CN1910735A - Integrated photonic devices - Google Patents

Integrated photonic devices Download PDF


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CN1910735A CN 200580002711 CN200580002711A CN1910735A CN 1910735 A CN1910735 A CN 1910735A CN 200580002711 CN200580002711 CN 200580002711 CN 200580002711 A CN200580002711 A CN 200580002711A CN 1910735 A CN1910735 A CN 1910735A
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CN100405538C (en
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集成于单个芯片(20)的相应外延层上的激光器(22)和检测器(24)与片载和/或外部光学器件(62)协作以将所述激光器发出的第一波长的光耦合到单个外部器件,诸如光纤(60),并同时将从所述外部器件接收的不同波长的光耦合到检测器以提供双向光子操作。 Integrated in a single chip (20) a laser (22) and detector (24) and the carrier sheet and / or external optical device (62) cooperating on the epitaxial layer corresponding to a first wavelength of light emitted from the laser is coupled to a single external device, such as an optical fiber (60), and also from the optical coupling to the detector to provide bidirectional operation photons of different wavelengths received by an external device. 多个激光器和检测器可集成于该芯片上以提供多个双向通道。 A plurality of lasers and detectors may be integrated on the chip to provide a plurality of bidirectional channels.


集成光子器件 Integrated photonic devices

相关申请的参照本申请要求2004年1月20日提交的美国临时专利申请No.60/537,248和2004年10月14日提交的美国临时专利申请No.60/618,134的权益,其公开内容结合在此作为参考。 REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This application claims priority to US provisional patent January 20, 2004 filed No.60 / 537,248 and US Provisional Patent October 14, 2004 filed equity No.60 / 618,134, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

发明背景本发明一般涉及光子器件,尤其涉及单片集成的发射和接收光子器件及其制造方法。 Background of the Invention The present invention relates to photonic devices in general and more particularly to transmitting and receiving a monolithically integrated photonic device and its manufacturing method.

例如结合或使用无源光学网络(PON)的许多光学系统需要将单根光纤同时用于以多个波长发送和接收信息。 For example, many optical systems in combination or passive optical network (PON) is a single optical fiber simultaneously necessary for transmitting and receiving information in a plurality of wavelengths. 过去,这种性能很难实现,特别是按成本有效的方式,将全部访问单根光纤的多个分散的光子器件的组合表现出使这种结构太过昂贵的制造问题。 In the past, this performance is difficult to achieve, particularly cost effective manner, the performance of all combinations of single fiber access a plurality of discrete photonic devices mission to such a configuration too expensive manufacturing problems. PON系统的市场对价格极其灵敏,这导致这种网络的被高度期望的较宽范围的功能未能在经济上可行。 PON system market is extremely sensitive to price, which leads to the high expectations of a wide range of functions such networks could not be economically viable. 其它光学系统中的多个光子器件的使用也遇到类似的困难,诸如高清晰度DVD,即使在这种应用中,通过使用分散的光子器件不能容易地获得所需的高级功能。 A plurality of photonic devices in other optical systems experience similar difficulties, such as high definition DVD, even in such an application, advanced functions can not be easily obtained by using a dispersion required photonic devices.

发明概述根据本发明的一个方面,固态光接收和光发射光子器件被单片地集成于共用基片上,以提供单个芯片表面上的多个光学功能。 Summary of the Invention According to one aspect of the present invention, the solid state light emitting and light receiving photonic device monolithically integrated on a common substrate to provide a plurality of optical function surface on a single chip. 用于提供双向光子操作的这些器件的集成通过多层外延得到优化,其中激光器和检测器可制造于一芯片上的分开台面上,以提供激光器和检测器同单个光纤的高效耦合。 These devices provide for bidirectional operation of a photonic integrated multilayer epitaxial optimized, wherein the laser and detector may be fabricated on a separate chip on the table, to provide efficient laser and detector is coupled with a single fiber. 根据本发明的另一方面,多个光发射器和多个光检测器制造于单个芯片上以允许多个发射器和多个检测器同单个光纤的耦合。 On the other hand, a plurality of light emitters and light detectors manufactured according to the invention on a single chip to allow multiple emitters and detectors coupled with a plurality of individual optical fibers. 发射器可以是芯片表面上制造的表面发射器件,诸如2004年10月5日提交的美国申请No.10/958,069或2004年10月14日提交的申请No.10/963,739中所述的那些,其整体结合在此作为参考,或者可以是一芯片上制造的边缘发射激光器,诸如美国专利No.4,851,368或IEEE Journal of QuantumElectronics、卷8、1227-1231页,1992年5月中所述的那些,其中激光器输出耦合到光纤。 The transmitter may be a surface-emitting devices fabricated on the chip surface, such as the United States October 5, 2004 filed No.10 / 958,069 or application on October 14, 2004, filed as those described in No.10 / 963,739, incorporated in its entirety herein by reference, or may be fabricated on a chip edge emitting laser, such as U.S. Patent No.4,851,368 or IEEE Journal of QuantumElectronics, volume 8,1227-1231 pages, that the mid-1992's, wherein the laser output is coupled to an optical fiber. 检测器也可制造于同一芯片上,并可以是与同一光纤耦合的表面或边缘接收器件,用以接收来自光纤的光信号。 Detector may be fabricated on the same chip, and may be a surface or edge of the same fiber-coupled receiving means for receiving the optical signal from the optical fiber. 在本发明的较佳形式中,每个激光器都以不同的波长发光且每个检测器都以与发射光的波长不同的波长接收光。 In the preferred form of the invention, each of the lasers emit light at different wavelengths and are each detector with the wavelength of the emitted light of different wavelengths of the received light.

简要地,本发明结合了同一芯片上制造的激光器发射器和光电检测器,其中一个或多个半导体检测器结构外延地沉积于基片上的重叠层中,且半导体发射器结构被外延地沉积于顶部检测器结构上。 Briefly, the present invention incorporates fabricated on the same chip as the laser emitter and the photodetector, wherein the one or more semiconductor detector structure epitaxially deposited on the overlapping layers on a substrate, and the semiconductor emitter structure is epitaxially deposited on top of the detector structure. 这些结构被蚀刻以形成结合了表面或边缘发射激光器的一个或多个发射器台面,用以将发射光引导到光纤,并形成结合了表面或边缘接收检测器的一个或多个检测器台面,用以接收来自光纤的光。 These structures are etched to form a binding surface or edge emitting laser or a plurality of mesas transmitters to transmit light to the optical fiber, and forms a binding surface or edge of a receiver detector mesas or more detectors, for receiving light from the optical fiber. 如需要,反射器、偏转器、棱镜、光栅或其它衍射元件和/或透镜也可整体地制造于基片上或位于与该芯片相邻之处,以引导发射光或接收光。 If desired, reflector, deflector, a prism, grating or other diffractive elements and / or the lens may be integrally fabricated on the substrate or adjacent to the chip, the emission light to direct or receive light.

在本发明的一种形式中,单片集成的光子芯片包括承载半导体检测器外延结构的基片,其中半导体激光器结构使用已知沉积技术外延地沉积于检测器结构上。 In one form of the invention, a monolithically integrated photonic chip comprising a substrate bearing an epitaxial structure of a semiconductor detector, wherein the semiconductor laser structure using known deposition techniques epitaxially deposited on the detector structure. 通过蚀刻在发射器结构中制造表面发射激光器,并用通过蚀刻穿过检测器结构到达基片形成的沟槽包围该表面发射激光器。 Manufactured by etching the emitter surface emitting laser structure, and a detector structure by etching through the trench reaching the substrate is formed to surround the surface emitting laser. 通过蚀刻掉覆盖的激光器结构,暴露邻近激光器的检测器结构的表面,以形成包围或基本包围激光器的检测器接收器表面并通过沟槽与之隔开,从而激光器和检测器形成共用基片上的分开台面。 By covering the laser structure is etched away, the exposed surface adjacent the laser detector structure, to form a surface detector receives substantially encloses or surrounds and is spaced from the laser through the grooves, so that the laser and the detector are formed on a common substrate separate table. 激光器表面上的金属层提供了用于施加合适偏压的电接触,以使激光器结构产生已知波长的激光。 Laser on the surface of the metal layer provides an electrical contact for applying a suitable bias voltage, such that the laser structure is produced known wavelength laser. 表面发射激光器用作光源,将光束向上引导通过外部透镜到达外部光学器件,诸如单个光纤。 Surface emitting laser as a light source, the light guide up to the outside through the outer lens optics, such as a single fiber. 光纤也可将第二波长的光引向芯片,其中该接收光穿过透镜。 Optical fibers may be directed to chip the second wavelength light, wherein the received light passes through the lens. 由于接收光的波长与激光器发射的光的波长不同,接收光将不被聚焦回激光器,而是将由透镜引向包围激光器源的区域,在这里它被检测器结构接收。 Since different wavelengths of light and receiving light wavelength emitted by a laser, receiving light back to the laser will not be focused, but the region surrounded by the lens toward the laser source, where it is received by the detector structure.

在本发明的另一实施例中,单片集成芯片包括两个重叠的外延沉积的检测器结构,其中单个发射器层重叠于顶部检测器结构上。 In another embodiment of the present invention, a monolithically integrated chip includes two overlapping detector structures epitaxial deposition, in which a single emitter layer superimposed on top of the detector structure. 表面发射激光器通过蚀刻制造于该芯片上的激光器结构中的台面上,并通过沟槽与包围的检测器台面分开。 By etching the surface emitting laser fabricated on the chip in the laser structure table, and a detector separated by a mesa surrounded by trench. 随后,将激光器结构从包围的双结构检测器台面的表面上去除。 Subsequently, the surface of the laser structure is removed from the double mesa structure surrounded detector. 可激励该激光器以发出第一波长的光,该光可如上所述地通过透镜引向光纤。 The laser energizable to emit light of a first wavelength, the light can be directed through the lens to the optical fiber as described above. 但在该实施例中,两个检测器结构能分别接收第二和第三波长的光。 However, in this embodiment, two light detector structures can receive the second and third wavelengths, respectively. 在表面发射激光器的端部和侧部周围设置检测器台面以基本包围激光器的发射器端优化了激光器和检测器同诸如光纤的单个输入/输出器件的双向耦合。 Emitting laser in the surface of the end portion and the side portion is provided around the detector mesas substantially surround the emitter terminal of the laser to optimize the laser and detector bidirectionally coupled with the optical fiber such as a single input / output devices.

在本发明的又一实施例中,多个表面发射激光器可并排制造于芯片的激光器结构中的各个台面上,其中阵列中的每个激光器都发出不同波长的光。 In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the plurality of surface emitting lasers can be fabricated on the table side by side laser structure of each of the chip, wherein the array of lasers each emitting light of a different wavelength. 按类似的方式,多个个别的检测器可并排制造于检测器结构中的各个台面上,其中每个检测器都能接收一不同波长的光。 In a similar manner, a plurality of individual detectors can be fabricated on the detector side by side in each table structure in which each detector is able to receive light of a different wavelength. 如需要,发射器和检测器可通过诸如棱镜的外部衍射元件和合适的透镜光耦合到单个光纤。 If desired, the emitter and detector may be coupled to a single optical fiber by an external diffraction element such as a prism and a lens proper.

边缘发射激光器以及表面接收或边缘接收检测器也可用于本发明的单片集成的双向光子器件的制造。 Edge-emitting laser and an edge surface of the receiver or receiver detector can also be used for manufacturing of the present invention is a monolithic integrated bidirectional photonic devices. 在一个这种实施例中,边缘发射激光器制造于激光器结构中的一台面上且反射器制造于例如邻近激光器退出面的激光器结构中的芯片上,以垂直向上引导第一波长的发射光。 In one such embodiment, in the edge-emitting laser producing a laser mesa structure and the reflector laser structure fabricated on, for example, adjacent the exit face of the laser chip to emit light upward vertical guide of the first wavelength. 反射器可结合平坦的或弯曲的反射器表面以通过外部透镜将光向上引导到诸如光纤的输入/输出器件。 The reflector may incorporate flat or curved reflector surface to direct the optical fiber to the input / output devices, such as light upwardly through the outer lens. 反射器由与激光台面分开的台面上的暴露的表面接收检测器结构包围,该表面接收检测器结构接收来自光纤的第二波长的光。 The reflector is surrounded by the exposed surface structure of the receiver detector of the laser mesa separate table, which receives the detection surface structure receives light from the optical fiber of the second wavelength. 在另一实施例中,反射器表面包括二向色涂层,它反射第一波长的激光并经由反射器主体通过第二波长的接收光到达下面的检测器结构。 In another embodiment, the reflective surface comprises a dichroic coating, which reflects the laser light of the first wavelength via the reflector body by receiving a second wavelength of light to the underlying structure of the detector.

多个边缘发射激光器可制造于芯片上的激光器结构阵列中,以借助诸如棱镜或光栅的衍射元件将相应波长的光引向外部光纤。 A plurality of edge-emitting laser array of the laser structure can be fabricated on a chip, to means such as a prism or diffraction grating element corresponding to the light wavelength of the external optical fiber lead. 该阵列也可包括检测器结构中的分开台面上制造的多个端部接收检测器,它们被排列成接收来自光纤的不同频率的光,从而提供了根据本发明的激光器和检测器通道的单片集成阵列。 The array may also include a plurality of end portions receiver detector structure fabricated in a separate table, which are arranged in different frequencies of light received from the fiber, thereby providing a single channel laser and detector according to the present invention. integrated array sheet.

附图概述本发明的前述和附加的目的、特点和优点将通过其较佳实施例的以下详细描述并结合附图而变得显而易见,附图中:图1示出了包括一个基片上的激光器结构和检测器结构的双层外延芯片结构。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION The foregoing and additional objects, features and advantages of the present invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and will become apparent from the following detailed description of its preferred embodiments, to the accompanying drawings in which: Figure 1 shows a substrate comprising a laser the structure and the two-layer epitaxial silicon detector structure.

图2示出了根据本发明第一实施例的包括图1的芯片的激光器结构中制造的表面发射激光器和检测器结构中制造的表面接收检测器的单片集成的光子器件的侧视图。 FIG 2 shows a side view of a monolithically integrated photonic receiver device emitting surface detector structure fabricated in accordance with the laser and detector laser structure includes a chip surface in FIG. 1 a first embodiment of the present invention is manufactured.

图3是图2器件的俯视图。 FIG 3 is a top plan view of the device of FIG 2.

图4示出了包括一个基片上的一个激光器结构和两个检测器结构的三层外延芯片结构。 FIG. 4 shows a three-layer epitaxial structure comprises a laser chip structure on a substrate and two detector structure.

图5是根据本发明另一实施例的包括图4的芯片的激光器结构中制造的表面发射激光器和检测器结构中制造的两个表面接收检测器的单片集成的光子器件的侧视图。 FIG 5 is a side view of a photon emitting surface of the receiver device both monolithic laser detectors and detector structure fabricated according to the integrated laser structure comprises a surface 4 of the chip to another embodiment of the present invention is manufactured.

图6是根据本发明另一实施例的在共用芯片上相应的激光器和检测器结构中结合了表面发射激光器阵列和表面接收检测器阵列的单片集成光子器件的俯视图。 FIG 6 is a combination of a surface according to the corresponding laser and detector structures on a common chip to another embodiment of the present invention in a plan view of a monolithically integrated photonic emission laser array device and the surface of the detector array receiver.

图7是与用于将芯片上的激光器和检测器光耦合到光纤的外部棱镜和透镜组合的图6器件的侧视图。 FIG 7 is a detector for the laser and optically coupled on-chip to an external side view of a combination of prisms and lenses of the optical fiber 6 of the device.

图8是根据本发明另一实施例的结合了图1的芯片的激光器结构中制造的边缘发射激光器和检测器结构中制造的表面接收检测器并结合了发射光的偏转器的单片集成的光子器件的侧视图。 FIG 8 is another embodiment of the present invention incorporates a chip edge of the laser structure of FIG. 1 for manufacturing a surface emitting laser detector receiver and detector structure fabricated combined with monolithically integrated deflector of the emitted light side view of the photonic device.

图9是结合了具有弯曲表面的偏转器的图8的器件的修改形式的侧视图。 9 is a side view of a modified form of the binding device has a curved deflector surface 8 of FIG.

图10是图9的器件的俯视图。 FIG 10 is a plan view of the device of FIG. 9.

图11是图8的光子器件的修改形式的侧视图,其中偏转器包括二向色涂层,它反射激光器发出的光并通过经由偏转器主体的接收光到下面的检测器结构。 FIG 11 is a side view of a modified form of photonic device of FIG. 8, wherein the deflector comprises a dichroic coating which reflects light emitted from the laser and the deflector body by receiving light through to the underlying structure of the detector.

图12是图11的器件的俯视图。 FIG 12 is a plan view of the device 11 of FIG.

图13是用于图11的器件的二向色滤光器示例的反射特性的曲线图。 FIG 13 is a graph showing the reflection characteristics of the device of Figure 11 for an example of two dichroic filter.

图14是结合了通过棱镜与外部光纤耦合的边缘发射激光器和边缘接收检测器的阵列的单片集成的光子器件的俯视图。 FIG 14 is a plan view of a combination of photonic device monolithically integrated edge-emitting laser array receiver and detector through the edge prism and coupled to the external fiber.

图15是结合了借助光栅与外部光纤耦合的边缘发射激光器和边缘接收检测器的阵列的单片集成的光子器件的俯视图。 FIG 15 is a combination of an array with the external edges of the raster by a fiber-coupled and edge-emitting laser receiver detectors plan view of a monolithic integrated photonic devices.

较佳实施例的描述现转到本发明的更具体的描述,图1中示出了双层外延芯片10,它在基片16上结合了相互叠加的第一和第二外延结构12和14。 Description of the preferred embodiments Turning now to the embodiment of the present invention is described more specifically, in FIG. 1 shows a double layer of epitaxial silicon 10, which combines the first and second epitaxial structures superposed on each other on the substrate 1612 and 14 . 第一结构12是按常规方式在基片上外延沉积的半导体材料,用以形成对选定波段的光灵敏的光电检测器。 The first material is a semiconductor structure 12 in a conventional manner epitaxially deposited on a substrate to form a selected wavelength band sensitive photodetectors. 第二结构14是同样按常规方式在第一基片12上外延沉积的另一种半导体材料,且通过它可以制造激光器。 14 is a second structure of another semiconductor material in a conventional manner similar to the first epitaxial deposition substrate 12, and it can be produced by a laser.

基片16上的结构例如可由适当掺杂类型的III-V化合物或其合金构成。 Structure on the substrate 16 may be formed, for example, a suitable dopant type III-V compound or an alloy thereof. 层12可以是通过诸如有机金属化学汽相沉积(MOCVD)或分子束外延(MBE)等外延沉积工艺沉积的一连串层。 Layer 12 may be a phase deposition such as metal organic chemical vapor (MOCVD) or molecular beam epitaxy layer succession (MBE) epitaxial deposition process and the like. 通常,这些层可在InP基片上包括以下层:p型掺杂的InP缓冲层、p型掺杂的InGaAs p-接触层、p型掺杂的InP过渡层、未掺杂的InGaAs检测层、n型掺杂的InP层以及n型掺杂的InGaAs n-接触层。 In general, these layers may comprise InP layer on a substrate: p-type doped InP buffer layer, a P-doped p-InGaAs contact layer, P-type doped InP buffer layer, an undoped InGaAs detector layer, n-doped InP layer and the n-type doped InGaAs n- contact layer.

第二结构14也可以是通过MOCVD或MBE工艺在结构12的顶部表面上沉积的一连串层,以形成结合活性区的光学腔。 The second structure 14 may be deposited by MOCVD or MBE process is a series of layers on the top surface of the structure 12, to form the active binding region of the optical cavity. 尽管根据本发明可以制造其它类型的激光学腔,但为简便起见,这里按照脊状(ridge)激光器描述本发明。 Although other types of lasers can be fabricated according to the present invention Science cavity, but for simplicity, the present invention is herein described in terms of a ridge (Ridge) laser. 通常对于固态脊状激光器,结构14包括由诸如InP等与中心活性区中所使用的半导体材料相比的低指数半导体材料构成的上下包层区,中心活性区中所使用的材料可用InAllnGaAs基的量子阱和势垒构成。 For solid-state lasers typically a ridge, the upper and lower cladding region 14 comprises a low index semiconductor material of a semiconductor material in comparison with the central active region used as a structure made of InP and the like, the material used in the central active region groups available InAllnGaAs constituting the quantum wells and barriers. 除了p型掺杂的InGaAs接触层外,可在基片14的顶部上形成InGaAsP的过渡层以提供与基片14上沉积的顶部金属层的电阻接触,以便将器件连接到偏压源。 In addition to p-doped InGaAs contact layer may be formed of InGaAsP buffer layer on top of the substrate 14 to the contact resistance of the top metal layer deposited on the substrate 14 provides, in order to connect the device to a bias source.

结构12和14可共享某些沉积层,使得这些结构之间的界面相互共用。 Structure 12 and 14 may share some of the deposition layer, so that a common interface between each of these structures. 所述层允许结构12中制造高度灵敏的检测器(诸如将在特定波长范围或波段中工作的pin检测器和雪崩光电检测器)以及在结构14中制造能以选定波长发光的表面或边缘发射的激光器。 The layer structure 12 is fabricated to allow highly sensitive detectors (such as working in a specific wavelength range or band detector pin and avalanche photodetector) and can be manufactured in a light emitting surface or edge of a selected wavelength in the structure 14 the laser emission.

在本发明的第一实施例中,如图2和3所示,单片光电器件或芯片20结合了在芯片10的各结构12和14中的分开台面上制造的整体激光器22和整体检测器24。 In the first embodiment of the present invention, shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, a monolithic optoelectronic device chip 20 or a combination of each component 12 and chip 10 in the table 14 from a laser 22 for producing a whole and the overall detector twenty four. 在结构14中通过常规的掩模和蚀刻技术形成激光器22,以生产例如具有顶部表面26、台面侧壁28和30以及第一和第二端32和34的细长的水平脊型光学腔。 In the structure 14 is formed by conventional masking and etching techniques laser 22 to produce, for example having a top surface 26, side walls 28 and the mesa 30 and an elongated horizontal first and second ends 32 and 34 of the ridge type optical cavity. 在第一端32处形成成角的全内反射面35,以将激光器中传播的输出光向上引导通过顶部发射表面离开上述腔,同时通过垂直的全内反射面形成腔的第二端34,以允许在光学腔中产生激光。 Total internal reflection surface forming an angle at the first end 3235, to output the laser light propagating through the top emitting surface directed upwardly away from said chamber, through total internal reflection surface perpendicular to a second end 34 forming a cavity, to allow lasing in the optical cavity. 通过相对于顶部表面26以45°或接近45°的角度向下并向内蚀刻结构14来制造端部32处的成角面35,并使得光学腔中生成的光在与表面26以及水平激光器中活性材料的平面36基本垂直的方向发射,发射光束在箭头37所指示的方向上向上行进。 Relative to the top surface 26 by 45 ° to 45 ° or an angle close to 14 down into the etched structure 32 produced at the end of the angled surface 35, and such that the light generated in the optical cavity 26 and a horizontal surface with the laser plane 36 in a direction substantially perpendicular to the active material emitting the transmitted light beam travels upward in the direction indicated by arrow 37. 输出光束的限制一般由箭头38指示。 Limit the output beam generally indicated by arrow 38. 在该结构中,激光器22和光电检测器24相互电隔离且光隔离。 In this configuration, the laser 22 and the photodetector 24 are electrically isolated, and an optical isolator. 光隔离通过在激光器或检测器上结合吸收或阻挡层得以改进。 The optical isolator is improved by combining the laser or detector absorber or barrier layers. 合适带隙的半导体可被结合作为检测器外延中的附加顶层,以高度吸收一种波长同时允许其它波长的光通过。 Suitable band gap semiconductor can be incorporated as an additional top layer epitaxy detector to absorb one wavelength height while allowing other wavelengths of light through. 下面具有电介质层的金属层可用于在某些位置阻挡来自激光器的杂散或不需要的辐射。 The metal layer under a dielectric layer may be used to block stray or unwanted radiation from a laser at certain locations.

在激光器的第二端34处,以与激光器腔的纵轴成90°角形成端面。 At the second end 34 of the laser to a 90 ° angle with the longitudinal axis of the laser cavity end face is formed. 邻近于激光器的该端的是监控光电检测器(MPD)40,它通过掩模和蚀刻形成于激光器外延结构14中。 Adjacent to the end of the laser is to monitor photodetector (MPD) 40, which is formed in the epitaxial structure 14 by laser masking and etching. 激光器光学腔22被掩模化并蚀刻以形成在结构14中活性区36上并在端部32和34之间延伸的脊部42,其中如图3中的44处所示,该脊部在激光器的发射器端处变宽以提供成角面35上的打开区域,从而允许发射光束37(可以是圆形或椭圆)离开光学腔而没有畸变。 Laser optical cavity 22 masked and etched to form the structure on the active region 1436 and the ridge portion 34 extending between end portions 32 and 42, wherein 44 shown in FIG. 3, the ridges at the end of the laser transmitter to provide a wider opening region on the angled surface 35, thereby allowing the emitted light beam 37 (which may be circular or oval) with no distortion from the optical cavity. 脊部的顶部用电金属化材料46涂布,以允许通过合适的偏压来激励激光器。 Top metallization material electricity ridge portion 46 is applied, to allow the laser is excited by a suitable bias voltage. 该金属化材料通常涂布于激光器结构的顶层上,它可以是诸如InGaAs等允许与金属化层的电阻接触的低带隙半导体。 The metallic material is typically applied on top of the laser structure, which may allow the like such as InGaAs ohmic contact with the metallization layer low band gap semiconductor. 如需要,孔48可形成于结构14的顶层或若干层中,以去除可能吸收发射光的材料。 If desired, apertures 48 may be formed on top of the structure 14 or of several layers in order to remove the material may absorb the emitted light.

作为形成激光器22的掩模和蚀刻过程的一部分,制造检测器24。 As part of the process of forming a mask and etching the laser 22, for producing a detector 24. 如图所示,去除在激光器12周围覆盖检测器结构12的那部分结构14,以暴露检测器结构的顶表面50。 As shown, the structure 12 is removed the portion 12 covers around the laser detector structures 14, 50 to expose the top surface of the detector structure. 在直接包围激光器22的区域中进一步蚀刻结构12以形成使激光器与检测器分开的沟槽52。 In the area immediately surrounding the laser 22 is further etched to form the laser structure 12 and the detector 52 separate grooves. 沟槽向下延伸,并优选延伸一较短距离进入基片12以产生分开的激光器和检测器台面。 Trench extends downwardly and preferably extends a short distance into the substrate 12 to produce a separate laser and detector mesas. 可通过去除层12的一部分进一步使检测器成形以形成由沟槽52限定的检测器台面,如图2和3所示。 It may be further layer 12 by removing a portion of a detector shaped to form a groove 52 defined by the detector mesas, as shown in Figures 2 and 3.

从光子器件20输出的光可借助透镜62耦合到外部输入/输出设备,诸如光纤60。 The light output from the photonic device 20 may be coupled to an external input / output device by means of a lens 62, such as an optical fiber 60. 由于色差,这种透镜将聚焦特定波长的光,而不聚焦不同波长的光。 Due to chromatic aberration, this lens focused light of a specific wavelength, different wavelengths of light without focusing. 这种能力在本发明中用于使得激光器22产生的输出光37(例如可以是波长1310nm的光束)被聚焦于光纤60的端部,如箭头64所指示的。 This output capability for the present invention so that the laser 22 generates light 37 (e.g., a wavelength may be 1310nm beam) is focused on an end portion of the optical fiber 60, as indicated by arrow 64. 波长与该输出光不同的输入光66(例如1490nm且从光纤60接收)被引导到透镜62,如箭头64所示。 The output light of a different wavelength of input light 66 (e.g., 1490nm and receives from the fiber 60) is guided to the lens 62, as shown by arrow 64. 由于其波长,该接收光不由透镜62紧密聚焦,如光束限制箭头70所指示的。 Since the wavelength of tightly focused, not by the light receiving lens 62, light beam restriction as indicated by arrow 70. 结果,输入光未被聚焦于激光器22的发射器端,而是散开并击向区域72中的检测器50,如图3中的虚线所示的。 As a result, light is not focused on the input end of the laser transmitter 22, but is spread out and strike the detector 72 in the region 50, shown in dashed lines in FIG. 3. 激光器和检测器台面的优选设计将激光器的发射器区基本定位于检测器50的中心。 Laser and detector are preferably designed to mesa laser emitter region positioned substantially at the center of the detector 50. 如果输入光66与输出光37的波长基本相同(例如都约为1310nm)且在激光器和光纤之间通过透镜的耦合中有失配,检测器50中的光检测是可能的。 If the wavelength of the input light 66 and output light 37 is substantially the same (e.g., both about 1310nm) and between the laser and the optical fiber through a coupling lens in a mismatch, the light detector 50 in the detection is possible. 激光器和检测器之间的光隔离通过在检测器结构顶上结合带隙与大于1310nm且小于1490nm的波长相对应的吸收半导体层而得到改进。 Optical isolation between the laser and the detector through the detector in a wavelength band gap structure atop the binding is greater than and less than 1490nm 1310nm corresponding to an absorption semiconductor layer is improved. 该吸收层被选为带隙对应于1440nm的InGaAsP。 The absorbent layer is preferably a band gap corresponding to 1440nm InGaAsP. 该吸收层吸收不需要的1310nm光,同时允许1490nm通过到达检测器用于检测。 The absorbent layer absorbs unnecessary light 1310nm, 1490nm while allowing to pass through to the detector for detection.

图4示出了本发明的第二实施例,其中芯片78包括制造于基片86上的三个外延结构,即检测器80和82以及激光器84。 FIG. 4 shows a second embodiment of the present invention, wherein the chip 78 comprises three epitaxial structure fabricated on the substrate 86, i.e. detector 80 and 82 and the laser 84. 这些半导体结构可共享共用层以便于器件的制造。 These structures may share a common semiconductor layer in order to manufacture the device. 例如,高度掺杂的半导体层可被引入检测器层80和82之间以提供接地平面,从而改善电气隔离和高速性能。 For example, highly doped semiconductor layer may be introduced between the detector 80 and the layer 82 to provide a ground plane, thereby improving the electrical isolation and high-speed performance.

如图5所示的单片集成的光子器件90可通过芯片78按照以上相对于图2和3的器件所述的方式制造。 Monolithically integrated photonic device 590 shown in FIG. 78 can be manufactured by die device according to the above with respect to FIGS. 2 and 3 in the manner. 在这种情况中,通过掩模和蚀刻在激光器结构84中制造激光器92,其中所述蚀刻形成一类似于图3的沟槽52的沟槽,它向下延伸通过检测器结构80和82到达基片86的顶部,使得激光器和周围的检测器位于分开的台面上。 In this case, by masking and etching for producing the laser structure 84 in the laser 92, wherein the etching forms a trench in a trench 52 is similar to FIG. 3, which extends downwardly through the detector structures 80 and 82 reach top of the substrate 86 so that the laser and detector are located around a separate table. 蚀刻激光器以形成成角面94,它反射在激光器中向上传播并离开激光器的光。 Laser etching to form an angled surface 94 which reflects the laser light propagating upwardly and away from the laser. 具有由箭头98限定的限制的发射光束96被向上引导到透镜100,它将该光聚焦于诸如光纤的输入/输出器件102,如箭头104所指示的。 Emitting a light beam having a restriction 98 defined by the arrow 96 is guided up to the lens 100, which focuses the light on an optical fiber, such as input / output devices 102, as indicated by arrow 104.

通过蚀刻从检测器结构82的顶表面110上去除激光器结构84,以将表面接收的检测器层80和82暴露给由光子器件90从光纤102接收的光束114。 Removed by etching from the top surface of the detector 110 of the laser structure 84 structure 82, to the surface of the receiver 80 and the detector layer 82 exposed to the light beam 114 received by the photonic device 90 from the optical fiber 102. 该接收光的波长与发射光束96的不同,因此由透镜100引导到检测器表面110上,如箭头114所示并相对于图2和3所述的。 96 emitting different wavelength light beams of the received light, thus guided by the lens 100 onto the surface of the detector 110, as indicated by arrow 114 and the relative FIGS. 2 and 3. 检测器结构82响应于该光束的波长以借助与检测器82相连的电极产生合适的输出。 Detector structure 82 in response to the wavelength of the light beam by means of the electrodes are connected to the detector 82 generates a suitable output. 此外,光子器件90可响应于再一波长的第二输入光束116,它由透镜100引导到检测器结构82的顶表面110上,如箭头116所指示的。 Further, the photonic device 90 may be a second input beam 116 in response to another wavelength, which is guided by a lens 100 onto a detector 82 of the top surface of structure 110, as indicated by arrow 116. 检测器结构82不响应于该光束,且该光通过它。 Detector structure 82 does not respond to the light beam, and the light passes through it. 如箭头116所示的,下面的检测器结构80接收该光束并响应于它在以合适电极(未示出)上产生相应的输出。 As indicated by arrow 116, structure 80 below the detector receiving the light beam and in response thereto produce a corresponding output on an appropriate electrode (not shown).

可称作互扰消除装置(triplexer)的光子器件90可发射波长在1310nm±40nm范围内的光,同时可选择检测器层的带隙以使检测器80接收范围在1550nm±10nm内的光,且检测器82接收范围1490nm±10nm内的光。 The photonic device may be referred to as a mutual interference eliminating means (the triplexer) 90 may emit light having a wavelength in the range of 1310nm ± 40nm, while selectively bandgap layer to the detector so that the detector 80 receives light in a range of 1550nm ± 10nm, and the light detector 1490nm ± 10nm 82 within reception range. 为此,检测器82的带隙被选择为检测低于1520nm的光,以使波长更长的光通过它到达下面的检测器结构80。 For this reason, the band gap of the detector 82 is selected to detect the light below 1520nm, so a longer wavelength below it reaches the detector 80 via structure. 检测器结构80可以是宽带检测器或其带隙被优化为接收波长在1580nm以下的光的检测器。 Detector structure 80 may be a broadband or a band gap of the detector is optimized to receive the light in the wavelength detector 1580nm or less.

虽然上述实施例示出了单个激光发射器位置以及包围该激光发射器的单个检测器位置,但显然本发明的集成光子器件可在单个芯片上结合多个激光器位置和多个检测器位置,例如如图6的俯视图所示。 Although the above embodiment shows a single laser transmitter and a single detector location position surrounding the laser emitter, but obviously integrated photonic device according to the present invention may incorporate a plurality of lasers and a plurality of position detectors at positions on a single chip, such as e.g. 6 is a plan view of FIG. 在该图中,光子芯片130结合了如上所述在一外延激光器结构中制造的表面发射激光器的阵列132,诸如激光器134、136、138和14。 In the drawing, the surface of the photonic chip 130 manufactured as described above in conjunction with the epitaxial laser structure emitting laser array 132, 134, 136, and 14 such as a laser. 激光器可被示作形成一般平行的光发射通道,尽管可以使用其它芯片架构设计。 Laser can be formed as shown generally parallel to the light emission channels, although other chip architecture. 较佳地,如图7所示,为方便将它们的输出光束向上引导到共用输入/输出光纤150,激光器的发射器表面142、144、146和148分别借助合适的外部光学器件(诸如棱镜152以及透镜154和155)组合在一起。 Preferably, shown in Figure 7, to facilitate directing them to a common output beam upwardly input / output fiber 150, 142, 144, the laser emitting surface and 148, respectively, by means of suitable external optical device (such as a prism 152 and a lens 154 and 155) together.

芯片130可包括在每个激光器的发射端周围制造的表面接收检测器用以按以上相对于图1-5所述的方式从光纤150接收光。 Surface of the receiver chip 130 may comprise a detector for producing around each of the lasers to the transmitting end according to the above embodiment with respect to FIGS. 1-5 receives light from the optical fiber 150. 或者如图6所示,表面接收检测器162、164、166和168的阵列160可设置于与发射器相邻的位置并为方便从输入/输出光纤150接收输入光而被组合。 Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 6, the receiving surface of the detector array 162, 164, 168 and 160 may be disposed at a position adjacent to the emitter and to facilitate input / output fiber receives input light 150 are combined. 此外,芯片的表面架构可与图中所示的不同。 In addition, surface architecture different chips shown in FIG.

如图所示,可提供MPD器件用于监控每个激光器,如172、174、176和178处所示的,且如需要可按已知方式在芯片130的表面上提供合适的焊接区180和接地线182。 As shown, may be provided means for MPD, as shown at 172, 174 and 178 monitor each of the laser, and as the need to provide a suitable manner known per se on the surface of the pads 180 and chip 130 grounding line 182. 如本发明的先前的实施例中,激光器132在第一外延结构中制造,而检测器在基片上的第二外延结构中制造。 Embodiment, the first laser 132 in epitaxial structure manufactured in the previous embodiment of the present invention as the second detector epitaxial structure on a substrate in manufacturing. 阵列132中的每个激光器可发出不同波段的光;例如表面发射激光器134、136和140可分别发出波长1470nm、1490nm、1510nm和1530nm的光。 Each laser array 132 can emit light of different wavelength bands; e.g. surface-emitting laser 134, 136 and 140 can respectively emit wavelengths 1470nm, 1490nm, 1510nm and 1530nm of light. 类似地,检测器162、164、166和168例如可分别检测1550nm、1570nm、1590nm和1610nm波段的光。 Similarly, the detector 162, 164 and 168, respectively, for example, a detectable 1550nm, 1570nm, 1590nm and 1610nm light bands.

为在若干激光器之间具有较大的波长变化,例如用于诸如通道间隔约20nm的粗波分复用(CWDM)的应用中,作为上述第一或顶部外延结构的激光器结构的活性区需要修改其带隙以允许为激光器阵列制造合适波长的激光器。 To have a large variation between several wavelength lasers, such as for example, about 20nm channel spacing coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) applications, need to be modified as the first or top of the active region of the laser structure epitaxial structure producing a band gap to allow a laser of appropriate wavelength laser array. 这可以通过用于形成第一外延结构的许多已知工艺之一完成;例如通过无杂质空位扩展或通过多外延沉积。 This may be accomplished one of many known techniques by first forming an epitaxial structure used; for example, by expansion or by impurity-free vacancy multiple epitaxial deposition.

本发明的单片集成的发射器和检测器还可按图8-15所示的方式被制造为具有表面接收检测器的边缘发射激光器(EEL),现对其进行参考。 According to the present invention monolithically integrated emitter and detector may further embodiment shown in Figure 8-15 is manufactured emitting laser (the EEL) having a surface for receiving an edge detector, is its reference. 如图8的侧视图所示,激光器/检测器芯片200包括边缘发射激光器202,它例如可以是外延激光器结构204中制造的Fabry-Perot(FP)激光器,以及在基片210的外延检测器结构208中制造的表面接收检测器206。 As shown in side view in FIG. 8, a laser / detector 200 includes an edge-emitting laser chip 202, which may be, for example, epitaxial laser structure 204 fabricated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, and a detector structure in the epitaxial substrate 210 receiver 208 for producing a surface detector 206. 这些结构通过上述掩模和蚀刻技术形成,区别在于反射基本元件212设置于邻近于激光器202的发射器面214并与其对准但相互隔开。 These structures are formed by masking and etching techniques described above, except that the reflecting member 212 is disposed adjacent the base 214 and aligned to the laser emitter surface 202 but spaced from each other.

元件212可包括在其活性区处与激光器202的光轴218对准的平反射表面216,如图8所示,或者可以包括弯曲表面220,如图9所示。 Element 212 may include an optical axis thereof at the active region 218 of the laser 202 is aligned flat reflective surface 216, shown in Figure 8, or may include a curved surface 220, as shown in FIG. 激光器202发出的光束230由表面216或由表面220偏转通过合适的外部光学器件,诸如透镜232,到达诸如光纤234的输入/输出器件。 230 a laser beam 202 emitted from the surface 216 or 220 is deflected by the external surface by a suitable optical device, such as a lens 232, arriving at the input / output device 234 such as optical fibers. 基本元件212以及表面216和220可通过对半导体激光器和检测器结构的光刻和蚀刻进行制造。 The basic element 212 and the surface 216 and 220 may be manufactured of photolithography and etching the semiconductor laser and detector structure by. 如图10所示,按以上相对于图1-5所述的方式,通过蚀刻使检测器结构成形以包围基本元件212,以使来自光纤234的接收光244由透镜232引导到虚线246所指示的区域中的检测器的表面上。 As shown in FIG. 10, according to the above embodiment with respect to FIGS. 1-5, by etching the detector structure is shaped to surround the base member 212, so that the received light from the optical fiber 244 by the lens 234 is guided to the broken line 232 indicates 246 in the region of the upper surface of the detector.

或者,可经由升高(lift-off)工艺通过例如硅的电子束沉积制造基本元件212,在检测器206顶上提供了方便的结构用于在与芯片表面垂直的方向上反射EEL 202的输出。 Alternatively, for example, may be deposited by electron beam producing silicon base member 212, the top of the detector 206 provides a convenient elevated structure via (lift-off) process for outputting EEL reflected in a direction perpendicular to the chip surface 202 .

如图11和12示出了另一替代方案,其中边缘发射激光器250与表面接收检测器252集成于基片254上,其中反射基本元件256安装于检测器的表面上或定位于其上方。 11 and 12 illustrate another alternative embodiment, wherein the edge-emitting thereabove surface 252 and received by the detector are integrated on the substrate 254, wherein the upper surface of the reflective element 256 is attached to the base or the positioning of the laser detector 250. 基本元件256包括平坦或弯曲的表面260以及表面260上的二向色滤光器262。 The basic element 256 comprises a flat or curved surface 260 and the dichroic filter 262 on surface 260. 滤光器可以是表面260上的多层涂层,它可被设计为反射一个波段并允许另一波段通过。 Filter may be a multi-layer coating on the surface 260, which may be designed to reflect a wavelength band and another band pass allows. 例如,从激光器250的面266发射的光束264(其波段为1310nm±40nm(且基本是s偏振的)并以45°的角度引导到滤光器262上)将被几乎完全向上反射通过外部光学器件266到达诸如光纤268的输入/输出器件。 For example, the light beam emitted from the surface 266 of the laser 250 264 (which is the wavelength band 1310nm ± 40nm (and substantially s-polarized) at angle of 45 ° and directed onto the filter 262) is almost completely reflected by the external optical upwardly device 266, such as input fiber 268 reaches the I / O device. 可具有波段1490nm±10nm的输入光270也以45°的角度引导到滤光器262,但其波长几乎完全被透射通过滤光器到下面的检测器252。 May have 1490nm ± 10nm band light input 270 at an angle of 45 ° is also directed to a filter 262, but its wavelength is transmitted nearly completely through the filter to below the detector 252. 如图12的俯视图所示,接收光270被引导到虚线272内的检测器,包括了基本元件256下面的区域,以提供更大的检测面积且从而提供了对接收光的更大灵敏度。 As shown in the plan view of FIG. 12, the received light is guided to the detector 270 within the dotted line 272, includes a base member 256 below the region, to provide a larger detection area and thereby provide greater sensitivity to received light.

图13中通过曲线280和282示出了典型二向色滤光器的反射与波长行为之间的关系。 13 by curve 280 and 282 illustrate the relationship between the wavelength and the typical behavior of the dichroic reflecting dichroic filter. 在这种情况中,基本元件是InP且外部媒介是空气,且九个层被用于使用常规设计技术制造滤光器。 In this case, the base element is InP and the external medium is air, and the nine layer is manufactured using a conventional filter design techniques.

图14和15示出了在具有诸如透镜和棱镜的片载光学元件的芯片上集成的边缘发射激光器和边缘接收检测器的阵列。 14 and 15 illustrate an integrated optical element in the carrier sheet such as a lens and a prism having an edge-emitting laser chip and the edge of the detector array receiver. 图14中,边缘发射激光器的阵列290和边缘接收检测器的阵列292制造于共用基片上的各自外延激光器和检测器结构中。 And edge receiving detector array 14, the edge-emitting laser array 290 292 fabricated in a common epitaxial laser and respective detector in the structure on the substrate. 利用美国专利No.6,653,244所述的工艺,片载透镜294和296以及棱镜298被制造为与阵列290和292中的激光器和检测器的光轴对准,以将从激光器发出的光300引导到光纤302。 Using the process described in U.S. Patent No.6,653,244, the carrier sheet 296 and the prism 294 and the lens 298 is made to align with the optical axis of the array of lasers 290 and 292 and the detector to emit light from the laser 300 directed to 302 fiber. 光学元件类似地将来自光纤302的接收光304引导到阵列292的检测器。 Similarly, optical element 304 receives light from the optical fiber 302 is guided to the detector array 292. 或者,用片载光栅306取代片载棱镜298,以允许密集间隔的波长的更大分散度,如图15所示。 Alternatively, the carrier sheet with the carrier sheet substituted prism grating 306 298, to allow for greater dispersion wavelength closely spaced, shown in Figure 15. 通过修改芯片的架构,用于不同光波长的密集间隔激光器通道的其它阵列可形成于同一第一外延结构上。 By modifying the architecture of the chip, an array of closely spaced lasers for other channels of different wavelengths of light may be first formed on the same epitaxial structure.

虽然按照较佳实施例说明了本发明,但可以理解,可进行各种变型和修改而不背离如以下权利要求书中所述的其真实的精神和范围。 Although according to the preferred embodiment of the invention has been described, it will be understood that various variations and modifications without departing from the true spirit and scope thereof as recited in the following claims.

Claims (41)

1.一种光子器件,包括:基片;所述基片上的相互重叠的至少第一和第二外延结构;在所述第一外延结构中制造的至少第一蚀刻面光子元件;以及在所述第二外延结构中制造的至少第二光子元件。 1. A photonic device comprising: a substrate; at least a first and second mutually overlapping epitaxial structure on the substrate; at least a first etched surface photonic element fabricated in said first epitaxial structure; and the It said at least a second photonic element for producing a second epitaxial structure.
2.如权利要求1所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第一蚀刻面光子元件是具有发射器端的至少一个激光器。 2. The device according to claim 1, wherein the first photonic element is etched surface having at least one laser emitter end.
3.如权利要求2所述的器件,其特征在于,所述蚀刻面以约45°的角度位于所述激光器的所述发射器端,以提供一表面发射激光器。 3. The device according to claim 2, wherein said etched surface at an angle of about 45 ° located on the end of the laser transmitter to provide a surface emitting laser.
4.如权利要求1所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第二光子元件是至少一个光学检测器。 4. The device according to claim 1, wherein the second photonic element is at least one optical detector.
5.如权利要求4所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第一光子元件是具有发射端的至少一个激光器。 5. The device according to claim 4, wherein the first photonic element having at least one laser emitting end.
6.如权利要求5所述的器件,其特征在于,所述检测器基本包围所述激光器的发射器端。 6. The device according to claim 5, wherein said detector substantially surrounds the end of the laser transmitter.
7.如权利要求4所述的器件,其特征在于,所述检测器是pin二极管。 7. The device according to claim 4, wherein said detector is a pin diode.
8.如权利要求4所述的器件,其特征在于,所述检测器是雪崩光电检测器。 8. The device as claimed in claim 4, characterized in that the detector is an avalanche photodetector.
9.如权利要求5所述的器件,其特征在于,所述激光器被制造为发射第一波长的光,且所述检测器被制造为检测第二波长的光。 9. The device according to claim 5, wherein said first wavelength laser light is made to emit, and the detector is made to detect a second wavelength.
10.如权利要求9所述的器件,其特征在于,所述激光器是表面发射激光器。 10. The device according to claim 9, wherein said laser is a surface emitting laser.
11.如权利要求9所述的器件,其特征在于,所述激光器和所述检测器在所述基片上的分开的台面上。 11. The device according to claim 9, wherein said laser and said detector separated on the substrate surface.
12.如权利要求3所述的器件,其特征在于,还包括用于将从所述激光器发射的光耦合到光纤的外部光学元件。 12. The device according to claim 3, characterized by further comprising means for emitting a laser coupled to an external optical fiber from the optical element.
13.如权利要求12所述的器件,其特征在于,所述外部光学元件包括用于将从所述激光器发出的光引导到所述光纤的透镜。 13. The device of claim 12, wherein said external optical element comprises a light emitted from the laser to the lens for guiding the optical fiber.
14.如权利要求10所述的器件,其特征在于,还包括被优化为将所述第一波长的光聚焦于外部光学器件上的外部透镜,且所述透镜将从所述外部光学器件接收的所述第二波长的光耦合到所述检测器。 14. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that, further comprising a first optimized for the wavelength of the light focused on the optical device outside the outer lens and the outer lens from the receiving optics the second wavelength light is coupled to the detector.
15.如权利要求2所述的器件,其特征在于,所述激光器是被制造为以第一波长发射光的边缘发射激光器,所述第二光子元件是被制造为以第二波长检测光的检测器,其中所述激光器和所述检测器位于所述基片上的分开的台面上。 15. The device according to claim 2, wherein the laser is an edge emitting laser is fabricated to emit light of a first wavelength, a second photonic element is manufactured as a second detection light wavelength a detector, wherein the laser and the detector are located on separate said substrate table.
16.如权利要求15所述的器件,其特征在于,还包括与所述激光器对准的所述基片上的光学元件,用以将从所述激光器发出的光耦合到外部光学器件。 16. The device according to claim 15, characterized by further comprising an optical element on said substrate aligned with said laser for the laser emitted from the optical coupling to external optical devices.
17.如权利要求16所述的器件,其特征在于,所述光学元件是透镜。 17. The device according to claim 16, wherein said optical element is a lens.
18.如权利要求16所述的器件,其特征在于,所述光学元件是衍射元件。 18. The device according to claim 16, wherein said optical element is a diffractive element.
19.如权利要求16所述的器件,其特征在于,所述光学元件是反射器。 19. The device according to claim 16, wherein said optical element is a reflector.
20.如权利要求16所述的器件,其特征在于,所述外部光学器件包括用于将发射光引导到光纤的透镜。 20. A device according to claim 16, wherein said external device comprises optical means for emitting light to the lens fiber.
21.如权利要求20所述的器件,其特征在于,所述透镜被优化为将所述发射光耦合到所述光纤,所述透镜将从所述光纤接收的第二波长的光耦合到所述检测器。 21. The device according to claim 20, wherein said lens is optimized to the emitted light is coupled into the optical fiber, optically coupled to the lens from the second wavelength to the optical receiver said detector.
22.如权利要求21所述的器件,其特征在于,所述光学元件是所述基片上用于将所述激光器发射的光偏转到所述透镜的反射器,所述反射器被定位于所述检测器上以允许检测通过所述透镜从所述光纤接收的所述第二波长的光。 22. The device according to claim 21, wherein said optical element is a substrate on the laser light emitted from the deflector to the reflector of the lens, the reflector is positioned to the said detector to allow the detection light received from the lens of the second wavelength through said optical fiber.
23.如权利要求21所述的器件,其特征在于,所述光学元件是二向色滤光器,用于将所述激光器发射的光偏转到所述透镜并用于透射通过所述透镜从所述光纤接收的所述第二波长的光。 23. The device according to claim 21, wherein said optical element is a dichroic filter for light emitted from said laser to said lens and for deflecting transmitted through the lens from the said optical fiber receiving said second wavelength.
24.如权利要求1所述的器件,其特征在于,还包括所述基片上的至少第三外延结构,所述外延结构在所述基片上以多层叠加,其中在所述第三结构中制造第三光子元件。 24. The device according to claim 1, characterized by further comprising at least a third epitaxial structure on the substrate, the epitaxial multilayer structure superposed on said substrate, wherein said third structure in third photon producing element.
25.如权利要求24所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第一光子元件是被制造成发射第一波长的光的激光器,所述第二光子元件是被制造为检测第二波长的光的检测器,所述第三元件是被制造为检测第三波长的光的检测器。 25. The device according to claim 24, wherein the first photonic element is fabricated to emit laser light of a first wavelength, a second photonic element is manufactured as a detected second wavelength a detector, said third element is made as a detector for detecting light of a third wavelength.
26.如权利要求24所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第一光子元件位于所述基片上的第一台面上,所述第二和第三光子元件位于所述基片上的第二台面上。 26. The device according to claim 24, wherein the first photonic element at a first mesa on said substrate, said second and third photonic element located on said second substrate mesas on.
27.如权利要求26所述的器件,其特征在于,所述激光器是表面发射激光器。 27. The device according to claim 26, wherein said laser is a surface emitting laser.
28.如权利要求26所述的器件,其特征在于,所述激光器是边缘发射激光器。 28. The device according to claim 26, wherein the laser is an edge-emitting laser.
29.如权利要求1所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第一光子元件包括激光器阵列。 29. The device according to claim 1, wherein said first member comprises a photonic laser array.
30.如权利要求29所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第二光子元件包括检测器阵列,其中每个激光器都发射不同波段的光,且每个检测器都检测波段与所述发射光的波段不同的接收光。 30. The device according to claim 29, wherein said second element includes a photon detector array, wherein each laser emits light of different wavelength bands, and each band was detected with the detector the emitted light receiving light of different wavelength bands.
31.如权利要求30所述的器件,其特征在于,还包括所述基片上的光学元件,用于将发射光耦合到外部光纤并用于将从所述光纤接收的光耦合到所述检测器。 31. The device according to claim 30, characterized by further comprising an optical element on said substrate, for emitting light and an optical fiber coupled to an external optical fiber for receiving the light to be coupled from the detector .
32.如权利要求1所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第一和第二光子元件被光隔离。 32. The device according to claim 1, wherein said first and second photonic element is an optical isolator.
33.如权利要求1所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第一和第二光子元件被电隔离。 33. The device according to claim 1, wherein said first and second photonic elements are electrically isolated.
34.如权利要求1所述的器件,其特征在于,所述第一和第二元件位于所述基片上的分开台面上。 34. The device according to claim 1, wherein said first and second separate element positioned on the substrate table.
35.一种在单个芯片上制造用于双向光子操作的集成的激光器和检测器器件的方法,包括:提供一基片上重叠的第一和第二外延结构;在所述第一结构中制造至少一个用于发射第一波长的光的激光器;在所述第二结构中制造至少一个用于接收和检测第二波长的光的检测器;将所述发射光耦合到外部光学器件;以及将来自所述外部光学器件的接收光耦合到所述检测器。 35. A method of manufacturing an integrated laser and a detector for bi-directional photonic devices operate on a single chip, comprising: providing a first and a second epitaxial structure superimposed on a substrate; manufactured at least in said first configuration a laser for emitting light of a first wavelength; producing at least one light detector for receiving and detecting a second wavelength in said second configuration; the emitted light is coupled to an external optical device; and from receiving said external optical device optically coupled to the detector.
36.如权利要求35所述的方法,其特征在于,制造所述至少一个激光器包括制造激光器阵列,每个都发射不同波长的光,以及其中制造所述至少一个检测器包括制造用于接收波长不同于所述发射波长的光的检测器阵列。 36. The method according to claim 35, wherein said at least one laser producing a laser array comprising manufacturing, each emitting light of a different wavelength, and wherein said producing includes producing at least one detector for receiving the wavelength Unlike the light-emitting array detector wavelength.
37.如权利要求1所述的器件,其特征在于,还包括所述第二光子器件上的基部。 37. The device according to claim 1, characterized by further comprising a base on the second photonic device.
38.如权利要求37所述的器件,其特征在于,所述基部由硅构成。 38. The device according to claim 37, wherein said base is made of silicon.
39.如权利要求37所述的器件,其特征在于,所述基部由所述第一外延结构构成。 39. The device according to claim 37, wherein said base is constituted by the first epitaxial structure.
40.如权利要求37所述的器件,其特征在于,还包括光学涂层形成的所述基部。 40. The device according to claim 37, wherein the optical coating further comprises forming a base.
41.如权利要求40所述的器件,其特征在于,所述涂层提供了二向色滤光器。 41. The device according to claim 40, wherein said coating provides a dichroic filter.
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CN106170898A (en) * 2013-11-07 2016-11-30 镁可微波技术有限公司 Lasers with beam shape and beam direction modification

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