CN1876767A - Coal tar hydrocracking method - Google Patents

Coal tar hydrocracking method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1876767A
CN1876767A CN 200610028263 CN200610028263A CN1876767A CN 1876767 A CN1876767 A CN 1876767A CN 200610028263 CN200610028263 CN 200610028263 CN 200610028263 A CN200610028263 A CN 200610028263A CN 1876767 A CN1876767 A CN 1876767A
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hydrocracking
coal tar
oil
hydrogen
catalyst
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CN 200610028263
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1876767B (en
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沈和平
杜卡田
刘平泽
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沈和平
杜卡田
刘平泽
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Abstract

The invention discloses the coal oil hydrocracking method. The method comprises the following steps: mixing the coal oil and hydrogen gas, adding them into hydrogenation reaction chamber, getting the generating oil, putting the generating oil into heat-high pressure separator, getting light-end products and water from upper logistics, putting lower logistics and hydrogen gas into hydrocracker reaction chamber, getting hydrocracking product, putting the product into high pressure separator, getting hydrogen gas to be used again, and putting the liquid into fractionating tower to get gas, petrol, diesel, light-end products and tail oil. The invention uses low grade coal oil to produce premium grade gasoline and diesel.

Description

Coal tar hydrocracking method
Technical field
The present invention relates to high-quality automotive fuel production field, be specifically related to a kind of coal tar hydrocracking method, promptly be stock oil with coal tar, come production lightweight automotive fuel oil product by methods such as widely used hydrogenation pre-treatment in refining of petroleum field and hydrocracking, thereby not only clean utilization coal tar, the source of also widening automotive fuel oil.
Background technology
The world is increasing to the demand of automotive fuel, and is more and more higher to the specification of quality of automotive fuel.Because the restriction of politics cause and petroleum resources produced quantity and total amount, the price of crude oil continues high, add the environmental regulation increasingly stringent, the automotive fuel of necessary production compliance with environmental protection requirements, cause the production cost of refinery to increase, the result who brings like this is more and more higher by the automotive fuel price of oil production, chance is provided therefore for the development of the oil replacement energy.
Coal tar is the byproduct of coking technology, and no matter from boiling range still from forming, coal tar more near the composition of automotive fuel, comes production high-quality cleaning automotive fuel method easier by coal tar than other substitute energys like this, also has more economy.Because the coal tar oil composition is based on aromatic hydrocarbon, and foreign matter content height such as sulphur nitrogen oxygen, can not directly satisfy the specification requirement of cleaning automotive fuel, therefore can not directly use as automotive fuel, need further process.Hydrocracking technology is one of topmost means of light materialization of heavy oil, and be direct best-of-breed technology by heavy ends direct production high-quality automotive fuel, especially strong to stock oil adaptability, good product quality, obtained using widely in the refining of petroleum field, and technology is quite ripe, and the nearly all large-scale refinery in countries in the world has all been built hydroeracking unit.And method is limited for the coal tar secondary processing, and it is few especially that the use method for hydrogen cracking carries out method for processing.The method of present coal tar hydrogenating, wherein:
Chinese invention patent CN1464031A discloses a kind of coal tar hydrogenation process and catalyzer on December 31st, 2003.This patent requires the special special-purpose catalyst of exploitation, flow process is common processing process, and only raw material has been carried out upgrading, contain molecular sieve in its catalyst for hydro-upgrading in addition, very responsive to the water that coal tar hydrogenating generates, because the existence of water vapor or water will make that catalyzer is destroyed, reduced the work-ing life of catalyzer like this, serious destruction catalyzer and cause bed pressure drop to rise, cause device to stop work.
Chinese invention patent CN1351130A discloses the method that a kind of coal tar hydrogenating is produced diesel oil on 05 09th, 2002.What this method was described mainly is that coal tar at first passes through fractionation, the last running that obtains is not as the raw material of hydrotreatment, just the light ends in the coal tar carries out hydrotreatment, owing to do not use hydrocracking catalyst, the course of processing obtains diesel oil distillate can only be as the blend component of diesel product, and coal tar is not utilized fully, cause the whole yield of light-end products to reduce greatly.
Summary of the invention
At the above-mentioned deficiency of prior art, technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of coal tar hydrocracking method.This method not only can be utilized tar resource fully, and coal tar all is converted into automotive fuel, has characteristics such as good product quality, device length running period simultaneously.
The present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above the technical scheme that adopts to be: a kind of coal tar hydrocracking method comprises the steps:
A, coal tar and hydrogen are that 4.0MPa-21.0MPa, hydrogen to oil volume ratio are 400 at the reaction stagnation pressure: 1-3000: 1, average reaction temperature is that 200 ℃-450 ℃, volume space velocity are 0.1h -1-5.0h -1Under the condition, carry out the hydrogenation pre-treatment by the reactor that contains protective material, catalyst for demetalation and dehydrogenation catalyst, obtain the hydrogenation pre-treatment and generate oil, obtain hydrogen-rich gas, light ends, heavy ends and water through the high pressure hot separator separation, hydrogen-rich gas recycles, and light ends and water are discharged reactive system;
B, be that 4.0MPa-21.0MPa, hydrogen to oil volume ratio are 400 with the heavy ends of step a and hydrogen at the reaction stagnation pressure: 1-4000: 1, average reaction temperature is that 280 ℃-480 ℃, volume space velocity are 0.1h -1-5.0h -1Condition under, be carrier by containing with aluminum oxide, amorphous silicon aluminium and molecular sieve, be that the reactor of the hydrocracking catalyst of hydrogenation component carries out hydrocracking with Co, Mo, W, Ni, obtain hydrocracking and generate oil; Hydrocracking generates oil gas-liquid separation in high pressure hot separator, obtain hydrogen-rich gas and liquid, hydrogen-rich gas recycles, and liquid fractionation in separation column, obtain gasoline and diesel oil, obtaining tail oil can partly or entirely circulate as the charging in hydrocracking reaction district.
The described hydrogen-rich gas circulation of above-mentioned steps a of the present invention and b can adopt the two cover recycle systems to circulate respectively, also can adopt a cover recycle system.Light, heavy ends among step a and the b are as the criterion with diesel oil, and diesel oil and the component lighter than diesel oil are counted light ends, and the cut that overweights diesel oil is counted heavy ends.
Among the above-mentioned steps a of the present invention, the full cut of coal tar that coal tar raw material obtains for the coal tar metallization processes, general requirement is done and is not more than 600 ℃, preferably is not more than 580 ℃.
Among the above-mentioned steps a of the present invention, the hydrogenation pretreatment reaction can carry out in the reactor of 1-10 arranged in series setting, preferably carries out in the reactor of 1-8 arranged in series setting, and each reactor is provided with 1-8 beds, preferred 1-6 beds; Except that first reactor, other each reactor tops all are provided with cold hydrogen inlet, and cold hydrogen inlet all is set between each bed; The active substance of pretreatment reaction device filling mainly contains protective material, catalyst for demetalation, dehydrogenation catalyst etc., adopt grading loading, promptly according to liquid flow direction order filling protective material, catalyst for demetalation and dehydrogenation catalyst, and keep granularity to reduce gradually, activity increases gradually, wherein these active substances be the oil refining industry hydrogenation unit widely used be carrier with the aluminum oxide, with Co, Mo, W, Ni is the hydrogenation protecting agent of hydrogenation component, Hydrodemetalation catalyst and hydrogenating desulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation catalyst, shape can be Raschig ring, spherical, sheet, the trifolium shape, four pages of careless shapes and cylinder strip etc.; The hydrogenation pretreatment reaction preferably carries out under the following conditions: reaction stagnation pressure 5.0MPa-19.0MPa, and hydrogen to oil volume ratio 600: 1-2500: 1,220 ℃-400 ℃ of average reaction temperature, volume space velocity 0.1h -1-3.0h -1
Among the above-mentioned steps a of the present invention, the light ends that the high pressure hot separator separation obtains is done and is no more than 350 ℃, preferably is no more than 280 ℃, preferably is no more than 205 ℃.
Among the above-mentioned steps b of the present invention, hydrocracking reaction carries out in the reactor of 1-6 arranged in series setting, preferably carries out in the reactor of 1-4 arranged in series setting, and each reactor is provided with 1-8 beds, preferred 1-6 beds; Except that first reactor, other each reactor tops all are provided with cold hydrogen inlet, and cold hydrogen inlet all is set between each bed; The active substance of hydrocracking reactor filling mainly contains protective material, hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst and hydrocracking catalyst, these active substances are that the oil refining industry hydrogenation unit is widely used with aluminum oxide, amorphous silicon aluminium, molecular sieves etc. are carrier, with Co, Mo, W, Ni is the hydrogenation protecting agent of hydrogenation component, hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst and hydrocracking catalyst, wherein hydrocracking catalyst preferably is the hydrocracking catalyst of carrier with the amorphous silicon aluminium, and shape can be Raschig ring, spherical, sheet, the trifolium shape, Herba Galii Bungei shape and cylinder strip etc.; Hydrocracking reaction preferably carries out under the following conditions: reaction stagnation pressure 5.0MPa-19.0MPa, and hydrogen to oil volume ratio 600: 1-3500: 1,300 ℃-450 ℃ of average reaction temperature, volume space velocity 0.1h -1-3.0h -1
Because phenols content height in the coal tar, cause oxygen element content higher, therefore in hydrocracking process, produce more water, and these phenols mainly concentrate in the lighter cut of coal tar, and hydrogenation reaction very easily takes place, promptly oxygen removal can be considered the coal tar fractional distillation branch is carried out the hydrogenation pre-treatment earlier like this in lower temperature of reaction, and the water that generates removed from system rapidly, and then the coal tar after the deoxidation is separated through after the hydrocracking.Select this working method, can prolong the work-ing life of hydrocracking reaction district catalyzer after the water that generates in the reaction process removed, thereby improve the running period of device, and method that can be by hydrocracking is with the heavy ends lighting, improve the character of light-end products greatly, to satisfy at present and the specification requirement of automotive fuel in the future.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the process flow diagram of coal tar hydrocracking method of the present invention.
Wherein: 1 is coal tar raw material oil; 2 are hydrogenation pre-treatment inlet hydrogen; 3 is hydrogenation pretreatment reaction device; 4 is high-pressure separator; 5 is hydrocracking reactor; 6 is high-pressure separator; 7 is separation column; 8 is circulating hydrogen compressor; 9 is new hydrogen.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples the present invention program and effect are set forth in more detail.
As shown in Figure 1, in the coal tar hydrocracking method that following preferred embodiment 1 of the present invention and preferred embodiment 2 provide, coal tar raw material 1 through purifying treatment at first is mixed into hydrogenation pretreatment reaction device 3 with hydrogen 2, obtaining effluent enters high-pressure separator 4 and carries out gas-liquid separation, the gas circulation that obtains is used, the lighting end and the water that obtain go out system, and the last running continuation and the hydrogen that obtain are mixed into hydrocracking reactor 5; The hydrocracking effluent that obtains enters high-pressure separator 6, separating the gas circulation that obtains mixes after circulating hydrogen compressor 8 recycles with new hydrogen 9, the liquid that separation obtains enters separation column 9 fractionation and obtains gas products, gasoline products, diesel product and tail oil, tail oil can get rid of in addition, also can be used as the charging of hydrocracking reactor 5.
Embodiment 1
The coal tar character that embodiment 1 uses is listed in table 1.
Table 1 coal tar character
Coal tar Coal tar 1
The cut scope, ℃ ????<540
Density (20 ℃), g/cm 3 ????1.021
Carbon residue, m% ????3.5
Elementary composition, m%
Sulphur ????0.36
Nitrogen ????0.72
Oxygen ????6.99
Metal content, μ g/g
Iron ????48
Nickel ????1.2
Calcium ????24
Aromatic hydrocarbons+colloid, m% ????89.1
Processing condition are listed in table 2, and product property is listed in table 3.
Table 2 processing condition
Embodiment 1
Stock oil Coal tar 1
Reaction zone Hydrotreatment Hydrocracking
The hydrocracking pre-treatment Hydrocracking
Catalyzer Protective material/metal remover/dehydrogenation catalyst Protective material/hydrogenation pretreatment catalyst Hydrocracking catalyst
The catalyst loading ratio ????15∶25∶60 ??15∶85 ???-
The hydrogen dividing potential drop, MPa ????11.0 ??11.0 ??11.0
The bed average reaction temperature, ℃ ????280 ??365 ??400
Volume space velocity, h -1 ????1.5 ??0.8 ??1.6
Hydrogen to oil volume ratio ????800∶1 ??1300∶1 ??2000∶1
Oxygen level, m% ????<0.5 ??- ??-
Nitrogen content, μ g/g ????- ??<100 ??-
Table 3 product main character
Product yield Gasoline Diesel oil Turning oil
Yield, wt% ????45.5 ????50.1 ????0.5
Density (20 ℃), g/cm 3 ????0.69 ????0.85 ????0.91
Boiling range, ℃ ????ASTM?D86 ????ASTM?D86 ????ASTM?D1160
Initial boiling point/10% ????45/56 ????192/222 ????345/378
50%/90% ????113/168 ????269/305 ????446/512
Do ????185 ????336 ????535
Sulphur content, μ g/g ????10 ????55 ????100
Condensation point, ℃ ????-15 ????15
Cetane value ????46
Embodiment 2
The coal tar character that embodiment 2 uses is listed in table 4.
Table 4 coal tar character
Coal tar Coal tar 2
The cut scope, ℃ ????<550
Density (20 ℃), g/cm 3 ????1.155
Carbon residue, m% ????6.4
Elementary composition, m%
Sulphur ????0.45
Nitrogen ????0.99
Oxygen ????4.25
Metal content, μ g/g
Iron ????77
Nickel ????5.30
Calcium ????36
Aromatic hydrocarbons+colloid, m% ????95.5
Processing condition are listed in table 5, and product property is listed in table 6.
Table 5 processing condition
Embodiment 2
Stock oil Coal tar 1
Reaction zone Hydrotreatment Hydrocracking
The hydrocracking pre-treatment Hydrocracking
Catalyzer Protective material/metal remover/dehydrogenation catalyst Protective material/hydrogenation pretreatment catalyst Hydrocracking catalyst
The catalyst loading ratio 10∶35∶55 ??20∶80 ??-
The hydrogen dividing potential drop, MPa 12.0 ??12.0 ??12.0
The bed average reaction temperature, ℃ 300 ??370 ??410
Volume space velocity, h -1 1.2 ??0.8 ??1.3
Hydrogen to oil volume ratio 1000∶1 ??1800∶1 ??2500∶1
Oxygen level, m% <0.5 ??- ??-
Nitrogen content, μ g/g - ??<100 ??-
Table 6 product main character
Product yield Gasoline Diesel oil Turning oil
Yield, wt% ????52.2 ????43.0 ????1.0
Density (20 ℃), g/cm 3 ????0.71 ????0.87 ????0.93
Boiling range, ℃ ????ASTM?D86 ????ASTM?D86 ????ASTM?D1160
Initial boiling point/10% ????42/55 ????209/235 ????345/378
50%/90% ????110/169 ????271/314 ????446/512
Do ????195 ????339 ????535
Sulphur content, μ g/g ????15 ????70 ????150
Condensation point, ℃ ????-10 ????40
Cetane value ????42

Claims (10)

1, a kind of coal tar hydrocracking method is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
A, coal tar and hydrogen are that 4.0MPa-21.0MPa, hydrogen to oil volume ratio are 400 at the reaction stagnation pressure: 1-3000: 1, average reaction temperature is that 200 ℃-450 ℃, volume space velocity are 0.1h -1-5.0h -1Under the condition, carry out the hydrogenation pre-treatment, obtain the hydrogenation pre-treatment and generate oil, separate obtaining hydrogen-rich gas, light ends, heavy ends and water through high pressure hot separator by the reactor that contains protective material, catalyst for demetalation and dehydrogenation catalyst;
B, be that 4.0MPa-21.0MPa, hydrogen to oil volume ratio are 400 with the heavy ends of step a and hydrogen at the reaction stagnation pressure: 1-4000: 1, average reaction temperature is that 280 ℃-480 ℃, volume space velocity are 0.1h -1-5.0h -1Condition under, be carrier by containing with aluminum oxide, amorphous silicon aluminium and molecular sieve, be that the reactor of the hydrocracking catalyst of hydrogenation component carries out hydrocracking with Co, Mo, W, Ni, obtain hydrocracking and generate oil; Hydrocracking generates oil gas-liquid separation in high pressure hot separator, obtains hydrogen-rich gas and liquid; The fractionation in separation column of this liquid obtains gasoline and diesel oil.
2, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, doing of the described coal tar of step a is not more than 600 ℃.
3, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 1; it is characterized in that; the described hydrogenation pre-treatment of step a is to finish in the reactor of 1-10 arranged in series setting; the protective material that loads in the reactor, catalyst for demetalation and dehydrogenation catalyst adopt grading loading; promptly keep granularity to reduce gradually according to liquid flow direction, activity increases gradually.
4, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that the described hydrogenation pre-treatment of step a is carried out under the following conditions: reaction stagnation pressure 5.0MPa-19.0MPa, hydrogen to oil volume ratio 600: 1-2500: 1,220 ℃-400 ℃ of average reaction temperature, volume space velocity 0.1h -1-3.0h -1
5, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the light ends that the described high pressure hot separator separation of step a obtains is done and is no more than 350 ℃.
6, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that, light ends is done and is no more than 280 ℃.
7, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that, light ends is done and is no more than 205 ℃.
8, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the described hydrocracking reaction of step b carries out in the reactor of 1-6 arranged in series setting.
9, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the described hydrocracking catalyst of step b is acid cracking component with amorphous aluminum silicide.
10, coal tar hydrocracking method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that the described hydrocracking of step b is carried out under the following conditions: reaction stagnation pressure 5.0MPa-19.0MPa, hydrogen to oil volume ratio 600: 1-3500: 1,300 ℃-450 ℃ of average reaction temperature, volume space velocity 0.1h -1-3.0h -1
CN2006100282639A 2006-06-28 2006-06-28 Coal tar hydrocracking method CN1876767B (en)

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Cited By (13)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101885982A (en) * 2010-06-23 2010-11-17 煤炭科学研究总院 Hydrogenation method for coal tar suspension bed of heterogeneous catalyst
CN101979470A (en) * 2010-11-17 2011-02-23 湖南长岭石化科技开发有限公司 Method for removing free oxygen from inferior hydrogenated feedstock oil
CN101979469A (en) * 2010-11-17 2011-02-23 湖南长岭石化科技开发有限公司 Method for removing free oxygen from inferior hydrogenation raw oil
CN101240193B (en) * 2007-02-09 2011-06-22 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Coal tar multistage hydrogenation treatment technique
CN101294107B (en) * 2007-04-24 2011-11-30 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method for preparing fuel oil with coal oil hydrogenation
CN102311782A (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-01-11 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method for producing diesel oil by purifying coal tar through hydrogenating
CN102604675A (en) * 2012-03-30 2012-07-25 宁波金远东工业科技有限公司 Coal tar hydrogenation and fractionation device
CN102851066A (en) * 2012-08-27 2013-01-02 王小英 Two-stage combined hydrogenation process of coal tar
CN102851073A (en) * 2012-08-27 2013-01-02 王小英 Medium and low temperature combination processing method of coal tar
CN102057019B (en) * 2008-04-06 2014-07-02 环球油品公司 Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil
CN104449817A (en) * 2014-12-29 2015-03-25 七台河宝泰隆煤化工股份有限公司 Method for producing diesel oil by hydrocracking
CN106635155A (en) * 2016-11-03 2017-05-10 兰州兰石集团有限公司 Efficient-residual-heat-utilization system for light-fraction conversion of coal tar and method
CN106701178A (en) * 2015-11-13 2017-05-24 中石化洛阳工程有限公司 Coal tar suspended bed hydrocracking method

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AU3478884A (en) * 1983-11-03 1985-05-09 Chevron Research Company Two-stage hydroconversion of resid
CN1243814C (en) * 2004-07-14 2006-03-01 王守峰 Medium-high-temperature coal tar hydro cracking process

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101240193B (en) * 2007-02-09 2011-06-22 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Coal tar multistage hydrogenation treatment technique
CN101294107B (en) * 2007-04-24 2011-11-30 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method for preparing fuel oil with coal oil hydrogenation
CN102057019B (en) * 2008-04-06 2014-07-02 环球油品公司 Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil
CN101885982A (en) * 2010-06-23 2010-11-17 煤炭科学研究总院 Hydrogenation method for coal tar suspension bed of heterogeneous catalyst
CN101885982B (en) * 2010-06-23 2013-04-10 煤炭科学研究总院 Hydrogenation method for coal tar suspension bed of heterogeneous catalyst
CN102311782B (en) * 2010-06-29 2013-11-27 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method for producing diesel oil by purifying coal tar through hydrogenating
CN102311782A (en) * 2010-06-29 2012-01-11 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method for producing diesel oil by purifying coal tar through hydrogenating
CN101979469A (en) * 2010-11-17 2011-02-23 湖南长岭石化科技开发有限公司 Method for removing free oxygen from inferior hydrogenation raw oil
CN101979470A (en) * 2010-11-17 2011-02-23 湖南长岭石化科技开发有限公司 Method for removing free oxygen from inferior hydrogenated feedstock oil
CN101979470B (en) * 2010-11-17 2013-05-15 湖南长岭石化科技开发有限公司 Method for removing free oxygen from inferior hydrogenated feedstock oil
CN101979469B (en) * 2010-11-17 2013-05-15 湖南长岭石化科技开发有限公司 Method for removing free oxygen from inferior hydrogenation raw oil
CN102604675A (en) * 2012-03-30 2012-07-25 宁波金远东工业科技有限公司 Coal tar hydrogenation and fractionation device
CN102851073A (en) * 2012-08-27 2013-01-02 王小英 Medium and low temperature combination processing method of coal tar
CN102851066A (en) * 2012-08-27 2013-01-02 王小英 Two-stage combined hydrogenation process of coal tar
CN102851066B (en) * 2012-08-27 2014-08-13 王小英 Two-stage combined hydrogenation process of coal tar
CN102851073B (en) * 2012-08-27 2014-08-13 王小英 Medium and low temperature combination processing method of coal tar
CN104449817A (en) * 2014-12-29 2015-03-25 七台河宝泰隆煤化工股份有限公司 Method for producing diesel oil by hydrocracking
CN104449817B (en) * 2014-12-29 2016-05-04 七台河宝泰隆煤化工股份有限公司 The method of diesel oil is produced in a kind of hydrocracking
CN106701178A (en) * 2015-11-13 2017-05-24 中石化洛阳工程有限公司 Coal tar suspended bed hydrocracking method
CN106701178B (en) * 2015-11-13 2018-03-23 中石化洛阳工程有限公司 A kind of coal tar suspension bed method for hydrogen cracking
CN106635155A (en) * 2016-11-03 2017-05-10 兰州兰石集团有限公司 Efficient-residual-heat-utilization system for light-fraction conversion of coal tar and method

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