CN1888391A - Fast spoil disposal slope protection and ecological recovery open-pit mining technology - Google Patents

Fast spoil disposal slope protection and ecological recovery open-pit mining technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1888391A
CN1888391A CN 200610019707 CN200610019707A CN1888391A CN 1888391 A CN1888391 A CN 1888391A CN 200610019707 CN200610019707 CN 200610019707 CN 200610019707 A CN200610019707 A CN 200610019707A CN 1888391 A CN1888391 A CN 1888391A
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China
Prior art keywords
slope
segmentation
stripping
zone
barren rock
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CN 200610019707
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CN100464054C (en
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张世雄
王官宝
任高峰
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Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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Abstract

The present invention relates to an open-pit mine excavation process, in particular, it relates to an open-pit mining process capable of quickly discharging earth to protect bank and making ecological restoration. It is characterized by that in one end of open-pit mine or its middle said invention adopts a conventional method, if the stripping and mining operation of initial stripping working face is completed, on the deposit mining direction the mining working face can be divided into left side zone, medium zone and right side zone, then they are further divided into several smaller subsections, every subsection can be used as an unit, on every subsection the processes of stripping, mining, backfilling and banking, cultivating-greening or covering with concrete are progressively adopted so as to implement the invented open-pit mining process.

Description

The opencast mining technology of quick casting bank protection and ecological recovery
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of mineral resources openwork technology.
Background technology
Up to now, barren rock in the technology of mineral deposit strip mining transformation is both at home and abroad peeled off, the transportation of barren rock and discharging, waste-rock yard reclaim and several important steps such as maintenance of greening, side slope are relatively independent, independently design, construct and manage, guiding theory is to satisfy the requirement of the production capacity between the process procedure up and down and save cost.
Usually the surface mine exploitation is from one end to the other side to advance continuously, the geotechnical body disturbance and the ground environment that form in a big way destroy, may there be several years in the final side slope that forms in the recovery process even decades, need finish a large amount of side slope maintenance works, expend substantial contribution, engineering geology disasters such as landslide also may occur, bring loss to the people's lives and property.For the mine that row's condition is arranged in the barren rock, generally all can carry out discharging in the hole of barren rock, this discharging mainly is to consider to save the barren rock cost of transportation, its and final timely, complete, final improvement of side slope is not combined.As shown in Figure 1, this is discharging modes in the current domestic and international surface mine hole of peeling off barren rock of generally adopting, it is to be exploited in the process of propelling to the other end by an end in the pit, the barren rock that work plane is peeled off, transport to final side slope one end in rear and go discharging, gradually advance the preferential casting and the bank protection of two final side slopes about not considering usually.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide the opencast mining technology of a kind of quick casting bank protection and ecological recovery, this technology has that cost of transportation is low, the characteristics of low, the quick ecology recovering environment of side slope maintenance cost.
To achieve these goals, technical scheme of the present invention is: the opencast mining technology of quick casting bank protection and ecological recovery is characterized in that it comprises the steps:
(1) carry out barren rock at an end of ore body or middle part with conventional method and peel off, barren rock is discharged into outer refuse dump, the ore body that exploitation separates forms to satisfy and adopts initially adopting of stripping job requirements minimum dimension a and shell work plane 4 (as shown in Figure 5);
(2) adopting on the stripping direction of propulsion, be divided into right side zone 1, middle district 2 and left side zone 3 adopting the stripping scope, each is divided into 2-1000 segmentation, every propelling 100-200 rice is a segmentation, and to shell that work plane 4 begins be first segmentation 5 (as shown in Figure 8) from initially adopting;
(3) at first carry out peeling off and digging up mine of right side zone, left side zone first segmentation, the stripping of distinguishing in first segmentation of adopting is followed up, and forms spill; The barren rock of peeling off is inner discharging in the pit, is used for opencut rear portion side slope 6 pressure slope of (comprising right side zone, left side zone part rear portion side slope), is pressed onto the top, slope from toe always, finishes the permanent bank protection of rear portion side slope and administers (as shown in Figure 8);
(4) for the segmentation of finishing slope treatment, reclaim immediately greening or concrete cover ecology recovering;
(5) second steps were to carry out peeling off and exploiting of right side zone, left side zone second segmentation, the barren rock of peeling off is used for the bank protection backfill of the first segmentation side slope, the follow-up of stripping work plane is adopted in middle district, peel off barren rock and be used for its goaf, rear backfill nearby in middle district, reclaim immediately and afforest or the concrete covering ecology recovering in the location that backfill puts in place;
(6) from second step, enter normal production cycle, so segmentation advances, and finishes until mining, and ecological recovery also finishes;
(7) for form the mine of initially adopting the stripping work plane from the middle part, can form two and adopt the stripping work plane, adopt above-mentioned technology, reverse propulsion.
The present invention adopts segmentation exploitation, casting pressure slope to administer side slope fast and combine with ecology recovering, has following advantage: casting pressure slope nearby, shorten the barren rock transportation range, and it is low to reduce cost of transportation; Final side slope Time Over Head is short, thereby can add steep ultimate pit slope angle to reduce the barren rock overburden amount; Main means the casting pressure slope is safeguarded as side slope realize the permanent improvement of side slope rapidly, and the side slope maintenance cost is low; The large-scale rock mass excavation of opencut to face of land environment damage, is reduced into the local failure of subsection, helps environmental protection; Quick ecology recovering environment.
In the arid place that do not have condition to afforest such as desert particularly, after casting lamination reality, cover with thin-lift concrete at an upper portion thereof, avoid sand to destroy environment, reach the effect of fixing the sand, its effect obviously be better than the face of land that underground mining causes destroy with the depression state under sand-fixing effect.The improvement method is just like the improvement of highway to the bare rock side slope.This technology is applicable to various areas, particularly the environmental protection exploitation in arid, desert, mineral deposit, ecologically fragile area such as high and cold.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 peels off for existing opencut and discharges schematic diagram in the hole of barren rock, and arrow is represented direction of propulsion among the figure.
Fig. 2 peels off the casting bank protection of barren rock and the ecological recovery schematic diagram of reclaiming for opencut, and it has represented the overall state of technology of the present invention, the figure shows opencut and advances from south to north, excavation section by section, casting bank protection and the situation of reclaiming; Arrow is represented direction of propulsion among the figure.
Fig. 3 is that Fig. 2 is along A-A line sectional view.
Fig. 4 is that Fig. 2 is along B-B line sectional view.
Fig. 5 initially adopts stripping work plane schematic diagram for opencut, by peeling off effluxing and digging up mine of barren rock, forms and initially adopts the stripping work plane.
Fig. 6 is that Fig. 5 is along C-C line sectional view.
Fig. 7 is that Fig. 5 is along D-D line sectional view.
Fig. 8 is the schematic diagram of peeling off and dig up mine of right side zone, left side zone first segmentation, the barren rock that this segmentation is peeled off is inner discharging in the pit, the pressure slope that is used for opencut rear portion side slope and right side zone, left side zone part side slope, be pressed onto the top, slope from toe always, finish the permanent bank protection improvement of rear portion side slope and the greening of reclaiming.
Second segmentation is later adopt stripping, slope treatment and reclaim to afforest enters regular circulation, sees Fig. 2.
Fig. 9 is that Fig. 8 is along E-E line sectional view.
Figure 10 is that Fig. 8 is along F-F line sectional view.
Among the figure: the 1-right side zone, to distinguish among the 2-, 3-left side zone, 4-are initially adopted the stripping work plane, 5-first segmentation, 6-opencut rear portion side slope, 7-greening thing (as tree or grass), a-adopts stripping job requirements minimum dimension.
The specific embodiment
As Fig. 2, Fig. 3, shown in Figure 4, the opencast mining technology of quick casting bank protection and ecological recovery, it comprises the steps:
(1) carrying out barren rock at an end of ore body or middle part with conventional method peels off, barren rock is discharged into outer refuse dump, the ore body that separates of exploitation, form satisfy adopt stripping job requirements minimum dimension a (being generally 50-100 rice) initially adopt stripping work plane 4 (as Fig. 5, Fig. 6, shown in Figure 7);
(2) adopting on the stripping direction of propulsion, be divided into right side zone 1, middle district 2 and left side zone 3 (as shown in Figure 8) adopting the stripping scope, satisfying under the condition of adopting stripping job requirements minimum dimension, each is divided into 2-1000 segmentation, as shown in Figure 8, every propelling 100-200 rice is a segmentation, and to begin be first segmentation 5 from initially adopting stripping work plane 4;
(3) at first carry out peeling off and digging up mine of right side zone, left side zone first segmentation, the stripping of distinguishing in first segmentation of adopting is followed up, and forms spill; The barren rock of peeling off is inner discharging in the pit, is used for opencut rear portion side slope 6 pressure slope of (as shown in Figure 8, comprising right side zone, left side zone part rear portion side slope), is pressed onto the top, slope from toe always, finishes the permanent bank protection of rear portion side slope and administers;
(4) for the segmentation of finishing slope treatment, greening of reclaiming immediately (as Fig. 9, shown in Figure 10, greening thing 7 on the kind) or concrete cover ecology recovering;
(5) second steps were to carry out peeling off and exploiting of right side zone, left side zone second segmentation, the barren rock of peeling off is used for the bank protection backfill of the first segmentation side slope, the follow-up of stripping work plane is adopted in middle district, peel off barren rock and be used for its goaf, rear backfill nearby in middle district, reclaim immediately and afforest or the concrete covering ecology recovering in the location that backfill puts in place;
(6) from second step, enter normal production cycle, so segmentation advances, and finishes until mining, and ecological recovery also finishes;
(7) for form the mine of initially adopting the stripping work plane from the middle part, can form two and adopt the stripping work plane, adopt above-mentioned technology, reverse propulsion.
Main theory foundation of the present invention:
(1) development of rock mechanics slope treatment presser feet theory
On rock mechanics and engineering, people often are summed up as " cutting top, reinforcing, presser feet " to the main improvement method of disease side slope, this is meant and carries out the ground excavation on the top that stability can not satisfy the side slope of safety requirements, the ground of excavation is transported, thereby cut down the load on side slope top, be called and cut the top; Adopt suitable means such as anchor pole, anchor cable or antislide pile to reinforce at the middle part of side slope; Push down toe at the bottom of side slope discharging ground, increase skid resistance.They are current comprehensive regulation side slopes, avoid the effective measures and the method for slump.
This invention up develops rock mechanics about administering one of side slope three big major technique measures " presser feet ", i.e. presser feet not only, " pressure waist ", " pressure chest " also gradually, even " pressure face ", with peeling off or the barren rock and table soil of down-hole driving output, push down high steep final side slope comprehensively, make it to form stable gentle slope, eliminate the potential safety hazard that the final hill wash collapses.
(2) ecology recovering environment as early as possible
Final side slope segmentation is excavated fast, backfill fast, grass planting afforestation fast, can be in a planned way ecology recovering environment as early as possible, avoid traditional exploitation method to make that Tu Yan behind the excavation is exposed for a long time, loss of vegetation covers and destroys environment, mining is dropped to minimum to the influence of environment.The employing technology of reclaiming is carried out reclamation to the Tu Yan of backfill, and plantation is suitable for the good vegetation on this ground as early as possible, recovers original ecological environment, even makes the environment of recovery be better than original environment.
In the arid place that do not have condition to afforest such as desert particularly, after casting lamination reality, cover with thin-lift concrete at an upper portion thereof, avoid sand to destroy environment, reach the effect of fixing the sand, its effect obviously be better than the face of land that underground mining causes destroy with the depression state under sand-fixing effect.The improvement method is just like the improvement of highway to the bare rock side slope.
(3) minimize transport costs and reduce the hole and efflux taking of soil site
The barren rock amount that strip mining transformation is peeled off than big several times even tens times of extracted ore amount, is occupied important proportion usually in cost of production.Under suitable condition, carry out discharging in the hole of barren rock, can reduce the barren rock haul distance, save taking of outer refuse dump, hole, save the refuse dump land used, the maintenance cost of saving refuse dump.Existing opencut tradition adopts peel off in the barren rock hole discharge method be in the mineral deposit by an end in other end exploitation progradation, the ground that the front end work plane is peeled off is transported to rear end, open-air hole and is dumped, and the transportation range of hundreds of meters even thousands of meters is still arranged.
The present invention opens up the final side slope of the opencut rear end and the left and right sides to be nearest interior refuse dump in a planned way, as soon as possible, adopt the ground of peeling off that the open-air final side slope of new excavation is carried out backfill nearby, transportation range has only tens meters usually to hundreds of rice, can shorten the haul distance of barren rock greatly; The theory of utilization mine Industrial Engineering, mine system engineering and Logistics Engineering, the transportation of the mine being peeled off barren rock is optimized, and makes the transportation merit minimum of ground, reduces its freight greatly.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
(1) shortens the transportation range that ground discharges
The year barren rock freight volume of a large-scale mine can reach tens million of tons, and freight can reach several hundred million units; Even the present invention shortens haul distance part, also can reach tens million of units.
(2) shortening final side slope faces the empty time and adds the gradient slope angle
It is conservative that the ultimate pit slope angle of China's opencut generally is tending towards, the expert thinks, compare with external large-scale mine, generally slow about 5 ° of the slope angles of Chinese large-sized opencut, and a mine of producing 300~1,000 ten thousand tons per year, 1 ° of the every raising of slope angle, just can reduce overburden amount 0.5~1.5 hundred million ton, (Cai Meifeng: the development prospect in 20th century of China Metal mine is commented, Chinese Mining Industry, 2001 (1): 11~13) to save 1~300,000,000 yuan of investment.
The present invention can be with the final side slope of traditional opencut from facing sky several years to one, 20 years, shortens to some months to, 2 years, thereby can improve 5~8 ° to the ultimate pit slope angle of opencut, saves the huge barren rock of opencut and peel off expense.
(3) saving a large amount of side slopes safeguards and control expense
Owing to, can save the maintenance and the control expense of a large amount of side slopes with the permanent improvement of the final side slope of realization rapidly of easy method.With Pingshuo Coal Industry Corp.'s northern final side slope of mountain range opencut of settling down is example, taked the method for " cutting the top " off-loading to administer the slump side slope in 2005, the side slope of moving top loess 60 ten thousand steres, spend 3,500,000 yuan, make side slope temporarily be in stable state, but fundamentally do not solve the stability problem of this side slope.Obviously, after this side slope is pushed down in casting, just need not again it have been administered.
(4) saving outer refuse dump, hole takes up an area of and the refuse dump maintenance cost
Owing to peel off the interior row of ground in advance, add imperial palace row's ground total amount, can save outer refuse dump, hole and take up an area of and the refuse dump maintenance cost.
(5) arrange the stability that helps improving the underground mining rock mass in the barren rock pressure slope
The present invention is for the barren rock backfill in open-air hole, can make slope table face rock mass be in triaxial stress state, and the seismic wave that underground mining driving and production explosion are produced is when being delivered to the slope rock mass surface, partly seismic wave can go into to inject propagation in the gob and dissipate, reduced refraction the formed tensile stress of seismic wave numerical value and to the issuable destruction of slope rock mass, help the stable of underground rock engineering, reduce the roadway maintenance expense of underground mining, reduced the probability of happening of side slope slump and underground passage collapse accident.
(6) quick ecology recovering environment
From the excavation of ore deposit section, be backfilling into afforestation, cycle has only some months to, 2 years, can eliminate the negative effect of mining greatly shortened to part the exposed period of final slope ground and refuse dump, help the sustainable development of mining industry environment.

Claims (1)

1. the opencast mining technology of quick casting bank protection and ecological recovery is characterized in that it comprises the steps:
(1) carry out barren rock at an end of ore body or middle part with conventional method and peel off, barren rock is discharged into outer refuse dump, the ore body that exploitation separates forms to satisfy and adopts initially adopting of stripping job requirements minimum dimension a and shell work plane 4;
(2) adopting on the stripping direction of propulsion, be divided into right side zone 1, middle district 2 and left side zone 3 adopting the stripping scope, each is divided into 2-1000 segmentation, every propelling 100-200 rice is a segmentation, and to shell that work plane 4 begins be first segmentation 5 from initially adopting;
(3) at first carry out peeling off and digging up mine of right side zone, left side zone first segmentation, the stripping of distinguishing in first segmentation of adopting is followed up, and forms spill; The barren rock of peeling off is inner discharging in the pit, is used for the pressure slope of opencut rear portion side slope 6, is pressed onto the top, slope from toe always, finishes the permanent bank protection of rear portion side slope and administers;
(4) for the segmentation of finishing slope treatment, reclaim immediately greening or concrete cover ecology recovering;
(5) second steps were to carry out peeling off and exploiting of right side zone, left side zone second segmentation, the barren rock of peeling off is used for the bank protection backfill of the first segmentation side slope, the follow-up of stripping work plane is adopted in middle district, peel off barren rock and be used for its goaf, rear backfill nearby in middle district, reclaim immediately and afforest or the concrete covering ecology recovering in the location that backfill puts in place;
(6) from second step, enter normal production cycle, so segmentation advances, and finishes until mining, and ecological recovery also finishes;
(7) for form the mine of initially adopting the stripping work plane from the middle part, can form two and adopt the stripping work plane, adopt above-mentioned technology, reverse propulsion.
CNB2006100197072A 2006-07-25 2006-07-25 Fast spoil disposal slope protection and ecological recovery open-pit mining technology Expired - Fee Related CN100464054C (en)

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN102278115A (en) * 2011-06-27 2011-12-14 汉通建设集团有限公司 High-efficiency safe environment-friendly mining method for rare shallow-buried ore layer in irregular strip-shaped distribution
CN102418529A (en) * 2011-09-02 2012-04-18 湖州鹿山坞矿业有限公司 Mining method
CN102562071A (en) * 2011-12-19 2012-07-11 江西稀有稀土金属钨业集团有限公司 Mining technology for inclined orebodies in opencast mines
CN102799744A (en) * 2012-08-01 2012-11-28 中钢集团马鞍山矿山研究院有限公司 Dumping process technology of open cut ore mine moraine soil
CN103133003A (en) * 2013-02-25 2013-06-05 中国矿业大学 Opencast mine end slope near-slope mining method
CN104879130A (en) * 2015-04-24 2015-09-02 华能伊敏煤电有限责任公司 Method for exploiting surface mine slope deformation area
CN106121652A (en) * 2012-07-09 2016-11-16 薛世忠 One closes hole surface mine Ore stoping method
CN108756886A (en) * 2018-06-04 2018-11-06 东北大学 A kind of Metal Open hillside is transferred to interior row's process design method in deep recessed stage
CN109630121A (en) * 2019-01-30 2019-04-16 新疆天池能源有限责任公司 A kind of opencut exploiting field steering development haulage system

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CN1052525C (en) * 1997-10-23 2000-05-17 北京矿冶研究总院 Open-cast and high step mining process
CN1179115C (en) * 2002-06-17 2004-12-08 广州绿能达生态科技研究所 Fast afforestation method for vertical surface of stone pit
CN1601054A (en) * 2004-10-10 2005-03-30 北京科技大学 Method for intensified mining deep-dished strip mine
RU2274749C1 (en) * 2005-04-15 2006-04-20 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Экостройресурс" Method for land reclamation in the case of land corruption by opened deposit development

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102278115A (en) * 2011-06-27 2011-12-14 汉通建设集团有限公司 High-efficiency safe environment-friendly mining method for rare shallow-buried ore layer in irregular strip-shaped distribution
CN102418529A (en) * 2011-09-02 2012-04-18 湖州鹿山坞矿业有限公司 Mining method
CN102562071A (en) * 2011-12-19 2012-07-11 江西稀有稀土金属钨业集团有限公司 Mining technology for inclined orebodies in opencast mines
CN102562071B (en) * 2011-12-19 2014-04-30 江西稀有稀土金属钨业集团有限公司 Mining technology for inclined orebodies in opencast mines
CN106121652A (en) * 2012-07-09 2016-11-16 薛世忠 One closes hole surface mine Ore stoping method
CN102799744A (en) * 2012-08-01 2012-11-28 中钢集团马鞍山矿山研究院有限公司 Dumping process technology of open cut ore mine moraine soil
CN102799744B (en) * 2012-08-01 2015-05-20 中钢集团马鞍山矿山研究院有限公司 Dumping process technology of open cut ore mine moraine soil
CN103133003B (en) * 2013-02-25 2015-10-21 中国矿业大学 Opencut steep end-slope mining method
CN103133003A (en) * 2013-02-25 2013-06-05 中国矿业大学 Opencast mine end slope near-slope mining method
CN104879130A (en) * 2015-04-24 2015-09-02 华能伊敏煤电有限责任公司 Method for exploiting surface mine slope deformation area
CN108756886A (en) * 2018-06-04 2018-11-06 东北大学 A kind of Metal Open hillside is transferred to interior row's process design method in deep recessed stage
CN108756886B (en) * 2018-06-04 2020-07-14 东北大学 Internal drainage process design method for metal strip mine slope turning into deep concave stage
CN109630121A (en) * 2019-01-30 2019-04-16 新疆天池能源有限责任公司 A kind of opencut exploiting field steering development haulage system

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