CN1907000A - Scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout - Google Patents

Scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1907000A
CN1907000A CNA2005100122847A CN200510012284A CN1907000A CN 1907000 A CN1907000 A CN 1907000A CN A2005100122847 A CNA2005100122847 A CN A2005100122847A CN 200510012284 A CN200510012284 A CN 200510012284A CN 1907000 A CN1907000 A CN 1907000A
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seedling
saussurea involucrata
management
period
stage
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Inventor
赵兵
王晓军
徐春明
王玉春
刘敏
波拉提
袁晓凡
赵海青
王晓东
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Institute of Process Engineering of CAS
Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry of CAS
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Institute of Process Engineering of CAS
Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry of CAS
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Priority to CNA2005100122847A priority Critical patent/CN1907000A/en
Publication of CN1907000A publication Critical patent/CN1907000A/en
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Abstract

The invention discloses a saussurea involucrate tissue cultivating scale artificial planting method in the biochemical engineering technological domain, which is characterized by the following: selecting ground; grading; binding saussurea involucrate in the green house; transplanting to the growing ground at flat-planting or ridging; gathering partial saussurea involucrate leaf; harvesting entire plant.

Description

Scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout
Technical field
The invention belongs to the Biochemical Engineering technology, relate to a kind of scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout.
Background technology
The high mountain herbaceous plant that saussurea involucrata (Saussurea involucrata Kar.et Kir.) once blossoms and bears fruit for the life in 5~8 years of composite family phoenix hair Chrysanthemum, only large tracts of land is distributed in ground such as Xinjiang at home, be the traditional ethnic drugs of ethnic group such as Uygur, Kazak, ethnic drug industry at home has very high popularity, is the rare rare medicinal herbs in China's Chinese medicine, the ethnic drug.Under field conditions (factors), saussurea involucrata generally is grown on the high mountain moraine, stone crack, flowstone beach, alpine meadow of Tianshan Mountains height above sea level 2000~4500m, and ecotope is very harsh, 5~8 years self-sow phases, and bloom knot kind of one's last year, seed nature germination rate is below 3%.Because the wild saussurea involucrata of Tianshan Mountains one band is endangered, has caused the heavy damage at ecotope and water source simultaneously, in " the rare protective plant register in imminent danger of China ", is listed in country and gradually endangers species and be protected.The subject matter of carrying out the artificial planting existence by seed is that wild seed is rare, is difficult to gather; The germplasm degeneration easily takes place in the seed of artificial planting continuous plantation of many generations back.Two patents of invention (patent No. 02108950.7 and 02108685.0) were once crossed in the saussurea involucrata application of nursing young plants in hothouses aspect artificial cultivation method and the artificial cultivation of Saussurea involucrate by Xinjiang Ao Siman biotechnology company, but its emphasis concentrates on mainly that seed is nursed young plants in hothouses and different seeding method on, the Bi Yongjun of Yi Li agricultural [technology master station also reported the artificial cultivation technique of Herba Saussureae Involueratae, but mainly was to be suitable at the seed seedling.Have not yet to see the report of relevant scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout.Utilize the saussurea involucrata seedling of scale group culturation rapid propagating technology breedings such as bioreactor culture to have characteristics such as detoxification, growth is fast, synchronism is good; the advantage that can concentrate seed seedling-raising plantation and tissue-culturing rapid propagation is in one, and the plantation of tissue-culturing rapid propagation seedling has become lifting and wanted one of link of decisive action.Therefore, the artificial planting of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout is the effective way that solves present saussurea involucrata scarcity of resources.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout, make saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout realize extensive artificial planting, alleviate the situation in imminent danger of saussurea involucrata, satisfy demand saussurea involucrata.
Method of the present invention will lash through the saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout of greenhouse hardening and transport to planting site after being selection earlier and whole good planting site, pass through shed hardening or direct transplanting again, planting type is flat planting or ridging, carry out field management, annual results are the saussurea involucrata leaf partly, to whole strain results in flowering stage.
Scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout of the present invention may further comprise the steps:
(1) carries out hardening on the seedbed of saussurea involucrata seedling in green house after will taking root, medium of seedling bed is planting site soil and vermiculite, soil: the volume ratio of vermiculite is 1: 10~10: 1,15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80%, time is 5~60 days, then with the saussurea involucrata seedling direct transplantation after the hardening to planting site; Be transplanted to saussurea involucrata seedling behind the planting site can be further hardening in the planting site shed again, 15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80% shelters from heat or light 30~80%, the time is 5~60 days.
(2) the saussurea involucrata seedling after step (1) hardening is cultivated with the transplanting method of flat planting or ridging, row spacing 60~120cm during ridging, the dark 20~30cm of furrow, spacing in the rows is 5~50cm, line-spacing 10~100cm.
(3) will water restraining the growth of seedlings water to the saussurea involucrata seedling after step (2) cultivation and note keeping soil moisture and the measure of effectively shading, wherein soil moisture 15%~60%.
(4) the saussurea involucrata seedling to step (3) carries out effective field management, comprises seedling management, fast growing period management, the prophase management of surviving the winter, period of seedling establishment management, squaring period and the prophase management of blooming.Here relate generally to water and fertilizer management, intertill and clean tillage and the insect pests plague of rats.
(5) to the annual saussurea involucrata leaf of gathering in the crops of the saussurea involucrata after step (4) growth, results saussurea involucrata leaf is meant under the condition that does not influence the saussurea involucrata growth and bloom, yellow leaf that the harvesting saussurea involucrata is changed and part leafiness, and the saussurea involucrata leaf can be used for effective component extracting; Or for the saussurea involucrata whole strain harvesting after the growth, whole strain harvesting is meant the early stage before latter stage in saussurea involucrata flowering stage and seed form, and puts into the collection of drying in the shade of ventilation lucifugal place behind the whole strain harvesting.
Described seedling management comprises seedling-slowing stage and growth preparatory stage management fast; Seedling-slowing stage is wanted intertill and clean tillage 1~3 time, waters 1~3 time, irrigates 10~30cm at every turn, improves ground temperature, improves the root system vigor of tissue cultivating seedling, shortens transplanting seedling time, alleviates damage by disease and insect.Intertillage can not injure the seedling root, guarantee water supply; Fast the growth preparatory stage will be in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage, loosen the soil control soil moisture restraining the growth of seedlings strong sprout 1~3 time; In (particularly seedling-slowing stage) weeding in time in seedling stage, water 1~3 time, irrigate 10~30cm at every turn, generally need not topdress seedling stage.
Described fast growing period will in time be watered to the soil of arid during 4~August, disposable irrigating more than the 20cm, but can not water waterlogging; Be to water early in the morning or at dusk hot day in midsummer, with snow-broth or the pouring of ice and snow melt water, more favourable its growth.
The described prophase management of surviving the winter, the early stage of surviving the winter, the phase of surviving the winter should keep the water supply abundance in the March in then November to coming year at survive the winter early stage and overwintering period in the 9~October in every year, and will weed to plough and loosen the soil 1 time the early stage of surviving the winter, raising ground temperature.Along with temperature reduces gradually, saussurea involucrata is covered by accumulated snow gradually, stops growing, and enters winter dormancy.
Described period of seedling establishment management is 3~May in every year, and should weed ahead of time and plough 1 time under the situation that guarantees the moisture abundance this period, improves ground temperature, promotes that saussurea involucrata enters fast growing period as early as possible.
The described squaring period and the prophase management of blooming are to guarantee that the saussurea involucrata seedling has sufficient water supply and fertility supply.In earlier stage be another critical period of water requirement of saussurea involucrata with blooming squaring period, therefore this stage must guarantee sufficient water supply and fertility supply, can impose 1~50 kilogram/every mu of composite fertilizer in squaring period and guarantee sufficient fertility supply, note the extermination of disease and insect pest simultaneously;
Saussurea involucrata grows (general more than 3 years) vegetative period, and fertilizer requirement is big, needs repeatedly fertilising, and principle is that base manure is main, and it is auxilliary topdressing.1 year basal dressing, root chases after composite fertilizer outward after 1 year, and base manure is based on fertilizer, and inorganic fertilizer is auxilliary.Utilize sprinkler irrigation method to irrigate, day drought and fertilising are sprayed later.Behind the heavy rain or continuous many it rains and accumulated snow when melting ditching in time get rid of the ponding of low-lying land, divide too much to prevent water, cause that the root anoxic is rotted or the generation of disease.The saussurea involucrata damage by disease and insect is less, and disease mainly is damping off and damping off, adopts physics or biological control as far as possible, carries out burning disposal etc. as diseased plant being extracted outside the plantation plot; When needing applying pesticides, by traditional Chinese medicine plantation GAP requirement select for use efficiently, low toxicity, less-persistent pesticide.
Described planting site should select 600~4000 meters of height above sea level, moist, warm, sunny, well-ventilated, plumbing convenient, contain the abundant sandy soil of humus; Using sufficient farmyard manure is base fertilizer, best tractor-ploughing during whole ground, and tilling depth is about 10~40cm, rakes to no large clod, and soil moisture is moderate.
The present invention is directed to special growing environment of saussurea involucrata and habit; and the characteristics of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout; selected suitable plantation place, weather, the soil condition of saussurea involucrata; standards such as gathering of saussurea involucrata transplanting, field management, Ye Hehua have been formulated; meet Chinese medicine GAP planting requirement; not only improved the output of saussurea involucrata but also guaranteed the genuineness of saussurea involucrata, not only can be used for large-scale planting, also can be used for saussurea involucrata breeding and breed improvement as traditional Chinese medicine.Can realize simultaneously the intensification of saussurea involucrata artificial planting, improve economic benefit, satisfy medicinal demand.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
Select that 2000 meters of height above sea level, moist, warm, sunny, well-ventilated, plumbing are convenient, to contain the sandy soil that humus enriches be planting site; Use sufficient farmyard manure earlier, tilling depth 30cm rakes to no large clod, and soil moisture is moderate.
Saussurea involucrata seedling hardening in green house after will taking root lashes the saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout after the hardening then and transports to planting site, and planting type is flat planting or ridging, carries out field management, and annual results are the saussurea involucrata leaf partly, to whole strain results in flowering stage.Specific as follows:
Hardening: the height of seedling 〉=5cm of the saussurea involucrata seedling after taking root, blade 〉=5 slice, root length 〉=1cm, radical 〉=4, hardening is 25 days on the seedbed in green house, and matrix is planting site soil and vermiculite, soil: the volume ratio of vermiculite is 5: 1,15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80%; Height of seedling<the 5cm of the saussurea involucrata seedling after taking root, blade<5 slice, root length<1cm, radical<4, hardening is 25 days on the seedbed in green house, and matrix is planting site soil and vermiculite, soil: the volume ratio of vermiculite is 5: 1,15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80%;
Transplant: the saussurea involucrata seedling after the hardening is cultivated with the transplanting method of flat planting or ridging, row spacing 60~120cm during ridging, the dark 20~30cm of furrow, spacing in the rows is 5~50cm, line-spacing 10~100cm; Will water restraining the growth of seedlings water and note keeping soil moisture and the measure of effectively shading the saussurea involucrata seedling after the cultivation, wherein soil moisture 40%, 5~30 ℃ of temperature, the rate 30~80% of sheltering from heat or light; The tissue cultivating seedling transplanting survival rate of height of seedling 〉=5cm is 90%; The tissue cultivating seedling transplanting survival rate of height of seedling<5cm is 80%.
Field management comprises seedling management, fast growing period management, the prophase management of surviving the winter, period of seedling establishment management, squaring period and the prophase management of blooming;
Seedling management comprises seedling-slowing stage and growth preparatory stage management fast, and during seedling-slowing stage, intertill and clean tillage 2 times waters 3 times, irrigates 10~30cm at every turn, improves ground temperature, improves the root system vigor of tissue cultivating seedling, shortens transplanting seedling time, alleviates damage by disease and insect.Fast the growth preparatory stage will be in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage, loosen the soil control soil moisture restraining the growth of seedlings strong sprout 2 times.Fast growing period was watered 2 times during 4~August, and disposable irrigating about 25cm watered at dusk, and the water source is the ice and snow melt water.
The prophase management of surviving the winter, the early stage of surviving the winter is in the 9~October in every year, and the phase of surviving the winter should keep the water supply abundance in the March in then November to coming year at survive the winter early stage and overwintering period, and will weed to plough and loosen the soil 1 time the early stage of surviving the winter, raising ground temperature.Along with temperature reduces gradually, saussurea involucrata is covered by accumulated snow gradually, stops growing, and enters winter dormancy.
The period of seedling establishment management is 3~May in every year, and should weed ahead of time and plough 1 time under the situation that guarantees the moisture abundance this period, improves ground temperature, promotes that saussurea involucrata enters fast growing period as early as possible.
The squaring period and the prophase management of blooming are to guarantee that the saussurea involucrata seedling has sufficient water supply and fertility supply.In earlier stage be another critical period of water requirement of saussurea involucrata with blooming squaring period, therefore this stage must guarantee sufficient water supply and fertility supply, when more abundant time of rainwater this, need not to water in year, impose 30 kilograms/every mu of composite fertilizer in squaring period and guarantee sufficient fertility supply, note the extermination of disease and insect pest simultaneously.
Insect pest mainly is that biological control utilizes natural enemy control.Saussurea involucrata grows (general more than 3 years) vegetative period, and fertilizer requirement is big, needs repeatedly fertilising, and principle is that base manure is main, and it is auxilliary topdressing.1 year basal dressing, root chases after composite fertilizer outward after 1 year, and base manure is based on fertilizer, and inorganic fertilizer is auxilliary.Utilize sprinkler irrigation method to irrigate, day drought and fertilising are sprayed later.Behind the heavy rain or continuous many it rains and accumulated snow when melting ditching in time get rid of the ponding of low-lying land, divide too much to prevent water, cause that the root anoxic is rotted or the generation of disease.The saussurea involucrata damage by disease and insect is less, and disease mainly is damping off and damping off, adopts physics or biological control as far as possible, carries out burning disposal etc. as diseased plant being extracted outside the plantation plot; When needing applying pesticides, by traditional Chinese medicine plantation GAP requirement select for use efficiently, low toxicity, less-persistent pesticide.
Gather in the crops the saussurea involucrata leaf every year: under the condition that does not influence the saussurea involucrata growth and bloom, yellow leaf that the harvesting saussurea involucrata is changed and part leafiness.
Results: latter stage in flowering stage and seed form early stage, and whole strain harvesting is put into the collection of drying in the shade of ventilation lucifugal place after gathering.
Embodiment 2
Select that 1400 meters of height above sea level, moist, warm, sunny, well-ventilated, plumbing are convenient, to contain the sandy soil that humus enriches be planting site; Use sufficient farmyard manure earlier, tilling depth 35cm rakes to no large clod, and soil moisture is moderate.
Saussurea involucrata seedling hardening in green house after will taking root lashes the saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout after the hardening then and transports to planting site and practice seedling, transplants then, planting type is flat planting or ridging, carry out field management, annual results are the saussurea involucrata leaf partly, to whole strain results in flowering stage.Specific as follows:
Hardening: the height of seedling 〉=5cm of the saussurea involucrata seedling after taking root, blade 〉=5 slice, root length 〉=1cm, radical 〉=4, hardening is 15 days on the seedbed in green house, and matrix is planting site soil and vermiculite, soil: the volume ratio of vermiculite is 1: 4,15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80%; Saussurea involucrata transplantation of seedlings after the hardening behind planting site, hardening 5 days in the planting site shed again, 15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80% shelters from heat or light 30~80%; Or the height of seedling<5cm of the saussurea involucrata seedling after taking root, blade<5 slice, root length<1cm, radical<4, hardening is 20 days on the seedbed in green house, and matrix is planting site soil and vermiculite, soil: the volume ratio of vermiculite is 1: 4,15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80%; Saussurea involucrata transplantation of seedlings after the hardening behind planting site, hardening 5 days in the planting site shed again, 15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80% shelters from heat or light 30~80%;
Transplant: the saussurea involucrata seedling after the hardening is cultivated with the transplanting method of flat planting or ridging, row spacing 60~120cm during ridging, the dark 20~30cm of furrow, spacing in the rows is 5~50cm, line-spacing 10~100cm; Transplanting survival rate to height of seedling 〉=5cm is 85%; The transplanting survival rate of height of seedling<5cm is 75%.
Will water restraining the growth of seedlings water and note keeping soil moisture and the measure of effectively shading the saussurea involucrata seedling after the cultivation, wherein soil moisture 40%.
Field management comprises seedling management, fast growing period management, the prophase management of surviving the winter, period of seedling establishment management, squaring period and the prophase management of blooming.
Seedling management comprises seedling-slowing stage and growth preparatory stage management fast, and during seedling-slowing stage, intertill and clean tillage 3 times waters 2 times, irrigates 30cm at every turn, improves ground temperature, improves the root system vigor of tissue cultivating seedling, shortens transplanting seedling time, alleviates damage by disease and insect.Fast the growth preparatory stage will be in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage, loosen the soil control soil moisture restraining the growth of seedlings strong sprout 2 times.Fast growing period was watered 1 time during 4~August, and disposable irrigating about 20cm watered early in the morning, and the water source is the ice and snow melt water.
The prophase management of surviving the winter, the early stage of surviving the winter is in the 9~October in every year, and the phase of surviving the winter should keep the water supply abundance in the March in then November to coming year at survive the winter early stage and overwintering period, and will weed to plough and loosen the soil 1 time the early stage of surviving the winter, raising ground temperature.Along with temperature reduces gradually, saussurea involucrata is covered by accumulated snow gradually, stops growing, and enters winter dormancy.
The period of seedling establishment management is 3~May in every year, and should weed ahead of time and plough 1 time under the situation that guarantees the moisture abundance this period, improves ground temperature, promotes that saussurea involucrata enters fast growing period as early as possible.
The squaring period and the prophase management of blooming are to guarantee that the saussurea involucrata seedling has sufficient water supply and fertility supply.In earlier stage be another critical period of water requirement of saussurea involucrata with blooming squaring period, therefore this stage must guarantee sufficient water supply and fertility supply, water in good time, impose 40 kilograms/every mu of composite fertilizer in squaring period and guarantee sufficient fertility supply, note the extermination of disease and insect pest simultaneously.
Insect pest mainly is that biological control utilizes natural enemy control.Saussurea involucrata grows (general more than 3 years) vegetative period, and fertilizer requirement is big, needs repeatedly fertilising, and principle is that base manure is main, and it is auxilliary topdressing.1 year basal dressing, root chases after composite fertilizer outward after 1 year, and base manure is based on fertilizer, and inorganic fertilizer is auxilliary.Utilize sprinkler irrigation method to irrigate, day drought and fertilising are sprayed later.Behind the heavy rain or continuous many it rains and accumulated snow when melting ditching in time get rid of the ponding of low-lying land, divide too much to prevent water, cause that the root anoxic is rotted or the generation of disease.The saussurea involucrata damage by disease and insect is less, and disease mainly is damping off and damping off, adopts physics or biological control as far as possible, carries out burning disposal etc. as diseased plant being extracted outside the plantation plot; When needing applying pesticides, by traditional Chinese medicine plantation GAP requirement select for use efficiently, low toxicity, less-persistent pesticide.
Gather in the crops the saussurea involucrata leaf every year: under the condition that does not influence the saussurea involucrata growth and bloom, yellow leaf that the harvesting saussurea involucrata is changed and part leafiness.
Results: latter stage in flowering stage and seed form early stage, and whole strain harvesting is put into the collection of drying in the shade of ventilation lucifugal place after gathering.
Embodiment 3
Select that 3500 meters of height above sea level, moist, warm, sunny, well-ventilated, plumbing are convenient, to contain the sandy soil that humus enriches be planting site; Use sufficient farmyard manure earlier, tilling depth 25cm rakes to no large clod, and soil moisture is moderate.
Saussurea involucrata seedling after will taking root lashes transports to planting site, practices seedling in the planting site shed, transplants then, and planting type is flat planting or ridging, carries out field management, and annual results are the saussurea involucrata leaf partly, to whole strain results in flowering stage.Specific as follows:
Hardening: the height of seedling 〉=5cm of the saussurea involucrata seedling after taking root, blade 〉=5 slice, root length 〉=1cm, radical 〉=4, hardening is 7 days in the planting site shed, about 20 degrees centigrade of temperature, humidity 75% shelters from heat or light 40%; Or the height of seedling<5cm of the saussurea involucrata seedling after taking root, blade<5 slice, root length<1cm, radical<4, hardening is 7 days in the planting site shed, about 20 ℃ degrees centigrade of temperature, humidity 75% shelters from heat or light 40%.
Transplant: the saussurea involucrata seedling after the hardening is cultivated with the transplanting method of flat planting or ridging, row spacing 100cm during ridging, the dark 25cm of furrow, spacing in the rows is 20cm, line-spacing 40cm; Transplanting survival rate to height of seedling 〉=5cm is 88%; The transplanting survival rate of height of seedling<5cm is 78%.
Will water restraining the growth of seedlings water and note keeping soil moisture and the measure of effectively shading the saussurea involucrata seedling after the cultivation, wherein soil moisture 30%.
Field management comprises seedling management, fast growing period management, the prophase management of surviving the winter, period of seedling establishment management, squaring period and the prophase management of blooming.
Seedling management comprises seedling-slowing stage and growth preparatory stage management fast, and during seedling-slowing stage, intertill and clean tillage 1 time waters 1 time, irrigates 10~30cm at every turn, improves ground temperature, improves the root system vigor of tissue cultivating seedling, shortens transplanting seedling time, alleviates damage by disease and insect.Fast the growth preparatory stage will be in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage, loosen the soil control soil moisture restraining the growth of seedlings strong sprout 2 times.Fast growing period is during 4~August, and with heavy rainfall need not watered.
The prophase management of surviving the winter, the early stage of surviving the winter is in the 9~October in every year, and the phase of surviving the winter should keep the water supply abundance in the March in then November to coming year at survive the winter early stage and overwintering period, and will weed to plough and loosen the soil 1 time the early stage of surviving the winter, raising ground temperature.Along with temperature reduces gradually, saussurea involucrata is covered by accumulated snow gradually, stops growing, and enters winter dormancy.
Described period of seedling establishment management is 3~May in every year, and should weed ahead of time and plough 1 time under the situation that guarantees the moisture abundance this period, improves ground temperature, promotes that saussurea involucrata enters fast growing period as early as possible;
The squaring period and the prophase management of blooming are to guarantee that the saussurea involucrata seedling has sufficient water supply and fertility supply.In earlier stage be another critical period of water requirement of saussurea involucrata with blooming squaring period, therefore this stage must guarantee sufficient water supply and fertility supply, water in good time, impose 25 kilograms/every mu of composite fertilizer in squaring period and guarantee sufficient fertility supply, note the extermination of disease and insect pest simultaneously.
Saussurea involucrata grows (general more than 3 years) vegetative period, and fertilizer requirement is big, needs repeatedly fertilising, and principle is that base manure is main, and it is auxilliary topdressing.1 year basal dressing, root chases after composite fertilizer outward after 1 year, and base manure is based on fertilizer, and inorganic fertilizer is auxilliary.Utilize sprinkler irrigation method to irrigate, day drought and fertilising are sprayed later.Behind the heavy rain or continuous many it rains and accumulated snow when melting ditching in time get rid of the ponding of low-lying land, divide too much to prevent water, cause that the root anoxic is rotted or the generation of disease.The saussurea involucrata damage by disease and insect is less, and disease mainly is damping off and damping off, adopts physics or biological control as far as possible, carries out burning disposal etc. as diseased plant being extracted outside the plantation plot; When needing applying pesticides, by traditional Chinese medicine plantation GAP requirement select for use efficiently, low toxicity, less-persistent pesticide.
Gather in the crops the saussurea involucrata leaf every year: under the condition that does not influence the saussurea involucrata growth and bloom, yellow leaf that the harvesting saussurea involucrata is changed and part leafiness.
Results: latter stage in flowering stage and seed form early stage, and whole strain harvesting is put into the collection of drying in the shade of ventilation lucifugal place after gathering.
Embodiment 4
Select that 600 meters of height above sea level, moist, warm, sunny, well-ventilated, plumbing are convenient, to contain the sandy soil that humus enriches be planting site; Use sufficient farmyard manure earlier, tilling depth 40cm rakes to no large clod, and soil moisture is moderate.
Saussurea involucrata seedling after will taking root lashes transports to planting site, practices seedling in the planting site shed, transplants then, and planting type is flat planting or ridging, carries out field management, and annual results are the saussurea involucrata leaf partly, to whole strain results in flowering stage.Specific as follows:
Hardening: the height of seedling 〉=5cm of the saussurea involucrata seedling after taking root, blade 〉=5 slice, root length 〉=1cm, radical 〉=4, hardening is 7 days in the planting site shed, 25 ℃ of temperature, humidity 50% shelters from heat or light 40%; Or the height of seedling<5cm of the saussurea involucrata seedling after taking root, blade<5 slice, root length<1cm, radical<4, hardening is 7 days in the planting site shed, 25 ℃ of temperature, humidity 50% shelters from heat or light 40%;
Transplant: the saussurea involucrata seedling after the hardening is cultivated with the transplanting method of flat planting or ridging, row spacing 80cm during ridging, the dark 30cm of furrow, spacing in the rows is 15cm, line-spacing 60cm; Transplanting survival rate to height of seedling 〉=5cm is 88%; The transplanting survival rate of height of seedling<5cm is 78%.
Will water restraining the growth of seedlings water and note keeping soil moisture and the measure of effectively shading the saussurea involucrata seedling after the cultivation, wherein soil moisture 50%.
Field management comprises seedling management, fast growing period management, the prophase management of surviving the winter, period of seedling establishment management, squaring period and the prophase management of blooming.
Seedling management comprises seedling-slowing stage and growth preparatory stage management fast, and during seedling-slowing stage, intertill and clean tillage 3 times waters 1 time, irrigates 10~30cm at every turn, improves ground temperature, improves the root system vigor of tissue cultivating seedling, shortens transplanting seedling time, alleviates damage by disease and insect, and do not topdress seedling stage.Fast the growth preparatory stage will be in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage, loosen the soil control soil moisture restraining the growth of seedlings strong sprout 1 time.Fast growing period is during 4~August, and soil drought waters 2 times, and disposable irrigating more than the 20cm watered at dusk, the pouring of ice and snow melt water.
The prophase management of surviving the winter, the early stage of surviving the winter is in the 9~October in every year, and the phase of surviving the winter should keep the water supply abundance in the March in then November to coming year at survive the winter early stage and overwintering period, and will weed to plough and loosen the soil 1 time the early stage of surviving the winter, raising ground temperature.Along with temperature reduces gradually, saussurea involucrata is covered by accumulated snow gradually, stops growing, and enters winter dormancy.
Described period of seedling establishment management is 3~May in every year, and should weed ahead of time and plough 1 time under the situation that guarantees the moisture abundance this period, improves ground temperature, promotes that saussurea involucrata enters fast growing period as early as possible;
The squaring period and the prophase management of blooming are to guarantee that the saussurea involucrata seedling has sufficient water supply and fertility supply.In earlier stage be another critical period of water requirement of saussurea involucrata with blooming squaring period, therefore this stage must guarantee sufficient water supply and fertility supply, water in good time, impose 50 kilograms/every mu of composite fertilizer in squaring period and guarantee sufficient fertility supply, note the extermination of disease and insect pest simultaneously.
Saussurea involucrata grows (general more than 3 years) vegetative period, and fertilizer requirement is big, needs repeatedly fertilising, and principle is that base manure is main, and it is auxilliary topdressing.1 year basal dressing, root chases after composite fertilizer outward after 1 year, and base manure is based on fertilizer, and inorganic fertilizer is auxilliary.Utilize sprinkler irrigation method to irrigate, day drought and fertilising are sprayed later.Behind the heavy rain or continuous many it rains and accumulated snow when melting ditching in time get rid of the ponding of low-lying land, divide too much to prevent water, cause that the root anoxic is rotted or the generation of disease.The saussurea involucrata damage by disease and insect is less, and disease mainly is damping off and damping off, adopts physics or biological control as far as possible, carries out burning disposal etc. as diseased plant being extracted outside the plantation plot; When needing applying pesticides, by traditional Chinese medicine plantation GAP requirement select for use efficiently, low toxicity, less-persistent pesticide.
Gather in the crops the saussurea involucrata leaf every year: under the condition that does not influence the saussurea involucrata growth and bloom, yellow leaf that the harvesting saussurea involucrata is changed and part leafiness.
Results: latter stage in flowering stage and seed form early stage, and whole strain harvesting is put into the collection of drying in the shade of ventilation lucifugal place after gathering.

Claims (7)

1. a scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout is characterized in that, this method may further comprise the steps:
(1) carry out hardening on the seedbed of saussurea involucrata seedling in green house after will taking root, medium of seedling bed is planting site soil and vermiculite, soil: the volume ratio of vermiculite is 1: 10~10: 1,15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80%; Then with the saussurea involucrata seedling direct transplantation after the hardening to planting site;
(2) the saussurea involucrata seedling after step (1) hardening is cultivated with the transplanting method of flat planting or ridging, row spacing 60~120cm during ridging, the dark 20~30cm of furrow, spacing in the rows is 5~50cm, line-spacing 10~100cm;
(3) will water restraining the growth of seedlings water to the saussurea involucrata seedling after step (2) cultivation and note keeping soil moisture and the measure of effectively shading, wherein soil moisture 15%~60%;
(4) the saussurea involucrata seedling to step (3) carries out effective field management, comprises seedling management, fast growing period management, the prophase management of surviving the winter, period of seedling establishment management, squaring period and the prophase management of blooming;
(5) to the annual saussurea involucrata leaf of gathering in the crops of the saussurea involucrata after step (4) growth, results saussurea involucrata leaf is meant under the condition that does not influence the saussurea involucrata growth and bloom, yellow leaf that the harvesting saussurea involucrata is changed and part leafiness; Or for the saussurea involucrata whole strain harvesting after the growth, whole strain harvesting is meant the early stage before latter stage in saussurea involucrata flowering stage and seed form.
2. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described planting site should select 600~4000 meters of height above sea level, moist, warm, sunny, well-ventilated, plumbing convenient, contain the abundant sandy soil of humus.
3. method according to claim 2 is characterized in that: described planting site should use sufficient base fertilizer earlier, and tilling depth 10~40cm rakes to no large clod, and soil moisture is moderate.
4. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described step (1) is 5~60 days in the green house hardening time.
5. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described step (1) is transplanted to planting site then with the direct hardening 5~60 days in the planting site shed of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout, 15~30 ℃ of temperature, and humidity 30~80% shelters from heat or light 30~80%.
6. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described step (1) after the green house hardening time is 5~60 days, hardening in the planting site shed again, the hardening time is 5~60 days, 15~30 ℃ of temperature, humidity 30~80% shelters from heat or light 30~80%.
7. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described seedling management comprises seedling-slowing stage and growth preparatory stage management fast; Seedling-slowing stage is wanted intertill and clean tillage 1~3 time, waters 1~3 time, irrigates 10~30cm at every turn; Fast the growth preparatory stage is wanted intertill and clean tillage, loosens the soil 1~3 time, control soil moisture restraining the growth of seedlings strong sprout;
Described fast growing period will in time be watered to the soil of arid during 4~August, disposable irrigating more than the 20cm, but can not water waterlogging; Be to water early in the morning or at dusk hot day in midsummer, with snow-broth or the pouring of ice and snow melt water;
The described prophase management of surviving the winter, the early stage of surviving the winter, the phase of surviving the winter should keep the water supply abundance in the March in then November to coming year at survive the winter early stage and overwintering period in the 9~October in every year, and will weed cultivated loosening the soil 1 time the early stage of surviving the winter;
Described period of seedling establishment management is 3~May in every year, under the situation that guarantees the moisture abundance, weeds ahead of time and ploughs 1 time;
The described squaring period and the prophase management of blooming are to guarantee that the saussurea involucrata seedling has sufficient water supply and fertility supply, will impose 1~50 kilogram/every mu of composite fertilizer in squaring period, note the extermination of disease and insect pest simultaneously;
Topdressing described squaring period is saussurea involucrata seedling basal dressing to 1 year, and root chases after composite fertilizer outward after 1 year, and described base manure is based on fertilizer, and inorganic fertilizer is auxilliary.
CNA2005100122847A 2005-08-01 2005-08-01 Scaled artificial planting method of saussurea involucrate tissue culture sprout Pending CN1907000A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100594779C (en) * 2007-03-19 2010-03-24 中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所 Snow lotus polyploid inducing process
CN101960981A (en) * 2010-10-27 2011-02-02 镇江市京口区瑞京农业科技示范园 Method for cultivating cherries and tomatoes
CN103141293A (en) * 2013-03-24 2013-06-12 西藏藏真堂藏药产业有限公司 Scale planting method for increasing survival rate of saussurea obvallata
CN103181938A (en) * 2012-09-26 2013-07-03 王德俭 Purslane light-avoiding pharmaceutical method for treating cough
CN103314758A (en) * 2013-07-02 2013-09-25 新疆雪莲维药生物工程有限公司 Method for artificially cultivating saussurea involucrata
CN107439181A (en) * 2017-08-03 2017-12-08 阜康国有林管理局 Xinjiang Saussurea involucrate Proterozoic structure of community rationally and fast breeding method

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100594779C (en) * 2007-03-19 2010-03-24 中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所 Snow lotus polyploid inducing process
CN101960981A (en) * 2010-10-27 2011-02-02 镇江市京口区瑞京农业科技示范园 Method for cultivating cherries and tomatoes
CN101960981B (en) * 2010-10-27 2011-12-14 镇江市京口区瑞京农业科技示范园 Method for cultivating cherries and tomatoes
CN103181938A (en) * 2012-09-26 2013-07-03 王德俭 Purslane light-avoiding pharmaceutical method for treating cough
CN103141293A (en) * 2013-03-24 2013-06-12 西藏藏真堂藏药产业有限公司 Scale planting method for increasing survival rate of saussurea obvallata
CN103314758A (en) * 2013-07-02 2013-09-25 新疆雪莲维药生物工程有限公司 Method for artificially cultivating saussurea involucrata
CN103314758B (en) * 2013-07-02 2015-01-28 新疆雪莲维药生物工程有限公司 Method for artificially cultivating saussurea involucrata
CN107439181A (en) * 2017-08-03 2017-12-08 阜康国有林管理局 Xinjiang Saussurea involucrate Proterozoic structure of community rationally and fast breeding method

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