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CN1886161B - 旋转式血泵 - Google Patents

旋转式血泵 Download PDF

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CN1886161B
CN1886161B CN 200480034041 CN200480034041A CN1886161B CN 1886161 B CN1886161 B CN 1886161B CN 200480034041 CN200480034041 CN 200480034041 CN 200480034041 A CN200480034041 A CN 200480034041A CN 1886161 B CN1886161 B CN 1886161B
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pump
spindle
bearings
magnetic
blood
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CN 200480034041
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CN1886161A (zh )
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D·兰西斯
R·万普勒
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奥基斯医药公司
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/101Non-positive displacement pumps, e.g. impeller, centrifugal, vane pumps
    • A61M1/1029Drive systems therefor
    • A61M1/1031Drive systems therefor using a motor with canned rotor, i.e. a motor enclosed within a casing along with the rotor so that the motor bearings are lubricated by the blood that is being pumped
    • A61M1/1036Drive systems therefor using a motor with canned rotor, i.e. a motor enclosed within a casing along with the rotor so that the motor bearings are lubricated by the blood that is being pumped using rotating magnets for driving
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/101Non-positive displacement pumps, e.g. impeller, centrifugal, vane pumps
    • A61M1/1012Constructional features thereof
    • A61M1/1013Types of bearings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/101Non-positive displacement pumps, e.g. impeller, centrifugal, vane pumps
    • A61M1/1012Constructional features thereof
    • A61M1/1013Types of bearings
    • A61M1/1015Magnetic bearings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/101Non-positive displacement pumps, e.g. impeller, centrifugal, vane pumps
    • A61M1/1012Constructional features thereof
    • A61M1/1013Types of bearings
    • A61M1/1017Hydrodynamic bearings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D1/00Radial-flow pumps, e.g. centrifugal pumps; Helico-centrifugal pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D13/00Pumping installations or systems
    • F04D13/02Units comprising pumps and their driving means
    • F04D13/06Units comprising pumps and their driving means the pump being electrically driven
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D13/00Pumping installations or systems
    • F04D13/02Units comprising pumps and their driving means
    • F04D13/06Units comprising pumps and their driving means the pump being electrically driven
    • F04D13/0666Units comprising pumps and their driving means the pump being electrically driven the motor being of the plane gap type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/04Shafts or bearings, or assemblies thereof
    • F04D29/041Axial thrust balancing
    • F04D29/0413Axial thrust balancing hydrostatic; hydrodynamic thrust bearings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/04Shafts or bearings, or assemblies thereof
    • F04D29/043Shafts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/04Shafts or bearings, or assemblies thereof
    • F04D29/046Bearings
    • F04D29/047Bearings hydrostatic; hydrodynamic
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/04Shafts or bearings, or assemblies thereof
    • F04D29/046Bearings
    • F04D29/047Bearings hydrostatic; hydrodynamic
    • F04D29/0473Bearings hydrostatic; hydrodynamic for radial pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/04Shafts or bearings, or assemblies thereof
    • F04D29/046Bearings
    • F04D29/048Bearings magnetic; electromagnetic
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/18Rotors
    • F04D29/22Rotors specially for centrifugal pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/40Casings; Connections of working fluid
    • F04D29/42Casings; Connections of working fluid for radial or helico-centrifugal pumps
    • F04D29/426Casings; Connections of working fluid for radial or helico-centrifugal pumps especially adapted for liquid pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/60Mounting; Assembling; Disassembling
    • F04D29/62Mounting; Assembling; Disassembling of radial or helico-centrifugal pumps
    • F04D29/628Mounting; Assembling; Disassembling of radial or helico-centrifugal pumps especially adapted for liquid pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C32/00Bearings not otherwise provided for
    • F16C32/04Bearings not otherwise provided for using magnetic or electric supporting means
    • F16C32/0406Magnetic bearings
    • F16C32/044Active magnetic bearings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/101Non-positive displacement pumps, e.g. impeller, centrifugal, vane pumps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/101Non-positive displacement pumps, e.g. impeller, centrifugal, vane pumps
    • A61M1/1029Drive systems therefor
    • A61M1/1031Drive systems therefor using a motor with canned rotor, i.e. a motor enclosed within a casing along with the rotor so that the motor bearings are lubricated by the blood that is being pumped
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/12Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps implantable into the body
    • A61M1/122Heart assist devices, i.e. for assisting an ailing heart, using additional pumping means in the blood circuit
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C2316/00Apparatus in health or amusement
    • F16C2316/10Apparatus in health or amusement in medical appliances, e.g. in diagnosis, dentistry, instruments, prostheses, medical imaging appliances
    • F16C2316/18Pumps for pumping blood
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S415/00Rotary kinetic fluid motors or pumps
    • Y10S415/90Rotary blood pump

Abstract

旋转式泵的可用来替代机械接触轴承的各种包括液力轴承和磁轴承的“非接触”轴承机构。在一实施例中,一泵装置包括一界定一泵室(112)的泵壳体(110)。该泵壳体有一伸入该泵室中的心轴。该心轴中有一包括第一和第二磁铁(262,264)的心轴磁铁组件(160)。该第一和第二磁铁的位置互相紧临,其磁向量相反。由于不使用机械接触轴承,因此泵的使用寿命延长,对工作流体如血的破坏减小。

Description

旋转式血泵

发明领域

[0001] 本发明涉及旋转式泵。特别涉及用于各种转子和叶轮结构的轴承。 [0002] 发明背景

[0003] —般旋转式泵使用一叶轮,其中,该叶轮的运动用机械接触轴承在5个自由度(两 个角自由度,三个平动自由度)上受到限制。某些工作流体会受到机械接触轴承的破坏。用 具有接触轴承的泵抽运的血会发生血细胞溶解,即破坏血细胞。 一般来说,某些场合需要使 用能抽运需要小心处理的工作流体如血的高效液压且高功率的泵。

[0004] Wampler等人的美国专利No. 6, 234, 772B1 ( "Wampler")说明了 一种 有径向磁斥力轴承和轴向流体动力轴承的离心血泵。Woodard等人的美国专利 No. 6, 250, 880B1 ( "Woodard")说明了一种其叶轮只受液体动力支撑的离心血泵。 [0005] 两血泵都是基于轴向磁通间隙电动机的设计。叶轮中携带电动机的驱动磁铁,从 而用作电动机转子。在此两种情况中,驱动磁铁都位于叶轮的叶片中。驱动绕组的位置在 泵室外但在用作电动机定子的泵壳体内。由于电动机与泵一体化,因此省略了驱动轴和泵 的密封。该泵/电动机包括增强用于驱动叶轮的磁通的背铁。

[0006] 两血泵的问题都是液力不足,其至少一部分的原因是将磁铁设置在叶轮叶片中要 求大且非常规的叶片几何形状。

[0007] 该泵要有效工作必须克服叶片携带的磁铁与背铁之间很大的自然轴向吸力。尽管 叶片与泵壳体之间不发生接触,但液力轴承会由于与液力轴承承载的负载有关的剪切力造 成血细胞的破坏。因此只使用液力轴承可能对血有害。 [0008] 本发明概述

[0009] 鉴于公知血泵和方法的不足,旋转式泵用各种"非接触"轴承机构取代机械接触轴

承。用各种转子和壳体设计特征实现磁轴承和液力轴承。这些设计特征可组合在一起。由

于不使用机械接触轴承,因此泵的使用寿命延长,对工作流体如血的破坏减小。

[0010] 在一实施例中,该泵包括一磁推力轴承。该泵包括界定泵室的泵壳体。该泵壳体

有伸入该泵室中的心轴。该心轴设有包括第一和第二磁铁的心轴磁铁组件。该心轴磁铁组

件的第一和第二磁铁的位置互相紧临,其磁向量相反。该泵包括有可围绕该心轴转动的叶

轮的转子。该转子的非叶片部中设有包括第一和第二磁铁的转子磁铁组件。该转子磁铁组

件的第一和第二磁铁的位置互相紧临,其磁向量相反。心轴和转子磁铁组件的相对方向选

择成使得心轴和转子磁铁组件互相吸引。该转子可包括开槽孔。在各实施例中,含有的液

力轴承用于径向支撑或轴向支撑或径向和轴向支撑。

[0011] 附图简要说明

[0012] 下面结合例示性附图举例说明本发明,在各附图中相同部件用同一标号表示,附 图中:

[0013] 图1为一有一被动轴向磁轴承的泵的剖面图;

[0014] 图2示出该被动轴向磁轴承一实施例;

[0015] 图3示出该被动轴向磁轴承的中央和偏心设置;

3[0016] 图4示出一叶轮实施例;以及

[0017] 图5示出该泵的一实施例用于医学中。

[0018] 详细说明

[0019] 图1示出一离心血泵的一个实施例。该泵包括界定在进口 114和出口 116之间的泵室112的壳体110。在该泵室中,转子120围绕从该泵壳体底部伸出的心轴130转动。该转子还包括界定提供流体流动面的叶轮的叶片部。该叶轮包括一个或多个在叶轮转动时推动流体的叶片121。

[0020]"转子"和"叶轮"在某些上下文中的意思相同。例如,转子转动时,转子的叶片部也转动,因此可以说转子转动,也可说叶轮转动。但需要时可用"转子的非叶片部"或"叶轮之外的转子"专指转子的在叶片之外的部分。转子的每一叶片都可称为叶轮,但叶轮一般指一个或多个叶片的集合。

[0021] 该泵建立在活动磁铁轴向磁通间隙电动机结构。在一实施例中,该电动机为一无刷DC电动机。转子中的磁铁122的磁向量与转子转动轴线190平行。在所示实施例中,驱动磁铁位于转子的非叶片部内。

[0022] 驱动绕组140位于泵壳体内。电力加到驱动绕组生成与驱动磁铁互相作用的随时间而变的电流,使得叶轮转动。 一背铁150增强电动机转子磁铁产生的磁通。在一实施例中,转子底面124或下泵壳体的相对表面118具有这样的表面(如172):在转子与壳体之间间隙小于一预定阈值时能形成液力轴承。在一实施例中,该预定阈值为0. 0002-0. 003英寸。

[0023] 背铁150与转子承载的驱动磁铁122之间的自然吸引会在转子上生成很大的轴向载荷。该轴向载荷存在于诸如Wampler或Woodard的轴向磁通间隙电动机结构的离心泵中。Wampler和Woodard都靠液力推力轴承克服该轴向载荷力。尽管叶片与泵壳体之间不发生接触,但液力轴承会由于与该液力轴承承载的负载有关的剪切力造成血细胞的破坏。[0024] Wampler的径向斥力磁轴承加重了驱动磁铁与背铁之间磁吸引生成的轴向力。尽管径向斥力磁轴承生成径向稳定性,但造成很大轴向不稳定性。该轴向不稳定性可进一步提高轴向载荷。不管使用什么样的轴向液力轴承,该额外的轴向力造成更大的剪切力,从而造成血细胞溶解。此外,维持液力轴承所需功率随着该载荷的增加而增加。因此高负载的液力轴承的功耗大。

[0025] 图1血泵包括用来减小或抵消由驱动磁铁与背铁之间的相互作用作用而施加在转子上的轴向载荷的轴向磁轴承。该轴向磁轴承由位于心轴内的心轴磁铁组件160与由转子携带的转子磁铁组件180之间的相互作用形成。在所示实施例中,转子磁铁组件180靠近叶轮,但转子磁铁组件的磁铁不位于叶片中。调节螺丝134通过在心轴的纵向轴线上移动心轴磁铁组件来纵向调节该轴向磁轴承的轴向位置。

[0026] 图2示出轴向磁轴承实施例。转子磁铁组件包括互相紧临的第一转子轴承磁铁282和第二转子轴承磁铁284。第一和第二转子轴承磁铁为永久磁铁。在一实施例中,它们之间有一极片286。极片或磁通集中件用来集中转子轴承磁铁282和284生成的磁通。在另一实施例中,部件286只是帮助第一和第二轴承磁铁282、284定位的间隔件而不用来集中磁通。在其他实施例中,部件286省略,因此转子磁铁组件不包括间隔件或极片部件。[0027] 在一实施例中,部件282和284为单块环形永久磁铁。轴承磁铁也可呈非单块组合物。例如,轴承磁铁也可呈由多个饼形、弧段形或其它形状的永久磁铁组成的环形永久磁 铁结构。

[0028] 转子轴向轴承磁铁组件与转子的非叶片221部中的驱动磁铁222不同。在所示实 施例中,驱动磁铁位于转子的非叶片部228中。

[0029] 心轴磁铁组件包括第一心轴轴承磁铁262和第二心轴轴承磁铁264。第一和第二 转子轴承磁铁为永久磁铁。在一实施例中,它们之间有一极片266。极片266集中心轴轴承 磁铁262和264生成的磁通。在另一实施例中,部件266只是用作第一和第二心轴轴承磁 铁定位的间隔件而不用来集中磁通。在其他实施例中,部件266省略,因此心轴磁铁组件不 包括间隔件或极片部件。

[0030] 在所示实施例中,永久磁铁262和264呈圆柱形。在其它实施例中也可使用其它 形状。环形转子磁铁与叶轮一起围绕由心轴轴承磁铁组件使用的心轴纵向轴线转动。 [0031] 心轴和转子轴承组件的永久磁铁布置成使得中间极片两边上的磁铁的磁向量互 木目木目i^。

[0032] —给定极片的两边与不同磁铁的相同极邻接。

[0033] 因此,磁铁262和264的磁向量互相相反(例如N对N或S对S)。同样,磁铁282

和284的磁向量互相相反。

[0034] 各磁铁的方向选择成每当轴承在轴向上错位时建立轴向吸引。注意到,心轴和转 子磁铁组件的相对方向选择成使得心轴和转子磁铁组件互相吸引(例如S对N,N对S)。为 一组件的磁铁选定的磁向量方向决定着用于另一组件的磁铁的磁向量方向。表292示出第 一和第二转子轴承磁铁(MR1,MR2)和第一和第二心轴轴承磁铁(MS1,MS2)的可接受的磁向 量组合。使磁轴承组件发生轴向位移的背铁与驱动磁铁之间的磁吸引力至少部分地被轴向 轴承之间恢复转子轴向位置的轴向磁吸引力抵消。

[0035] 图2还示出在转子的非叶片部的一面(例如见图1底面124)与泵壳体背部之间 的间隙小于一预定阈值时形成一液力轴承一部分的楔形面或斜面272。在各实施例中,该预 定阈值为0.0002-0. 003英寸。因此,在一实施例中,该泵包括一轴向液力轴承。提供该轴 向液力轴承的表面几何形状可位于转子或壳体上。

[0036] 尽管心轴磁铁组件用作轴向磁轴承,但心轴和转子磁铁组件之间的吸引力还有一 径向分量。该径向分量可用来抵消由叶轮上的压力梯度对叶轮造成的径向负载。该径向分 量还在开始转动时用作预加负载和在正常转动时用作偏置力防止转子围绕心轴偏心转动。 偏心转动会造成不利于泵送作用的流体涡流或打旋。该偏置径向分量比方说在泵受到由移 动或冲击造成的外力时有助于保持或恢复转子的径向位置和抽运作用。 [0037] 在其他实施例中也可不用与转子轴承磁铁组件互相作用的心轴磁铁组件形成该 磁轴承而用铁磁材料取代a)心轴磁铁组件或b)转子轴承磁铁组件之一 (但不同时取代心 轴磁铁组件和转子轴承磁铁组件)。

[0038] 该磁轴承仍由一心轴部和一转子部组成,但心轴部和转子部之一使用铁磁材料, 而另一部分使用永久磁铁。

[0039] 铁磁材料与磁铁相互作用在转子与心轴之间形成磁吸引。铁磁材料的例子包括 铁、镍和钴。

[0040] 在一实施例中,铁磁材料为"软铁"。软铁的部分特征为矫顽磁性极低。因此不管其剩磁如何,软铁在外部磁场如该磁轴承系统的永久磁铁的磁场的作用下容易磁化(或再磁化)。

[0041] 图3示出该磁轴承心轴部的各种设置位置。在一实施例中,心轴磁铁组件360的轴向与心轴的纵向轴线390重合,因此心轴和心轴磁铁组件的纵向中心轴线相同。在另一实施例中,心轴磁铁组件在径向上偏移,从而心轴和心轴磁铁组件的中心轴线不同。特别是,心轴磁铁组件360的纵向轴线362与心轴的纵向轴线390偏移。需要时可用这后一种位置设置来形成某种径向偏置力。叶轮上的压力差会在径向上把叶轮推向泵壳体的一边。这一径向力至少可部分地由偏移该心轴磁铁组件加以抵消。

[0042] 尽管所示心轴和转子磁铁组件各包括2个磁元件,但磁铁组件也可各包括单块磁铁。每组件使用多个磁元件而不使用单块磁铁可提高弹簧比率。每组件使用两磁元件所生成的轴承比每组件使用单个磁元件可以更大弹簧比率矫正在轴向正反两个方向上离开稳定位置的位移(即稳定点之上和之下的位移)。

[0043] 轴向磁轴承生成的磁力除了轴向分量还有径向分量。该径向分量会造成叶轮的不稳定。特别是,该径向分量会造成图1或2磁轴承径向位置不稳定。

[0044] 可使用径向液力轴承克服该径向不稳定。参见图1,该泵可设计成沿转子的孔在心轴130与转子之间有一径向液力轴承(即液力滑动轴承)。图l所示间隙夸大。液力滑动轴承需要间隙很小才能工作。在各实施例中,该液力滑动轴承间隙为0. 0005-0. 020英寸。[00化]可用作轴向(推力)或径向(滑动)液力轴承的表面几何形状可位于转子上,也可位于壳体(或心轴)的有关部位上。在一实施例中,该表面几何形状包括特征如一个或多个垫(即一生成间隙突变的特征如一高度均匀的台阶)。在另一实施例中,该表面几何形状包括特征如一个或多个斜面。

[0046] 图4示出包括一叶轮的转子的一实施例。该叶轮包括多个用来抽运工作流体如血的叶片420。转子包括一孔410。转子孔与泵壳体中的心轴同纵向轴线。驱动磁铁(未示出)位于转子的非叶片部430内(即位于转子内但不在转子叶轮部的任何叶片内)。因此电动机转子和叶轮一体化,从而无需驱动轴。没有驱动轴就不需要轴密封。[0047] 在一实施例中,转子孔上开槽。特别是,该孔有一个或多个螺旋形槽。这些槽的轴向节距不为零。该槽在泵运转时与泵的工作流体连通。

[0048] 图5示出泵510运转时把工作流体540从一工作流体源520传送到一工作流体目的地530。第一工作流体导管522连接该源与泵进口 514。第二工作流体导管532连接泵出口516与该目的地。泵把工作流体从该源传送到该目的地。在医疗中,该工作流体例如为血。在一实施例中,该源和该目的地为动脉,因此该泵把血从一动脉传送到另一动脉。[0049] 以上说明了可替代旋转式泵的机械接触轴承的各种"非接触"轴承。特别用各种设计的转子、叶轮和壳体实现液力轴承或磁轴承。这种种设计需要时可组合使用。[0050] 以上结合具体例示性实施例详细说明了本发明。但可在由权利要求限定的本发明精神和范围内对之作出种种修正和改动。因此本说明书和附图应看出是例示性的而非限制性的。

6

Claims (15)

  1. 一种泵装置,包括:界定泵室的泵壳体,该泵壳体有伸入该泵室中的心轴;能够围绕该心轴转动的转子,该转子包括有至少一个叶片的叶轮;磁轴承,所述磁轴承在该转子的非叶片部内设置的转子部;以及该磁轴承在该心轴内设置的心轴部;其中,该磁轴承的心轴部和转子部互相吸引;该磁轴承的转子部和心轴部中的至少一个包括第一和第二磁铁,第一和第二磁铁的位置互相紧临,其磁向量互相相反。
  2. 2. 按权利要求1所述的泵装置,其特征在于,该磁轴承的心轴部包括位置互相紧临,其 磁向量互相相反的所述第一和第二磁铁。
  3. 3. 按权利要求1所述的泵装置,其特征在于,该磁轴承的转子部包括位置互相紧临,其 磁向量互相相反的所述第一和第二磁铁。
  4. 4. 按权利要求1所述的泵装置,其特征在于,泵壳体、心轴和转子中的至少一个有用来 支撑至少一个液力轴承的表面几何形状。
  5. 5. 按权利要求4所述的泵装置,其特征在于,所述泵壳体设置有构作成转动时至少局 部支撑转子的液力轴承的表面几何形状。
  6. 6. 按权利要求3所述的泵装置,其特征在于,该磁轴承的所述心轴部包括所述第一和 第二磁铁,所述心轴部的纵向轴线与该心轴的纵向轴线偏离。
  7. 7. 按权利要求1所述的泵装置,其特征在于,所述转子有一个开槽孔。
  8. 8. 按权利要求1所述的泵装置,其特征在于,转子的非叶片部承载多个驱动磁铁,泵壳 体承载驱动绕组;驱动磁铁与驱动绕组配合而转动转子。
  9. 9. 按权利要求1所述的泵装置,其特征在于,第一和第二磁铁具有环形的形状系数。
  10. 10. 按权利要求3所述的泵装置,其特征在于,第一和第二磁铁与所述转子同轴。
  11. 11. 按权利要求4所述的泵装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个液力轴承包括所述心轴与 所述转子的 一孔之间的径向液力轴承。
  12. 12. 按权利要求4所述的泵装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个液力轴承包括所述转子与 所述泵壳体之间的轴向液力轴承。
  13. 13. 按权利要求12所述的泵装置,其特征在于,所述轴向液力轴承的所述表面几何形 状由逐渐变细的表面形成。
  14. 14. 按权利要求1所述的泵装置,其特征在于,所述转子具有在所述转子的一孔中设置 的多个螺旋形槽。
  15. 15. 按权利要求1所述的泵装置,其特征在于,该磁轴承的心轴部包括具有圆柱形的形 状系数的所述第一和第二磁铁。
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