreciated that any statistical measurements or parameters generated by the SPM blocks, may be generated by SPM blocks, such as produced by the ADB 80 and 82 SPM1-SPM4 module, or by the host or other field comprises device SPM blocks in devices produced.

随着加工厂中统计数据采集模块或SPM的增加,具有这么一种自动机构是有帮助的,即其从不同设备中的SPM模块采集统计参数以引导数据并且向专家系统提供检测结果,以进一步集成数据并作出决策。 With the increase in processing plants or SPM statistical data collection module having such an automatic mechanism is helpful, i.e. its statistical parameters collected from the SPM blocks in the different devices to direct the data and provides the detection result to the expert system to further integrated data and make decisions. 事实上,目前,查看大型过程中的全部统计过程数据是十分麻烦和沉闷的。 In fact, at present, all major statistical process data to see the process is very cumbersome and tedious. 当前,人们必须创建一个OPC客户端,其分别监控感兴趣的每一个SPM参数,并且为此,必须分别配置用于SPM采集的每个设备。 Currently, people have to create an OPC client, which are monitoring each SPM parameters of interest, and to this end must be configured separately for each device SPM collected. 如上所示,统计数据的配置和查看是非常耗时并且易受到人为错误的损害。 As shown above, the configuration and view the statistics are very time consuming and prone to human errors damage.

配置和数据采集应用程序38适于自动配置例如阀、变送器等的设备中的SPM模块,从而在过程操作期间从这些SPM模块采集过程中可用的SPM数据。 Configuration and data collection application 38 is adapted to automatically configure such as valves, transmitters, etc. SPM blocks in devices, such SPM data collected from available during these SPM blocks during operation. 图4是一个示例技术的流程图,该技术可以由应用程序38使用,以配置加工厂中的设备,从而采集SPM数据并且在加工厂10的操作期间自动采集该数据。 FIG 4 is a flowchart illustrating one example technique, the technique can be used by the application 38 to configure the process plant equipment thereby to collect SPM data and to automatically collect that data during operation of the plant 10. 在图4中,圆表示由应用程序38在加工厂中执行的动作,而矩形表示由应用程序38使用或产生的对象或项(item)。 In FIG. 4, circles represent actions by the application program executed in a process plant 38, while rectangles represent objects or items (item) used by the application program 38 or produced. 可以理解,虽然该示例讨论了从使用Fieldbus协议并具有采集统计数据的Fieldbus模块的特定类型变送器中采集SPM数据,但是该技术或相似技术可以用于从使用其它通信和功能模块协议的其它设备中,或从使用程序化范例而不是功能模块程序化范例的其它设备或这些设备的部件中,采集统计数据(或其它参数)。 It will be appreciated that while this example discusses the use of a particular type from the transmitter Fieldbus protocol and having Fieldbus collect statistical data collection module SPM data, but this technique or similar techniques may be used from the other functional modules and the use of other communication protocols device, or from other devices or components of these devices using the procedure of example but not function module programming paradigm, the collected statistical data (or other parameters).

任何情况下,在第一框92中,应用程序38扫描过程控制网络(例如,加工厂)的分级结构,以确定加工厂中一列包括统计数据采集模块(例如,ADB)的设备。 In any case, the first block 92, the application scanning process control network 38 (e.g., plant) hierarchy to determine the devices within the process plant comprises a statistics acquisition module (e.g., the ADB) is. 尽管框92可以搜索其它类型统计数据采集模块以及或除了ADB中Fieldbus类型的SPM,并且该方法不限于使用Fieldbus ADB或Fieldbus ADB中的SPM模块,但是为了讨论的目的,仍然假定统计数据采集模块采用上述Fieldbus ADB中的SPM模块形式。 Although the block 92 may search for other types of statistical data collection module and or in addition to the ADB Fieldbus type SPM, and the method is not limited to the use of Fieldbus ADB or Fieldbus ADB SPM blocks, but for purposes of discussion, still assuming statistical data collection modules SPM blocks in the form of the above-described Fieldbus ADB. 在一个实施例中,OPC服务器(例如,图2的服务器89)可以允许例如应用程序38的客户端存取控制和设备信息。 In one embodiment, the OPC server (e.g., server 89 of FIG. 2) may allow the client application 38, for example, access control and device information. 例如,OPC自动控制2.0产品提供了浏览PC服务器内容的标准方法,并且这些或其它浏览方法可以用于自动变换OPC的分级结构以找出包含ADB的设备。 For example, automatic control OPC 2.0 product provides standard methods to browse the contents of the server PC, and these or other browser methods may be used to automatically transform the OPC hierarchy to find devices containing an ADB. 另外,新型OPC规格包括XML定义,其可以用于集成数据并且使其在网络环境中可利用。 Further, the new OPC specs include XML definitions, which may be used to integrate the data and make it available in a network environment.

图5示出了示例性工厂分级结构94的一部分,该分级结构94由OPC服务器创建,描述了正由OPC服务器扫描的加工厂的设备和其它部件。 Figure 5 illustrates a portion of an example plant hierarchy 94, created by the hierarchical structure of the OPC server 94, and other components of the device described is being scanned by the OPC server processing plant. 分级结构94的顶级具有称为模块和输入输出(IO)的节点96和98,其中模块节点96包括控制策略信息,IO节点98包括硬件/设备信息。 Top hierarchy having nodes 94 as modules 96 and 98 and input-output (IO), wherein the module comprises a control policy information node 96, the IO node 98 includes a hardware / device information. 如图5的示例性分级结构所示,IO节点98包括与控制器(CTLR)、卡(C)以及端口(P)有关的子节点,其中,在该示例中,端口(P)与实际存在于控制器网络中的Fieldbus段(segment)有关。 An exemplary hierarchical structure as shown in FIG. 5, the IO node 98 includes a controller (CTLR), Cards (C) and a port (P) relating to a child node, wherein, in this example, port (P) and the actual presence of the controller network Fieldbus segment (segment) related. 在该分级结构中进一步向下,Fieldbus设备被列在他们各自的端口下。 Further downward, Fieldbus devices are listed under their respective ports in the hierarchy. 在图5的示例中,包含ADB的各个Fieldbus设备在该设备下包括称为变频器(TRANSDUCER)800或变频器1300的节点。 In the example of Figure 5, each Fieldbus device that contains an ADB device comprises at node called inverter (TRANSDUCER) 800 or 1300 of the drive. (在Rosemount 3051F设备中,ADB被称为变频器800,而在Rosemount3051S设备中,该ADB被称为变频器1300)。 (In Rosemount 3051F devices, the ADB is called TRANSDUCER800, while in Rosemount3051S devices, the ADB is called TRANSDUCER1300). 一个被称为变频器800的节点100如图5的分级结构所示。 Inverter 800 is called a node hierarchy 100 shown in FIG. 5. ADB节点100包括所关心的诊断信息。 ADB node 100 includes diagnostic information of interest. 在特定情况中,应用程序38对ADB节点100中的统计过程监控(SPM)参数感兴趣,在图5的分级结构中,ADB节点100得以展开以示出与Rosemount3051F设备中的ADB有关的一些部件。 In a particular case, the application program 38 in the statistical process monitoring parameters of interest ADB node 100 (the SPM), in the hierarchy of FIG. 5, the ADB node 100 to expand some of the components associated with the ADB in Rosemount3051F apparatus shown . 当然,名称“变频器800”以及“变频器1300”只是由一家知名制造商提供的已知功能块的名称示例而已。 Of course, the name "inverter 800" and "Drive 1300" the name of the function block is only known example of it provided by the a well-known manufacturer. 其它ADB模块或SPM模块可以具有其它的名称,和/或在一个不同于使用OPC的系统的系统中这些名称可以不同。 Other ADB blocks or the SPM blocks may have other names, and / or the names may be different in a system different from the use of an OPC system. 在其它实现方案中,不同的名称可以对应由其它制造商后来开发和/或提供和/或按照基础现场总线规格中描述的其它变频器块、功能块等的ADB模块或SPM模块,或可以是在任何其它智能通信协议(例如,数字协议)中的模块或其它软件部件,例如在命名的几个Profibus、HART、CAN、AS-Interface、HTML、XML等协议中的任何元件。 In other implementations, different names may other manufacturers should be later developed and / or provided and / or other drive blocks, Foundation Fieldbus function blocks in accordance with the specifications described in ADB blocks or the like of the SPM blocks, or may be in any other smart communication protocol (e.g., digital protocol) modules or other software components, such as any of the several elements named in the Profibus, HART, CAN, AS-Interface, HTML, XML, etc. protocols.

为找到ADB以及ADB中的SPM模块,框92(图4)自动转换或搜索OPC分级结构94,以定位工厂中包括ADB的所有设备。 To find ADB and SPM blocks in the ADB, the block 92 (FIG. 4) or automatically converted search OPC hierarchy 94 to locate all of the devices included in the plant of the ADB. 当然,框92可以预先编程为了解由OPC树94所使用的格式,以使框92能够转换或浏览树94,从而以最佳方式找出包括ADB的设备。 Of course, block 92 may be pre-programmed to understand the format used by the OPC tree 94 so that the frame 92 can be converted or browse the tree 94 so as to find the best way to include an ADB device. 虽然此处描述的方法基于DeltaVOPC树,但是对于其它OPC服务器以及由其它类型的查看工具所产生的工厂分级结构来说,可以对该方法进行修改。 Although the methods described herein are based on DeltaVOPC tree, but for other OPC servers as well as plant hierarchy by other types of viewing tools is generated, the method may be modified.

在搜索分级结构或树94时,速度和鲁棒性之间通常有一个平衡。 When searching the hierarchy or tree 94, there is usually a balance between speed and robustness. 特别地,就找出所有具有ADB的设备而言,搜索分级结构94通常不会是百分之百可靠的,而是仅能找出一些具有ADB的设备。 In particular, we find for all devices with ADB, search hierarchy 94 is usually not 100% reliable, but can only find some devices have an ADB. 通常来说,找出具有ADB的设备的方法越准确,该方法就会越慢。 Generally speaking, the more accurate method is to find an ADB device, the method will be slower. 举例来说,如果不同制造商具有在OPC树94中显示的设备,且该设备具有与3051F变送器中的ADB模块相同名称的模块,那么搜索分级结构可能错误地将该设备检测为具有ADB。 For example, if a different manufacturer has devices displayed in the OPC tree 94, and the apparatus having a transmitter module and 3051F same name as the ADB blocks, then searching the hierarchy may falsely detect this device as having ADB . 反之,如果框92试图通过搜索大量子节点来确保只定位真正具有ADB的节点,从而消除该问题,那么该方法的速度就会降低。 Conversely, if the block 92 attempts to search a large number of child nodes to ensure that only truly locate nodes ADB, thereby eliminating the problem, then the speed of the process will be reduced.

在任何情况下,在一个实施例中,框92可以搜索分级结构或树94中的每一个节点,以便在某些设备中定位已知具有与ADB相关的名称的各个节点。 In any case, in one embodiment, the block 92 may search every node in the hierarchy or tree 94 to locate each node having a name associated with a known ADB in some device. 虽然在某些情况下,例如大型加工厂中,这会消耗明显多的搜索时间,但是它是在加工厂中找出每个ADB进而找寻每个SPM的最准确方法。 While in some cases, such as large-scale processing plants, which consume significantly more search time, but it is to find each ADB in processing plants and then find the most accurate method for each of the SPM. 另一方面,框92可以向下搜索分级结构,直到到达或找到具有与已知统计监控模块相关的名称的节点,例如变频器800或变频器1300或任何其它由某些设备制造商使用来表示一个已知的统计监控模块的特定名称。 On the other hand, the block 92 may search down a hierarchy until it reaches or locate the node having a name associated with known statistical monitoring block, such as TRANSDUCER800 or TRANSDUCER1300 or any other used by some device manufacturer to indicate a specific name known statistical monitoring module. 如果找到这样的节点,那么与该节点有关的父(parent)节点可以作为具有ADB的设备被检测到。 If such a node is found, then the parent node associated with the (parent) node device as having an ADB is detected. 虽然该方法不象搜索一个特定OPC分级结构或树中的每个节点那么具有鲁棒性,但该方法应该要快一些。 Although this method is not as searching every node a particular OPC hierarchy or tree so robust, but the process should be faster. 但是如果另一制造商制造出具有名为变频器800的OPC节点的设备,那么该方法仍将会错误的地将该其它设备检测为具有ADB。 However, if another manufacturer producing a device with an OPC node named frequency converter 800, then the method will still be the other device errors detected as having ADB.

可替代地,框92可以在每个节点下搜索,在已知与ADB唯一相关或暗示ADB的设备中找寻具有与已知ADB相关名称的附加项。 Alternatively, the block 92 may search under each node to find the additional terms associated with the ADB in a known name uniquely associated with a known ADB ADB devices or implied. 因此,框92可以在定位了具有已知由至少一家制造商使用以明确ADB名称的节点之后,搜索子节点以查看特性/模块标签.子符串(Charcteristic/BLOCKTAG.STRING)项是否具有“先进诊断(ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS)”值。 Therefore, the block 92 can be positioned with known use of at least one manufacturer to confirm the name of the node ADB after searching a child node to view the features / modules label Sub string (Charcteristic / BLOCKTAG.STRING) whether the term "advanced diagnostic (ADVANCED dIAGNOSTICS) "value. 在该实例示例中,仅具有ADB的设备的特性/模块标签.字符串OPC项具有“先进诊断”值。 In this illustrative example, only the characteristics of the device having an ADB / label modules. OPC item has a string of "Advanced Diagnostics" value. 虽然该方法在定位仅具有ADB的设备时是非常具有鲁棒性的,但是该方法需要通过OPC服务器从设备读取值,这比只是浏览OPC分级结构明显需要更长的时间。 Although this method has only positioning ADB equipment is very robust, but this method requires read values ​​from the device, which is more than just browsing the OPC hierarchy obviously take longer via an OPC server. 因此,该方法虽然准确,但对于某些情况来说太慢。 Therefore, although this method is accurate, but it is too slow for some cases.

可由图4的框92实施的另一方法是搜索OPC树94,该方法在速度和鲁棒性之间提供了折中,其包括在具有通常已知与ADB有关的名字的节点下搜索OPC分级结构,以查找也具有通常与ADB有关的名字的子节点。 The method may further embodiment of Figure 4, block 92 is searched OPC tree 94, the method provides a compromise between speed and robustness, which includes a search OPC hierarchy under a node having a name commonly known to be related to the ADB structure, also have to find the child nodes are usually associated with the name of the ADB. 例如,该方法可以从OPC树94(图5)的顶部开始并且搜索IO节点98。 For example, the method may begin IO node 98 and the search tree from the top of the OPC 94 (FIG. 5). 然后,该方法可以递归搜索IO节点98下的每一个子节点。 Then, the process recursively for each child node IO node 98 searches. 如果发现名为变频器800或变频器1300的子节点(或者已知与统计监控模块,例如ADB有关的其它的名字),则该方法检验该节点是否具有一个名为SPM_ACTIVE的子节点,或者具体与统计监控模块有关的任何其它子节点。 If the name is found in the child node 800 or the inverter drive 1300 (or a known statistical monitoring block, such as the names of other related ADB), the method test whether the node has a child node named SPM_ACTIVE or specific any other child nodes and related statistical monitoring module. 如果在例如变频器800节点下发现SPM_ACTIVE,则框92将变频器800节点的父节点检测为包括ADB的设备。 If it is found at, for example SPM_ACTIVE drive node 800, block 92 detects the parent node of the inverter 800 includes an ADB device.

当然,框92可以使用这些技术中的任何一种,或者这些技术的组合或任何其它需要的技术来搜索具有ADB(并且因此具有SPM)的设备。 Of course, the block 92 may use any of these techniques, or a combination of these techniques or any other desired techniques to search for devices with ADB (and thus having SPM) a. 例如,一种实现方案可以力图至少识别已知由至少一家制造商的设备所实现的所有ADB,但是可能能够也可能不能够识别加工厂中的所有ADB。 For example, one implementation may be known to try to identify the at least one of at least all ADB devices implemented manufacturer, but may or may not be able to recognize that all ADB process plant. 作为另一示例,一个实现方案可以力图识别已知由几家不同制造商的设备所实现的所有的ADB。 As another example, one implementation may be trying to identify all ADB known from several different manufacturers implemented by the device. 而且,虽然这个扫描步骤被描述成使用OPC分级结构来执行,也就是一个由OPC服务器来产生的分级结构,但是该方法可应用于或者使用在由其它设备产生的分级结构中,例如控制器、存储加工厂中的配置分级结构的数据历史记录器、存储设备分级结构的工作站等。 Furthermore, although the scanning step is described as being performed using an OPC hierarchy, a hierarchy that is generated by the OPC server to, but the method can be applied or used in a hierarchical structure generated by other devices, such as a controller, history data storage hierarchy configured in the factory, workstations and other storage hierarchy. 因此,其它实现方案不需使用OPC服务器和/或OPC分级结构,但是可能使用很多其它的计算设备、通信协议以及分级结构协议,其包括例如,已知的和最新的计算设备、通信协议以及分级结构协议。 Accordingly, other implementations without using OPC server and / or OPC hierarchy, but could use many other computing devices, communication protocols, and hierarchy protocols including, for example, the known and the latest computing devices, communication protocols, and hierarchy structure protocol. 另外的实现方案举例来说可以使用web服务器、XML和/或专有计算设备和协议。 For example, additional implementations may use web servers, XML, and / or proprietary computing devices and protocols.

在发现和搜索包含ADB的设备的过程中,框92可以存储已检测到具有ADB、SPM模块或者其它类型数据采集模块的设备的列表,如图4中的方框108所示。 Search and discovery device comprising the process of ADB, the block 92 may store a list of detected devices with ADB, the SPM block or other type of data acquisition module, the block 4108 shown in FIG. 如果需要,方框108所列出的设备可以按照它们的分级结构显示在一个树状视图中。 If desired, listed in the device block 108 may be displayed in a tree view according to their hierarchy. 这种分级结构的视图110的一个示例如图6所示。 One example of such a hierarchical structure view 110 as shown in FIG. 正如所理解的那样,图6视图中显示的分级结构110是由控制器产生的控制网络显示所显示的分级结构的一个子集,因为通常并非控制显示中的所有设备都包括ADB。 As can be appreciated, the hierarchy 110 shown in FIG. 6 is a view of a subset of the hierarchical control network display generated by the controller is displayed, because usually not control all devices in the display comprises ADB. 实际上,图6中的视图110实际上是只包括具有ADB的设备的控制器分级结构的拷贝。 In fact, the view 110 in FIG. 6 is actually a copy controller hierarchy including only the devices having an ADB. 正如所理解的那样,图6中的显示示出了设备PT-101和PT-102(连接到名为CTLR-002EC6的控制器的输入/输出设备I01的卡C01的端口P01)和设备PT-103、FT-201和FT-201(连接到名为CTLR-002EC6的控制器的输入/输出设备I01的卡C01的端口P02)中的每一个设备都具有ADB。 As can be appreciated, in FIG. 6 shows a display device PT-101 and PT-102 (connected to the controller named CTLR-002EC6 an input / output device port I01 card C01 P01) devices and PT- 103, the FT-201 and FT-201 (connected to the controller named CTLR-002EC6 an input / output device port I01 card C01 P02) each device having ADB.

为了从设备中读取任何SPM参数,通常需要知道该参数的OPC项ID。 To read any of the SPM parameters from a device usually needs to know the OPC item ID for that parameter. 通常,即在Fieldbus SPM模块中,一个SPM参数的OPC项ID包括紧随着该项详细说明(specifier)的设备ID。 Typically, the Fieldbus SPM module, i.e., the OPC Item ID SPM parameter includes a tight with the detailed description (specifier) ​​device ID. 为了定位设备ID,框92可以对每个已经确定包含ADB的设备节点查找子节点SPM_ACTIVE。 To locate the Device ID, the block 92 may comprise an ADB device node for each child node has been determined to find SPM_ACTIVE. 接下来,框92可以获取结点“CV”的OPC项ID。 Next, the block 92 may obtain the node "CV" is the OPC Item ID. 例如,OPC项ID可以是“设备(DEVICE):0011513051022201100534-030003969/800/SPM ACTIVE.CV”。 For example, OPC item ID may be "device (DEVICE): 0011513051022201100534-030003969 / 800 / SPM ACTIVE.CV". 设备ID是OPC项ID减去后缀“SPM ACTIVE.CV”。 The device ID is the OPC Item ID minus the suffix "SPM ACTIVE.CV". 因此,在该示例中,设备ID是“设备:0011513051022201100534-030003969/800/”。 Thus, in this example, the device ID is "Device: 0011513051022201100534-030003969 / 800 /." 当然,这仅是在OPC系统中确定设备ID的一种方式,也可使用或替换使用其它技术。 Of course, this is only one way to determine the device ID in the OPC system, it may also be used, or alternatively using other techniques.

无论如何,在框92扫描分级结构以确定具有ADB的设备以后,应用程序38知道或者能容易地为这些设备的每一个设备确定设备标签、设备ID和设备位置。 In any event, the block 92 scans the hierarchy to determine the future devices having an ADB, the application 38 knows or can easily determine the Device Tag, Device ID, and Device Location for each of these devices. 对包含5个具有ADB设备的简单系统而言,该数据的一个示例如下表所示。 A simple system containing 5 devices with ADB, it is an example of the data in the table below.

表1 Table 1

再次参考图4,框114可以接下来确定存储在方框108中的哪些设备已经配置为执行统计过程监控。 Referring again to FIG. 4, block 114 may next determine which devices are stored in block 108 has been configured to perform statistical process monitoring. 为执行该功能,框114可以为存储在方框108中的每一设备从OPC服务器中读取SPM_ACTIVE.CV值。 To perform this function, block 114 may be read from the OPC server SPM_ACTIVE.CV value for each block is stored in the device 108. 例如,对上述表格中的PT-101,框114可以读取OPC项,即设备:0011513051022201100534-030003969/800/SPM ACTIVE.CV。 For example, the above table PT-101, the block 114 may read the OPC Item, i.e. equipment: 0011513051022201100534-030003969 / 800 / SPM ACTIVE.CV. 该OPC项可以取值为0或255。 This OPC item can take the value 0 or 255. 在FieldbusSPM模块的例子中,如果该值为0,那么SPM模块为该设备所禁用,如果该值为255,则SPM模块为该设备所启用。 In the example of FieldbusSPM module, if the value is 0, then SPM block is disabled for that device, if the value is 255, then the SPM block is enabled for that device. 一旦检验SPM是否为每一台设备所启用,框114就可以把所有设备划分为两类,即具有已配置的SPM的设备和具有还未配置的SPM的设备。 Once the test is whether each piece of equipment SPM enabled, block 114 you can put all the equipment is divided into two categories, namely SPM devices have been configured and have the SPM device has not been configured. 这些设备的分类或者列表如图4的方框116和118所示。 Category or a list of these devices block 116 in FIG. 4 and 118 in FIG.

在框114确定列于方框108中的每个设备中的SPM是否启用之后,框120可以对各个启用SPM的设备,也就是那些列于或存储在方框116中的设备中的各个SPM模块进行状态检测。 After determining at block 114 SPM devices are shown in each block 108 is enabled, block 120 may be enabled for each SPM devices, i.e. those devices listed or stored in block 116 in each of the SPM blocks state detection. 框120主要执行该步骤以确定在启用SPM的设备中的各个SPM模块当前是否已经配置为监控过程变量,并且如果是的话,配置为确定正在监控哪个过程变量。 The main block 120 performs this step to determine the respective SPM blocks SPM enabled is currently in a device configured to monitor a process variable, and if so, is configured to determine which process variable is being monitored. 在该示例中,通过读取SPM模块的状态,可确定SPM模块当前是否正在监控过程变量。 In this example, by reading the state of the SPM blocks, it may determine whether the SPM block is currently monitoring a process variable. 在FieldbusSPM模块中,可通过从OPC服务器中读取SPM[n]STATUS.CV项来检测状态。 In FieldbusSPM module, by reading the SPM [n] STATUS.CV item from the OPC server to detect the state. 因此,例如,为从上述表格中读取设备PT-101中的SPM模块1的状态,框120可以读取OPC项ID,即设备:0011513051022201100534030003969/800/SPM1 STATUS.CV。 Thus, for example, the state of the device PT-101 in the SPM block 1 is read from the table above, the block 120 may read the OPC Item ID, or device: 0011513051022201100534030003969/800 / SPM1 STATUS.CV.

一般地,状态值是一个范围在0~255的8位数。 Generally, a state value in the range of 0 to 255, 8 bits. 状态是8个不同位的组合,可以是开或闭。 State is a combination of 8 different bits may be open or closed. 这些位是:未激活(1)、学习(2)、校验(4)、无检测(8)、均差(16)、高偏差(32)、低动态(64)和未许可(128)。 These bits are: Inactive (1), Learning (2), verification (4), non-detection (8), both the difference (16), a high bias (32), low dynamic (64) and unlicensed (128) . 所有被许可却没有配置的SPM模块具有未激活状态。 But not all of the configured SPM block permission having the inactive state. 如果SPM模块的状态是未激活或者未许可,则框120可以确定不监控该模块,这是因为它不产生任何有用的信息。 If the status is inactive SPM block or unlicensed, block 120 may determine not to monitor the module, because it does not produce any useful information. 然而,如果状态是其它任何可能情况,则框120可以监控SPM模块。 However, if the state is any other possible cases, block 120 may monitor the SPM block.

类似的,框122可以自动配置不具有启用SPM的各台设备(即,方框118中列出的设备),从而启用这些设备中的至少一个SPM模块,以检测和监控过程变量,并因此产生关于该过程变量的统计数据。 Similarly, block 122 may not have enabled automatically configure SPM in each device (i.e., listed in the device block 118), such that these devices enable at least one SPM block for detection and monitoring process variables, and thus produce statistical data on the process variable. 在许多情况中,例如具有柔斯芒特(Rosemount)3051F和3051S变送器的情况下,设备出厂时具有未配置的SPM,这通常要求用户在各台设备中人工配置SPM。 In many cases, a case where, for example, a Rosemount (Rosemount) 3051F and 3051S transmitter, the device is delivered with SPM not configured, which generally requires a user to manually configure SPM in each device in. 在具有成千上万台具有ADB的设备的加工厂中,这是一个非常沉闷的过程。 In the processing plant has thousands of devices with ADB, this is a very tedious process. 为了减轻这种人工配置,框122为每一设备自动配置至少一个SPM模块。 To alleviate this manual configuration, the block 122 automatically configures at least one SPM block for each device. 为了执行该配置,框122可以确定或存储在设备中待监控的特殊过程变量的指示。 Indicate the specific order to perform the process variable configuration, block 122 may determine or store in the device to be monitored. 这个变量可能是主过程输入、PID模块输出或者Fieldbus设备中可利用的其它功能块变量(输入和输出)中的任一些。 This variable could be the main process input, the other function block variables (inputs and outputs) the PID block output, or Fieldbus devices may be utilized in any number. 关于哪个变量待监控的指示可以在配置过程中设置,由用户在一种情况下根据该情况基础来指定,或者由用户在程序38操作之前在总体上指定。 An indication of which variable to monitor may be set during configuration, specified by the user based on the case base in one case, or in general designated by the user before the operation program 38.

虽然能监控任何过程变量,但是为统计目的而监控的逻辑变量是设备的主要模拟输入。 Although it would monitor any process variable, but for statistical purposes and monitoring of logical variables is the main analog input device. 对于柔斯芒特3051F/S变送器来说,该变量是所测得的压力或流量(例如,压差)。 For Rosemount 3051F / S transmitters for this variable is the measured pressure or flow (e.g., pressure). 因此,框122可以配置为在设备的ADB中自动配置一个SPM模块,从而监控设备的主要模拟输入或输出。 Thus, block 122 may be configured to automatically configure SPM blocks in an ADB device, the monitoring device so that the main analog input or output. 如果需要,用户仍能人工配置设备的其它SPM模块。 If desired, the user can still manually configure the other SPM blocks of the device. 可替代地,框122可以为每种类型的设备存储待监控的过程变量的列表,并且可以在任何情况下用该列表选择或者确定待监控的那些过程变量。 Alternatively, the list can be monitored process block 122 for each type of device to store a variable, and may select or determine which process variable to be monitored by this list in any case. 虽然此处将框122描述为配置设备中的单个SPM模块以监控一个过程变量,但框122可以在特定设备中配置至少两个SPM模块,从而监控与该设备有关的至少两个过程变量。 Although the frame 122 is described herein as configuring a single SPM block device to monitor one process variable, the block 122 may be configured to at least two SPM block in a specific device, such that the monitoring device associated with the at least two process variables.

另外,DeltaV OPC服务器允许用户(给予足够的管理权限)将值写入设备中的特定项。 Further, DeltaV OPC server allows a user (given sufficient administrative privileges) to write the device specific item values. 因此,通过在OPC服务器中写入适合的项,可改变设备中的SPM参数。 Thus, by writing in the OPC server for the entry SPM parameters may change device. 因此,通过将一列值写入OPC服务器,框122可将设备配置为监控针对主过程变量的SPM。 Therefore, a value is written by the OPC Server, the device block 122 may be configured to monitor SPM for the main process variables. 在一个特别示例中,写入到OPC服务器的值如下表所示。 In one particular example, the value written to the OPC Server are shown below.

表2 Table 2

此处,[设备ID]应当用在表2中所发现的设备ID来代替。 Here, [Device ID] should be replaced by the device ID in Table 2 found. 因此对于设备PT-101而言,要写入的第一个OPC项为:设备:0011513051022201100534-030003969/800/SPM MONITORING CYCLE.CV。 Equipment:: 0011513051022201100534-030003969 / 800 / SPM MONITORING CYCLE.CV so for the device PT-101, the first to be written in an OPC item. 在将所有这些项写入到OPC服务器之后,配置该设备以监控SPM1模块中的主压力变量。 After writing all of these items to the OPC Server, the device is configured to monitor the main pressure variable SPM1 module. 当然,这不过是写入到Fieldbus设备中特定种类SPM模块的一个例子,应当理解写入其它类型SPM模块的其它方法也一样或者可替换,而写入命令是由那些SPM模块所使用的通信协议来确定的。 Of course, this is but one example of a particular Fieldbus device is written to the type of SPM blocks, it should be understood that other methods of writing to other types of SPM blocks can be the same or alternatively, the write command from the communication protocol used by those SPM blocks determined.

无论如何,图4的框120和122的操作创建了一组或一列带有ADB的设备内的待监控的SPM模块。 In any case, the operation of block 120 of FIG. 4 and 122 creates a set or a device to be monitored in the SPM blocks with an ADB. 该列图示为存储在图4的框124中,或者与之相关联。 The column is illustrated in block 124 of FIG. 4, or stored in association therewith. 另外,图4中的框126规定了应用程序38应当监控的对于待监控的每个SPM模块的一组SPM参数。 Further, block 126 in FIG. 4 specifies a set of SPM parameters application 38 should monitor for each of the SPM blocks to be monitored for. 该SPM参数列126可以在应用程序38操作之前或操作期间由用户指定或选择,或者可以在配置过程期间分别为待监控的不同SPM模块独立地进行选择或指定。 The SPM parameters column 126 may be operated before or during operation of the application program 38 specified by the user or selected, or may be different SPM blocks to be monitored or specified independently selected during the configuration process, respectively. 下表图示了对于每个Fieldbus SPM模块能够从OPC服务器读取的所有SPM参数。 The following table illustrates all of the SPM parameters for each of the Fieldbus SPM module can be read from the OPC server.

表3 table 3

然而,对于所待监控的每个SPM模块,可能并不必须待监控所有这些参数。 However, for each SPM module to be monitored may not have all of these parameters to be monitored. 实际上,如果待监控太多的项,那么OPC服务器有可能过载。 In fact, if too many items to be monitored, the OPC server there may be overloaded. 因此,应用程序38可以提供一种机制,通过该机制能够使用户选择待监控的一组SPM参数。 Thus, the application 38 may provide a mechanism by which mechanism enables a user to select a set of SPM parameters to be monitored. 图7示出了允许这种选择的一个屏幕示例,其中用户可以检查用户希望对框124所标识的每个SPM模块进行监控的SPM参数。 FIG. 7 shows an example of a screen allows such a selection, wherein the user can check the user wishes to block 124 for each of the SPM blocks identified SPM parameters were monitored.

框128使用待监控的SPM参数的列表(如框126所标识)和待监控SPM模块的列表(如框124所标识),来构建在过程操作期间要由应用程序38监控的一组SPM OPC项。 Block 128 using SPM parameters to be monitored list (as in block 126 identified) and a list to be monitored SPM blocks (e.g., block 124 identified), to construct a set of SPM the OPC items during the course of operation to be used by the application monitoring 38 . 如框130所示,框128可以存储该组OPC项,以用于监控过程的后续步骤。 As shown in block 130, block 128 may store this set of OPC items, the step of monitoring for a subsequent process. 一般而言,框128为待监控的每个SPM模块(用框124表示)创建用于待监控的每个SPM参数(用框126表示)的SPM OPC项。 Generally, block 128 creates for each SPM parameters to be monitored (indicated by block 126) the OPC items of the SPM for each of the SPM blocks to be monitored (indicated by block 124). 换句话说,一旦对于这些模块中的每一个给出了待监控的一组SPM模块和待监控的一组SPM参数,框128就构建待监控的一组OPC项,作为用于待监控的SPM模块和待监控的SPM参数的每一种可能组合的OPC项。 In other words, once a given set of SPM blocks to be monitored for each of these modules to be monitored and a set of SPM parameters, the block 128 will be constructed to monitor a set of OPC items to be monitored as a SPM every possible combination of modules and the OPC items to be monitored SPM parameters. 因此,举例来说,如果有10个SPM模块要监控,并且每个SPM模块有5个SPM参数要监控,那么框128将创建一个总数为50的OPC项。 Thus, for example, if there are ten SPM blocks to be monitored, and each of the SPM blocks with five SPM parameters to be monitored, then the block 128 will create a total of 50 OPC items. 在该例中,OPC项ID是设备ID和来自上表的OPC后缀的组合。 In this example, OPC Item ID is a combination of the device ID and the OPC Suffix from the tables. 例如,为了读取设备PT-101中SPM1的均值,OPC项ID将会是:设备:0011513051022201100534030003969/800/SPM1 MEAN.CV。 For example, to read the mean SPM1 in device PT-101 is, the OPC Item ID would be: Equipment: 0011513051022201100534030003969/800 / SPM1 MEAN.CV.

在框130中已经识别且存储了所有的OPC项之后,框132和134监控SPM参数在过程操作期间的变化。 After having identified and stored in block 130 all of the OPC items, blocks 132 and 134 to monitor changes in the SPM parameters during the course of operation. 例如,某些SPM参数可能会根据SPM模块的配置每隔5-60分钟发生变化,而其它SPM参数可能仅当配置SPM模块时才会发生变化。 For example, some of the SPM parameters may change depending on the configuration of the SPM blocks every 5 to 60 minutes, while other SPM parameters may change only when the configuration of the SPM blocks only. 结果,当监控SPM参数的过程开始时,框132可以首先读取所有SPM参数的当前值(由框130的OPC项指定)。 As a result, when the process begins monitoring the SPM parameters, the block 132 may first read the current value of all of the SPM parameters (OPC item designated by block 130). 在一个实施例中,框132可以利用为读取每个OPC项ID调用的同步读取(SyncRead)功能,来执行该读取。 In one embodiment, block 132 may be utilized to read the OPC Item ID for each synchronous read call (SyncRead) function to execute the reading. 如图4的框136所示,每个SPM参数的读取产生一组SPM数据点。 As shown in block 136 of FIG. 4, to read each of the SPM parameters produces a set of SPM data points.

在第一次读取SPM参数之后,框134可以等待SPM参数的变化。 After the first read of the SPM parameters, the block 134 may wait for changes in the SPM parameters. 也就是说,在从OPC服务器读取所监控的每个SPM参数的初值以获得第一组SPM数据点之后,框134接收或获取表示所监控任何一个SPM参数变化的附加数据。 That is, after the initial value of each of the SPM parameters being monitored are read from OPC server to obtain a first set of SPM data points, the block 134 receives or retrieves any additional data showing a change in the monitored SPM parameters. 举例来说,根据SPM模块的配置,均值和标准差可能每隔5-60分钟变化一次。 For example, according to the configuration of the SPM blocks, the mean and standard deviation may change once every 5 to 60 minutes. 尽管如此,当任何一个SPM参数发生变化时,OPC服务器都会产生一数据变化(DataChange)事件,该事件由诸如应用程序38的OPC客户端捕获。 However, when any of the SPM parameters changes, the server will have an OPC data changes (DataChange) event, which event is captured by the OPC client application, such as 38. 可替代地,框134可以周期性地,或在当前时间轮询或读取所监控的每个SPM参数,以获得新的数据点(框136)。 Alternatively, the block 134 may periodically, or at the current time poll or read each of the SPM parameters being monitored to obtain new data points (block 136). 在这种方式下,即使SPM参数未发生变化,也读取该SPM参数。 In this manner, even if the SPM parameters has not changed, but also reads the SPM parameters. 当然,框134可以在过程运行期间持续地操作以接收新的SPM参数,并将该SPM参数存储在数据库中供用户查看,或者由以下更详细描述的准则机来使用,或者用于任何其它目的。 Of course, block 134 may operate continuously during operation of the process to receive new SPM parameters and for the SPM parameters stored in the database user to view, or a rules engine described in more detail by the use, or for any other purpose . 当然,如果需要,图4的例程90可以检测和配置主设备中的SPM模块或其它统计数据采集模块,以便使这些SPM模块能够向异常状况预防系统35(图1)的其它元件提供统计测量或参数。 Of course, if desired, the routine of FIG. 904 may detect and configure SPM blocks in host device or other statistical data collection module, so that these SPM blocks to the abnormal situation prevention system can be 35 (FIG. 1) to provide a statistical measure of the other elements or parameters.

实际上,在读取框136的任何一个SPM数据点之后的任何时刻,框138可以将这些数据点存储或保存在本地数据库中(例如图1和图2的数据库43),以便这些数据点可以在将来用于查看趋势或其它的查看目的而进行的参考。 In fact, at any time after any of the SPM data block read point 136, the block 138 may store or save these data points in a local database (such as database 43 of FIG. 1 and FIG. 2), so that these data points can be in the future trend for viewing or for other purposes, see reference. 另外,框140可以用于以任何目的、以任何期望或有用的格式向用户展示SPM数据,例如检测或预测加工厂内的异常状况。 Further, block 140 may be used for any purpose, in any desired or useful format to show SPM data to a user, for example, detecting or predicting abnormal situations within the process plant. 如果需要,框140可以通过图1和图2中所示的查看应用程序40来实现。 If desired, block 140 may be implemented by 40 application view shown in FIG. 1 and FIG 2.

一般而言,查看应用程序40(可以由图4的框140来执行)可以以任何期望或有用的格式向用户显示SPM参数,以便使用户能够例如一眼就查看到最新的SPM数据。 Generally speaking, the viewing application 40 (which may be performed by block 140 of FIG. 4) may display the SPM parameters to a user in any desired or useful format to enable the user to view, for example, a recent SPM data. 例如,查看应用程序40可以利用常规的浏览器型显示器来显示SPM数据。 For example, the viewing application 40 may utilize a conventional browser to display the SPM data type display. 在图8中描绘了这种显示的一个例子,其中在显示屏幕的左侧提供图6的浏览器分级结构110,同时对于待监控的每一个SPM模块,在显示115的右侧描绘所监控的SPM参数(如图7的屏幕所指定的)。 An example of such a display is depicted in FIG. 8, wherein a display screen is provided on the left side in FIG browser 1106 of the hierarchy, while for each of the SPM blocks to be monitored, at the right of the display 115 depicted monitored SPM parameters (FIG. 7 designated the screen). 应当注意到,在显示部分115中根据设备对SPM数据进行分类,以便容易查找或查看与特定设备相关的数据。 It should be noted that, in the display section 115 according to the SPM data classification apparatus, so as to easily find or view the data associated with a particular device. 当然,用户可以在分级结构110中选择任何一项或一节点,以便查看与这些项或节点相关的SPM数据。 Of course, the user may select any one or a node in the hierarchy 110 to view the SPM data associated with those items or nodes. 另外,如果需要,查看应用程序40可以提供诸如图9的浏览器显示,它包含SPM模块元件和对于SPM模块元件所监控的SPM参数。 Further, if desired, the viewing application 40 may provide a browser such as display of FIG. 9, which comprises SPM block elements and the SPM block elements for the SPM parameters being monitored. 因此,在图9的示例性分级结构141中,将名为SPM1的SPM模块142图示为位于名为3051-Flow的设备中。 Thus, in an exemplary hierarchical structure 141 of FIG. 9, the SPM block is named SPM1 142 is illustrated as being located in the device named in 3051-Flow. SPM1模块142以下的元件143表示所监控的SPM参数,并且可用于用户查看。 SPM1 module 142 following element 143 represents the SPM parameters being monitored and available to the user to view. 在这种情况下,这些参数包括均值、均值变化、标准差、标准差变化、均值/标准差和标准差/均值。 In this case, these parameters include the mean, mean change, standard deviation, standard deviation change mean / standard deviation and the standard deviation / mean.

如果需要,查看应用程序40可以允许或使用户在现场设备内,甚或在这些模块所在的主机或其它设备内添加或重新配置一个或更多SPM模块。 If desired, the viewing application 40 may allow the user or in the field device, or even add or reconfigure one or more SPM blocks within the modules where the host or other devices. 图10图示了一个显示屏幕144,在这种情况下,如窗口145所示,显示屏幕144使用户能够向名为P01的端口添加新的设备,另外也能够在该设备内添加或配置SPM模块。 10 illustrates a display screen 144, in this case, as shown in the window 145, the display screen 144 enables a user to add a new device to the port named P01, and further it is possible to add or configure an SPM in the apparatus module. 这里,该SPM模块命名为SPM1,它与设备标签FT3501-COLD1相关(其作为设备3051_LEVEL图示在屏幕144左侧的分级结构中),并且与名为AI1的模拟输入功能模块的OUT参数或变量有关(操作该参数或变量)。 Here, the SPM block is named SPMl, it is associated with the device tags FT3501-COLD1 (3051_LEVEL device as illustrated in the hierarchy on the left side of the screen 144), and the analog input AI1 function module called the OUT parameter or variable For (the operating parameters or variables). 在这种情况下,查看应用程序40还使用户能够指定所关心的(即待监控的)SPM参数,以及对于该SPM模块的基线值和门限值,例如均值、均值变化、标准差变化等等。 In this case, the viewing application 40 also enables the user to specify the SPM parameters of interest (i.e., to be monitored), and the baseline value and the threshold value of the SPM blocks, such as the mean, mean change, standard deviation change, etc. Wait.

此外,查看应用程序40可以使用户能够操纵整个分级结构,以获取对特定种类数据的查看,无论是直接来自SPM模块(或其它监控模块)的数据,还是通过例如应用程序40生成的数据。 Further, the viewing application 40 may enable a user to manipulate the entire hierarchy, to obtain a view of a specific type of data, either directly from the SPM blocks (or other monitoring module), or a data application program 40 generated by, for example. 例如,图11图示了一个屏幕显示146,它描绘了屏幕左侧的工厂分级结构147,以及与屏幕146右侧视图148的分级结构中的设备相关的一个或更多SPM或其它模块。 For example, FIG. 11 illustrates a screen display 146 which depicts a plant hierarchy left of the screen 147, and one or more SPM or other modules in the hierarchical structure 148 of the screen device 146 associated with a right side view. 一旦选择了一个SPM模块(在这种情况下是3051S-1设备的SPM1),用户就可以使用下拉或弹出窗口149来选择查看来自该SPM1模块的数据的方式。 Upon selecting one of the SPM blocks (in this case SPM1 3051S-1 device), the user can use drop down or pop-up window 149 to select to view the data from the SPM1 block manner. 在图11中,用户已经选择查看趋势图,而进一步的下拉或弹出窗口使用户能够指定要在趋势图中显示的具体SPM参数数据(或其组合)。 In Figure 11, the user has selected to view trends, and further drop-down or pop-up enables the user to specify the specific SPM parameter data (or combinations thereof) to be displayed in the trend graph. 在这种情况下,应当理解可以将具有趋势的某些可能类型的数据确定为来自一个或更多SPM模块的数据组合,并且可以在主机中(例如通过应用程序40),或者在可以访问到该原始数据的现场设备或其它设备中计算这些组合。 In this case, it should be understood that some of the possible types of data may have a tendency to be determined as combinations of data from one or more of the SPM blocks and may be (e.g., through an application 40), or to be accessed in the host field devices or other devices of the raw data to calculate these compositions.

图12图示了屏幕146,其中用户已经选择在弹出窗口149中直接查看数据。 12 illustrates the screen 146, where the user has selected in the pop-up window 149 to view data directly. 当然,这里在进一步的弹出窗口中的数据选择可以是不同的,并且可以指定由SPM模块所采集或生成的原始数据,而不用提供在主机设备内生成数据的选项(例如均值/标准差,等等)。 Of course, where the data in the further pop-up window selection may be different, and may specify the raw data collected from the SPM block or generated, without providing options for data generated within the host device (such as the mean / standard deviation, etc. Wait). 当然,应当理解应用程序40可以获取来自SPM模块的数据,或者在某些情况下,可以根据从SPM模块采集的原始统计数据生成该数据。 Of course, it should be understood that the application 40 may obtain data from the SPM block or, in some cases, may generate that data from raw statistical data collected from the SPM block. 进一步,还可以提供其它类型的视图或选项以查看数据(其或者来自SPM模块,或者是根据来自SPM模块的数据生成的数据),例如直方图。 Further, it may also provide other types of views or options to view data (either from SPM blocks which, in accordance with data or the data generated from SPM blocks), such as a histogram. 同样,用户可以使用屏幕146和弹出窗口149来执行其它功能,例如删除SPM数据,开始新的数据采集循环,等等。 Similarly, users can use the pop-up screen 146 and 149 to perform other functions, such as delete SPM data, to start a new cycle of data collection, and so on.

图13图示了可以由应用程序40生成的示例性趋势图150,示出了SPM均值对时间的曲线。 13 illustrates an example trend graph may be generated by the application 40 150 shows an SPM mean versus time. 在该显示中,用户可以使用控制按钮152回顾先前或后来的数据,转向数据的起点或终点,搜索数据内的界限等等。 In this display, the user can use the control buttons 152 review prior or subsequent data, the steering start or end point data, within the limits of the search data, and so on. 无论如何,诸如图13所示的趋势窗口,使用户能够查看任一SPM参数的历史形态。 In any event, as shown in FIG trend window 13, enabling the user to view any of the SPM parameters a morphological history. 根据过程,有可能基于不同过程变量的趋势,特征化异常状态。 The procedure, based on the possible trend of different process variables, features of the abnormal state. 然而,事实上用户可以对统计过程数据做什么并没有限制,应当理解用户可以使用该数据用于其它目的,除了检测加工厂内的当前或将来异常状况以外。 However, the fact that the user can do the statistical process data and no restrictions should be understood that the user can use the data for other purposes, in addition to detecting current or future abnormal situation within the process plant. 此外,用户可以以任何使该数据易于读取、理解并使用的格式或视图来查看所采集的统计数据,以检测和预测加工厂内的事件。 Further, the user can cause any of the data easier to read, understand and use the format or view to view the collected statistical data to detect and predict events within the process plant.

一眼就能看出,图13的图看起来像过程变量随时间变化的正则图。 One can see, FIG. 13 looks like the process variable over time regular FIG. 然而,应当注意的是,这张图并不是单纯的过程变量数据随时间变化的曲线,而是在一定时间间隔内所计算的过程变量均值的曲线。 However, it should be noted that this figure is not a simple process variable data versus time curve, but in the course of a time interval of the calculated variables the mean curve. 尽管有可能使用DCS历史记录器来绘制过程变量的均值对时间的曲线,但此处的差别在于:过程变量的均值是在通常最初采集数据并且以更快的速率获取该数据的设备中计算的。 Although it is possible to use DCS historian to plot the mean value of the process variable versus time, the difference here is that: the mean of the process variable and the data acquisition device is typically first collected data at a faster rate calculated . 因此,应该相信测量噪声不会在图13的图中出现到由数据历史记录器创建的图中的程度。 Therefore, it is believed that the degree of noise measurement chart created by the data logger history does not appear to in Figure 13. 另外,诸如均值的统计测量应当更准确,因为它通常基于更多的采集数据。 Additionally, the statistical measure such as the mean should be more accurate because it is usually based on more collected data.

类似的,应用程序40可以绘制任何其它的SPM参数(例如,标准差、均值变化、标准差变化等等)对时间的曲线,以及SPM参数的任意数学组合(例如,标准差/均值等等)对时间的曲线。 Similarly, the drawing application program 40 may be any other of the SPM parameters (e.g., standard deviation, mean change, standard deviation change, etc.) versus time, as well as any mathematical combination of the SPM parameters (e.g., standard deviation / mean, etc.) versus time pair. 并且,应用程序40可以将这些曲线的任意组合置于同一幅图中或同一页面上,以便使不同统计数据间的比较对用户而言更加容易。 Further, the application program 40 may be placed in any combination of these curves on the same graph or the same page, so that comparisons between the different statistical data easier for the user. 图14图示了在同一时间帧上不同过程变量的统计测量的一组图,所有这些图都可以于同一时间在同一显示屏幕上展示给用户,或者于不同时间在相同或不同的显示屏幕上展示给用户。 14 illustrates a frame at the same time on a set of graphs of different statistical measures of process variables, all of these figures can be displayed at the same time to a user on the display screen at the same or at different times on the same or different display screens presented to the user. 在图14中,左上方的图156绘出了标准差对时间的曲线,右上方的图158绘出了均值/标准差对时间的曲线,左下方的图160绘出了在相同比例尺上三条不同的均值(来自不同的SPM模块)对时间的曲线,而右下方的图162绘出了在相同比例尺上三条标准差(来自不同的SPM模块)对时间的曲线。 In FIG 14, the upper left of FIG. 156 depicts a standard deviation versus time, the upper right in FIG. 158 depicts the mean / standard deviation versus time, the lower left of FIG. 160 depicts in three dimensions the same different mean (from different SPM blocks) versus time curve, and the lower right in FIG. 162 depicts the same scale three standard deviation versus time (from different SPM blocks). 当然,查看应用程序40可以在一幅图上显示任何所监控的SPM参数,或这些参数的任意数学组合随时间变化的曲线,并且可以在同一幅图上显示任意数目的不同SPM参数(或其数学组合)随时间变化的曲线,以帮助用户理解加工厂内发生了什么情况。 Of course, the viewing application 40 may display any of the monitored SPM parameters or any mathematical combination of these parameters over time on a graph in FIG, and may display any number of different SPM parameters on the same graph (or mathematical combination) versus time curve, in order to help users understand what is happening inside the plant.

统计过程控制经常用于过程控制工业,以确定某过程变量是否在可容许的界限以外。 Statistical process control is often used in the process control industry to determine whether a process variable in allowable limits beyond. 通常既有控制上限和控制下限(UCL,LCL),还有规定上限和规定下限(USL,LSL),它们可以基于由应用程序38所采集的SPM数据来计算。 Typically both upper control limit and lower control limits (UCL, LCL), there is a predetermined upper limit and a predetermined lower limit (USL, LSL), which can be calculated based on the SPM data collected by the application program 38. 在一个实例中,控制界限可以表示为UCL=μ+3σ和LCL=μ-3σ,其中μ和σ分别是基准均值和基准标准差。 In one example, the control limit can be expressed as and UCL = μ + 3σ LCL = μ-3σ, where [mu] and σ are the mean and baseline standard deviation reference. 另外,规定界限可以表示为:USL=(1+Δμ100)·μ]]>(式1)LSL=(1-Δμ100)·μ]]>(式2)其中Δμ为用户指定的百分比均值界限。 The predetermined limits may be expressed as: USL = (1 + & Delta; & mu; 100) & CenterDot; mu &;]]> (Formula 1) LSL = (1- & Delta; & mu; 100) & CenterDot; mu &;]]> (Formula 2) where Δμ a user-specified percentage of the mean limit. 当然,查看应用程序40可以直接计算这些值,或者可以允许用户输入这些值。 Of course, the viewing application 40 may calculate these values ​​directly or may allow a user to input these values.

有了这些或类似点,查看应用程序40可以绘制均值相对于基准均值和控制界限的分布图,由此提供当工厂运行期间达到或超出均值界限时的可视化显示。 With these or similar points, the viewing application 40 may mean plotted with respect to the reference distribution and the mean of the control limits, thereby providing a visualization of the time when the average reaches or exceeds the display limit during plant operation. 该结果本质上是一个看起来类似于图15中图166的直方图。 The result is essentially a histogram similar to Figure 15 looks 166 in FIG. 正如所理解的那样,控制上限和控制下限分别用线167和168表示,而规定上限和规定下限分别用线169和170表示。 As can be appreciated, the upper control limit and lower control limits are represented by lines 167 and 168, and the predetermined upper and lower specification limits are represented by lines 169 and 170. 另外,在线172中绘出了均值点(即每个值的均值点数目),并利用直方图174绘出了基准均值点。 Further, a line 172 depicts the mean point (i.e., the mean value of the number of points for each), and 174 depicts a histogram mean reference point. 如图166所示,如果过程处于控制之下,那么所有的数据都位于界限以内。 As shown in FIG. 166, if the process is under control, then all the data are located inside the boundaries. 如果存在异常状况,那么某些数据可能超出控制界限或规定界限167-170(落在所述界限以外)。 If an abnormal condition is present, then some of the data may exceed the control limits or predetermined limits 167-170 (falls outside the limit). 另外,图166不同于标准的直方图,因为图166绘出了过程测量的均值(和基准均值),而不是过程测量自身。 Further, FIG histogram 166 differs from the standard, because the process of FIG. 166 depicts a measurement of the mean (mean and standard), instead of the measurement process itself.

如果需要,查看应用程序40可以将诸如上述讨论的控制界限和规定界限添加到均值、标准差或任何其它期望的统计测量(例如中值等)对时间的曲线中。 If desired, the viewing application 40 may add the control limit and the predetermined limits discussed above, such as the mean, standard deviation or any other desired statistical measures (e.g., median, etc.) versus time in. 当把这些界限添加到均值对时间的曲线上时,所得到的曲线称作X管制图(X-Chart)。 When added to the mean value of these limits of time, the resulting curve is referred to FIG Control X (X-Chart). 16图示了用于统计均值的X管制图178的一个例子,其中均值对时间的曲线用线180表示,控制上限和控制下限分别用线181和182表示,规定上限和规定下限分别用线183和184表示。 X Control FIG. 16 illustrates an example of a statistical mean of 178, wherein line 180 represents a mean versus time, upper control limit and lower control limits are represented by lines 181 and 182, the upper and lower specification limits are predetermined by lines 183 and 184 represent.

在这种情况下,可能最好是对控制上限和控制下限的计算进行调整,因为查看应用程序40并不绘制实际的过程变量,而是绘制在一定时间间隔上的均值。 In this case, it may be desirable to control the calculation of the upper and lower control limits are adjusted, because the viewing application 40 is not drawing the actual process variable, but are drawn on the mean interval of time. 由于测量噪声得以降低,因此不存在人们在绘制过程变量值的标准X管制图中看到的同一偏差。 Because the measurement noise is reduced, people see the same variation in the standard X control chart drawing process variable values ​​and therefore does not exist. 可以对控制上限和控制下限进行的一种可能调整是将3σ部分除以用来计算每个均值的数据点的数目的平方根。 A control may be possible to adjust the upper and lower control limits is to be used to calculate the number of divided portions 3σ of the mean for each data point square root. 根据该公式,可以如下计算控制上限和控制下限:UCL=μ+3σN]]>(式3)LCL=μ-3σN]]>(式4)其中N=(监控周期)*(60)*(每秒采样)此处,监控周期是计算均值和标准差的分钟数。 According to this formula, can be calculated as an upper control limit and lower control limit: UCL = & mu; + 3 & sigma; N]]> (Formula 3) LCL = & mu; -3 & sigma; N]]> (Formula 4) where N = (Monitoring Cycle) * (60) * (samples per second) here, the monitoring cycle is calculated and the standard deviation of the mean number of minutes. 可以使用15分钟的默认值。 You can use the default value of 15 minutes. 每秒的采样基于进行测量的设备的采样速率,举例来说,尽管还可以使用其它采样速率,但是采样速率对于柔斯芒特Rosemount 3051F变送器而言为10,而对于柔斯芒特Rosemount 3051S变送器而言为22。 Samples per second sampling rate based on the measurement apparatus, for example, although other sampling rates may be used, but the sampling rate for Rosemount Rosemount 3051F transmitter 10 purposes, and for Rosemount Rosemount For 3051S transmitters 22.

另外,应用程序40可以产生S管制图,其中绘制了标准差对时间的曲线,以及控制界限和规定界限。 Further, the application 40 may generate a control chart S, wherein the standard differential is plotted versus time, and the predetermined control limits and boundaries. 在这种情况下,可以如下定义控制上限、控制下限以及规定上限和规定下限:UCL=(1+32(N-1))·σ]]>(式5) In this case, control may be defined as the upper limit, a lower control limit and a predetermined lower limit and a predetermined upper limit: UCL = (1 + 32 (N-1)) & CenterDot; sigma &;]]> (Formula 5)

LCL=(1-32(N-1))&CenterDot;&sigma;]]>(式6)USL=(1+&Delta;HV100)&CenterDot;&sigma;]]>(式7)LSL=(1+&Delta;LD100)&CenterDot;&sigma;]]>(式8)其中ΔHV为用户定义的百分比高变化界限,而ΔLD为用户定义的低动态界限,且ΔLD<0。 LCL = (1-32 (N-1)) & CenterDot; sigma &;]]> (Formula 6) USL = (1 + & Delta; HV100) & CenterDot; sigma &;]]> (Formula 7) LSL = (1 + & Delta; LD100) & CenterDot; sigma &;]]> high percentage variation limit (formula 8) wherein ΔHV is a user-defined, while a low dynamic ΔLD user defined limits, and ΔLD <0.

图17图示了S管制图190的一个例子。 FIG 17 illustrates an example of a control chart 190 S. 此处,标准差对时间的曲线用线192绘制,控制上限和控制下限分别用线193和194绘制,而规定上限和规定下限分别用线195和196绘制。 Here, the standard deviation versus time is plotted with a line 192, upper control limit and lower control limits are plotted by lines 193 and 194, and the predetermined upper and lower specification limits are plotted by lines 195 and 196. 在图17的例子中,过程变量的标准差跨越控制上限和控制下限的许多倍,并且跨越规定上限和规定下限的很多倍,因此潜在地表明当前或将来可能会出现异常状况。 In the example of FIG. 17, the standard process variable difference across many times the upper control limit and lower control limits, and many times across the predetermined upper and lower specification limits, and thus potentially it may indicate current or future abnormal situation.

此外,应用程序40可以根据所采集的数据确定其它统计测量或值。 Further, the application 40 could determine other statistical measurements or values ​​from the data collected. 例如,应用程序40可以根据下式计算变量x的分布指标或测量,它可以包含任何统计变量:f(x)=12&pi;&sigma;exp[-(&chi;-&mu;)22&sigma;2]]]>(式9)应用程序40可以根据下式计算能力指标或测量:Cp=USL-LSL6&sigma;]]>(式10)并且可以根据下式计算两个变量(可以包含统计变量)之间的相关系数:Rxy=&Sigma;i=1N(xi-x&OverBar;)(yi-y&OverBar;)&Sigma;i=1N(xi-x&OverBar;)2&Sigma;i=1N(yi-y&OverBar;)2]]>(式11)在另一个例子中,根据下式可以计算两个变量之间的相关系数:Rxy=&Sigma;i=1N(xi-x&OverBar;)(yi-y&OverBar;)&Sigma;i=1N(xi-x&OverBar;)2&Sigma;i=1N(yi-y&OverBar;)2]]>(式12) For example, the application program 40 can distribution index or measurement calculated variable x, which can include any statistical variable: f (x) = 12 & pi; sigma &; exp [- (& chi; - & mu;) 22 & sigma; 2]]] Related]]> (formula 10) and may be calculated according to two variables (which can include statistical variables) between; Cp = USL-LSL6 & sigma:> (formula 9) applications 40 may be calculated according capability index or measurement factor: Rxy = & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-x & OverBar;) (yi-y & OverBar;) & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-x & OverBar;) 2 & Sigma; i = 1N (yi-y & OverBar;) 2]]> (formula 11 ) in another example, according to the correlation coefficient between the formulas can be calculated two variables: Rxy = & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-x & OverBar;) (yi-y & OverBar;) & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-x & OverBar; ) 2 & Sigma; i = 1N (yi-y & OverBar;) 2]]> (formula 12)

当然,查看应用程序40可以根据系统内的需要或需求执行对任何变量(包含统计变量及过程变量)的其它计算,以便确定加工厂内的一个或更多异常状况。 Of course, the viewing application 40 may be of any variable (includes statistical variables and process variables) as needed or desired to perform other computing within the system in order to determine one or more abnormal situation within the process plant. 因此,举例来说,应用程序40或其中的某些例程可以执行原理部件分析、回归分析、神经网络分析或者对所采集数据的任何其它单一变量分析或多变量分析,以执行异常状况检测和预防。 Thus, for example, the application 40 or some routine therein may perform principle component analysis, regression analysis, neural network analysis, or any other part of the collected data a single variable analysis or multivariate analysis to perform abnormal situation detection and prevention.

一般而言,图13、图14、图16和图17的图都是以绘制一个或更多SPM参数对时间的曲线为基础。 Generally, FIG 13, FIG 14, FIG 16 and FIG 17 are drawn to one or more SPM parameters versus time basis. 然而,查看应用程序40可以提供表示或图示与时间无关的一个或更多SPM变量之间相关度的图。 However, the viewing application 40 may be provided showing the relation between representations illustrating a time-independent or one or more SPM variables. 在一个例子中,查看应用程序40可以产生绘出一个SPM参数相对于另一个SPM参数的散布图。 In one example, the viewing application 40 may produce a scatter plot the SPM parameters with respect to the other of the SPM parameters. 查看应用程序40或用户可以确定相关系数,该相关系数表示了两个SPM参数(或两个SPM参数的某种组合)如何相关联。 Viewing application 40 or the user may determine a correlation coefficient, the correlation coefficient represents the two SPM parameters (or some combination of two SPM parameters) associated how. 图18图示了绘出两个SPM均值参数相对于彼此的散布图200。 18 illustrates plots two SPM mean parameters with respect to one another scatter plot 200. 这里,可以总地看出由于散布点的基本直线特性(即当一个均值增长时,另一个也趋向于增长),两个均值按照比例地相关。 Here, it can be seen that due to the total dispersion characteristic point substantially straight (i.e., when a mean growth, the other also tend to increase), the two means related to the scale. 恰好落在一般散布区域之外的点可以表示工厂内的潜在问题。 It happens to fall outside the general area of ​​the point spread may indicate a potential problem in the plant.

当然,查看应用程序40并不限于提供如图18的两维散布图。 Of course, the viewing application 40 is not limited to providing two-dimensional scatter diagram 18 of FIG. 实际上,查看应用程序40可以提供三维或更多维的散布图,这些散布图绘出了三个或更多SPM参数相对于彼此的散布图形。 In fact, the viewing application 40 may provide three or more dimensional scatter plot, scatter plot which depicts three or more SPM parameters with respect to one another spreading pattern. 例如,图19图示了一个三维散布图210,它绘出了三个SPM参数相对于彼此的关系,尤其是三个过程变量的均值相对于彼此的关系。 For example, FIG. 19 illustrates a three-dimensional scatter diagram 210, which depicts three SPM parameters with respect to each other relations, in particular the mean three process variables relationship relative to each other.

图20图示了一个四维散布图矩阵220,它图示了四个SPM参数之间的相关度。 20 illustrates a four-dimensional scatter diagram matrix 220 which illustrates the correlation between four SPM parameters. 实质上,散布图矩阵220包括16个不同的两维散布图,这16个散布图中的每一个均绘出了四个SPM参数之一对四个SPM参数中另外一个的分布。 Essentially, the scatter diagram matrix 220 includes 16 different two-dimensional scatter plot, scatter plot in which 16 Each of the four SPM parameters plotted in another one of the four SPM parameters distribution. 这里,用户仍然可以快速地查看不同SPM参数之间的相关度或相互关系,以力图检测当前的异常状况,或者预测加工厂内将来可能出现的异常状况。 Here, the user can still quickly view the correlation or relationship to each other between different SPM parameters, in an attempt to detect the current abnormal situation or predict abnormal situations that may arise in the future within the plant.

同样,图18-20的散布图与其它已知散布图的不同之处在于这些散布图绘出了一个或更多过程变量的均值,而不是过程变量数据点本身。 Similarly, 18-20 scatter plot that other known scatter plots differs from the scatter diagram depicts mean one or more process variables, not the process variable data points themselves. 因此,通常在过程变量中出现的噪声得以降低,从而得到更平滑且更可理解的数据描绘。 Therefore, the noise typically present in the process variables is reduced, resulting in smoother and more understandable drawing data. 此外,应用程序40并不局限于仅绘制均值,而且还可以绘制其它统计变量如标准差、中值等之间的相互关系。 Additionally, the application 40 is not limited to mean only drawing, but also plotted the relationship between other statistical variables, such as standard deviation, median and the like. 此外,应用程序40可以绘制不同类型的统计变量相对于彼此的相关度,例如均值和标准差,以及统计变量的组合,例如一个过程变量的标准差/均值对另一个过程变量的均值。 In addition, application 40 may draw different types of statistical variables with respect to one another correlation, e.g. mean and standard deviation, as well as combinations of statistical variables, such a standard process variable difference / average mean and other process variables. 仅仅作为例子,应用程序40可以绘制任何一个监控过程变量的SPM模块的均值、标准差、均值变化、标准差变化或这些SPM变量的任意数学组合。 Mean of example only, the application 40 can draw any SPM block monitoring a process variable, standard deviation, mean change, standard deviation change, or any mathematical combination of these SPM variables.

如果需要,并且通常如上面所指出的,查看应用程序40可以利用任何标准或已知的相关度计算,来计算或确定任意一对SPM参数的相关系数。 If desired, and as generally noted above, the viewing application 40 may utilize any standard or known correlation calculations to calculate or determine any pair of SPM parameters correlation coefficient. 当相关系数接近1(或-1)时,两个SPM参数之间存在强的线性相关(或负线性相关)。 When the correlation coefficient close to 1 (or -1), there is a strong linear correlation (or negative linear correlation) between the two SPM parameters. 对于一组两个以上的SPM变量,可以确定相关矩阵,其中相关矩阵中的每一个元素均都定义了不同组的两个SPM参数之间的相关系数。 For more than one set of two SPM variables, a correlation matrix can be determined, where each element in the correlation matrix defines the average correlation coefficient between a different set of two of the SPM parameters. 图21图示了示例性相关矩阵230的一部分,该相关矩阵230具有加工厂串联回路内至少9个传感器测量的均值的相关系数。 FIG. 21 illustrates a portion of an exemplary correlation matrix 230, the correlation matrix 230 having correlation coefficients the mean plants series circuit of at least nine sensors measured.

根据图21的相关矩阵230,可以确定哪些SPM参数具有彼此最强的相关度。 The correlation matrix 230 of FIG. 21 may be determined which SPM parameters have the strongest correlation with each other. 明显地,类似图21的数字矩阵不容易查看。 Obviously, similar to FIG digital matrix 21 are not easily viewed. 然而,应用程序40可以将该矩阵显示为三维柱状图,例如图22所示的柱状图240。 However, the application 40 may display the three-dimensional histogram matrix, e.g. histogram 240 shown in FIG. 22. 在该三维柱状图240中,可以非常清楚地看到最强的相关度位于哪些地方。 In the three-dimensional bar chart 240, which can be seen most clearly located where the strongest correlation. 当然,应用程序40同样还可以以其它图形方式,例如线框图,等高线图等,来显示相关矩阵,所有这些都能够显示最强的相关度位于哪些地方。 Of course, the same application program 40 may also be other graphical manner, e.g. wireframes, contour, etc., to show the correlation matrix, all of which can be displayed is located where the strongest correlation.

在一个例子中,例如图23的屏幕显示241所示的例子中,查看应用程序40可以提供相关度图,图示期望过程条件下的一组相关点与当前或不希望有的过程条件下的一组相关点之间的差别。 In one example, FIG. 23, for example, a screen display 241 in the example shown, the viewing application 40 may provide an affinity graph, a set of correlation points in a desired process condition and illustrating a current or undesired process conditions in some the difference between a set of relevant points. 因此,图23的屏幕241包含第一相关度图242A和第二相关度图242B,第一相关度图242A图示期望过程条件下的一组相关点(用X标注),第二相关度图242B图示当前过程条件下的同样一组相关点,由此显示期望过程条件下与当前过程条件下的参数相关度之间的偏差,这可以表示过程内存在异常状况。 Thus, the screen 241 of FIG. 23 comprises a first correlation FIGS. 242A and 242B of the second affinity graph, a set of correlation points in a desired process condition 242A illustrated in FIG first correlation (denoted by X), a second correlation FIG. Also a set of correlation points in a current process condition illustrated 242B, thereby displaying a desired process condition and parameters of the deviation between the correlation in the current process conditions, this may indicate an abnormal condition exists in the process. 这里,用X标注的每个相关点均为同一SPM模块或不同SPM模块的至少两个不同SPM参数的相关值。 Here, each associated with point X are denoted by the same SPM block or of different SPM blocks of the at least two different SPM parameters of correlation values. 当然,如图23所示,对于一个或两个过程条件,都可以绘制基准均值μ和基准标准差σ。 Of course, as shown in Figure 23, for one or both process conditions, reference can draw the mean μ and the reference standard deviation σ.

同样,如图24的屏幕243所示,查看应用程序40可以创建色码相关度矩阵,其中根据其幅度,将特定相关点的值图示为一组不同颜色中的一种。 Similarly, as shown in the screen 243 of FIG. 24, the viewing application 40 may create a color-coded correlation matrix, where their amplitude, the value of a particular correlation point is illustrated in one of a set of different colors. 这样一种相关点使用户更容易查看不同SPM参数之间的相关度,并由此检测加工厂内异常状况的出现,或者预测加工厂内将来可能出现的异常状况。 Such a correlation point easier for a user to see the correlation between different SPM parameters and thereby detect the occurrence of an abnormal condition processing plant, the plant or predicted abnormal situations that may occur in the future. 同样,应当理解,可以对其它类型的SPM参数(不仅仅是均值)、SPM参数的数学组合以及不同类型的SPM参数,确定和用图表示该相关矩阵。 Similarly, it should be understood that other types of SPM parameters (not just the mean), the mathematical combination of the SPM parameters as well as different types of SPM parameters, indicating that the correlation matrix is ​​determined using FIG.

更进一步,除了上述所讨论的以外,或者作为替代,应用程序40可以提供SPM数据的其它视图。 Still further, in addition to those discussed above, or alternatively, the application 40 can provide other views of the SPM data. 作为一个例子,应用程序40可以按照时间沿X轴,SPM模块的均值和标准差沿Y和Z轴的三维趋势图的形式;按照沿X和Y轴绘出均值和标准差,沿Z轴绘出各自数量的三维直方图的形式;按照时间沿X轴,SPM模块的均值和标准差沿Y和Z轴,并且包含用于均值和标准差中的一个或两个的控制上限和控制下限和/或规定上限和规定下限的三维趋势图的形式,提供可视化的图形或图。 As one example, application 40 may be in the form of three-dimensional trend graph along the X axis time, mean and standard deviation along the Y and Z axes of the SPM blocks; in accordance with the X and Y-axis plots the mean and standard deviation, plotted along the Z axis form a three-dimensional histogram of respective amounts; in time along the X axis, the SPM block mean and standard deviation along the Y and Z axes, and comprising a mean and standard deviation or for the upper control limit and lower control limits and two / or in the form of a predetermined upper limit and lower limit of the predetermined three-dimensional trend, and provide a visual or graphic FIG. 当然,可视化SPM数据的方式几乎是无限的,并且本公开内容并不限于上述的特定方法。 Of course, the SPM data visualization almost limitless, and the present disclosure is not limited to the particular method.

图25图示了一个绘图屏幕244,它可以由查看应用程序40生成,以使用户能够比较不同变量的曲线,例如SPM参数或相关变量或例如测量的数据和预测的数据之类的数据的SPM参数。 FIG 25 illustrates a plotting screen 244 that may be generated by the viewing application 40 to enable a user to compare curves for different variables, such as SPM SPM parameters or related variables or data such as classes of data and the predicted measurement data parameter. 在这种情况下,绘图屏幕244的一部分245可以使用户能够选择要在屏幕的绘图部分246上显示的数据的特定图线。 In this case, the drawing part of the screen 245 244 may enable a user to select a particular plot to be displayed on the drawing portion 246 of the screen data. 例如,用户可以选择查看(在同一屏幕上的分级结构视图中选择的设备的)测量数据的图,预测数据(例如由模型生成的数据)的图,残余数据的图等,所有这些图都可以在同一幅图中。 For example, a user can choose to see (the device hierarchy view on the same screen selection) FIG measurement data, prediction data (e.g., generated by a model data) and FIG like residual data, all these figures are in the same figure. 用户还可以选择执行图中的漂移检测和/或在绘图部分246上显示测量门限值。 Users can also choose to perform a drift detection in the FIG., And / or displayed on the drawing portion 246 of the measurement threshold. 在图25的例子中,用户已经选择查看与预测数据并列的测量数据(可以是SPM数据或原始过程变量数据)的图,以便查看测量过程状态和预测过程状态之间的漂移或不一致。 In the example of FIG. 25, the user has selected to view data in parallel with the predicted measurement data (which may be SPM data or raw process variable data) of FIG, to view a drift or inconsistency between the state and the measurement state prediction process. 当然,应用程序40可以使用户能够选择绘制在一起的其它变量和数据(既有SPM数据,还有过程变量数据),以查看其它关系。 Of course, the application 40 may enable a user to select other variables and data (both SPM data, as well as process variable data) is plotted together to view other relationships.

作为另一个例子,查看应用程序40可以在同一幅图上产生两个(或更多)不同SPM参数的趋势图,从而使用户能够查看一个SPM参数相对于其它参数的预期或意外形态。 As another example, the viewing application 40 may produce two (or more) different SPM parameters in the trend graph on the same graph, so that a user can view the SPM parameters with respect to the intended form of accident or other parameters. 图26图示了这样的一幅图250,其中两个SPM参数用线252(与阀门相关)和254(与变送器相关)来绘制。 FIG 26 illustrates such an FIGS. 250 and 254 wherein two SPM parameters (associated with a transmitter) with the lines 252 (associated with a valve) to draw. 在该例中,用户或工程师可以预期两个SPM参数的正规发散(divergence),然后是两个SPM参数的收敛到特定的界限,例如用竖直线255和256示出的界限。 In this embodiment, the user or engineer contemplated regular divergence of the two SPM parameters (Divergence), then converges to a certain threshold of two SPM parameters, such as the boundaries shown by vertical lines 255 and 256. 然而,当在收敛到该界限之前,出现两个变量之间的发散之后,例如竖直线257和258所示,用户或工程师可以知道存在问题,或者将来可能会出现异常状况。 However, when this limit prior to the convergence, the divergence between the two variables occurs, for example, the vertical lines 257 and 258, the user or engineer may know that a problem, or exception condition may occur in the future.

应该相信,SPM参数的相关度可以给工厂、工厂一部分、一台设备等总的健全状况的某种指示。 It is believed that the correlation SPM parameters can give the factory, some indication of the overall condition of the sound part of the plant, such as a piece of equipment. 当工厂(或工厂的一部分,或一台设备等)处于正常操作状态时,某些变量可能与其它变量高度相关。 When a plant (or a portion of a piece of equipment or plant, etc.) in a normal operation state, some variables may be highly correlated with other variables. 随着时间的过去,某些相关值可能会发生变化。 Over time, some of the relevant value may vary. 某些相关值的变化可能表示工厂不再以与它先前相同的性能来运行。 Certain changes may indicate that the correlation value with the plant is no longer the same performance as it was previously operated. 因此,以下描述的一些例子提供一个或更多相关值如何随时间发生变化的可视化方法。 Therefore, some examples described below provide one or more visualization methods how values ​​change over time.

为了查看相关值随时间发生的变化,可以在不同时刻计算相关值。 In order to view the correlation value changes occur over time, the correlation value may be calculated at different times. 诸如式11或式12的公式可以用来生成来自整个变量范围的数据的相关值。 Formula 11 or Formula 12, such as a formula may be used to generate a correlation value of data from the entire range of variable. 另外,可以将数据分为特定长度的若干段(例如,30分钟,1小时,6小时,1天,7天,特定的采样数目,等等),从而可以对每一段计算一个或更多相关值。 Further, data may be divided into segments of a specific length (e.g., 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours, 1 day, 7 days, a particular number of samples, etc.), can be calculated for each section of the one or more value. 因此,如果相关值从一段变化到下一段,这可以认为是相关值随时间发生的变化。 Thus, if the correlation value changes from segment to the next, which can be considered as the correlation value changes occur over time. 作为另一个例子,可以基于数据的滑动窗来生成相关值,所述滑动窗具有特定的长度(例如,30分钟,1小时,6小时,1天,7天,特定的采样数目,等等)。 As another example, data may be based on a sliding window to generate a correlation value, the sliding window having a particular length (e.g., 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours, 1 day, 7 days, a particular number of samples, etc.) .

图27是单一相关值随时间变化的示例性图260。 FIG 27 is an exemplary view of a single correlation value over time 260. 图28是多个相关值随时间变化的示例性图262。 FIG 28 is an exemplary diagram of a plurality of correlation values ​​over time 262. 从图28中可以看出,在同一幅图上绘制的相关值越多,图形变得越凌乱。 As can be seen from Figure 28, more on the same drawing a correlation value, the graphic becomes messy. 因此,以下将描述用于可视化与多个相关值相关的数据的其它示例性方法。 Thus, the following description will further exemplary method of visualizing data associated with multiple correlation values ​​are used.

在一个例子中,绘制相关值的变化。 In one example, the change in the correlation value plotted. 例如,可以绘制来自初始值、先前值、基准值、“正常”值、预期值等的相关值的变化。 For example, drawing from the initial value, a previous value, the reference value, the "normal" value, the expected value of the change in the correlation value and the like. 在该例中,该变化可以表示为相对变化(例如百分比),或者也可以表示为绝对变化。 In this embodiment, the change may be expressed as a relative change (e.g. percentage), or may be expressed as an absolute change.

通常,应当根据基础数据量来计算给定相关值的基准值,该基础数据量是以所需要生成作为相关值基础的数据的过程变量数据的数量为基础的。 Typically the number should be calculated according to the amount of data for a given basic value related to a reference value, the base data is required to generate an amount of data as the basis of a correlation value based on process variable data. 例如,可以基于短则5分钟或长则1天的数据段,生成均值数据。 For example, based on short as 5 minutes or as long one day data segment, generating mean data. 目前人们相信,利用至少30个均值数据点从均值数据得到的相关值能够提供统计上可靠的采样。 At present it is believed that the use of at least 30 data points from the mean average of the correlation values ​​obtained by providing reliable data on statistical sampling. (应当理解,在某些实现方案中,30以下的均值数据点可能提供统计上可靠的相关值,或者可能需要30以上的均值数据点)。 (It should be understood that in some implementations, less than 30 mean data points may provide a statistically reliable correlation value, or more than 30 mean data points may be required). 在这种情况下,如果将均值数据点估计为5分钟的时间间隔,则相关度窗口应当近似为3小时或更长。 In this case, if mean data points are estimated at 5 minutes intervals, the correlation window is should be approximately 3 hours or longer.

在某些实现方案中,在保存第一均值之前,生成均值数据包括训练时期。 In some implementations, prior to storing the first mean value, generating mean data includes a training period. 在这些实现方案中,生成均值的算法包括试图确定该过程的基准均值。 In these implementations, generating mean comprises algorithm attempts to determine the mean of the reference process. 可以通过验证两个连贯数据块的均值和标准差在彼此的特定容差以内,来确定基准均值的存在。 It can be verified by the mean and standard difference between two consecutive blocks of data within a certain tolerance of each other, to determine the presence of the reference mean. 这可能有助于确保该基准均值来自于过程处于稳定状态的时间段,而不是过程处于暂态的时间段。 This may help to ensure that the baseline the mean time the process is in a stable state comes from, rather than the process in the transient period of time. 在确定了基准均值之后,该算法开始计算和提供可以由其它算法、过程等所使用的均值。 After determining the reference mean, the algorithm starts calculating and providing mean value can be used by other algorithms, processes and the like. 这些均值可以用来计算相关值。 These can be used to calculate the mean correlation value. 因此,当用该算法计算第一均值时,该过程可以处于稳定状态并且处于正常运行状态。 Thus, when calculating a first mean value by the algorithm, the process may be in a steady state and is in a normal state.

在一个例子中,选择在确定了基准值之后计算的第一相关值作为基准相关度。 In one example, selecting a first correlation value calculated after determining the reference value as a reference correlation. 如上面所讨论的,在许多情况下,当计算第一相关值时,该过程可以处于稳定状态并且处于正常运行状态。 As discussed above, in many cases, when the first correlation value is calculated, the process may be in a stable state and in a normal operating state.

然而,在某些情况下,如果人们总是试图将第一相关值用作“正常”值,那么可能会发生问题。 However, in some cases, if people always try to first correlation value is used as a "normal" value, then the problem may occur. 例如,该过程可能是这样的:即使在正常运行状态下,从一个相关块到下一个相关块的相关系数也是不规律的。 For example, the process may be this: Even in the normal operating state, from one correlation block to the next block associated correlation coefficient is irregular. 如果两个变量本身具有很低的相关度,那么这尤其正确。 If two variables itself has a very low correlation, then this is especially true. 同样,如果把生成均值的SPM块的监控周期配置得过高或过低,或者如果当生成该均值的算法进行训练时该过程未处于正常状态,那么第一相关值可能不是正常值的良好估计。 Similarly, if the SPM block monitoring period arranged to generate the mean too high or too low, or if the mean value when the algorithm for generating the training process is not in the normal state, then the first correlation value may not be a good estimate of the normal value .

因此,在某些情形下,将与第一相关值不同的相关值用作基准相关值可能是有用的。 Thus, in some cases, the first correlation value as the correlation value different from the reference correlation values ​​may be useful. 另外,可以确定例如当相关值相对较小和/或不规律时,无法选择基准相关值,或者选择某些绝对值(例如0)作为该基准相关值。 Further, for example, it may be determined when the correlation value is relatively small and / or irregular, the reference correlation values ​​can not be selected, or select some absolute value (e.g., 0) as the reference correlation value.

以下描述了用于确定是否将第一相关值用作基准值的一些示例方法。 The following describes some exemplary methods for determining whether the first correlation value as the reference value. 在一个例子中,可以生成第一相关值与一个或更多后续相关值之间的差,以便查看第一相关值是否与后续相关值一致。 In one example, a difference may be generated between the first correlation value with one or more subsequent correlation values, to see if the first correlation value is consistent with the subsequent correlation values. 如果第一相关值与后续相关值相差一定的程度,很可能不应当将第一相关值用作基准值。 If the first correlation value with the subsequent correlation values ​​differ by a certain degree, it may not be the first correlation value is used as a reference value. 在一个特定例子中,将第一相关值与第二相关值进行比较。 In one specific example, the first correlation value is compared with a second correlation value. 如果第一相关值与第二相关值相差小于一定程度(例如1%,2%,3%,4%,5%,6%,7%,等等),那么第一相关值可以选择作为基准相关值。 If the first correlation value and the second correlation value by less than a certain degree (e.g. 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, etc.), then the first correlation value may be selected as a reference correlation value. 如果差别大于规定的程度,那么第一相关值不能选择作为基准相关值。 If the difference is greater than a predetermined degree, then the first correlation value is not selected as the baseline correlation value. 许多其它方法也可以用来确定第一相关值是否应当用作基准值。 Many other methods may be used to determine whether the first correlation value should be used as a reference value.

在一个例子中,可以基于所生成的多个相关值(例如,对这些相关值取平均,采用中值相关值,等等)来生成基准值。 In one example, correlation values ​​may be generated based on a plurality (e.g., taking the average correlation values, using the correlation value, etc.) to generate a reference value. 在其它例子中,可以基于来自另一类似过程所生成的一个或更多相关值、基于仿真、基于模型等来生成基准值。 In other examples, may be based on one or more correlation values ​​from another similar process is generated, based on the simulation model is generated based on the reference value and the like.

一旦已经为每个相关值确定了初始值、先前值、基准值、“正常”值,预期值等,就可以计算相关度变化阵列。 Once an initial value has been determined for each correlation value, a previous value, the reference value, the "normal" value, expected value, etc., can be calculated correlation change array. 相关度变化阵列可以包括每个相关值与其相应的初始值、基准值、“正常”值、预期值等之间的差别。 Correlation change array could include each correlation value corresponding to its initial value, the reference value, the "normal" value, the difference between the expected value and the like.

该差别可以表示为相对变化(例如百分比)或绝对变化。 This difference may be expressed as a relative change (e.g., a percentage) or an absolute change. 由于计算相关值的典型方法生成0和1之间的相关值,因此绝对变化也应当在0和1之间。 Since the typical method of calculating correlation values ​​generate correlation values ​​between 0 and 1, the absolute change and therefore should also be between 0 and 1. 然而,如果使用百分比变化,那么百分比变化可能会变得非常大,尤其是当基准相关度接近0时。 However, if the percentage change, then the percentage change is likely to become very large, especially when the reference correlation is near zero. 然而,当与使用绝对变化相比,使用百分比变化很有用和/或更可取时,可能会存在情况。 However, when useful and / or more desirable when there may be cases in comparison with the use of absolute change, the use of percentage change.

图29是相关值和基准值对时间的示例性图264。 FIG 29 is a correlation value and the reference value versus time of an exemplary 264. 图264使用户能够看出相关值与基准值随时间变化的差别。 FIG. 264 enables a user to see the difference between the reference value and the correlation value over time. 然而,如果将更多相关值和基准值添加到图264中时,该图线可能会变得凌乱。 However, if the added value and the reference value more to FIG. 264, the plot could become cluttered.

图30是相关值与相应基准值的差别矩阵的示例性显示266。 FIG 30 is an exemplary correlation matrix of difference values ​​corresponding to the reference value 266 of the display. 在该例中,对于确定为不具有基准的相关值而言,矩阵单元保留为空白。 In this embodiment, for a correlation value determined not to have a reference, the matrix cell blank. 可选地,这些矩阵单元可以用某些指示来填充,这些指示表示已经确定相应的相关值不具有基准。 Alternatively, these matrix cells can be filled with some indication, the indication indicates a correlation value has been determined not to have the corresponding reference.

图31是相关值与相应基准值的差别矩阵的示例性显示268。 FIG 31 is an exemplary correlation matrix of difference values ​​corresponding to the reference value 268 of the display. 在显示268中,将相关值的差别描绘为着色方块,其中方块的颜色表示差别程度。 In the display 268, the difference between the correlation value is depicted as a block colorant, wherein the color of the square indicates the degree of difference. 例如,如果绝对差别小于0.2,就给予该方块第一种颜色。 For example, if the absolute difference is less than 0.2 square is given a first color. 如果绝对差别大于0.4,就给予该方块第二种颜色。 If the absolute difference is greater than 0.4 square is given a second color. 如果绝对差别在0.2和0.4之间,就给予该方块第三种颜色。 If the absolute difference is between 0.2 and 0.4 square is given a third color.

图30和图31的显示266和268,显示了瞬间或一个时间段的相关度差别。 30 and 31 show 266 and 268, display correlation differences for a moment or a period of time. 在其它例子中,可以将显示修改为允许用户显示多个瞬间或时期的相关度差别。 In other examples, the display may be modified to allow a user to display correlation differences for multiple time instances or periods. 例如,可以提供用户接口机制(例如滚动条,箭头按钮等),以允许用户查看不同时期或不同时间段的差别。 For example, it may provide a user interface mechanism (e.g., a scroll bar, arrow buttons, etc.) to allow a user to view differences at different times or for different time periods. 例如,图31的显示268包括导航条269,以用于显示不同瞬间或不同时期的相关度差别。 For example, display 268 of FIG. 31 includes a navigation bar 269 for displaying correlation differences for different time instances or at different times. 另外,显示266和268可以包括用于“活动(animating)”显示的用户接口机制,以显示这些差别如何随着若干瞬间或时间段来发生变化。 Further, the display 266, and 268 may comprise a user interface mechanism "activity (animating)" is displayed to show how these differences with several time instances or segments change. 同样,显示264也可以提供有类似的用户接口机制,以允许用户查看不同的时间段。 Also, the display 264 may also be provided with a similar user interface mechanism to allow a user to view different time periods.

另外,可以组合多个相关度差别值以生成代表多个相关值差别的值。 In addition, a combination of a plurality of correlation difference values ​​to generate a value representative of a plurality of correlation difference values. 该值可以随时间来绘制。 This value may be plotted over time. 可以以各种方式来组合多个相关度差别值。 You may be combined in various ways plurality of correlation difference values. 例如,可以将一组相关度差别值看作是向量,并且向量的范数可以代表相关度值的差别。 For example, a set of correlation difference values ​​could be considered as a vector, and the norm of the vector may represent the difference between correlation values. 以下提供三个等式以用于计算向量的范数。 Here three equations for calculating the norm of a vector. 范数可以根据这些等式中的任意一个,或不同的等式来计算。 Norm may be calculated according to any of these equations, or a different equation.

1范数:||&Delta;C||1=1N&Sigma;i=1N|&Delta;Ci|]]>(式13) Norm 1: || & Delta; C || 1 = 1N & Sigma; i = 1N | & Delta; Ci |]]> (Formula 13)

2范数:||&Delta;C||2=&Sigma;i=1N&Delta;Ci2N]]>(式14)无穷范数:||&Delta;C||&infin;=maxi=1N|&Delta;Ci|]]>(式15)其中ΔCi是第i个相关度差别值,N是相关度差别值的数目。 2 norm: || & Delta; C || 2 = & Sigma; i = 1N & Delta; Ci2N]]> (Formula 14) infinite norm: || & Delta; C || & infin; = maxi = 1N | & Delta; Ci |] ]> (formula 15) where is the i-th ΔCi correlation difference values, N is the number of correlation difference values. 如果需要,可以省略等式13中的 If desired, can be omitted in equation 13 因子以及等式14中的 Factor and the equation 14 因子。 factor. 另外,同样也可以使用其它等式。 Additionally, other equations may be used similarly.

图32是2-范数(等式14)值对时间的示例性图270,该2-范数值对应于多个相关度差别值。 FIG 32 is a 2-norm (equation 14) value versus time of an exemplary 270, the 2-norm value corresponding to a plurality of correlation difference values. 图33是示例性显示272,它包括用于特定时刻或时间段的多个相关度差别的相关度差别矩阵273,以及多个相关度差别的2-范数值对时间的图274。 FIG 33 is an exemplary display 272 comprising a plurality of correlation differences for a particular time correlation differences matrix 273 or time period, and a plurality of correlation differences versus norm value of 2 times 274. 显示272还可以包括允许用户查看不同瞬间或时间段的相关度差别矩阵273和/或图274的用户接口机制(例如,滚动条,按钮等)。 Display 272 may further include allowing a user to view the correlation differences matrix 273 and user interface mechanisms / or 274 of FIG different time instances or segments (e.g., a scroll bar, buttons, etc.). 例如,显示272包括导航条275。 For example, the display 272 includes a navigation bar 275. 另外,图274可以包括指示对应于相关度差别矩阵273的图274上瞬间或时间段的指示符。 Further, FIG. 274 may include an indication 273 of FIG matrix corresponding to the indicator 274 on the instant or period in correlation difference. 此外,显示272可以包括用户接口机制,以允许“活动”矩阵273,以显示矩阵273中的相关度差别如何在若干瞬间或时间段上发生变化。 Further, the display 272 may include a user interface mechanism to allow "active" matrix 273 to show how the correlation differences matrix change 273 occurs over several time instances or segments.

如先前所提及的,相关值可以表示两个变量之间线性相关程度的测量。 As mentioned previously, a correlation value may indicate the degree of linear correlation between two variables measured. 当在一组数据上进行线性回归时可以确定相关值。 Correlation value may be determined when linear regression on a set of data. 通常,线性回归确定“最佳”拟合该组数据的一条线。 Typically, the linear regression to determine the "best" line to fit the set of data. 线性回归拟合的结果常常是线的斜率和线的Y截距。 Linear regression fit often results in the slope and Y-intercept of the line wires. 该线的斜率和/或该线斜率随时间的变化可能在监控工厂、工厂的一部分、过程、一台设备的健康状况,和/或检测异常状况方面是有用的。 The slope of the line and / or the slope of this line over time may monitor the health of the plant, part of plant, a process, an apparatus, and / or aspects detecting an abnormal condition is useful. 只要给定了两组数据X和Y,就可以根据下述等式来计算最佳拟合线的斜率:mxy=&Sigma;i=1N(xi-x&OverBar;)(yi-y&OverBar;)&Sigma;i=1N(xi-x&OverBar;)2]]>(式16)其中xi是X数据组的第i个采样,yi是Y数据组的第i个采样, x是X数据组中采样的均值, y是Y数据组中采样的均值,而N是数据组X和Y中每一个数据组的采样数目。 Just given two sets of data X and Y, can be calculated according to the following equation slope of the best fit line: mxy = & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-x & OverBar;) (yi-y & OverBar;) & Sigma; i = 1N (xi-x & OverBar;) 2]]> (formula 16) where xi is the i-th sample of the X data set, yi is the i-th sample of the Y data set, x is the mean of X data set samples, y Y is the mean of the sampled data set, and N is the number of sample data sets each of X and Y is a group of data.

通过将其绘制在极坐标图上,能够可视化相关值和相应的斜率。 By being plotted on a polar plot, the slope of the correlation values ​​and corresponding can be visualized. 特别地,相关值的绝对值能够对应于极径,而极角可以根据下式来确定:θ=tan-1m (式17)其中m是由等式16或其它等式确定的斜率。 In particular, the absolute value of the correlation values ​​can correspond to the polar radius, polar angle and may be determined according to the formula: θ = tan-1m (Formula 17) wherein m is other equations or determined by Equation 16 slope. 反正切函数的值域为 Arc tangent function of range for the 因此,使用该方法只有一半极坐标平面能够包含相关点。 Thus, using this method only half of the polar coordinate plane can comprise the relevant point. 可选择地,为了利用整个极坐标平面,可以使用等式:θ=2.tan-1m (式18)在这种情况下,图上显示的极角不能够表示该线的准确斜率。 Alternatively, in order to utilize the entire polar coordinate plane, use the equation: θ = 2.tan-1m (Formula 18) In this case, the polar angle shown on the graph can not be accurately represented slope of the line. 然而,如果用户发现它在视觉上更加吸引人的话,这可能是合乎需要的折衷权衡。 However, if users find it more visually appealing, then it may be desirable tradeoffs. 图34显示了如何在极坐标图276上绘制相关值和相应于最佳拟合线斜率的极角的一个例子。 Figure 34 shows an example of how the polar angle of the correlation value plotted on a polar plot 276 and corresponding to the slope of the best fit line.

图35是使用极坐标绘制的相关值和极角的示例性显示278。 FIG 35 is plotted using polar coordinates exemplary correlation value and the polar angle of the display 278. 在显示278中,中心表示相关度接近0,而外侧表示相关度接近1。 In the display 278, the center represents a correlation close to zero, while the outside represents a correlation near 1. 因此外环中显示的点是最高相关度的点,而中心圆中显示的点是最低相关度的点。 Therefore, the outer ring shows the point of highest correlation point, but the point is displayed in the center of the circle is the lowest point of relevance. 可以将环着色以助于表示不同的相关度等级。 Ring may be colored to help indicate the different levels of correlation. 显示278还可以包括用户接口机制(例如滚动条,按钮等),以允许用户查看不同瞬间或时间段的图。 Display 278 may further include a user interface mechanism (e.g., a scroll bar, buttons, etc.) to allow users to view FIG different time instances or segments. 例如,显示278包括导航条279。 For example, the display 278 includes a navigation bar 279.

在另一个例子中,相关值和基准之间的差别可以绘制在极坐标图上。 In another example, the difference between the correlation value and the reference can be plotted on a polar plot. 在该例中,计算相关度变化的幅度,作为相关值与其基准之间差别的绝对值,并且极角是简单利用例如等式18计算的相关值角度。 In this embodiment, the correlation is calculated amplitude changes, as an absolute value of a difference between a correlation value and its baseline, and the polar angle is, for example, using a simple correlation value of the angle calculated in equation 18. 因此,接近它们基准值的相关值将趋向于导致位于图中心的相关度变化值。 Thus, they are close to the reference value of the correlation value will tend to result in correlation change values ​​located in the center of FIG. 如果相关值与其基准相比发生了显著的变化,它将趋向于导致远离图中心的相关度变化值。 If the correlation value and its baseline significantly changed compared, it will tend to result in correlation change values ​​away from the center of FIG. 图36是使用极坐标绘制的相关度变化值的示例性显示280。 FIG 36 is plotted using polar coordinates changes exemplary display 280 of correlation values. 显示280的环表示相关值与其基准值之间不同等级的幅度差别,并且可以进行彩色编码。 Ring represents the display 280 different levels of amplitude differences between the correlation value and its baseline value and can be color coded. 在示例性显示280中,中心环表示小于0.2的相关度差别。 In the exemplary display 280, the center ring represents a correlation difference less than 0.2. 中间的环表示小于0.4且大于或等于0.2的相关度差别。 The middle ring represents less than 0.4 and greater than or equal to 0.2 of correlation differences. 外环表示小于0.6且大于或等于0.4的相关度差别。 An outer ring means less than 0.6 and greater than or equal to 0.4 of correlation differences. 在不同实现方案中,可以使用不同数目的环和不同的半径。 In various implementations, a different number of rings and different radii. 显示280还可以包括用户接口机制(例如滚动条,按钮等),以允许用户查看不同瞬间或时间段的图。 Display 280 may further include a user interface mechanism (e.g., a scroll bar, buttons, etc.) to allow users to view FIG different time instances or segments. 例如,显示280包括导航条281。 For example, the display 280 includes a navigation bar 281.

在某些情形下,诸如图35和36的极坐标图可以在一幅图中绘制多个瞬间或时间段的相关值或相关度差别值。 In certain instances, such as FIG. 35 and FIG. 36 can be plotted in polar plurality of correlation values ​​or instantaneous period or a correlation difference values ​​in FIG. 例如,不同瞬间或时间段的相关值或相关度差别可以用线(可选择地,带有箭头)连接到一起,以帮助用户查看相关值或相关度变化值如何随时间变化。 For example, correlation values ​​or correlation differences for different time instances or segments may be connected together with lines (optionally having arrows) to help a user see how the correlation values ​​or correlation change values ​​change over time.

诸如图35和36的显示可以与其它显示结合,以帮助用户监控过程的健全状况。 Such as the display 35 and display 36 may be combined with other, to help improve the status of the user of the monitoring process. 例如,图23图示了包含有极坐标图的显示241。 For example, FIG. 23 illustrates a polar diagram with display 241.

以上关于图11-36描述的统计数据(例如均值、标准差、均值变化、标准差变化、相关度、相关度变化、基准等)可以由加工厂中的各种设备生成,例如现场设备、I/O设备、过程控制器、工作站、服务器、数据历史记录器等等。 The above description of FIGS. 11-36 statistics (e.g., mean, standard deviation, mean change, standard deviation change, correlation, correlation change, reference, etc.) may be generated by the various devices in the plant, such as field devices, I / O devices, process controllers, workstations, servers, data historians and the like. 例如,均值可以在现场设备中生成,而这些均值的相关度可以在工作站中生成。 For example, the mean may be generated in field devices, which may generate a mean degree of correlation in the workstation. 作为另一个例子,均值和均值相关度都可以在现场设备中生成。 As another example, the mean and the mean of the correlation can be generated in field devices.

尽管查看应用程序40可以向用户或工程师提供某些或所有上述讨论的视图,以便使用户能够手动地检测加工厂内异常状况的存在或可疑的将来存在,但准则机开发和执行应用程序42还可以用来基于SPM数据自动地检测异常状况。 While the viewing application 40 may provide some or all of the views discussed above to the user or engineer, to enable the user to manually detect the presence of an abnormal plant condition is present or suspected in the future, but the rules engine development and execution application 42 further SPM data may be used to automatically detect abnormal situations based. 在图37中更详细地图示了图1和2的准则机开发和执行应用程序42的一个可能实施例。 FIG 37 is illustrated in more detail in FIGS. 1 and 2 rules engine development and execution application 42 of a possible embodiment. 如图37所示,准则机开发和执行应用程序42包括可以是任何类型的基于专家机准则的准则机290,和一组准则292,准则可以存储在可以由准则机290访问的数据库中(例如图2的存储器78B内)。 37, the rules engine development and execution application 42 may include any type of machine criterion based on expert rules engine 290, 292 and a set of criteria, the criteria may be stored in a database accessible by the rules engine 290 (e.g. the memory 78B of FIG. 2). 准则机290采集或监控来自例如图1和图2的数据库43、现场设备、图2的通信服务器89、数据历史记录器等的统计过程监控数据(在框294表示)。 Or rules engine 290 collected statistical process monitoring data from the monitoring database 432, for example, field devices, the communication server 89 of FIG. 2, a data historian FIGS. 1 and the like (indicated at block 294). 当然,该SPM数据可以包括任何一种上述讨论的数据和例如通过应用程序38获取的数据,以及加工厂内生成的任何其它数据,既包括SPM数据也包括过程变量数据。 Of course, this SPM data may include any of the above discussed data and acquired by the application program data 38, and any other data generated within the plant, for example, including both SPM data including process variable data. 换句话说,准则机290可以接收SPM数据和各种其它类型的数据,包括例如过程配置数据、控制策略数据、控制输出数据、过程变量数据、历史数据、仿真数据、优化数据、警报、告警、警报/告警管理数据、文件管理数据、帮助/指南数据、转动设备数据、实验室分析数据、工业专用数据、环境规章数据等等。 In other words, the rules engine 290 may receive SPM data and a variety of other types of data, including, for example, process configuration data, control strategy data, control output data, process variable data, historical data, simulation data, optimization data, alerts, alarms, alarm / alarm management data file management data, help / guidance data, rotating equipment data, lab analysis data, industry-specific data, environmental data, etc. regulations.

准则机290将准则292应用于SPM和其它数据,以根据准则292中的至少一条准则确定是否存在这样的情况:该情况表明如框296所示,应当将警报或告警发送给用户。 The rules engine 290 applies the criteria 292 SPM and other data to determine if there is a case in accordance with the guidelines of the at least one criterion 292: This case showed that as shown in block 296, an alarm or alert should be transmitted to the user. 当然,如果需要,如果准则表示存在问题的话,除了提供或设置告警以外,准则机290还可以采取其它动作。 Of course, if necessary, the guidelines indicate if there is a problem, in addition to providing or setting an alarm outside the rules engine 290 may also take other action. 这些动作可以包括,例如切断过程或过程的更多部件,切换控制参数以改变过程控制等等。 These actions may include, for example, or more components during the cutting process, switching control parameters to alter the process control and the like.

另外,准则开发应用程序或例程298使用户能够基于统计数据模式及其相关度,开发一个或更多专家系统准则(例如用作准则292之一),由此检测已知的工厂、单元、设备、控制回路等的异常状况。 Further, guidelines developing applications or routines 298 enable a user to based on statistical data patterns and their correlation to develop one or more expert system criteria (for example, as one of guidelines 292), to thereby detect known plant, unit, abnormal condition of the equipment, such as control loops. 因此,尽管专家机290所用的至少某些准则292可以预先设置或预先配置,但准则开发应用程序298使用户能够基于所监控加工厂内的经验,创建其它准则。 Thus, although at least some of the criteria 292 can be pre-set by an expert machine 290 or preconfigured, but guidelines for developing applications 298 enables users to experience within the process plant based on the monitoring, create other criteria. 例如,如果用户知道SPM异常状况或事件的特定组合表示过程中的特定问题,那么用户可以使用准则开发应用程序298来创建适当的准则以检测该状况,并且如果需要的话,基于检测到的该状况的存在而生成告警或警报,或者采取某些其它动作。 For example, if the user knows the particular combination of SPM abnormal conditions or events indicate specific problems in the process, the user can use the guidelines to develop applications 298 to create an appropriate criterion to detect the situation and, if necessary, based on the detected the condition the presence of an alarm or alert generated, or take some other action.

当然,在加工厂的运行期间,配置为接收SPM数据(和任何其它所需数据)的准则机290应用准则292,以确定是否匹配任何一个准则。 Of course, during operation of the plant, configured to receive the SPM data (and any other desired data), the rules engine 290 operational criteria 292 to determine if any criteria match. 如果基于一个或更多准则292检测出过程中的问题,那么可以将警报显示给工厂操作员,或者发送给其它适当的人员。 If based on one or more criteria 292 detects problems in the process, then an alert can be displayed to a plant operator, or sent to another appropriate person. 当然,如果需要,用于检测工厂和过程操作内各种异常状况的各种准则可以作为专家系统运行时间机290的一部分,专家系统运行时间机290可以寻找数据和SPM参数的模式、相关度以检测开发的异常状况。 Of course, if desired various criteria for detecting various abnormal conditions within a plant and process operation of the expert system can be used as part of the runtime engine 290, the expert system runtime engine 290 can look for patterns of data and SPM parameters, the correlation to the abnormal situation detector development.

另外,可以被准则机290使用的某些数据是可以在生成SPM数据的设备内进行检测的SPM条件。 Further, some of the data may be used by the rules engine 290 are SPM conditions can be detected within the device generating the SPM data. 在这种情况下,准则机290可以是通过例如OPC服务器从设备读取SPM参数和条件的客户端系统,或者可以是客户端系统的一部分。 In this case, the rules engine 290 may be, for example, the OPC server by reading the SPM parameters and conditions from a client system, device, or may be part of a client system. 如上所讨论的,这些SPM参数可以存储到数据库中以备将来的使用,例如绘制均值和标准差对时间的图。 As discussed above, these SPM parameters may be stored in a database for future use, such as mean and standard deviation plotted against time. 在任何情况下,如果过程变量的均值或标准差的改变大于用户指定的数量,那么SPM模块自身可以检测出异常状况,例如均值变化、高变化、或低动态。 In any case, if the mean or standard process variable changes larger than the difference between the user-specified number, then the SPM block itself may detect an abnormal condition, e.g. mean change, change in high or low dynamic. 接下来,连同这些现场设备所采集的所有统计监控数据一起,这些异常状况可以随后传递给客户端系统,例如准则机290。 Next, together with all these statistics monitoring data collected by the field devices together, these anomalies can then be passed to the client system, for example, rules engine 290.

现在,如果工厂工程师或其它用户知道,当过程变量的特定组合以特定方式变化时,应当触发特定的告警,或需要采取特定的动作,那么工程师就可以使用准则定义例程298来定义一个准则以检测这种状况,如果出现了这组条件,那么该准则的应用程序就能够触发告警。 Now, if the plant engineer or other user to know when a specific combination of process variables change in a certain way, should trigger a particular alarm, or need to take specific action, the engineer can use the criteria defined routine 298 to define a criterion to detect this situation, if a set of conditions that arise, then the application of the guidelines will be able to trigger an alarm. 在一个例子中,准则定义应用程序298可以创建一配置屏幕,该配置屏幕使用户能够创建要存储在准则数据库292中的一个或更多如果-那么(IF-THEN)类型或布尔(Boolean)类型的准则。 In one example, the application 298 may define the criteria to create a configuration screen that enables the user to create a configuration screen to be stored in a database of codes 292 or more if - then (IF-THEN) or Boolean type (Boolean) Type guidelines. 图38图示了配置屏幕300的一个可能例子。 FIG 38 illustrates one possible example of a configuration screen 300. 特别地,配置屏幕300包括命名部分302,使用户能够为所创建准则定义名称;条件部分304,使用户能够为IF-THEN类型的准则定义“IF”条件;和动作部分306,使用户能够在发现“IF”条件为真时,定义要采取的“THEN”动作。 In particular, the configuration screen 300 includes a name portion 302, enables the user to create criteria defined name; condition section 304, enables the user to define "IF" condition as IF-THEN type criterion; and operation section 306, enables the user to It found that "IF" "THEN" action condition is true, is defined to be taken.

在图38的特定例子中,所创建的准则命名为“锅炉1检查(Boiler 1Check)”。 In the particular example of FIG. 38, the guidelines created named "Boiler 1 Check (Boiler 1Check)". 另外,如图38所示,条件部分304包括一组分离的条件表述,其中每一个均包括设备310(其中放置了提供条件表述所用的SPM数据的SPM模块)、SPM模块名称312(限定了要提供SPM数据的设备内的特定SPM模块)、SPM数据类型314(限定了SPM模块所提供的数据类型)、比较表述316(限定了SPM数据的数学比较运算)和数值部分318(限定了利用比较表述316要与所接收的SPM数据进行比较的门限值或数值)的表示。 Further, shown in Figure 38, the condition section 304 includes a separate set of condition statements, each of which includes a device 310 (which placed the SPM block providing the SPM conditions used expression data), SPM block name 312 (defining the need to the particular SPM block within provide SPM data device), SPM data type 314 (defining the type of data SPM block provided), comparing the expression 316 (defining a mathematical comparison operation SPM data) and a value section 318 (defining using the comparison the expression 316 represents a threshold value or values) to be compared with the received SPM data. 此外,框320允许用户选择或定义要在每组条件表述之间应用的布尔逻辑操作数,例如与(AND)操作数、或(OR)操作数,以便定义逻辑上组合这些条件表述从而定义总的“IF”条件的方式。 In addition, block 320 allows the user to select or define the conditions to be applied between each set of Boolean operands expressed, for example, (AND) operands, or (OR) operand, in order to define these conditions are logically combined to define the overall expression the "IF" mode conditions. 尽管仅将AND和OR布尔操作数图示为可能在图38中选择,但是还可以提供任何其它的布尔操作数(或其它期望类型的操作数),以便使用户能够创建更复杂的准则。 Although only the Boolean AND and OR operations shown in FIG. 38 may be selected as, but may also provide any other Boolean (or other desired type of operand), to enable a user to create more complex rules. 此外,一组复选框322和324可以用来定义条件表述的编组。 In addition, a set of check boxes 322 and 324 may be used to define the conditions expressed grouping. 例如,选择复选框322(前半个括弧之前)表示一套括弧内定义的一组新的条件表述的开始,而选择复选框324(后半个括弧之前)表示一套括弧内定义的一组条件表述的结束。 For example, select the check box 322 (the first half before the parenthesis) indicates the beginning of a new set of conditions expressed in parentheses defined, is selected (before the second half in parentheses) box 324 represents a defined set of parentheses It expressed the end of the set of conditions. 正如所理解的那样,在组合不同套括弧内的条件表述(或条件表述组)之前,可以使用它们之间的布尔操作数来组合一套括弧内的条件表述。 As will be appreciated, as before, a combination of different sets of conditions within the parentheses of expression (or group of condition statements), can use Boolean operands between them a combination of conditions expressed in parentheses.

因此,在图38的例子中,准则被定义为:(1)如果均值(由PT-101设备的SPM模块1测量)小于或等于102,并且标准差(由PT-102设备的SPM模块3测量)大于或等于1.234,或者(2)如果FT-201设备的SPM模块2的状态参数等于均值变化,并且FT-201设备的SPM模块4的状态参数等于均值变化,那么应当应用动作部分306中定义的动作。 Thus, in the example of FIG. 38, the criterion is defined as: (1) if the mean (1 measured by the SPM blocks PT-101 device) is less than or equal to 102, and the standard deviation (measured by the SPM blocks PT-102 device 3 ) is greater than or equal to 1.234, or (2) status parameter if FT-201 device SPM block 2 is equal to the mean change, and the FT-201 device SPM block status parameter 4 is equal to mean change, then it should use the operation section 306 is defined Actions.

如图38所示,动作部分306包括用户指定的警报名称部分330、严重性定义部分332和描述部分334。 38, an operation section 306 includes a user specified alert name section 330, a severity definition section 332 and section 334 is described. 警报名称部分330定义与当发现条件部分304为真时生成的警报相关联的名称,或给予该警报的名称,严重性定义部分332定义该警报的严重性(例如故障、维护、通信或其它警报类型),而描述部分334提供与该警报相关的描述,它可以提供给该警报的用户或查看者。 Alert name section 330 defines the condition section 304 is found when the name associated with true alerts generated, or the name of the given alert, the severity definition section 332 defines the severity of the alert (e.g., failure, maintenance, communication or other alert type), and the alert section 334 described in the relevant description, it can be provided to the user or viewer of the alert. 当然,尽管图38的动作部分306定义了要生成的警报,但是动作部分306还可以,或者改为定义要采取的其它动作,例如关闭工厂内的设备、单元等,切换或改变工厂内的控制设置,向工厂内的控制器提供新的设置点或控制条件等等。 Of course, although the operation portion 306 of FIG. 38 defines an alert to be generated, the action section 306 could also or instead define other actions to be taken, such as shutting in the plant, unit, etc., switching or changing a control within the plant provided, providing a new setpoint or control condition to a controller, etc. within the plant.

应当理解,在创建了一组准则并将其存储在图37的准则数据库292中之后,专家机开发和执行系统42可以基于在加工厂运行期间加工厂内的SPM模块所返回的数据或异常状况,自动地检测过程异常性。 It should be appreciated that a set of criteria is created and stored in a database of codes after 292 in FIG. 37, the expert engine development and execution system 42 may be based on the SPM blocks during operation of the plant within the plant data or abnormal conditions returned automatically abnormality detection process. 当然,应当理解系统42可以在加工厂运行期间持续地或周期性地操作或运行,以基于准则数据库292内的准则来检测加工厂内的异常状况。 Of course, it should be understood that system 42 may be operated continuously or periodically during plant operation or operation, based on the criteria in the criteria database 292 to detect an abnormal situation within the process plant.

如果需要,系统42可以提供查看屏幕,该屏幕向用户提供有关图37的准则机290的当前配置和状态的信息。 If desired, the system 42 may provide a view screen that provides information about the rules engine 37 of FIG. 290 to the current configuration and status of the user. 图39图示了这种显示的一个例子。 FIG 39 illustrates an example of such a display. 特别地,图39的显示340包括检测到的ADB分级结构110(正如最初关于图6和8所描述的一样),以及关于图8所描述的SPM数据115的摘要。 Specifically, the display 340 of FIG. 39 ADB hierarchy 110 includes detected (as originally described with respect to the same, and FIG. 8), and a summary about the SPM data 115 described in FIG. 8. 另外,图39的屏幕340包括准则摘要部分342,它列出并概括了与已经为准则机290定义并由其执行的准则有关的某些信息。 Further, the screen 340 of FIG. 39 includes a summary of the guidelines portion 342, which lists and summarizes some information about the already defined by the rules engine 290 executing its guidelines. 在图39的例子中,至少已经定义了三个准则,并且准则摘要部分342提供关于这三个准则中每一个所用设备的信息,以及由这三个准则中每一个生成的警报类型或严重性。 In the example of FIG. 39, at least three criteria have been defined, and the criteria summary section 342 provides information for each device, as well as alert type or severity of each of these three criteria generated on the three guidelines . 同样在图39中示出,警报摘要部分344提供准则机290基于由此定义的准则所设置或发送的任何警报的指示。 Also shown in FIG. 39, an alert summary provides an indication of any alert rules engine 290 based on criteria provided or transmitted portion 344 thus defined. 在图39的例子中,当前设置了两个警报,包括系统2故障(System2 Failed)警报和锅炉需要维护(Boiler NeedsService)警报。 In the example of FIG. 39, two alarms currently set, including system failure 2 (System2 Failed) alarms and the need to maintain the boiler (Boiler NeedsService) alarm. 这些警报基于摘要部分342中未专门说明的准则由图37的准则机290生成,但是如果需要的话,它也可以通过在摘要部分342中向下滚动来访问。 These alerts based on criteria not specifically described Summary section 342 is generated by the rules engine 290 of FIG. 37, but if desired, it can also be by scrolling down in the summary section 342 to access.

正如所理解的那样,可以通过关于图4描述的方法,提供可用的SPM模块主树形浏览器110和摘要115。 As appreciated, by the method described with respect to FIG. 4, the SPM blocks can be used to provide the main tree browser 110 and the summary 115. 同样,利用类似于图38的配置屏幕,可以由用户创建准则摘要部分342中的每一个准则。 Similarly, with the configuration screen similar to Figure 38, a summary can be created by the user for each criterion in a criterion portion 342. 并且,如果SPM模块的状态中任何条件与所定义的任何准则相匹配的话,则显示警报。 And, if the status of the SPM blocks in any conditions with any match the defined criteria, then an alarm is displayed. 当然,应当理解,用户可以使用已知的异常性预先定义准则,或者为新状况修改现有的准则,或者如果必要的话创建全新的准则。 Of course, it should be understood that the user can use the known exception of pre-defined criteria, or amend existing guidelines for the new situation, or if necessary create new guidelines.

图40和图41图示了准则创建或定义的屏幕的其它例子。 Other examples of FIGS. 40 and 41 illustrate a criterion create or define a screen. 例如,准则定义屏幕350包括“简单”型布尔准则定义器,它提供一组条件表述351,其中每一个条件表述均具有第一元素352,第一元素352规定要测试的变量或SPM参数,还包括测试或比较条件354(它可以是任何数学运算或测试),还具有其它元素356,其可以是任何过程变量或SPM参数。 For example, the guidelines 350 include a custom screen "simple" type Boolean defined criteria, which provides a set of condition statements 351, wherein each condition has a first presentation element 352, 352 of the first element to be tested SPM parameters or variables, further It includes testing or comparison condition 354 (which can be any mathematical operation or test), but also have other elements 356, which may be any process variable or SPM parameter. 这些元素中的每一个均可以手动地进行填充,或者如果需要的话可以从下拉菜单中进行选择。 Each of these elements can be filled manually, or if desired, can be selected from a drop-down menu. 同样,与图38的屏幕类似,可以指定一个布尔操作数,以组合每个条件表述354,而结果部分360可以用来指定警报名称、严重性以及作为警报一部分的要提供给用户的消息,倘若定义的IF表述为真的话。 Similarly, FIG. 38 is similar to the screen, can specify a Boolean operation to combine each condition expression 354, and the results section 360 may be used to specify an alert name, a severity and a message to be provided to alert the user of a part, if the definition of IF statement is true, then.

图41图示了更“高级”类型的准则定义器370,它包括可以通过不同按钮374的选择而构造的IF部分372。 FIG 41 illustrates a more "advanced" type defined criteria 370, which may be configured by comprising a selection of different buttons 374 IF section 372. 按钮374可以包括或允许用户指定类型或特定参数(例如ADB参数,SPM参数,过程变量(PV)状态或参数等)、布尔操作数、在部分372中创建更复杂的IF表述要用到的数字和数学等价表述。 Buttons 374 may include or allow a user to specify the type or a particular parameter (e.g., ADB parameter, the SPM parameter, a process variable (PV) status or parameter, etc.), Boolean operations, to create more complex IF statement in the section 372 to use a digital and mathematically equivalent expressions. 包含警报名称定义部分、严重性定义部分和消息部分在内的部分376,可以用来定义要由该准则生成的警报或告警。 Comprising alert name definition section, the severity definition section and a message portion of the inner portion 376 can be used to define the alarm or alert to be generated by this criterion. 当然,应用程序40可以提供定义要由准则机290执行准则的任何其它方式,以检测当前或预测的异常状况。 Of course, the application 40 may be provided to be defined by the any other manner of conduct to rules engine 290 to detect current or predicted abnormal situations.

此外,尽管图38、图40和图41的屏幕可以用来使用户能够定义IF-THEN类型的布尔准则,但是另外或替代地还可以定义其它类型的准则。 Further, although FIG. 38, the screen 40 and 41 may be used to enable a user to define IF-THEN type Boolean criteria, but additionally or alternatively other types may also be defined criteria. 例如,可以修改图38、图40和图41的屏幕,或者可以提供另外的屏幕以允许定义棋盘式分析表类型的准则(例如,类似于由微软的Excel棋盘式分析表软件提供的那些准则)、模糊逻辑准则、参数之间的数学关系、相关度生成、参数滤波(例如低通滤波、高通滤波、带通滤波、有限脉冲响应(FIR)滤波、无限脉冲响应(IIR)滤波等)等等。 For example, FIG. 38 may be modified, the screen of FIG. 40 and 41, or may provide additional screens to allow the definition of criteria spread sheet type (e.g., similar to that provided by Microsoft Excel spread sheet software that criteria ), fuzzy logic criterion, the mathematical relationship between the parameters, the correlation generation, parametric filtering (e.g., low pass, high pass, band pass filter, a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter, etc.) Wait.

在操作期间,图37的准则机290可以使用许多不同的方法来匹配SPM模块的条件与准则数据库292中定义的准则。 292 criteria defined during the operation, 290 of FIG rules engine 37 may use a number of different methods to match the conditions of the SPM blocks with the criteria database. 如果准则数据库292中的准则过于复杂,那么准则机290可以简单地用适当的逻辑处理机来编程。 If the criteria in the criteria database 292 is too complex, then the rules engine 290 could simply be programmed with the appropriate logic handlers. 然而,如果某些准则变得非常复杂,使用已经开发的专家系统工具是有益的。 However, if certain criteria become very complex, the use of already developed expert system tools are useful.

应当理解,一旦监控过程启动,所有准则就要通过任何适当的接口馈送到准则机292中。 It should be appreciated that, once the monitoring process starts, all the criteria necessary through any suitable interface 292 is fed into the rules engine. 此后,每当SPM条件变化时,例如能够由图4的框132或134检测到的,就将这些条件馈送到准则机292中。 Thereafter, each time the SPM conditions change, for example, can be detected by block 132 or 134 of FIG. 4 to, these conditions will be fed into the rules engine 292. 在每一个时间间隔内,准则机292确定是否匹配任一准则的条件。 Within each time interval, the rules engine 292 determines whether or not the condition matches any criteria. 如果满足任一准则,则准则机292将通知发回给主应用程序,从而可以向用户显示警报,或者基于满足特定准则的动作表述,采取某些其它动作。 If any of the criteria are satisfied, then the rules engine 292 will notify back to the main application, so that the user can display an alert, based on the action or expression of certain criteria are met, to take some other action.

图42图示了加工厂一部分的示例性屏幕显示380和告警显示382。 FIG 42 illustrates an exemplary screen plant part of the display 380 and alarm display 382. 如果满足一个或更多适当的准则,那么准则机292可以使告警显示382进行显示。 If satisfy one or more suitable criteria, then the rules engine 292 may cause the alarm display 382 to be displayed. 告警显示382可以包括建议的校正动作、到工厂程序的链接、到查看性能/质量数据的链接等等。 Alarm display 382 may include corrective action recommended by the program to link farms, link to view the performance / quality of the data and so on. 屏幕显示830还可以包括显示与该告警相关的设备、回路、测量等的显示部分周围的突显部分383。 Display screen 830 may further include a display portion 383 around the display to highlight some of the equipment, circuits, measurements, etc. associated with the alarm. 举例来说,准则机290可以向查看应用程序40发送数据,从而使它显示告警显示382和突显部分383。 For example, rules engine 290 can send data to the viewing application 40, alarm display 382 so that it is displayed and highlighted portion 383.

图43图示了加工厂一部分的另一示例性屏幕显示384,该显示384包含警报/告警信息。 43 illustrates another exemplary plant part of the display screen 384, the display 384 comprises an alert / alarm information. 特别地,图385显示了与该警报/告警相关的各种统计参数。 In particular, Figure 385 shows various statistical parameters associated with the alert / alarm. 屏幕显示384还可以包括显示与该告警相关信息的信息窗口386和387。 Display screen 384 may further include a window displaying information related to the alarm information 386 and 387. 信息窗口386和387例如通过彩色编码,可以显示不同的重要性等级。 Information window 386 and 387, for example by color coding, different levels of importance can be displayed. 如果满足一个或更多适当的准则,准则机290可以使窗口385、386和387进行显示。 If satisfy one or more of the appropriate guidelines, rules engine 290 can make the display window 385, 386 and 387. 举例来说,准则机290可以向查看应用程序40发送数据,从而使它显示窗口385、386和387。 For example, rules engine 290 can send data to the viewing application 40, such that it displays windows 385, 386 and 387.

图44图示了加工厂一部分的又一示例性屏幕显示390,该显示390包含警报/告警信息。 FIG. 44 illustrates yet another exemplary process plant part of the display screen 390, the display 390 comprises an alert / alarm information. 图45图示了加工厂一部分的再一示例性屏幕显示395,该显示395包含警报/告警信息。 45 illustrates another exemplary plant part of the display screen 395, the display 395 comprises an alert / alarm information.

尽管以上对准则机292进行了描述,另外地或替代地还可以使用其它类型的分析机。 Although the rules engine 292 of the above described, additionally or alternatively may also use other types of analysis machine. 可以使用的其它类型分析机的例子包括数学计算系统(例如,来自Wolfram Research的Mathematica计算系统,来自MathWorks的MATLAB系统等)、模糊逻辑分析机、模式匹配机、神经网络、回归分析机等等。 Examples of other types of analyzers may be used include mathematical computing system (e.g., Mathematica the computing system from Wolfram Research, from The MathWorks MATLAB systems, etc.), the fuzzy logic analyzer, pattern matching machines, neural networks, regression analysis, etc. Wait.

尽管上述数据采集技术、可视化技术和准则机技术可以用来在图1的工厂配置中采集、查看和处理SPM数据,它同样也可以用于其它配置中。 Although the above-described data collection technique, visualization technique and rules engine techniques may be used in the plant of FIG. 1 configuration acquisition, view and process SPM data, it also may be used in other configurations. 例如,它可以用于基于PC的环境中(例如DeltaV、AMS和Ovation),其中软件对各种服务器(例如OPC服务器、web服务器等)进行访问,以便获取工厂分级结构,并查找给定工厂中的设备,以及确定带有ADB和SPM功能的设备。 For example, it can be used in the PC environment (for example, DeltaV, AMS, and Ovation) based on which various server software (such as OPC servers, web servers, etc.) access, in order to get the factory hierarchy, and look for a given plant equipment, and determining the devices with ADB and SPM capabilities. 另一种使用是直接用于现场硬化设备,如柔斯芒特Rosemount3420设备中,它具有内置OPC服务器,并且可以直接对现场设备进行访问。 Another use is directly used for field hardened devices, such as a Rosemount Rosemount3420 apparatus having a built-in OPC server and can access the field devices directly. 在这种情况下,设备自身可以存储数据采集和准则机应用程序,并运行这些应用程序而无须单独的平台,如用户工作站。 In this case, the device itself may store the data collection and rules engine applications and run these applications without the need for a separate platform, such as a user workstation. 另外,在该情况或其它情况下,此处描述的可视化应用程序或部件可以在其它设备上运行或执行,例如手持式设备,个人数据助理等,它们可以连接至孤立设备,以获取所采集的SPM数据、警报等,供用户查看。 Further, in this case or another case, the visualization applications or components described herein may be run or executed on other devices, such as handheld devices, personal data assistants, etc., which may be connected to a standalone device, in order to obtain the acquired SPM data, alarms, etc., for users to view.

类似的,数据采集和查看应用程序可以通过远程查看设备访问现场设备或其它设备。 Similarly, the data collection and viewing application to view device access field devices or other devices remotely. 因此,该软件可以驻存在web服务器中,或者可以通过web服务器进行访问,web服务器例如是由爱默生过程管理公司提供的资产入口和AMSweb(Asset Portal and AMSweb)。 Thus, the software may reside in a web server, or may be accessed through the web server, web server, such inlet assets provided by Emerson Process Management and AMSweb (Asset Portal and AMSweb). 并且,尽管在图2中已经将OPC服务器图示为与包含SPM模块在内的现场设备分离,但是OPC服务器或其它服务器也可以位于一个或更多现场设备的自身中。 Further, although the field device separating the OPC server has been illustrated as comprising, including the SPM blocks in FIG. 2, the OPC server or other server may be located in one or more field device itself. 同样,异常状况预防系统的数据采集应用程序38和准则机42可以位于与ADB和/或SPM模块同样的设备内,这些ADB和/或SPM模块生成例如其中带有ADB和/或SPM模块的现场设备的SPM数据。 Likewise, the abnormal situation prevention system 38 of the data collection application 42 and rules engine may be located within the ADB and / or the same equipment SPM blocks, the ADB and / or the site where, for example, the SPM blocks generated with ADB and / or the SPM blocks SPM data devices. 在这种情况下,无需OPC接口(尽管仍然可能会使用OPC接口),异常状况预防系统35就可以在与统计数据采集模块同样的设备中操作或执行。 In this case, no OPC interface (although still might use the OPC interface), the abnormal situation prevention system 35 can operate or perform in the same equipment and statistical data acquisition module. 如果需要,由应用程序38和42生成的SPM数据或警报、告警等可以按照通常从现场设备访问数据的任何方式进行访问,例如通过控制器连接、通过手持式设备、通过无线的方式等等。 If desired, the SPM data is generated by the application 42 or 38 and an alarm, alarms may be accessed in any manner data is typically accessed from the field device, e.g., by the controller connection, through a handheld device, wirelessly, and the like.

图46图示了在不需要使用分布式控制器、主机或其它更常规的用户接口来支持SPM模块和异常状况预防功能的加工厂中,实现异常状况预防的另一种方式。 FIG 46 illustrates another way in the factory without the use of distributed controllers, hosts or other more traditional user interfaces to support SPM blocks and the abnormal situation prevention function, the abnormal situation prevention is achieved. 在图46的系统400中,某些或所有异常状况预防应用程序35和/或应用程序38-42可以存储在除主机工作站或个人计算机以外的设备上。 In system 400 of FIG. 46, some or all of the abnormal situation prevention application 35 and / or applications 38-42 may be stored on a device other than a host workstation or personal computer. 图46的示例系统400包括连接至接口设备410的一组现场设备405(图示为Fieldbus现场设备,但是它们还可以是其它类型的设备),接口设备410例如可以是柔斯芒特Rosemount3420设备。 FIG. 46 example system 400 includes a set of devices connected to the interface 410 of the field device 405 (illustrated as Fieldbus field devices, but they may also be other types of devices), the interface device 410 may be, for example, Rosemount Rosemount3420 device. 在这种情况下,不是个人计算机的接口设备410,可以包括上述异常状况预防系统35的某些或所有功能。 In this case, the interface device 410 is not a personal computer, may include some or all of the functions of the abnormal situation prevention system 35. 特别地,接口设备410可以包括浏览器412,浏览器412接收和组织现场设备405(可以是各种不同类型的现场设备)所传送的数据。 In particular, the interface device 410 may include a browser 412, the browser 412 receives and organization field device 405 (which may be various different types of field devices) the transmitted data. 如果需要,该浏览器或通信设备412可以包括OPC浏览器。 If desired, this browser or communication device 412 may include an OPC browser. 数据采集应用程序38(或它的一部分)也可以存储在接口设备410的处理器中,并且在接口设备410的处理器上执行,以采集来自现场设备405的数据,包括上述的带有SPM模块的任何现场设备的SPM数据。 The data collection application 38 (or a portion thereof) may be stored in a processor in the interface device 410, and executed on a processor in the interface device 410 to collect data from the field devices 405, including SPM blocks described above with any SPM data field devices. 另外,如以上所讨论的,接口设备410可以包括一个或更多SPM模块414,以便直接从一个或更多现场设备(例如不包括SPM模块或功能的现场设备)采集过程变量数据,并生成SPM参数。 Further, the interface device 410 as discussed above may include one or more SPM blocks 414, from one or more to field devices (e.g., field devices do not include SPM blocks or functionality) collect process variable data directly, and to generate SPM parameter. 以这种方式,在接口设备410中存储和执行的SPM模块414能够补偿某些现场设备405中SPM模块的缺失,并且可以用来为自身不支持SPM模块或SPM功能的现场设备提供SPM数据。 In this manner, the interface device 410 and stored in SPM compensation module 414 can perform some of the field devices 405 in the absence of SPM blocks, and can be used as the field device itself does not support SPM blocks or SPM functionality to provide SPM data.

另外,准则机应用程序42(或其一部分,例如图37的准则机290)可以存储在接口设备410中并由其执行,而数据库43同样也可以位于接口设备410中。 Further, the rules engine application 42 (or a portion thereof, for example, rules engine 37 of FIG. 290) may be stored in and executed by the interface device 410, and the database 43 may be located in the same interface device 410. 接口设备410可以通过硬布线连接,例如2-线,3-线,4-线等连接与诸如主机工作站430的其它设备进行通信,从而向这些设备提供SPM数据或通过其开发的数据,例如警报、数据图等,以便由用户查看。 Interface device 410 may be connected by hard wire, for example 2-wire, 3-wire, 4-wire, etc., such as a host workstation is connected to the other communication device 430, to provide SPM data, or data developed by which to these devices, such as alarm , data, etc. Fig for viewing by a user. 另外,如图46所示,接口设备410可以经由一个或更多无线通信连接,连接至web浏览器440并连接至手持式计算设备,例如电话、个人数据助理(PDA),膝上型计算机等。 Further, as shown, the interface device 410 via one or more wireless communication connection 46 is connected to the web browser 440 and connected to the handheld computing device, such as a telephone, a personal data assistant (PDA), a laptop computer, etc. . 在该例中,一个或更多查看应用程序40可以在诸如主机工作站430的其它设备中,在web浏览器440或者在手持式计算设备450中存储和执行,并且这些应用程序可以与接口设备410进行通信,从而获取期望的数据,以便以如上述任一方式的任何方式处理和查看。 In this embodiment, one or more of the viewing application 40 may be another device such as a host workstation 430, in the web browser 440 or the application program interface device may be a handheld computing device 450 and stored in the execution, and 410 communicate, to acquire desired data for processing and viewing in any manner, such as any of the above embodiment. 如果需要,设备430、440和450可以包括图37的准则定义应用程序298,以便使用户能够生成要由接口设备410中的准则机执行的准则。 If desired, the device 430, 440 and 450 of FIG. 37 may comprise applications 298 defined criteria, to enable the user to generate criteria to be executed by the interface device 410 in the rules engine. 同样,如图46所示,来自接口设备410的数据可以通过web浏览器640从主机430间接访问,并且经由任何期望的web连接提供给其它用户。 Similarly, as shown in Figure 46, data from the interface device 410 may be accessed indirectly from the host 430, and provided to other users via a web browser 640 via any desired web connection. 当然,接口设备410可以包括web服务器,并且可以使用任何期望的协议,例如OPC、Modbus、Ethernet、HTML、XML等与诸如设备430、440、450和460的任何其它设备进行通信。 Of course, the interface device 410 may include a web server, and may use any desired protocol, such as OPC, Modbus, Ethernet, HTML, XML, etc. to communicate with any other device such as device 460 and 430,440,450.

图47图示了另一个加工厂配置500,其中可能与图46的接口设备类似或相同的接口设备410,连接在一组现场设备510(构成热交换器515的一部分)与过程控制系统520之间。 FIG. 47 illustrates another plant configuration 500 in which the interface device may be similar or identical to the interface device 46 of FIG. 410, is connected to a set of field devices 510 (constituting a part of the heat exchanger 515) and the process control system 520 of between. 这里,接口设备410可以包括图46的设备410的所有应用程序和功能,可以向主机530提供用于查看的数据,并且可以向控制器系统520提供由准则机生成的警报或告警。 Here, the interface device 410 may include all the applications and functions of the device 410 of FIG. 46, may provide data for viewing to a host 530, and may provide an alarm or alarms generated by a rules engine to the controller system 520. 控制器系统520可以将这些警报或告警与其它控制器类型的警报和告警整合到一起,以便由例如操作员工作站540处的控制操作员来查看。 The system controller 520 may alarm or alert these with other controller type alerts and alarms, integrated together, so as to be viewed by the operator, for example, a control operator workstation 540 of. 当然,如果需要,主机工作站530可以包括任何期望的查看应用程序,以便以包括这里所讨论的任一方式在内的任何所需方式,来查看在接口设备410中采集或由接口设备410提供的数据。 Of course, if desired, the host workstation 530 may include any desired viewing application, in any desired manner so as to comprise any embodiment discussed herein, including, in view of the interface device 410 or acquired by the interface device 410 data. 同样,可以使该数据能够通过web浏览器550由其它用户进行查看。 Similarly, the data can 550 can be viewed by other users via a web browser. 因此,应当理解,这里所讨论的与异常状况预防系统35相关的各种应用程序可以分布在不同的设备中,并且不需要全部都在具有用户接口的设备中操作。 Therefore, it should be understood that the various application programs 35 related to the abnormal situation prevention system discussed herein may be distributed in different devices and need not all in a device having a user interface operation. 相反,数据(诸如SPM数据)可以在诸如接口设备410的一个设备中采集和处理,并发送,以便在完全不同的设备中查看。 Instead, the data (such as SPM data) may be collected in a device such as the interface device 410 and the processing and transmission, for viewing in a completely different device. 同样,准则可以在诸如主机、web浏览器、PDA等的用户接口设备中创建,并发送给诸如接口设备410的不同设备,以便在准则机中执行。 Also, criteria such as a host can be created, web browser, PDA, etc. The user interface devices, and sent to a different device such as the interface device 410, the rules engine for execution.

尽管在图1和图2的例子中,将与异常状况预防系统35相关的应用程序38、40和42图示为存储在同一个工作站或计算机上,但是这些应用程序中的某些或其它实体也可以在加工厂10内或与之相关的其它工作站或计算机设备中存储和执行。 Although in the example of FIGS. 1 and 2, the abnormal situation prevention system applications 35 related to 38, 40 and 42 illustrated on the same workstation or computer, but some of these applications or other entities stored 10 may be in the plant or associated with other workstations or computer devices stored and executed. 此外,异常状况预防系统35内的应用程序可以进行分解,在两个或更多计算机或机器上执行,并且可以配置为通过有线、无线、和/或间歇式通信连接彼此协力共同操作。 Furthermore, applications within the abnormal situation prevention system 35 may be decomposed, performed on two or more computers or machines and may be configured to co-operate with each other by connecting conjunction wired, wireless, and / or intermittent communication. 进一步,这里所描述的异常状况预防系统35可以包括应用程序38、40和42中的任一个或全部,并且可以包括但并不必需包括这里所描述的ADB或SPM模块。 Further, the abnormal situation prevention system 35 described herein may include applications 38, 40 and 42 any or all of, and may include, but are not necessarily include ADB or SPM blocks described herein. 此外,尽管这里所描述的例子使用Fieldbus SPM模块形式的SPM模块,但是这里所使用的术语“SPM模块”意图是指和包括任何其它类型的统计过程监控模块、例程等,它们采集过程数据或变量,并执行某些统计操作或监控,而无论这些模决或例程是否符合已知的Fieldbus协议。 Further, although the examples described herein use the Fieldbus SPM blocks SPM module form, but as used herein the term "SPM block" is intended to refer to and to include any other types of statistical process monitoring modules, routines, etc. which collect process data or variables, and perform some statistical operations or monitoring, regardless of whether they die or decide whether the routine known Fieldbus protocol.

此外,尽管以上描述涉及计算统计数据的诸如ADB模块和SPM模块的一些模块,但是也可以使用可以生成其它类型的信号处理数据的其它类型的信号处理数据采集模块。 Further, although the above description relates to some of the modules calculate statistics such as ADB blocks and SPM blocks, but may be used to generate other types of signal processing data to other types of signal processing data acquisition module. 例如,可以生成频率分析数据(例如基于傅立叶变换或过程变量的某些其它变换而生成的数据)、自回归数据、小波数据、利用神经网络生成的数据、利用模糊逻辑生成的数据等的信号处理数据采集模块,也可以用于异常状况预防系统中。 For example, frequency analysis data may be generated (e.g., based on a Fourier transform or some other transform of a process variable data generated), auto regression data, wavelets data, the neural network using the data generated by signal processing data fuzzy logic to generate the like a data acquisition module, can also be used in an abnormal situation prevention system. 因此,这里使用的术语“信号处理数据采集模块”意图是指以及包括任何类型的监控模块、软件例程、硬件等,它们采集过程数据或变量,并执行某些信号处理操作或监控,例如生成统计数据,数学变换过程数据(例如,使用傅立叶变换、离散傅立叶变换、快速傅立叶变换、短时傅立叶变换、Z变换、希尔伯特变换、Radon变换、魏格纳变换、小波变换等),从变换的过程数据中提取信息,滤波,使用模糊逻辑、神经网络、自回归技术等从过程数据中提取信息。 Thus, as used herein the term "signal processing data acquisition module" is intended to refer to and include any type of monitoring modules, software routines, hardware, etc. which collect process data or variables and perform some signal processing operation or monitoring, for example, to generate statistics, mathematical transformation process data (for example, using a Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, fast Fourier transform, short time Fourier transform, Z transform, Hilbert transform, Radon transform, Wigner transform, wavelet transform, etc.), from the data conversion process to extract information, filtering, fuzzy logic, neural network, extracting information from process data from other regression techniques.

进一步,尽管已经描述了一些例子,在这些例子中收集和分析了来自单个加工厂内的信号数据采集模块的信号处理数据,但是应当理解类似的技术也可以用于多个加工厂的情况。 Further, although a few examples have been described, the collection and analysis of the signal processing data from signal data collection module is within a single plant in these examples, it should be understood that similar techniques may also be used when a plurality of plants. 例如,可以收集来自多个加工厂的信号处理数据,然后可以将该数据提供给分析机和/或查看应用程序。 For example, signal processing data may be collected from a plurality of plants, and may provide the data to the analysis unit and / or viewing application.

尽管已经描述了使用特定通信协议和技术的例子,但是也可以使用各种其它协议和技术,包括用于访问来自信号处理数据采集模块的配置数据和信号处理数据的已知协议和技术。 Although examples have been described using particular communication protocols and techniques, but may also use various other protocols and techniques, including for accessing configuration data and signal processing from data signal processing techniques known protocols and data acquisition module. 例如,除了OPC以外的其它协议和技术可以用来识别和/或配置信号处理数据采集模块,收集信号处理数据等等。 For example, in addition to other protocols and OPC techniques can be used to identify and / or configure signal processing data acquisition module, signal processing data collection and the like. 其它技术可以包括,例如使用因特网协议、以太网、XML、专有协议等,并且其它实现方案可以使用web服务器和/或专用计算设备,例如过程控制器、I/O设备、工作站、现场设备等。 Other techniques may include, for example, using Internet protocols, Ethernet, XML, proprietary protocols, etc., and other implementations can use a web server and / or special purpose computing devices such as process controllers, I / O devices, workstations, field devices, etc. . 类似地,也可以使用包含专有数据在内的其它类型的分级结构数据。 Similarly, also other types of hierarchy data including proprietary data.

尽管异常状况预防系统和与这里描述的异常状况预防系统相关的应用程序,优选在软件中实施,但它们也可以在硬件、固件等中实施,并且可以由与过程控制系统相关的其它任何处理器来实施。 While the abnormal situation prevention system and the abnormal situation prevention system described herein associated application is preferably implemented in software, they may be implemented in hardware, firmware, etc., and any other processor system associated with the process can be controlled by implemented. 因此,这里所描述的元素可以在标准的多用途CPU中实施,或者在所需要的专门设计的硬件或固件上实施,例如专用集成电路(ASIC)或其它硬布线设备。 Thus, the elements described herein may be implemented in a standard multi-purpose CPU or on the desired embodiment specifically designed hardware or firmware such as application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or other hardwired device. 当在软件中实施时,软件例行程序可以存储在任何计算机可读存储器内,例如磁盘、激光盘(例如DVD)或其它存储介质,计算机或处理器的RAM或ROM,任何数据库等等。 When implemented in software, the software routine may be stored in any computer readable memory such as a magnetic disk, a laser disk (e.g., DVD) or other storage medium, or a computer processor, a RAM or ROM, any database, etc. 同样,该软件可以经由任何已知或期望的传送方法传送给用户或加工厂,例如,通过计算机可读盘或者其它可移动的计算机存储机制,或者通过诸如电话线、因特网等通信信道(这些都被视作与经由可移动存储介质来提供这种软件是相同的或可互换的)。 Also, the software may be transmitted via any known or desired delivery method to a user or a plant, e.g., a computer readable disk or other removable computer storage mechanism or over a communication channel (such as a telephone line, Internet or the like are and it is regarded as via a removable storage medium such software to provide the same or interchangeable).

因此,尽管已经根据具体的例子对本公开进行了描述,但是,这些例子仅仅是示例性的,而不是限制性的,对于本领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明的精神和范围的前提下,可以对所披露的实施例进行更改,添加或删除是显而易见的。 Accordingly, although specific examples have been according to the present disclosure has been described, however, these examples are merely illustrative, and not restrictive, those of ordinary skill in the art, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention under the premise, you can make changes to the disclosed embodiments, additions or deletions are obvious.

Claims (41)

1.一种用于检测与加工厂相关的异常状况的方法,该方法包括:接收由与所述加工厂相关的至少两台设备实现的信号处理数据收集模块所产生的信号处理数据;提供配置数据给分析机以配置所述分析机,从而至少基于所述信号处理数据检测与所述加工厂相关的至少一种异常状况;提供所述信号处理数据给所述分析机;以及使用所述分析机来决定是否应该采取措施。 1. A method for detecting an abnormal situation associated with the plant, the method comprising: receiving signal processing data generated by signal processing data collection blocks of at least two devices associated with the implementation of the generated plant; configuration to provide analysis of data to the analysis engine to configure the machine, whereby at least based on the at least one abnormal condition associated with the process plant data detection processing of the signal; providing the signal processing data to the analysis unit; and using the analysis machine to determine whether measures should be taken.
2.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括接收从数据库检索的信号处理数据。 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises receiving signal processing data retrieved from the database.
3.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括从与所述加工厂相关的至少一台现场设备接收信号处理数据。 3. The method according to claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises receiving at least one field device associated with the signal processing data from the process plant.
4.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括接收与过程变量相关的信号处理参数。 4. A method according to claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises receiving signal processing parameter associated with the process variable.
5.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括接收与过程变量相关的信号处理参数的状况指示。 The method according to claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises receiving signal processing parameter status variables associated with the process instructions.
6.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括接收统计数据、频率分析数据、自回归数据、小波数据、利用神经网络产生的数据以及使用模糊逻辑产生的数据中的至少一个。 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises receiving statistical data, frequency analysis data, auto regression data, wavelets data, data generated using a neural network and fuzzy logic data generated by at least one.
7.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括接收由至少一个统计数据收集模块产生的信号处理数据。 7. The method of claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises receiving signal processing data generated by at least one statistical data collection module.
8.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括接收由现场设备实现的至少一个信号处理数据收集模块所产生的信号处理数据。 8. The method according to claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises receiving signal processing data at least one signal processing data collection blocks implemented by the field generated by the equipment.
9.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括接收由过程控制器、数据历史记录器以及工作站中的至少一个实现的至少一个信号处理数据收集模块所产生的信号处理数据。 9. The method according to claim 1, wherein the signal processing data comprises receiving signal processing data received by the process controller, a data historian, and at least one signal processing data collection blocks implemented station at least one of the generated.
10.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括接收由现场设备产生的数据,该现场设备遵从基础Fieldbus协议、HART协议、Profibus协议、WORLDFIP协议、Device-Net协议、AS-Interface协议以及CAN协议中的至少一个。 10. The method of claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises receiving data generated by the field device, the field device to comply with basic Fieldbus protocol, the HART protocol, Profibus protocol, the protocol WORLDFIP, Device-Net protocol, AS-Interface protocol, and CAN protocol at least one.
11.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括通过有线网络和无线网络中的至少一种接收信号处理数据。 11. The method of claim 1, wherein receiving signal processing data comprises at least one signal processing data received through a wired network and a wireless network.
12.根据权利要求1的方法,其中接收信号处理数据包括通过有线连接、无线连接以及间歇性连接中的至少一种接收信号处理数据。 12. The method according to claim 1, wherein the signal processing data comprises receiving via a wired connection, wireless connection, and an intermittent connection of at least one signal processing data received.
13.根据权利要求1的方法,其中提供所述信号处理数据给所述分析机包括提供信号处理数据到准则机。 13. The method according to claim 1, wherein providing the signal processing data to the analysis engine comprises providing signal processing data to a rules engine.
14.根据权利要求13的方法,其中提供信号处理数据给所述准则机包括,提供信号处理数据给配置为应用至少一个布尔准则到所述信号处理数据中的至少一些的准则机。 14. The method according to claim 13, wherein providing signal processing data to the rules engine comprises providing signal processing data to at least one Boolean configured to apply a criterion to the criterion of at least some of the signal processing unit data.
15.根据权利要求13的方法,其中提供信号处理数据给所述准则机包括,提供信号处理数据给配置为应用至少一个模糊逻辑准则到所述信号处理数据中至少一些的准则机。 15. The method according to claim 13, wherein providing signal processing data to the rules engine comprises providing the signal processing data to the signal processing data is configured to apply at least one fuzzy logic criterion to at least some of the rules engine.
16.根据权利要求1的方法,其中提供所述信号处理数据给所述分析机包括,提供信号处理数据给配置为决定所述信号处理数据中至少一些间的相关度的分析机。 16. The method according to claim 1, wherein providing the signal processing data to the analysis engine comprises providing signal processing data to the signal processor configured to decide the data analyzer correlation between at least some.
17.根据权利要求1的方法,其中提供所述信号处理数据给所述分析机包括,提供所述信号处理数据给神经网络、数学计算机、模糊逻辑分析机、图像匹配机以及回归分析机中的至少一个。 17. The method according to claim 1, wherein providing the signal processing data to the analysis engine comprises providing the signal processing data to a neural network, mathematical computers, fuzzy logic analyzer, and the image matching unit regression machine at least one.
18.根据权利要求1的方法,其中使用所述分析机包括使用所述分析机来决定是否应该产生警告或警报;该方法进一步包括产生所述警告或警报。 18. The method of claim 1, wherein the analyzer comprises using the analyzer to determine whether a warning or an alarm should be generated; the method further comprising generating the alert or alarm.
19.根据权利要求1的方法,其中使用所述分析机包括使用所述分析机来决定是否应该改变与所述加工厂相关的控制设置;该方法进一步包括促使所述控制设置改变。 19. The method according to claim 1, wherein the analyzer comprises using the analyzer to determine whether it should change the control setting associated with the process plant; the method further comprising causing the control setting change.
20.根据权利要求1的方法,其中使用所述分析机包括使用所述分析机来决定是否应该以一项或更多推荐措施来提示操作员考虑异常状况;该方法进一步包括促使以所述一项或更多推荐措施来提示所述操作员。 20. The method according to claim 1, wherein said using comprises using the analysis engine to determine if an analyzer with one or more recommendations to consider measures to prompt the operator to an abnormal condition; the method further comprises causing the one to items or more recommended measures to prompt the operator.
21.根据权利要求1的方法,其中使用所述分析机包括使用所述分析机来决定是否应改变与控制器相关的控制条件和设置点;该方法进一步包括促使与所述控制器相关的控制条件和设置点中的至少一个改变。 21. The method of claim 1, wherein the analyzer comprises using the analyzer to determine whether it should change the control condition and the setpoint associated with the controller; the method further comprising causing the control associated with the controller at least one change in the conditions and set points.
22.根据权利要求1的方法,进一步包括通过用户界面提供表示所述分析机在分析所述信号处理数据期间的状态的信息。 22. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing the analysis indicates the state machine during the analysis information to the signal processing data via a user interface.
23.根据权利要求1的方法,进一步包括通过用户界面提供表示所述分析机在分析所述信号处理数据期间的配置的信息。 23. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing the analysis machine showing the configuration of the analysis information during the signal processing data via a user interface.
24.根据权利要求1的方法,其中提供配置数据给所述分析机包括提供配置数据给所述分析机以配置所述分析机,从而进一步基于过程配置数据、控制策略数据、控制输出数据、过程变量数据、历史数据、模拟数据、优化数据、警告、警报、警告/警报管理数据、文档管理数据、帮助/引导数据、转动设备数据、实验室分析数据以及环境条例数据中的至少一个检测与所述加工厂相关的至少一个异常状况。 24. The method according to claim 1, wherein providing configuration data to the analysis engine comprises providing configuration data to the analysis engine to configure the analysis unit, based on further process configuration data, control strategy data, control output data, process variable data, historical data, simulation data, optimization data, warnings, alerts, warning / alarm data management, document management data, help / guidance data, rotating equipment data, at least one detector and the laboratory analysis of data and environmental regulations data said at least one abnormal condition associated plant.
25.一种用于检测与加工厂相关的异常状况的系统,该系统包括:通信连接到与所述加工厂相关的网络的至少一个处理器;通信连接到所述至少一个处理器的至少一个计算机可读存储器;第一程序,存储在所述至少一个计算机可读存储器中并适于在所述至少一个处理器上执行,以接收由与所述加工厂相关的至少两台设备实现的信号处理数据收集模块所产生的信号处理数据;第二程序,存储在所述至少一个计算机可读存储器中并适于在所述至少一个处理器上执行,以提供配置数据给分析机以配置所述分析机,从而检测与所述加工厂相关的至少一种异常状况;以及第三程序,存储在所述至少一个计算机可读存储器中并适于在所述至少一个处理器上执行,以实现由分析机来分析所述信号处理数据中的至少一些从而决定是否应该采取措施。 25. A system for detecting an abnormal situation associated with a process plant, the system comprising: a communication connection to a network associated with the plant at least one processor; communicatively coupled to the at least one processor of at least one the computer-readable memory; a first program stored in said at least one computer readable memory and executed on a processor adapted to at least one of the, to receive signals from at least two devices implemented associated with the process plant processing signal processing data generated by the data collection module; second program, stored in said at least one computer readable memory and executed on a processor adapted to at least one of the, to provide configuration data to the analysis engine to configure analyzer, associated with the process plant to detect at least one abnormal condition; and a third program stored in the at least one computer readable memory and adapted to be executed on the at least one processor in said, in order to achieve the analysis machine to analyze the signal processing data to determine whether at least some of the measures should be taken.
26.根据要求25的系统,其中所述第三程序是实现由所述分析机来附加分析过程配置数据、控制策略数据、控制输出数据、过程变量数据、历史数据、模拟数据、优化数据、警告、警报、警告/警报管理数据、文档管理数据、帮助/引导数据、转动设备数据、实验室分析数据以及环境条例数据中的至少一个以决定是否应采取所述措施。 26. The system of claim 25, wherein the third program is implemented by the analysis unit to analyze the additional process configuration data, control strategy data, control output data, process variable data, historical data, simulation data, optimization data, warnings , alarm, warning / alarm data management, document management data, help / guidance data, rotating equipment data, lab analysis data, and environmental regulations in at least one of data to determine whether the measures should be taken.
27.一种用于配置分析机以检测与加工厂相关的异常状况的方法,该方法包括:提供第一用户界面机构,以便从与所述加工厂相关的至少两台设备实现的至少两个信号处理数据收集模块所产生的至少两个信号处理参数中指定第一信号处理参数;提供第二用户界面机构,以便从由所述至少两台设备实现的至少两个信号处理数据收集模块所产生的至少两个信号处理参数中指定第二信号处理参数;提供第三用户界面机构,以指定由所述分析机至少对所述第一信号处理参数和所述第二信号处理参数执行的分析;通过所述第一用户界面机构、所述第二用户界面机构以及所述第三用户界面机构接收配置数据;以及存储所述配置数据。 27. A method of analysis unit configured to detect an abnormal condition related to plant, the method comprising: providing a first user interface means, in order to achieve at least two from the device associated with the process plant at least two at least two specified signal processing parameters of the signal processing data collection blocks generated by the first signal processing parameter; providing a second user interface mechanism to the at least two signals generated from the processing data collection blocks implemented by the at least two devices of at least two signal processing parameters specified in the second signal processing parameter; analysis performed on at least the first signal processing parameter and the second signal processing parameters specified by the analyzer to provide a third user interface mechanism; by the first user interface mechanism, the second user interface mechanism, and the third user interface mechanism for receiving configuration data; and storing the configuration data.
28.根据权利要求27的方法,其中至少两个信号处理数据收集模块包括由现场设备、过程控制器、数据历史记录器以及工作站中的至少一个实现的信号处理数据收集模块。 28. The method according to claim 27, wherein the at least two signal processing data collection module comprises a field device, a process controller, a data historian data collection module and a signal processing station at least one implementation.
29.根据权利要求27的方法,其中提供所述第一用户界面机构包括:提供第四用户界面机构,以便从所述至少两台设备中指定一台设备;以及提供第五用户界面机构,以便从由所述一台设备实现的至少一个信号处理数据收集模块所产生的第一组信号处理参数中指定所述第一信号过程参数。 29. The method of claim 27, wherein providing the first user interface mechanism comprises: providing a fourth user interface mechanism to specify one device from the at least two devices; and providing a fifth user interface mechanism to from the first set of signal processing parameters at least one of said one signal processing data collection blocks implemented in the device the generated first signal parameter specifying the procedure.
30.根据权利要求29的方法,其中提供所述第五用户界面机构包括:提供第六用户界面设备,以便从由所述一台设备实现的一组信号处理数据收集模块中指定一个信号处理数据收集模块;以及提供第七用户界面设备,以便从由所述一个信号处理数据收集模块产生的第二组信号处理参数中指定所述第一信号处理参数。 30. The method of claim 29, wherein providing the fifth user interface mechanism comprises: providing a sixth user interface device to specify one signal processing data from a set of signal processing data collection blocks implemented by the one device collection module; and providing a seventh user interface device to specify the first signal processing parameter from a second set of signal processing parameters generated by the one signal processing data collection module.
31.根据权利要求27的方法,其中提供所述第三用户界面机构包括提供第四用户界面机构,以指定待相对于所述第一信号处理参数执行的比较分析。 31. The method according to claim 27, wherein providing the third user interface mechanism comprises providing a fourth user interface mechanism to specify a comparison analysis to be the first signal processing performed with respect to the parameters.
32.根据权利要求31的方法,其中提供第三用户界面机构包括提供第五用户界面机构,以指定待与所述第一信号处理参数进行比较的值。 32. The method according to claim 31, wherein providing the third user interface mechanism comprises providing a fifth user interface mechanism to specify a value to be compared with the first signal processing parameter.
33.根据权利要求31的方法,其中提供所述第三用户界面机构包括提供第五用户界面机构,以指定待与所述第一信号处理参数进行比较的第三信号处理参数。 33. The method according to claim 31, wherein providing the third user interface mechanism comprises providing a fifth user interface mechanism to specify a third signal processing parameter to be compared with the first signal processing parameter.
34.根据权利要求27的方法,其中提供所述第三用户界面机构包括提供第四用户界面机构,以指定待相对于所述第一信号处理参数和所述第二信号处理参数执行的布尔逻辑操作。 34. The method according to claim 27, wherein providing the third user interface mechanism comprises providing a fourth user interface mechanism to specify a Boolean logic to be with respect to the first signal processing parameter and the second parameter signal processing performed operating.
35.根据权利要求27的方法,进一步包括:提供第四用户界面机构,以指定在分析表明条件已经被满足时将采取的措施;其中接收配置数据包括通过所述第四用户界面机构接收配置数据。 35. The method of claim 27, further comprising: providing a fourth user interface mechanism to specify when the measures analysis indicated condition has been satisfied to be taken; wherein receiving configuration data comprises receiving configuration through the fourth user interface mechanism data .
36.根据权利要求35的方法,其中提供所述第四用户界面机构包括提供所述第四用户界面机构,以指定在所述分析表明条件已经被满足时将产生的警告。 36. The method according to claim 35, wherein providing the fourth user interface mechanism comprises providing the fourth user interface mechanism to specify a warning when the analysis indicates the condition has been satisfied generated.
37.根据权利要求35的方法,其中提供所述第四用户界面机构包括提供所述第四用户界面机构,以指定在所述分析表明条件已经被满足时控制设置改变。 37. The method according to claim 35, wherein providing the fourth user interface mechanism comprises providing the fourth user interface mechanism to specify a control setting change when the analysis indicates the condition has been satisfied.
38.根据权利要求35的方法,其中提供所述第四用户界面机构包括提供所述第四用户界面机构,以指定在所述分析表明条件已经被满足时用于以一项或多个推荐措施来提示操作员的提示。 38. The method according to claim 35, wherein providing the fourth user interface mechanism comprises providing the fourth user interface mechanism to specify when the analysis indicates a condition has been satisfied with one or more recommended measures Tip to the operator.
39.根据权利要求35的方法,其中提供所述第四用户界面机构包括提供所述第四用户界面机构,以指定在所述分析表明条件已经被满足时控制条件改变和设置点改变中的至少一个。 At least 39. The method according to claim 35, wherein providing the fourth user interface mechanism comprises providing the fourth user interface mechanism to specify a control condition change and a setpoint change at the time of the analysis indicates the condition has been satisfied One.
40.一种用于配置分析机以检测与加工厂相关的异常状况的系统,该系统包括:通信连接到与所述加工厂相关的网络的至少一个处理器;通信连接到所述至少一个处理器的至少一个计算机可读存储器;第一程序,存储在所述至少一个计算机可读存储器中并适于在所述至少一个处理器上执行以提供第一用户界面机构,从而从与所述加工厂相关的至少两台设备实现的至少两个信号处理数据收集模块所产生的至少两个信号处理参数中指定第一信号处理参数;第二程序,存储在所述至少一个计算机可读存储器中并适于在所述至少一个处理器上执行以提供第二用户界面机构,以便从由所述至少两台设备实现的多个信号处理数据收集模块所产生的至少两个信号处理参数中指定第二信号处理参数;第三程序,存储在所述至少一个计算机可读存储器中并适于在所述至 40. An analyzer arranged to detect an abnormal condition associated with the process plant system, the system comprising: a communication connection to a network associated with the plant at least one processor; communicatively coupled to the at least one processing is at least one computer-readable memory; a first program stored in said at least one computer readable memory and adapted to the at least one processor to provide a first user interface mechanism, whereby the processing from the specify a first signal processing parameters of at least two signal processing parameters at least the at least two signal processing data collection blocks implemented two devices associated plant generated; a second program, storing at least one computer readable memory and in the performing adapted to provide a second user interface mechanism on the at least one processor, so that at least two signal processing parameters generated from the plurality of signal processing data collection blocks implemented by the at least two devices of a second specified signal processing parameters; third program, stored in said at least one computer readable memory and adapted to the 一个处理器上执行以提供第三用户界面机构,从而指定由所述分析机至少对所述第一信号处理参数和所述第二信号处理参数执行的分析;第四程序,存储在所述至少一个计算机可读存储器中并适于在所述至少一个处理器上执行,以通过所述第一用户界面机构、所述第二用户界面机构以及所述第三用户界面机构接收配置数据;以及第五程序,存储在所述至少一个计算机可读存储器中并适于在所述至少一个处理器上执行以存储所述配置数据。 Executed on a processor to provide a third user interface mechanism to specify an analysis performed on at least the first signal processing parameter and the second parameter signal processing by the analyzer; fourth program, stored in said at least a computer readable memory and executed on a processor adapted to at least one of the, through the first user interface mechanism, the second user interface mechanism, and the third user interface mechanism for receiving configuration data; and a five program, stored in said at least one computer readable memory and adapted to store the at least one execution on a processor in the configuration data.
41.根据权利要求40的系统,其中所述至少两个信号处理数据收集模块包括由现场设备、过程控制器、数据历史记录器以及工作站中的至少一个实现的信号处理数据收集模块。 41. The system of claim 40, wherein said at least two signal processing data collection module comprises a field device, a process controller, a data historian data collection module and a signal processing station at least one implementation.
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