CN1807860A - Smoke low-temperature residual heat utilization system with natural gas cooling-heating combined power device and operating method thereof - Google Patents

Smoke low-temperature residual heat utilization system with natural gas cooling-heating combined power device and operating method thereof Download PDF

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CN1807860A
CN1807860A CNA2005100328464A CN200510032846A CN1807860A CN 1807860 A CN1807860 A CN 1807860A CN A2005100328464 A CNA2005100328464 A CN A2005100328464A CN 200510032846 A CN200510032846 A CN 200510032846A CN 1807860 A CN1807860 A CN 1807860A
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described
water
steam
flue gas
pipe
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CNA2005100328464A
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CN100402814C (en
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华贲
刘效洲
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华南理工大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/20Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation in buildings, dwellings or related infrastructures
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • Y02A30/274Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies using waste energy, e.g. from internal combustion engine
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/10Combined combustion
    • Y02E20/14Combined heat and power generation [CHP]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/10Combined combustion
    • Y02E20/16Combined cycle power plant [CCPP], or combined cycle gas turbine [CCGT]

Abstract

The invention relates to a smoke low-temperature heat utilization system of natural gas cold-heat electric supply and relative operation method. Said system comprises a fuel gas generator, a waste heat boiler, an adsorption refrigerator, and a heating water supply device. Wherein, the heating water supply device comprises a direct gas-water heat exchanger which contains a gondola water faucet whose water channel forms the smoke channel; the smoke outlet of waste heat boiler is connected to the chimney via the direct gas-water heat exchanger; the water inlet and outlet pipes of direct gas-water heat exchanger are serially connected to the pipe of life hot water or water supply; the gas transmission pipe of waste heat boiler has a branch of the reflux gas pipe connecting the burning of fuel gas generator; and the reflux gas pipe is serially connected with a depressurizing device. The invention has simple heat transmission device, lower cost, improved heat efficiency and improved economic benefits.

Description

A kind of flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system and operating method thereof of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers

[technical field]

The present invention relates to generating, Thermal Equipment, more particularly, the present invention relates to a kind of low temperature smoke discharging residual heat of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers device and direct heat transfer system of domestic hot-water of efficiently utilizing.

[background technique]

Along with China develops and introduces natural gas resource energetically, optimizes the execution of the energy strategy of energy resource structure, be that the gas turbine cooling heating and power generation system of primary energy is just fast-developing in China with the rock gas.General gas turbine thermoelectric cold cogeneration system comprises Gas Turbine Generating Units, exhaust heat boiler, steam turbine or absorption type refrigerating unit; Usually about 130 ℃, this part flue gas accounts for the heat utilization potentiality of fuel total heat energy about 10% to the final smog discharge temperature of system in addition, and not recycling is a kind of huge waste.

Simultaneously, along with improving constantly of living standards of the people, life is more and more with the hot water power consumption, and relevant statistics sees following table for details:

Each several part proportion in table 1-China architectural energy consumption Building energy consumption constitutes Heating air conditioning Hot water service Electric Cooking The each several part ratio ??65% ??15% ??14% ??6%

By last table 1 as can be known, the proportion of hot water service in building energy consumption only is only second to the heating air conditioning power consumption, occupies second.

The domestic hot-water belongs to low-grade energy, and the water for bathing final temperature only is about 40 ℃, and its energy level coefficient is about 0.1.But from present energy supply mode, the urban life hot water service is mainly based on electric water heater, gas water-heater, and part hotel and dormitory have adopted coal-fired, oil-fired boiler, and they all are high-grade energy, and the energy level coefficient is 1.0.Heating rudimentary hot trap with such high energy, is great waste.

Obviously, the rock gas cooling heating and power generation system is to satisfy the important channel of building with ever-increasing hot and cold, electric demand in the energy efficiently simultaneously.And if can utilize low-grade flue gas heat energy that this system produces thermal source simultaneously as the domestic hot-water, just can further improve the efficiency of energy utilization and the economic benefit of combination supply system.

But present gas turbine cogeneration cooling heating system is only considered the energy demand of power supply, heating, air-conditioning mostly; Comprising domestic hot-water supply, is not the fume afterheat that utilizes below 130 ℃ yet, but with steam or the flue gas heat more than 130 ℃.This is that it passes coefficient and generally is lower than 80W/ (m because present low-temperature flue gas heat utilization all is to adopt the partition heat exchange mode traditionally 2℃).Therefore when the lower fume afterheat of recovered temperature, need arrange a large amount of steel pipe heating surfaces, not only consume great deal of steel, and the flow of flue gas resistance be very high; Income is little economically.

At present, aspect the technological improvement of gas turbine cooling heating and power generation system, have Chinese application documents 93116724.8 to disclose a kind of numerically controlled gas turbine electricity, heat and cold union supply equipment, it comprises core-engine, administration of power supply, the heat supply assembly.This numerically controlled gas turbine electricity, heat and cold union supply equipment also comprises by the high and low pressure generator, the high and low temperature heat exchanger, condensation chamber, the absorption refrigeration unit that absorption chamber and recycle pump, regenerative cycle pump, vaporization chamber and recycle pump, cooling water serpentuator, freezing heat-transfer working medium coil pipe are formed has the refrigeration working medium regenerative heat exchanger in exhaust heat boiler.It is said: this equipment uses gas engine to do power source, obtains electric energy output by generator, contains the combustion gas thermal regeneration refrigeration working medium pumping heat that has surplus heat and exports to obtain refrigeration.Use the heat supply working medium quantity of heat given up, can make full use of the output energy of gas engine.

Also have Chinese application documents 93116725.6 to disclose a kind of electricity heat and cold union supply device for gas turbine in this regard.It has core-engine, administration of power supply, heat supply assembly.It also comprises by high and low pressure generator, height, low temperature heat exchanger, condensation chamber, absorption chamber and recycle pump, regenerative cycle pump, vaporization chamber and recycle pump, cooling water serpentuator, the absorption refrigeration unit that freezing heat-transfer working medium coil pipe is formed has the refrigeration working medium regenerative heat exchanger in exhaust heat boiler.It is said: this equipment uses gas engine to do power source, obtains electric energy output by generator, contains the combustion gas power that has surplus heat.Heat regeneration refrigeration working medium pumping heat is to obtain refrigeration output.Use the heat supply working medium quantity of heat given up, make full use of the output energy of gas engine.Do not mention the temperature of from system, discharging flue gas through exhaust heat boiler in above-mentioned two patent application documents.

There are Chinese application documents 01117061.1 to disclose a kind of heat and power supply system and operating method thereof in this regard again, system comprises: a regenerative gas turbine and an absorption chiller that reclaims used heat in the GTE, this system has an air inlet cooling unit, it comprise one be used for the cold water injection of absorption chiller in the suction port of regenerative gas turbine injection apparatus and one by hot water is played the humidifier of humidification from regenerator is ejected into the compressor delivery port of regenerative gas turbine.Cool off with cold water and carry out humidification according to serviceability with hot water jet.It is said: this system can make the output of electric power increase.Do not mention the temperature of from system, discharging flue gas through the regenerator of absorption chiller in this patent application document yet.

Having Chinese application documents 03109715.4 to disclose a kind of in this regard in addition is the heat pump type cogeneration system of power with the gas turbine, and it relates to the improvement of the purposes and the structure thereof of gas turbine.It is made up of gas turbine, absorption heat pump unit, condensing heat exchanger and generator.The mechanical energy of gas internal-combustion engine output is connected with generator, is characterized in: the generator that the flue gas of gas turbine discharge passes through absorption heat pump unit is connected with the condensing heat exchanger flue gas inlet and by its smoke outlet exhaust.The water route outlet and the vaporizer water route import of absorption heat pump unit of condensing heat exchanger are joined.The evaporator water way outlet of absorption heat pump unit and the water route import of condensing heat exchanger are joined.The condenser of absorption heat pump unit and adsorber and the heating backwater heating water supply loop of contacting/be parallel to.It is said: this system can make the energy of the heating system of gas turbine be fully utilized, and improves efficiency of energy utilization greatly, reduces the pollution to environment.Though mention in this patent application document through condensing heat exchanger from system about 30 ℃ of temperature of exhaust fume, but this document fully is not disclosed as and reaches the technical measures that low temperature of exhaust fume like this is taked, because, need expend the flood tide steel if take traditional wall-type heat exchange will reach above-mentioned low temperature smoke evacuation, not have the engineering use value fully.

Be also shown in by above-mentioned example: present supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers device systems, perhaps do not consider the alliance problem of domestic hot-water supply, perhaps be exactly to take traditional partition exhaust heat boiler that hot water is provided, certainly will do not abandoned by unfrequented because technical and economic performance is not good.

[summary of the invention]

At the above-mentioned shortcoming of prior art, the technical purpose that the present invention will reach be to provide that a kind of heat-transfer equipment is simple, inexpensive, the thermal efficiency and the economic benefit that can further improve system and flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system and the operating method thereof that domestic hot-water's rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers is provided with extremely low cost.

For this reason, one of technological scheme of the present invention is a kind of flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers, and this heat utilization system comprises fuel gas generation device, exhaust heat boiler, absorption type refrigerating unit, heating water supply installation; Described fuel gas generation device comprises gas compressor, firing chamber and generator; The inlet of gas compressor is connected with atmosphere, and its outlet links to each other with the inlet of firing chamber; The inlet of firing chamber also is connected with the combustion gas mouth of pipe; Described exhaust heat boiler comprises flue gas inlet, smoke outlet, condensed water import and steam (vapor) outlet, the flue gas inlet of this exhaust heat boiler is communicated with the exhaust outlet of described fuel gas generation device, its steam (vapor) outlet is connected with the heating water supply installation with described absorption type refrigerating unit by steam transmitting pipe, and described heating water supply installation also comprises the direct-type air-water heat exchanger, the body inside of this direct-type air-water heat exchanger is provided with the gondola water faucet device of broken water droplet, and the water droplet in this gondola water faucet device constitutes flue gas channel again by the space; The smoke outlet of described exhaust heat boiler is connected with chimney by the fume pipe of this direct-type air-water heat exchanger, and the inlet tube and outlet tube of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger is connected on the pipeline into domestic hot-water or heat supply.

Architecture advances of the present invention is at first investigated the influence of various domestic hot-waters' sanitary index based on flue gas, discovers: rock gas does not wherein contain sulfur (generally being not more than 10ppm) substantially through after liquefying; Even temperature of exhaust fume dropped to below 40 ℃ cold end corrosion can not take place yet.The natural gas boiler smoke evacuation directly contacts resulting hot water composition with cold water and former pool only is not free CO 2Content increases and oxygen content reduces, and CO 2The increase of content helps removing the bacterium of human body skin; Water after the heating still clear, colorless, do not have smell yet, meet sanitary standard fully, can be used for various domestic hot-water supplies.Top conclusion obtains studies confirm that of authoritative research institution.

Based on above-mentioned cognition, the present invention is off the beaten track, has developed a kind of direct-type air-water heat exchanger, provides domestic hot-water's purpose to realize low cost.The gondola water faucet device inside of the inner broken water droplet that is provided with of the body of this heat exchanger has the space that water droplet passes through, and the water droplet in this gondola water faucet device constitutes flue gas channel again by the space; Flue gas adverse current or following current contact with broken water droplet and conduct heat, the structure of brand new ideas that adopts heat exchanger of the present invention realizes the heat transfer type between low-temperature flue gas and hydrophily body, it has cancelled the smoke pipe and the partition of solid wall surface, do not need intermediary by the solid heat transfer face, carry out heat exchange but rely on water directly contact with flue gas: the gondola water faucet device of the broken water droplet of employing is partitioned into rate of descent with the hydrophily body of agglomerate and flow is suitable and the water droplet of homogeneous and controllable and form the water droplet field that falls in flue gas channel, drop size in water droplet falls the field is moderate, neither can be taken out of by low-temperature flue gas, can be too not fast because of falling yet, particle diameter is too big and insufficient heat transfer efficiency that causes that is heated is not good, like this, be of moderate size, a uniform water droplet that falls is being done in direct contact of reverse flow with low-temperature flue gas, can produce very big dynamic heat transfer specific surface area, thereby make heat transfer efficiency increase greatly, also can not form excessive resistance for low-temperature flue gas, can guarantee to conduct heat is able to fully stablize carry out.And, because air-water heat exchanger of the present invention makes water droplet waterfall directly contact low-temperature flue gas, can absorb the condensation latent heat of the water vapour in the flue gas, thereby greatly reduce temperature of exhaust fume, final collection through the hot water tank that is located at the body bottom and outlet pipe obtains the hydrophily body of high enthalpy.Its direct contact heat transfer coefficient can be up to 1000W/ (m 2℃) more than.The volume that this heat exchanger of the present invention's exploitation and heat exchange mode can greatly reduce gas-water-to-water heat exchanger, reduction engineering cost, raising heat exchange efficiency make the low-temperature flue gas waste heat that reclaims the cooling heating and power generation system generation become possibility in engineering is used.Experiment showed, that direct-type air-water heat exchanger of the present invention is a kind of ideal device and mode that reclaims the low-temperature flue gas waste heat of cooling heating and power generation system.Obviously, behind traditional exhaust heat boiler, install direct-contact heat exchanger generation domestic hot-water additional and will further improve the thermal efficiency of system, and provide the domestic hot-water with extremely low cost, can improve the economic benefit (the rough estimate net benefits can improve 10%) of system greatly.

Further new problem is but found in research: domestic hot-water's temperature that common people need is 45 ℃, and analyze theoretically, in the direct heat exchange process of flue gas and water, the temperature that water can be heated to, can not surpass the wet-bulb temperature of flue gas in inlet, be heated to the wet-bulb temperature of inlet's flue gas when water after, water temperature just can not rise again, and can only be vaporized into steam, hot water has reached the heating limiting temperature.Flue gas depends on the size of partial pressure of water vapor in the flue gas at the height of the wet-bulb temperature of inlet, and therefore the outlet limit water temperature under the different partial pressure of water vapors is all different.General gas turbine is because will be approximately 4.5% so the partial pressure of water vapour is very low in the exhaust with excess air as symplasm, and the maximum temperature that calculates heat hot water this moment is 45 ℃.But in the domestic hot-water supply system that concentrates, for accumulation of heat with reduce the needs of pipe network investment, need be than 45 ℃ high slightly but be lower than 120 ℃ hot water temperature as 60 ℃, that is to say the higher steam partial pressure of flue gas needs.And to be heated to 60 degree, necessary steam injection; And, then do not have this problem for internal-combustion engine.

The result of analog computation shows that the limiting temperature that cold water can be heated to raises along with the increase of steam-recycling rate.If the concentration of water vapor is 4.5% in the flue gas, then cold water can heated limiting temperature be 45 degree, surpasses this temperature, " dried tower " phenomenon (vaporization of hot water start vaporizer) will occur; If water will be heated to 60 degree, then need re-injection water vapor in gas turbine, the re-injection rate reach 12% so that in the flue gas partial pressure of water vapor reach 15%.Just water can be heated to 60 degree.(if steam injection not can further be heated to 60 degree with hot water by 45 degree by installing methods such as steam heater additional.) therefore, the analog computation result shows that adopting steam-recycling is to improve the hot water outlet temperature, the important measures of reduction system investment.

The analog computation result is further illustrated under the different inlet water temperatures, if the heat outputting coolant-temperature gage meets the requirements of 60 ℃, and NO in the hot water xContent very little, and, meet domestic hot-water's sanitary standard fully along with the increase of steam-recycling amount is on a declining curve; CO 2Concentration slightly increase with the rising of re-injection rate, but concentration is also very low, water quality is had no effect, and the architecture advances of provable system of the present invention has sufficient feasibility and relevant technological advantage fully at this point, and matches with the related conclusions of relevant authoritative research institution.

Also can be found out by the analog computation result: the architecture advances of steam injection can also reduce the growing amount of NOx, saves the power consumption of gas compressor simultaneously.Its reason is very simple, can suitably reduce combustion temperature because inject steam in the firing chamber of gas turbine, reduces the growing amount of NOx, helps environmental protection.Steam injection can also reduce the air quantity that enters gas turbine, saves the part compression work, perhaps suitably improves exerting oneself of gas turbine; Make unit operation more flexible.For this reason, the architecture advances of system of the present invention comprises two kinds of selective system architectures: the fuel gas generation device is an internal-combustion engine formula electricity generating device, and can not establish the steam-recycling facility this moment; Perhaps described fuel gas generation device is a gas turbine formula electricity generating device, and also offer a re-injection steam pipe that leads to described firing chamber this moment on the female pipe of the steam of described exhaust heat boiler, be in series with decompressor on this re-injection steam pipe.

The present invention and traditional Cheng Shi circulation difference are that latter's steam-recycling amount is very big, almost with gas compressor to advance air quantity identical, thereby the configuration of unit, promptly the energy force rate of gas compressor and power turbine is special.And steam-recycling rate of the present invention only about 10%; The gas turbine that can be used for general design fully.

At present, the cold, heat and electricity triple supply mode of finding from pertinent literature yet there are no the report that adopts this mode.But the advantage of this mode is mathematical.

Generally speaking, theory analysis and preliminary probationary certificate: compare with common gas turbine cogeneration cooling heating system, the system flow of novel thermoelectric cold cogeneration project of the present invention has following major advantage:

(1) little, the efficient raising of exhaust heat boiler steel consumption:

Because the temperature of exhaust fume behind the exhaust heat boiler is lower, heat transfer temperature difference is very little, if select traditional shell-and-tube heat exchanger for use, then required heating surface can be very big, thereby the consumption of steel is big.The present invention is installed the contact-type hot water heater additional at afterbody, because flue gas directly contacts with water, its heat-transfer coefficient is far above common heat exchangers.Therefore heating surface can significantly reduce, and steel consumption descends more than 5 times.

(2) cost of equipment and the corrosion and the operating cost of minimizing afterbody induced draught fan:

Because behind the contact-type hot water heater, flue-gas temperature has dropped to below 40 degree, and the draft that relies on this moment the inside and outside gas temperature difference of chimney to be produced can't be discharged flue gas.Therefore, the present invention adopts the positive pressure ventilation mode, promptly without induced draught fan, overcomes exhaust heat boiler, contact-type hot water heater, the back resistance that connects flue, reaches chimney by the exhaust pressure that improves gas turbine, and flue gas enters atmosphere the most at last.At this moment, chimney can suitably be done low as required.(this moment, chimney did not have much drafts)

(3) flexibility and the Economy of the operation of steam-recycling measure raising system:

From steam turbine, extract a part of low pressure steam out and be recycled in the firing chamber of gas turbine, can improve the outlet temperature of hot water effectively, reduce the NOx discharge amount simultaneously, prolong the use longevity of unit.Its another advantage is to improve the generated output of gas turbine, for simple gas turbine cogeneration cooling heating system, when the terminal heat load reduces with superfluous steam-recycling to improve generated energy, can significantly improve flexibility and Economy that system moves; In Various Seasonal, according to the different demands of the water temperature and the water yield, control re-injection vapour amount.Compare with general combustion turbine combined circulation co-generation system, although the generated energy that steam-recycling increased will be a little less than steam turbine, and because stack draught is little, cause the back pressure of gas turbine high slightly, generated energy slightly descends, but can save the steam turbine investment, and obtain bigger benefit by reclaiming a large amount of low temperature exhaust heats.If system adopts is not gas turbine but then there is not the steam-recycling problem in internal-combustion engine because the steam partial pressure in its flue gas is higher.

For further realizing the principal advantages of direct-type air-water heat exchanger of the present invention, the present invention takes following concrete corrective measure: described direct-type air-water heat exchanger comprises body, on body, be provided with intake pipe, outlet pipe and smoke outlet, on the sidewall of body, offer flue gas inlet, be provided with flue gas channel in the body; Body inside axially is provided with the flue gas flow equalizing device over against this flue gas inlet, and this current equalizer comprises cross section bending flue gas flap upwards; Described flue gas channel comprises the passage and the top body volume inside thereof of passing through described flue gas flap, is provided with the gondola water faucet device of grid bar array formula in the body space above described flue gas flap; The mouth of pipe of described intake pipe and smoke outlet all are arranged on the top of described gondola water faucet device, and described flue gas flap below is provided with the hot water tank that compiles water droplet, and the mouth of pipe of described outlet pipe is arranged on the bottom of described hot water tank.Air-water heat exchanger of the present invention is patent, develop a new style, employing over against this flue gas inlet axially on the structure of current equalizer is set, the flue gas flap that is provided with upwards contacts the low-temperature flue gas dispersive vectoring with the whereabouts water droplet, overcome the too little problem of heat transfer interface between flue gas and the water; Through experiment confirm, the thermal efficiency of air-water heat exchanger of the present invention can be up to more than 98%, and start back warming velocity is very fast; Again because saved solid heating surfaces such as flue and/or smoke pipe, air-water heat exchanger of the present invention weight have only 1/5 of identical heat load dividing wall type heat exchanger; And, the scale problems that does not have the solid heating surface to produce, the long-term utilization efficiency of heat exchanger can not descend, need not water treatment operation and equipment, maintenance work and cost have been simplified greatly, property safe and reliable to operation increases greatly, and the actual life expection of air-water heat exchanger of the present invention was 20~30 years.

For further improving the flue gas low-temperature heat utilization system of supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers of the present invention, assurance system operation stability, raising utilization efficiency of heat energy, the present invention takes following measure: described system also comprises the steam turbine electricity generating device, and this steam turbine electricity generating device comprises steam turbine, generator, condenser, oxygen-eliminating device; This steam turbine is connected on the steam (vapor) outlet and the pipeline between described absorption type refrigerating unit and the heating water supply installation of described exhaust heat boiler.

Described heating water supply installation comprises steam heater, the low pressure steam outlet of described steam turbine is connected with the steam tube import of this steam heater, and a pair of hose nozzle of this steam heater is connected between the outlet pipe and domestic hot-water's pipeline of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger.The low pressure steam outlet of described steam turbine offers a steam branch pipe and leads to the described oxygen-eliminating device steam mouth of pipe.

Reduce the energy consumption of the flue gas low-temperature heat utilization system of supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers of the present invention for the cold that further utilizes LNG Liquefied natural gas, improve the efficient of gas compressor, the present invention takes following measure: also be in series with air-cooler between the inlet of described gas compressor and the atmosphere, the refrigerant piping of this air-cooler is connected between the described combustion gas mouth of pipe and the described firing chamber.

For reaching technical purpose of the present invention, the operating method of the flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system that another related art scheme of the present invention is a kind of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers, the heat utilization system of this method operation comprises fuel gas generation device, exhaust heat boiler, absorption type refrigerating unit, heating water supply installation; Described fuel gas generation device comprises gas compressor, firing chamber, gas turbine and generator; The inlet of described gas compressor is connected with atmosphere, and its outlet links to each other with the inlet of firing chamber, and the inlet of described firing chamber also is connected with the combustion gas mouth of pipe; Described exhaust heat boiler comprises flue gas inlet, smoke outlet, condensed water import and steam (vapor) outlet, the flue gas inlet of this exhaust heat boiler is communicated with the exhaust outlet of described fuel gas generation device, its steam (vapor) outlet is connected with the heating water supply installation with described absorption type refrigerating unit by steam transmitting pipe, described heating water supply installation also comprises the direct-type air-water heat exchanger, the body inside of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger is provided with the gondola water faucet device of broken water droplet, and the water droplet in this gondola water faucet device constitutes flue gas channel again by the space; The smoke outlet of described exhaust heat boiler is connected with chimney by the fume pipe of this direct-type air-water heat exchanger, and the inlet tube and outlet tube of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger is connected on the pipeline into domestic hot-water or heat supply; The steam transmitting pipe of described exhaust heat boiler also branch offers a re-injection steam pipe that leads to described firing chamber, on this re-injection steam pipe, be in series with decompressor, it is characterized in that: described method comprises the described decompressor of control, makes exhaust heat boiler can regulate in 0%~12% (W/W) scope to the ratio of described firing chamber steam injection by the re-injection steam pipe.Method of the present invention can be so that the flue-gas temperature of the smoke outlet of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger reaches below 50 ℃.So-called steam-recycling rate is that steam flow enters air total amount the system from gas compressor relatively.

In a word, architecture advances of the present invention have be easy to implement, advantage effective, with low cost.

Below, with accompanying drawing technical solution of the present invention is described further in conjunction with specific embodiments.

[description of drawings]

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the thermoelectric clod cogeneration system of traditional gas turbine.

Fig. 2 is supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers flue gas low-temperature heat utilization system embodiment's of the present invention structural representation.

Fig. 3 is direct-type air-water heat exchanger embodiment's of the present invention structural representation.

The thermoelectric clod cogeneration system structure of traditional gas turbine:

As Fig. 1, be depicted as the thermoelectric clod cogeneration system of a kind of traditional gas turbine, the flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of this rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers comprises fuel gas generation device, exhaust heat boiler, absorption type refrigerating unit, heating water supply installation; Wherein the fuel gas generation device comprises gas compressor 11, firing chamber 12 and generator 13, gas turbine 14; The inlet of gas compressor 11 is connected with atmosphere, and its outlet links to each other with the inlet of firing chamber 12; The inlet of firing chamber 12 also is connected with the rock gas mouth of pipe; Exhaust heat boiler 21 comprises flue gas inlet, smoke outlet, condensed water import and steam (vapor) outlet, the flue gas inlet of this exhaust heat boiler 21 is communicated with the exhaust outlet of gas turbine 14 in the fuel gas generation device, its 21 steam (vapor) outlet is connected with steam heater 51 as the heating water supply installation by steam transmitting pipe, steam turbine 31 and absorption type refrigerating unit 41, this system comprises the steam turbine electricity generating device, and this device comprises steam turbine 31, generator (not shown), condenser 32, oxygen-eliminating device 33; This steam turbine 31 is connected on the steam (vapor) outlet and the pipeline between absorption type refrigerating unit 41 and the steam heater 51 of exhaust heat boiler 21.This system comprises that by two generators generator 13 exports electric energy to the user, exports refrigerant by absorption type refrigerating unit 41 to the user, exports the domestic hot-water by steam heater 51 to the user, and remaining flue gas is discharged from chimney 6.

[embodiment]

As Fig. 2, be depicted as the structure of supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers flue gas low-temperature heat utilization system of the present invention preferred embodiment, this heat utilization system comprises fuel gas generation device, exhaust heat boiler, absorption type refrigerating unit, heating water supply installation; Described fuel gas generation device comprises gas compressor 11, firing chamber 12 and generator 13, gas turbine 14; The inlet of gas compressor 11 is connected with atmosphere, and its 11 outlet links to each other with the inlet of firing chamber 12; The inlet of firing chamber 12 also is connected with the rock gas mouth of pipe; Exhaust heat boiler 21 comprises flue gas inlet, smoke outlet, condensed water import and steam (vapor) outlet, the flue gas inlet of this exhaust heat boiler 21 is communicated with the exhaust outlet of gas turbine 14 in the fuel gas generation device, the vapour road of the steam (vapor) outlet of exhaust heat boiler 21 by steam transmitting pipe, steam turbine 31, pipeline and absorption type refrigerating unit 41 be connected as the steam heater 51 that heats water supply installation; And the heating water supply installation also comprises direct-type air-water heat exchanger 52, and the body inside of this direct-type air-water heat exchanger 52 is provided with the gondola water faucet device 526 of broken water droplet, and the space between this gondola water faucet device 526 constitutes flue gas channel again; The smoke outlet of exhaust heat boiler 21 is connected with chimney 6 by the fume pipe of this direct-type air-water heat exchanger 52, and the inlet tube and outlet tube of direct-type air-water heat exchanger 52 is connected on the pipeline into domestic hot-water or heat supply; The steam transmitting pipe of exhaust heat boiler 21 also branch offers a re-injection steam pipe that leads to firing chamber 12, is in series with decompressor 22 on this re-injection steam pipe.

Described fuel gas generation device is gas turbine formula electricity generating device or internal-combustion engine formula electricity generating device.

This system comprises the steam turbine electricity generating device, and this device comprises steam turbine 31, generator (not shown), condenser 32, oxygen-eliminating device 33; This steam turbine 31 is connected on the steam (vapor) outlet and the pipeline between absorption type refrigerating unit 41 and the steam heater 51 of exhaust heat boiler 21.The low pressure steam outlet of steam turbine 31 offers a steam branch pipe and leads to the oxygen-eliminating device hot water mouth of pipe.

The heating water supply installation comprises steam heater 51, the low pressure steam outlet of steam turbine 31 is connected with the steam tube import of steam heater 51, and a pair of hose nozzle of this steam heater 51 is connected between the outlet pipe and domestic hot-water's pipeline of direct-type air-water heat exchanger 52.

Also be in series with air-cooler 10 between the inlet of gas compressor 11 and the atmosphere, the refrigerant piping of this air-cooler 10 is connected between the LNG Liquefied natural gas mouth of pipe and the firing chamber 12.

As Fig. 3, be depicted as direct-type air-water heat exchanger embodiment's structure, this heat exchanger comprises body 520, is provided with intake pipe 521, outlet pipe 522 and smoke outlet 523 on body, on the sidewall of body 520, offer flue gas inlet 524, be provided with flue gas channel in the body 520; Body 520 inside axially are provided with the flue gas flow equalizing device over against this flue gas inlet 524, and this current equalizer comprises cross section bending flue gas flap 525 upwards; Flue gas channel comprises the passage and the top body volume inside thereof of passing through flue gas flap 525, is provided with the gondola water faucet device 526 of broken water droplet in body 520 spaces above flue gas flap 525; The mouth of pipe of intake pipe 521 and smoke outlet 523 all are arranged on the top of gondola water faucet device 526, between smoke outlet 523 and gondola water faucet device 526, also be provided with demist plate array 528, flue gas flap 525 belows are provided with the hot water tank 527 that compiles water droplet, the mouth of pipe of outlet pipe 522 is arranged on the bottom of hot water tank 527, external water transport pump 529 of the mouth of pipe of outlet pipe 522 and conduit pipe.In addition, be provided with the overflow mouth of pipe 530 on hot water tank 527 tops,

Wherein, the traditional co-generation system of scheme 1 expression, temperature of exhaust fume 120 degree; The co-generation system of the scheme 2 expression embodiment of the invention, temperature of exhaust fume 40 degree (not steam injection).

Present embodiment adopts one 40 small size gas turbine 14.Export electric weight: 3428kW (intake temperature 20 degree) under these gas turbine 14 normal conditions, the high-temperature flue gas of generation enters the steam that exhaust heat boiler 21 produces about 9t/h.The exhaust smoke level of exhaust heat boiler 21 is approximately 7 * 104m 3/ h (temperature of exhaust fume 120 degree).

Calculated in 4000 hours by annual operation: depreciation cost calculates by annual 10%.

The actual measurement proof: adopt the present invention program can save 1,530,000 yuan of operating costs 2 every year, investment only increases by 5.3 ten thousand yuan, can ignore fully.Therefore have great superiority, recommend preferentially to use.

Further investigate the Technological Economy of co-generation system embodiment of the present invention under the steam injection situation: with combustion turbine combined cycle ratio, adopt the generated energy of steam-recycling circulation back steam turbine 31 to decrease, but meanwhile the hot water amount of Chan Shenging increases to some extent, and the generated energy of gas turbine 14 also rises to some extent, can save steam turbine 31 investments simultaneously.Therefore, steam-recycling circuit Economy is how on earth, provides quantitative analysis below, is example with above small-sized unit equally:

Economy under the different re-injection rates of table 2-relatively Steam-recycling rate (%) ??0 ??4% ??6% ?8% ??12% Produce hot water amount (t/h) (converting 40 ℃) ??53 ? ? ??64 ? ? ??69 ? ? ?75 ? ? ??82 ? ? System lacks generated energy (kW) in theory ??0 ? ??139 ? ??152 ? ?164 ? ??177 ? Per hour electricity charge income minimizing (0.55 yuan/kwh) ??0 ? ? ??77 ? ? ??84 ? ? ?90 ? ? ??97 ? ? Per hour hot water is taken in (calculating by 8 yuan/t) ??424 ? ? ??512 ? ? ??552 ? ? ?600 ? ? ??656 ? ? Hour economic benefit 424 yuan 435 yuan 468 yuan 510 yuan 559 yuan Total economic benefit (calculating in 4000 hours) by annual operation 1,700,000 yuan 1,740,000 yuan 1,870,000 yuan 2,040,000 yuan 2,240,000 yuan

Be not difficult to find out that from last table along with the increase of steam-recycling amount, total remarkable in economical benefits rises.Therefore, steam injection is the important measures that improve the systematic economy benefit.But in order to guarantee the stable operation of gas turbine 14, the re-injection amount is also unsuitable excessive.Rule of thumb, re-injection rate had better not surpass 10%.Through taking all factors into consideration, it is that 8% left and right sides is proper that this paper recommends the steam-recycling rate.This moment, total economic benefit rose a lot, and the hot water outlet temperature has also reached 56 ℃, can satisfy bathing and remote requirement of carrying substantially.Therefore, this paper thinks, injects small amount of steam and benefit in firing chamber 12, it can improve total economic benefit of system, lowers the emission index of NOx, prolongs the working life of unit, the outlet temperature that improves hot water is with the satisfied remote needs of carrying, but the re-injection rate had better not surpass 8%.

Claims (8)

1, a kind of flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers, this heat utilization system comprises fuel gas generation device, exhaust heat boiler, absorption type refrigerating unit, heating water supply installation; Described fuel gas generation device comprises gas compressor (11), firing chamber (12) and generator (13); The inlet of described gas compressor (11) is connected with atmosphere, and its outlet links to each other with the inlet of firing chamber (12), and the inlet of described firing chamber (12) also is connected with the combustion gas mouth of pipe; Described exhaust heat boiler (21) comprises flue gas inlet, smoke outlet, condensed water import and steam (vapor) outlet, the flue gas inlet of this exhaust heat boiler (21) is communicated with the exhaust outlet of described fuel gas generation device, its steam (vapor) outlet is connected with the heating water supply installation with described absorption type refrigerating unit (41) by steam transmitting pipe, it is characterized in that: described heating water supply installation comprises direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52), body (520) inside of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52) is provided with the gondola water faucet device (526) of broken water droplet, and the space of passing through of water droplet constitutes flue gas channel again in this gondola water faucet device (526); The smoke outlet of described exhaust heat boiler (21) is connected with chimney (6) by the fume pipe of this direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52), and the inlet tube and outlet tube of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52) is connected on the pipeline into domestic hot-water or heat supply.
2, the flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described fuel gas generation device is an internal-combustion engine formula electricity generating device; Perhaps described fuel gas generation device is gas turbine (a 14) formula electricity generating device, and the steam transmitting pipe of described exhaust heat boiler (21) also branch offer a re-injection steam pipe that leads to described firing chamber (12), on this re-injection steam pipe, be in series with decompressor (22).
3, the flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: the body (520) of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52) is provided with intake pipe (521), outlet pipe (522) and smoke outlet (523), offer flue gas inlet (524) on the sidewall of described body (520), body is provided with flue gas channel in (520); Body (520) inner over against this flue gas inlet (524) axially be provided with the flue gas flow equalizing device, this current equalizer comprises cross section bending flue gas flap (525) upwards; Described flue gas channel comprises the passage and top body (520) volume inside thereof of passing through described flue gas flap (525), is provided with the gondola water faucet device (526) of grid bar array formula in body (520) space of described flue gas flap (525) top; The mouth of pipe of described intake pipe (521) and smoke outlet (523) all are arranged on the top of described gondola water faucet device (526), described flue gas flap (525) below is provided with the hot water tank (527) that compiles water droplet, and the mouth of pipe of described outlet pipe (522) is arranged on the bottom of described hot water tank (527).
4, the flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: described system also comprises the steam turbine electricity generating device, and this steam turbine electricity generating device comprises steam turbine (31), generator, condenser (32), oxygen-eliminating device (33); This steam turbine (31) is connected on the steam (vapor) outlet and the pipeline between described absorption type refrigerating unit (41) and the heating water supply installation of described exhaust heat boiler (21).
5, the flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that: the low pressure steam outlet of described steam turbine (31) offers a steam branch pipe and leads to described oxygen-eliminating device (33) the steam mouth of pipe.
6, the flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers as claimed in claim 4, it is characterized in that: described heating water supply installation comprises steam heater (51), the low pressure steam outlet of described steam turbine (31) is connected with the steam tube import of this steam heater (51), and a pair of hose nozzle of this steam heater (51) is connected between the outlet pipe and domestic hot-water's pipeline of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52).
7, the flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: also be in series with air-cooler (10) between the inlet of described gas compressor (11) and the atmosphere, the refrigerant piping of this air-cooler (10) is connected between the described combustion gas mouth of pipe and described firing chamber (12).
8, a kind of operating method of flue gas low-temperature end heat utilization system of rock gas supply of cooling, heating and electrical powers, the heat utilization system of this method operation comprises fuel gas generation device, exhaust heat boiler, absorption type refrigerating unit, heating water supply installation; Described fuel gas generation device comprises gas compressor (11), firing chamber (12), gas turbine (14) and generator (13); The inlet of described gas compressor (11) is connected with atmosphere, and its outlet links to each other with the inlet of firing chamber (12), and the inlet of described firing chamber (12) also is connected with the combustion gas mouth of pipe; Described exhaust heat boiler (21) comprises flue gas inlet, smoke outlet, condensed water import and steam (vapor) outlet, the flue gas inlet of this exhaust heat boiler (21) is communicated with the exhaust outlet of described fuel gas generation device, its steam (vapor) outlet is connected with the heating water supply installation with described absorption type refrigerating unit (41) by steam transmitting pipe, described heating water supply installation also comprises direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52), body (520) inside of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52) is provided with the gondola water faucet device (526) of broken water droplet, and the water droplet in this gondola water faucet device (526) constitutes flue gas channel again by the space; The smoke outlet of described exhaust heat boiler (21) is connected with chimney (6) by the fume pipe of this direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52), and the inlet tube and outlet tube of described direct-type air-water heat exchanger (52) is connected on the pipeline into domestic hot-water or heat supply; The steam transmitting pipe of described exhaust heat boiler (21) also branch offers a re-injection steam pipe that leads to described firing chamber (12), on this re-injection steam pipe, be in series with decompressor (22), it is characterized in that: described method comprises control described decompressor (22), make exhaust heat boiler (21) by the re-injection steam pipe to the ratio of described firing chamber (12) steam injection in 0%~12% (W/W) scope.
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