CN1818537A - Precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space - Google Patents

Precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1818537A
CN1818537A CN 200610009822 CN200610009822A CN1818537A CN 1818537 A CN1818537 A CN 1818537A CN 200610009822 CN200610009822 CN 200610009822 CN 200610009822 A CN200610009822 A CN 200610009822A CN 1818537 A CN1818537 A CN 1818537A
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China
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described
system
fixed
connecting rod
mechanical arm
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CN 200610009822
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Chinese (zh)
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CN100363707C (en
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史士财
刘宏
高晓辉
金明河
谢宗武
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Abstract

A system for measuring attitude accuracy of space mechanical arm comprises three-coordinate measurer, fixing unit set above three-coordinate measurer and connected with space mechanical arm, rotary support unit, air float support unit, end target mark and base target mark.

Description

Precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of system that space manipulator is tested.

Background technology

The joint driving moment of space mechanism arm system is all very limited usually, is difficult under the ground gravity environment even can't operate as normal, for testing in the face of the space manipulator system on ground, needs the relevant testing apparatus of specialized designs.So far, countries in the world scientific research institution design and the space manipulator ground testing system that adopts comprise mainly that hang spring counterweight, water are floating, several modes such as air supporting and freely falling body.These methods respectively have relative merits, and wherein, hang spring ballasting method (Cameron University) can be realized the six-freedom motion of mechanical arm, and less to the limit movement of mechanical arm, but hang spring method system complex, debug difficulties, safe reliability is poor; Water float method (University of Maryland) utilizes the buoyancy of water balancing gravity, can realize the simulation of zero-g environment, but the floating system of water need overcome resistance bigger in the water, and need carry out bigger transformation to system; Air-float method (Canadian space manipulator experimental technique) utilizes air-bearing, and the mechanical arm holder on smooth platform, is utilized the jet thrust offsetting influence of gravity, and the air supporting mode is simple in structure, is easy to realize, can only carry out the plane motion experiment but be subject to.Therefore, the existing in the world system that space manipulator is tested all exists many irreparable defectives.

Summary of the invention

At the existing system that space manipulator is tested have complex structure, debug difficulties, safe reliability is low and existing air supporting test macro can only be realized the problem of two dimensional motion, the invention provides a kind of debugging simple in structure, easy, safe reliability is high and test macro that simultaneously can implementation space mechanical arm three-dimensional motion.

Precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space, it comprises three coordinate measuring machine I, and it also comprises the top that is arranged on three coordinate measuring machine I, the fixed system II that is connected with space manipulator VII, rotation support system III, air supporting support system IV, terminal target V and pedestal target VI; The concrete structure of described each system is: air supporting support system IV structurally comprises air-bearing 1, with the support 2 of the fixing band U-lag of air-bearing 1 be arranged on the pressure ring 3 of support U-lag upper end; Rotation support system III structurally comprises back shaft 4 and is arranged on the outer ring seat 5 of back shaft 4 outside surfaces, be connected by bearing between outer ring seat 5 and the back shaft 4, be provided with the screw rod 6 that is threaded with it in the end of back shaft 4, the termination of screw rod 6 is fixed on the support 8 by nut 7; Below described screw rod 6, be provided with balancing weight 9; Fixed system II structurally comprises mechanical arm support platform 10, pressing plate 11 and pressure ring 12, described mechanical arm support platform 10 is arranged on the below of the outer ring seat 5 of rotation support system III, described pressing plate 11 is arranged on the top of outer ring seat 5, and described pressing plate 11 is fixed on the upper surface of mechanical arm support platform 10 by screw 44; The lower end of described pressure ring 12 is provided with stationary shaft 13, and stationary shaft 13 is inserted in the hole on the support platform 10; Terminal target V and pedestal target VI are made up of with the Metal Ball that is arranged on link end two angled each other connecting rods; The annexation of described each system is: the pressure ring 3 of air supporting support system IV is separately fixed on the joint shell that is positioned at two ends, space manipulator VII center with the pressure ring 12 of fixed system II; One end of described rotation support system III upper support axle 4 is installed on the joint shell of space manipulator VII, and the support 8 on the rotation support system III is fixed on the armed lever of space manipulator VII; Described terminal target V and pedestal target V1 are separately fixed at two ends of space manipulator VII.

Test macro of the present invention can the implementation space mechanical arm three-dimensional space motion, the direct pose accuracy of measurement space mechanical arm, conversion process in the middle of not needing, therefore test easily, and this test system structure is simple, does not need space manipulator is carried out structure of modification, therefore can increase work efficiency, and measurement expense is low, is beneficial to and applies.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the one-piece construction synoptic diagram of test macro of the present invention, Fig. 2 is embodiment one a described space manipulator VII structural representation, Fig. 3 is the syndeton synoptic diagram of rotation support system III, terminal target V and pedestal target VI and space manipulator VII, Fig. 4 is the A-A cut-open view of Fig. 3, Fig. 5 is the left view of Fig. 3, Fig. 6 is the perspective view of air supporting support system IV, Fig. 7 is the front view of air supporting support system IV, Fig. 8 is the vertical view of Fig. 7, and Fig. 9 is embodiment six described space manipulator measurement coordinate system method for building up synoptic diagram.

Embodiment

Embodiment one: traditional air-flotation system can only be realized the two dimensional surface motion of system, can't the needed spatial movement of implementation space mechanical arm.For the pose accuracy of test space mechanical arm, need all joints of space manipulator to move together, the pose accuracy that obtains like this is only the pose accuracy of whole space manipulator.Therefore, present embodiment provides a kind of system that the pose accuracy of mechanical arm with space three-dimensional motion is tested, the space manipulator that can test by the described test macro of present embodiment be have six-freedom degree, can the implementation space three-dimensional motion mechanical arm, its concrete structure can be the space manipulator that can realize three-dimensional motion arbitrarily, it also can be space manipulator as shown in Figure 2 with six rotary joints, space manipulator VII shown in Figure 2, patent applied for, application number are 200610009814.7.This space manipulator is by form (with reference to Fig. 2) with lower member:

A. six joints: joint 1, joint 2 23, joint 3 24, joint 4 25, joint 5 26 and joint 6 27;

B. seven joint shells: joint shell 1, joint shell 2 29, joint shell 3 30, joint shell 4 31, joint shell 5 32, joint shell 6 33 and joint shell 7 34;

C. three armed levers: armed lever 1, armed lever 2 36 and armed lever 3 37.

With reference to Fig. 1, the system that present embodiment is tested the pose accuracy of mechanical arm with space three-dimensional motion comprises that three coordinate measuring machine I and the top that is arranged on three coordinate measuring machine I, the fixed system II, the part that are connected with space manipulator VII are arranged on rotation support system III, the air supporting support system IV in the fixed system II, terminal target V and pedestal target VI; The three coordinate measuring machine I that present embodiment is selected for use is Brown ﹠amp; The three coordinate measuring machine that Sharpe company produces.

The concrete structure of described each system is:

With reference to Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, air supporting support system IV structurally comprises air-bearing 1, with the support 2 of the fixing band U-lag of air-bearing 1 be arranged on the pressure ring 3 of support U-lag upper end, air-bearing 1 on the described air supporting support system of the present embodiment IV is two, be separately fixed at the both sides of support 2, described pressure ring 3 is that two semi-rings by releasable connection combine.During use, air-bearing 1 is arranged on the marble platform of three coordinate measuring machine I (with reference to Fig. 1), pressure ring 3 is fixed on the joint of space manipulator VII, makes air supporting support system IV and space manipulator VII connect into as a whole.The gases at high pressure that provided by air feed equipment enter from the air intake opening 1-1 of air-bearing 1, gas is discharged from gas outlet 1-2 then, because gases at high pressure are in discharge process, can provide air-bearing 1 reciprocal acting force, thereby can overcome the gravity of space manipulator itself, it is propped, make on its marble platform that is suspended in three coordinate measuring machine I, thereby reduce the resistance of motion in joint 3 24.Therefore, when space manipulator VII positional precision was measured, air supporting support system IV can make joint 2 23 and joint 3 24 at planar spatial movement (articulation structure is referring to Fig. 2).

Rotation support system III (with reference to Fig. 3, Fig. 4) structurally comprises back shaft 4 and is arranged on the outer ring seat 5 of back shaft 4 outside surfaces, be connected by bearing between outer ring seat 5 and the back shaft 4, bearing compresses by mechanical arm spring bearing pressure ring, be provided with the screw rod 6 that is threaded with it in the end of back shaft 4, the termination of screw rod 6 is fixed on the support 8 by nut 7; Below described screw rod 6, be provided with balancing weight 9; During connection, one end of described rotation support system III upper support axle 4 is installed on the joint shell of space manipulator VII, support 8 on the rotation support system III is fixed on the armed lever of space manipulator VII, fixed form can be to be fixed on the armed lever 21 by bolt and mechanical arm pressure ring 20, also can take other to fix as the screw ways of connecting.When space manipulator VII being carried out the positional precision measurement, space manipulator rotation support system III can make joint 4 25 realize rotatablely moving, joint 4 25 when rotated, the armed lever 21 and the support 8 that can drive space manipulator VII are the rotation that certain angle is made at the center with joint 4 25 and back shaft 4 simultaneously, when armed lever 21 rotations, balancing weight 9 can overcome because the unbalance loading moment that joint 2 23, joint 3 24, joint shell 2 29, joint shell 3 30 and one 35 pairs of joints of armed lever 4 25 produce.

Fixed system II (with reference to Fig. 1) structurally comprises mechanical arm support platform 10, pressing plate 11 and pressure ring 12, described mechanical arm support platform 10 is arranged on the below of the outer ring seat 5 of rotation support system III, pressing plate 11 is arranged on the top of outer ring seat 5, described pressing plate 11 is fixed on the upper surface of mechanical arm support platform 10 by screw 44, is pressed on it can not be moved thereby pressing plate 11 is fixed to the outer ring seat 5 that is about to rotate support system III on the mechanical arm support platform 10; The lower end of described pressure ring 12 is provided with stationary shaft 13, and stationary shaft 13 is inserted in the hole on the support platform 10;

Described pressing plate 11 can be the V-type pressing plate, it also can be semicircle pressing plate, the outer ring seat 5 of mechanical arm spring bearing is fixed on the mechanical arm support platform 10 by pressing plate 11 and screw 44, and described screw also can be nut and screw rod or other mode that pressing plate 11 can be fixed.During work, at first, mechanical arm support platform 10 by screw retention on the marble platform of three coordinate measuring machine I, thereby the outer ring seat 5 that will rotate support system III by pressing plate is pressed on it can not be moved again, can stablize in the time of can making space manipulator VII run to the fixed position like this in pose precision measure process.Pressure ring 12 is made up of two semi-rings with removable structure connection, two semi-rings by screw retention on the joint of space manipulator VII shell 4 31, the axle head of the bottom stationary shaft of pressure ring 12 is inserted in the hole of mechanical arm support platform 10, prevents that joint four from causing rocking of air supporting support system IV in rotary course.From described structure as can be seen, fixed system II has the fixing effect to space manipulator VII.

Terminal target V and pedestal target VI are made up of with the Metal Ball that is arranged on link end two angled each other connecting rods, all are to adopt wringing fit to be formed by connecting between each part; Terminal target V and pedestal target V1 are separately fixed at two ends of space manipulator VII and are connected with mechanical arm with flange by screw.The effect of described pedestal target VI and terminal target V is to set up base coordinate system and the terminal coordinate system of space manipulator VII when the pose precision measure.

Above in each system, the pressure ring 3 of described air supporting support system IV is separately fixed on the joint shell that is positioned at two ends, space manipulator VII center with the pressure ring 12 of fixed system II, and purpose is that air-flotation system and fixed system play the supporting role to space manipulator VII jointly.

Embodiment two: with reference to Fig. 1, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, be provided with between support 8 on the described rotation support system of the present embodiment III and the screw rod 6 and adjust bolt 14 (with reference to Fig. 4), can adjust the right alignment in mechanical arm back shaft 4 and joint 4 25 by the relative position of adjusting screw rod 6, nut 7 and bolt 14 and support 8; Described balancing weight 9 is fixed to an end of counterweight web member 15 by screw thread, and the other end of counterweight web member 15 is fixed on the support 8 by nut 7 and screw rod 6, by the connection of counterweight web member 15, can easily the upper end of balancing weight 9 be fixed.

Embodiment three: with reference to Fig. 1, Fig. 3, the connecting rod 16 on the described terminal target V of present embodiment is consistent with the axis of space manipulator VII, consistently with space manipulator VII axis can conveniently set up coordinate system; Be fixed with another root connecting rod 17 on the connecting rod 16, the angle α between connecting rod 17 and the connecting rod 16 is greater than the angle of 0 degree less than 180 degree; Be fixed with a Metal Ball 45 respectively on a termination of two terminations of described connecting rod 17 and connecting rod 16, the effect of Metal Ball 45 is to set up the subsidiary coordinate system; Be connected or directly connect by flange between described terminal target V and the space manipulator VII by screw.

Embodiment four: with reference to Fig. 1, Fig. 3, connecting rod 18 on the described pedestal target of the present embodiment VI is consistent with the axis of space manipulator VII, be fixed with another root connecting rod 19 on the connecting rod 18, the angle β between connecting rod 19 and the connecting rod 18 is greater than the angle of 0 degree less than 180 degree; On the external end head of described connecting rod 18 and connecting rod 19, be fixed with a Metal Ball 45 respectively; Be connected or directly connect by flange between described pedestal target VI and the space manipulator VII by screw.

Embodiment five: with reference to Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, present embodiment elaborates company's relay-type of pressure ring 3, air-bearing 1 and the support 2 of air supporting support system IV.Described two air-bearings 1 are installed on the support 2 by screw thread, again by set nut 38 lockings.Half pressure ring 3-1 of described mechanical arm is fixed on the support 2 by screw 41, the end of half pressure ring 3-2 is hinged by bearing pin 43 and support 2 in addition, be connected with nut 42 by movable joint 39 between the other end and the support 2 and fix, described movable joint 39 is installed on the support 2 by bearing pin 40, and movable joint 39 can be around bearing pin 40 rotations.With air supporting support system IV and space manipulator VII fixedly the time, at first with half pressure ring 3-2 around raw silk axle 43 to inner rotary, the joint shell 2 29 of space manipulator VII is placed in the U-lag of support 2 from top to bottom, then with half pressure ring 3-2 around 43 cycles of raw silk axle, by 39 lockings of nut 42 and movable joint.

Embodiment six: present embodiment is the concrete grammar that utilizes test macro of the present invention that the pose accuracy of space manipulator is measured.

The measurement of space manipulator VII pose accuracy can be 109 to measure by the terminal coordinate system 108 set up by pedestal target VI and terminal target V and basis coordinates, in measuring process, record the pose of terminal coordinate system 109 in base coordinate system 108 by three coordinate measuring machine I and obtain.Basis coordinates be 109 and the method for building up of terminal coordinate system 108 as follows.

Space manipulator measurement coordinate system method for building up is as shown in Figure 9:

(1) basis coordinates is 109O 0X 0Y 0Z 0Foundation:

1) Z 0Axle is by the centre of sphere of crossing Metal Ball 45-1, and with the joint shell-the straight line of intersect vertical axis of face of cylinder 28-1 determine that intersection point is O 0, direction is the centre of sphere sensing intersection point O by Metal Ball 45-1 0

2) Y 0Axle is by the centre of sphere and and the Z that cross Metal Ball 45-2 0The straight line that axle intersects vertically determines that intersection point is 45-3; Direction is to be pointed to the centre of sphere of Metal Ball 45-2 by intersection point 45-3;

3) X 0Axle is determined by the right-hand rule;

4) coordinate origin is O 0

(2) terminal coordinate system 108O 6X 6Y 6Z 6Foundation:

1) Z 6Axle is determined that by the straight line of the centre of sphere of the centre of sphere of crossing Metal Ball 45-7 and Metal Ball 45-5 direction is to be pointed to the centre of sphere of Metal Ball 45-5 by the centre of sphere of Metal Ball 45-7;

2) Y 6Axle is by the centre of sphere and and the Z that cross Metal Ball 45-4 6The straight line that axle intersects vertically determines that intersection point is 45-6; Direction is to be pointed to the centre of sphere of Metal Ball 45-4 by intersection point 45-6;

3) X 6Axle is determined by the right-hand rule;

4) coordinate origin is the centre of sphere O of Metal Ball 45-5 6

Claims (5)

1. precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space, it comprises three coordinate measuring machine (I), it is characterized in that it also comprises the top that is arranged on three coordinate measuring machine (I), the fixed system (II) that is connected with space manipulator (VII), rotation support system (III), air supporting support system (IV), terminal target (V) and pedestal target (VI);
The concrete structure of described each system is:
Air supporting support system (IV) structurally comprises air-bearing (1), with the support (2) of the fixing band U-lag of air-bearing (1) be arranged on pressure ring (3) on support (U) the shape groove;
Rotation support system (III) structurally comprises back shaft (4) and is arranged on the outer ring seat (5) of back shaft (4) outside surface, be connected by bearing between outer ring seat (5) and the back shaft (4), be provided with the screw rod (6) that is threaded with it in the end of back shaft (4), the termination of screw rod (6) is fixed on the support (8) by nut (7); Be provided with balancing weight (9) in the below of described screw rod (6);
Fixed system (II) structurally comprises mechanical arm support platform (10), pressing plate (11) and pressure ring (12), described mechanical arm support platform (10) is arranged on the below of the outer ring seat 5 of rotation support system (III), described pressing plate (11) is arranged on the top of outer ring seat (5), and described pressing plate (11) is fixed on the upper surface of mechanical arm support platform (10) by screw (44); The lower end of described pressure ring (12) is provided with stationary shaft (13), and stationary shaft (13) is inserted in the hole on the support platform (10);
Terminal target (V) and pedestal target (VI) are made up of with the Metal Ball that is arranged on link end two angled each other connecting rods;
The annexation of described each system is: the pressure ring (3) of air supporting support system (IV) is separately fixed on the joint shell that is positioned at space manipulator (VII) two ends, center with the pressure ring (12) of fixed system (II); One end of described rotation support system (III) upper support axle (4) is installed on the joint shell of space manipulator (VII), and the support (8) on the rotation support system (III) is fixed on the armed lever of space manipulator (VII); Described terminal target (V) and pedestal target (VI) are separately fixed at two ends of space manipulator (VII).
2. precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space according to claim 1 is characterized in that being provided with between support (8) on the described rotation support system (III) and the screw rod (6) and adjusts bolt (14); Described balancing weight (9) is fixed to an end of counterweight web member (15) by screw thread, and the other end of counterweight web member (15) is fixed on the support (8) by nut (7) and screw rod (6).
3. precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the connecting rod (16) on the described terminal target (V) is consistent with the axis of space manipulator (VII), be fixed with another root connecting rod (17) on the connecting rod (16), the angle α between connecting rod (17) and the connecting rod (16) is greater than the angle of 0 degree less than 180 degree; On a termination of two terminations of described connecting rod (17) and connecting rod (16), be fixed with a Metal Ball (45) respectively; Be connected by screw between described terminal target (V) and the space manipulator (VII).
4. precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the connecting rod (18) on the described pedestal target (VI) is consistent with the axis of space manipulator (VII), be fixed with another root connecting rod (19) on the connecting rod (18), the angle β between connecting rod (19) and the connecting rod (18) is greater than the angle of 0 degree less than 180 degree; On the external end head of described connecting rod (18) and connecting rod (19), be fixed with a Metal Ball (45) respectively; Be connected by screw between described pedestal target (VI) and the space manipulator (VII).
5. precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the air-bearing (1) on the described air supporting support system (IV) is two, be separately fixed at the both sides of support (2), described pressure ring (3) is that two semi-rings by releasable connection combine.
CNB2006100098221A 2006-03-17 2006-03-17 Precisive determining system of mechanical arm location and gesture in space CN100363707C (en)

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