CN1769397A - Device and method for suppressing refuse end gas injurant using pyrolysis and aerification technology - Google Patents

Device and method for suppressing refuse end gas injurant using pyrolysis and aerification technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1769397A
CN1769397A CN 200510015504 CN200510015504A CN1769397A CN 1769397 A CN1769397 A CN 1769397A CN 200510015504 CN200510015504 CN 200510015504 CN 200510015504 A CN200510015504 A CN 200510015504A CN 1769397 A CN1769397 A CN 1769397A
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China
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gas
outlet
pyrolytic
pyrolysis
water
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CN 200510015504
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Chinese (zh)
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张于峰
邓娜
陈静
马洪亭
刘志凯
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天津大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/16Combined cycle power plant [CCPP], or combined cycle gas turbine [CCGT]
    • Y02E20/18Integrated gasification combined cycle [IGCC], e.g. combined with carbon capture and storage [CCS]

Abstract

The invention relates to the devices and method of controling harmful exhaust gas of refuse by pyrolytic vaporization processing technique, uses pyrolytic vaporization to dispose waste device, said thermal dissociation method is that refuse enters the reactor through main pyrolytic stove to take pyrolytic reaction and generate mixture gas, said gas enters the mixture gas retort with the rubbish carbon together, steam generator provides steam to enter the mixture gas retort with the high-heat hot smoke gas together, and the combustion gas generated in the retort enters the main pyrolytic stove and heats the retort in the oven, the clean waste gas generated by burning is discharged out of the oven. The application of controlling chloridate vaporization in the invention is based on root, which means preventing the vaporization of the chloridate during the handling process to avoid the occurrence in theory, therefore, could abbreviate the complicated exhaust gas handling largely and no need to handle the secondary substance for exhaust gas handling again, which is just the superiority of the invention.

Description

Utilize the pyrolytic gasification treatment technology to suppress the apparatus and method of rubbish tail gas nuisance

Technical field

The invention belongs to environmental technology field, particularly utilize the pyrolytic gasification treatment technology to suppress the apparatus and method of rubbish tail gas nuisance.

Background technology

Consider that from the angle of environment protection and resource recycling the solid waste ideal processing mode with calorific value is to adopt comprehensive treatment technique.Composting technology is eliminated waste by microbial process, but strict to the composition of waste, and the composition of non-food chain deals with comparatively difficulty; To having the solid waste of higher calorific value, can adopt incineration technology to handle, but the treatment facility of its incineration tail gas is huge, running technology complexity and resource consumption are bigger.Utilizing the pyrolytic gasification technology is ideal processing mode comparatively, because the reasonableness of its operation mechanism causes the vent gas treatment process only to need easy flow process to get final product qualified discharge, and recyclable useful resources.Waste because oxygen deprivation or anoxic condition, causes the muriate in the waste and the activity of metal thereof to be suppressed greatly in the pyrolytic gasification process.Therefore how to improve emphasis and difficult point that fire box temperature is the research of refuse pyrolysis gasification technology fast, it is directly connected to the promotion and application to domestic waste ideal process equipment.

State Bureau of Environmental Protection stipulates that clearly the processing mode of medical waste can adopt dual mode at present, and a kind of is the rotary oven high temperature incineration; Another kind is the pyrolytic gasification technology.Pyrolytic gasification rubbish technology is current comparatively popular research direction, and countries such as Japan, the U.S. and European Union is actively developing the medical waste Processing Technology of this kind mode.

Countries in the world were successively adopted such as sanitary landfill, were concentrated methods such as sinking to ocean medical waste processing after the packing.Developed country mainly is main the processing with the burning after the eighties.At the initial stage nineties, World Health Organization shows that by the research conclusion that a plurality of countries are burned the medical waste situation burning disposal is the important source that produces " dioxin " equal altitudes carcinogenic substance! Therefore western developed country begins to pay attention to burning the serious harm consequence of bringing, and progressively adopts and does not have advanced treatment technology and the equipment that burns.With the U.S. is example, and the U.S. determines the existing incinerator for medical garbage in 2000 80% to close, and rest part also must be at the calendar year 2001 Close All.Dispose on the medical waste Developing Trend in Technology from world developed country, no burning disposal Biohazard Waste also will become the developing direction of Chinese medical disposal of garbage technology.

China united promulgation " national danger wastes register " in 1998 by State Bureau of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, and the hospital clinical waste (HW01) relevant with medical treatment, useless medicine, useless medicine (HW03) and sensitive materials waste (HW16) all belong to danger wastes.According to the requirement of country, Shanghai City Environmental Protection Agency and board of health have formulated " Shanghai City medical fee property management reason way ", and preliminary being scheduled to will implement to focus on to medical waste after 2002; Tianjin Environmental Protection Agency has established Special Garbage factory according to the requirement of municipal government, and wherein health care rubbish is implemented to focus in the factory as dangerous garbage.

An important problem is arranged, the muriatic state issues of deriving in the refuse treatment process that Here it is in medical waste pyrolytic gasification process.Undoubtedly, in medical waste, contain more PVC material, as infusion bag, packing bag, part medical apparatus etc.If wherein contained chloride treatment forms gaseous state during the course, certainly will cause the increase of atmosphere acid with threatening atmospheric environment.Fact proved, even huge tail gas treatment device, the discharging that can not stop this acid, the SO of boiler exhaust gas 2Emission problem is proved exactly; If but muriate can be trapped in the remaining rubbish ash after the processing with solid-state form, then the pollution hazard to environment will descend greatly, simultaneously also can greatly simplify exhaust gas processing device, and even the muriate in the rubbish ash can be reclaimed.

Adopt the pyrolytic gasification treatment technology, can make the waste gas index of discharging in the process all reach state specified standards, and chloride content is higher in the residual rubbish ash, such treatment effect is comparatively desirable, it can control muriate with gasiform form discharging atmosphere, and easily the muriate in the solid phase is reclaimed.The mechanism research of muriate formation state is a comparatively complicated problems in the medical waste pyrolytic gasification process, also be the important topic of improving the pyrolytic gasification technology simultaneously, if can know its mechanism of action, not only can control muriatic quantity discharged, also the generation that suppresses dioxin be played an important role simultaneously.Fact proved that the generation and the muriatic effect of , dioxin are closely related, be detained muriate in solid phase, can guarantee the emission compliance of waste gas Zhong dioxin, thereby really reach the high target of harmless treatment.Xian Jin refuse treatment scientific payoffs in the world, a kind of novel process that has adopted the refuse pyrolysis gasification to combine with hurried cooled exhaust gas is controlled dioxin, can guarantee to discharge the up to standard of tail gas, this is a kind of flow process that aftertreatment takes place earlier, huge from effect equipment, the water that is used for hurried cooled exhaust gas also faces the needs of handling again; In addition the muriate in the tail gas is also needed to handle.

Summary of the invention

The present invention proposes a kind of apparatus and method of utilizing the pyrolytic gasification treatment technology to suppress rubbish tail gas nuisance according to the pyrolysis principle.

The principle of work of pyrolytic gasification process is such: the major ingredient of medical waste is by carbon (C), hydrogen (H 2), oxygen (O 2), nitrogen (N 2), chlorine (Cl) and some other be elementary composition, under Conditionings such as temperature, anoxic, molecular chain in the organism will begin fracture and decompose, its surface-moisture, carbonic acid gas, methane are separated out, pyrolysis goes out to contain the mixed gas that methane, carbon monoxide, carbonic acid gas, hydrogen, organic acid and tar and water vapour etc. are formed, and rubbish then transforms " the rubbish charcoal " based on carbon.The molten burning appears in carbonic acid gas and water vapor and " rubbish charcoal " in the mixed gas under action of high temperature, generating gasification reaction simultaneously, and the principal reaction equation of process:

Combustion reactions: ????????????????????????(3-1)

The combustion gas reaction: ?????????????????????(3-2)

???????????????????????(3-3)

Organic acid in the mixed gas, tar continue to take place cracking under high temperature action, form the gaseous state combustiblematerials.Through reaction process continuous like this and repeatedly, finally cause medical waste to transform into clean fuel gas based on carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane.

The generation approach that the pyrolytic gasification method suppresses dioxin is two: 1. reduce the generation of dioxin precursor.2. pyrolytic gasification is in reducing atmosphere, and metals such as the Cu in the rubbish, Fe are difficult for generating the catalyzer that promotes that dioxin forms.Concrete mechanism has following analysis.

As previously mentioned, in the building-up reactions again of Zai dioxin, the existence of oxygen element and chlorine element is a prerequisite, and the pyrolytic gasification process has been cut off oxygen source all the time, makes process be in the synthetic again of reducing atmosphere , dioxin and is under control from the source.Owing to there is not oxygen, the activity of chlorine element greatly reduces in addition, and the growing amount of Shi dioxin precursor reduces relatively.

In the burning process of rubbish, under the effect of suitable temperature and catalyzer, many chemical reactions can take place, be example with four following reactions only:

?????????????????????????????????(3-6)

??????????????????????????(3-7)

By reaction as can be seen: O 2Promoter action has been played in formation for the precursor chlorobenzene, impels HCL to generate CL equally 2, increased the discharging of mol-chloric, be more conducive to the generation of aromatic series chloro thing.But in reducing atmosphere, there is not O 2Existence, above-mentioned four reactions then are difficult to carry out, and then have reduced the formation of precursor chlorobenzene, the chlorine source of having weakened simultaneously.Pyrolysis temperature is controlled at 700 ℃ in addition, and metals such as the Cu in the rubbish, Fe are difficult for oxidized, and this just makes again heterogeneous catalytic reaction synthetic and precursor also obtain the reduction of some from this angle of catalyzer.

Owing to controlled muriatic gasification in the pyrolytic gasification process, thereby guaranteed that generation of dioxin amount and amount of chloride are atomic in the combustion gas, therefore the combustion tail gas of this clean gas can guarantee that with nature dioxin and muriatic high target are up to standard.This research will be followed such guiding theory and technological line, the state of deriving of branch mode ground chlorine detection element stage by stage, as: in stove, quantitatively throw in the chlorine elemental substance, under different pyrolytic gasification temperature condition, detect the chlorinity index of gas, solid discharge respectively, in the hope of determining best working temperature; Different piece in the pyrolytic gasification flow process adds an amount of oxygen respectively in addition, goes out the Changing Pattern of muriate generating capacity by check and analysis, in the hope of determining the real mechanism that muriate produces and the idiographic flow district of maximum generating capacity thereof; The working process feature in the flow process district that takes place at maximum muriate is further analyzed the constraint that suppresses the muriate gasification, reaches the target of its gasification of control, solidifies the effect of muriate in the rubbish ash thereby produce.

Muriatic activity is subjected to weakening greatly under the oxygen deprivation state, and it forms small molecules gasiform trend and is suppressed, and also causes the decay of chlorine atom degree of oxidation in the gaseous state naturally, causes the muriate index in the gaseous state to reduce greatly; Owing to the poor of amount of chlorine atom amount in the gaseous state lacks, the precursor that the Shi dioxin generates has been subjected to inhibition simultaneously, and the result causes dioxin to be difficult to synthesize, thereby the high target of guaranteeing the dioxin discharging is up to standard.Connecting each other and influence between the two especially muriaticly derived and solidified route, will be the main direction that we study, and also is the hot issue of positive regard both at home and abroad at present.

According to above-mentioned principle, the pyrolytic gasification that the present invention proposes is handled the device of waste, comprise main pyrolysis oven 1, retort 2 and steam generator 3, be provided with reactor in the main pyrolysis oven, the mixed gas reaction jar is provided with inlet, steam entry, the inlet of elevated temperature heat flue gas 5 and the outlet of clean gas 7 of gas mixture 6, main pyrolysis oven is provided with garbage inlet 4, gas mixture 6 outlets, 5 outlets of elevated temperature heat flue gas and clean gas 7 inlets, is connected by pipeline between corresponding outlet and the inlet.

Adopt pyrolytic gasification of the present invention to handle the waste device, method for pyrolysis is that rubbish enters reactor by main pyrolysis oven inlet, pyrolytic reaction takes place in 600-800 ℃ of airtight down reaction in furnace device, mixed gas that produces and the rubbish charcoal after the pyrolysis together enter the mixed gas reaction jar, steam generator provides the water vapor of the condition that satisfies above-mentioned formula 3-2 to enter in the mixed gas reaction jar, the elevated temperature heat flue gas enters in the mixed gas reaction jar simultaneously, pyrolysis oven is become owner of in the combustion gas that generates in retort, the inner retort of burning heating, the incendiary cleaning exhaust gas is discharged outside the body of heater.

Main pyrolysis oven is to be made up of pyrolysis vaporizer and combustion chamber, in the combustion chamber, be provided with agitator, the axis body of agitator is provided with the air water handling equipment, be provided with burner noz(zle) in the bottom, combustion chamber, pyrolysis vaporizer is provided with garbage inlet, combustible gas outlet, the outlet of solid ash, the combustion chamber is provided with exhanst gas outlet, is connected by pipeline between corresponding outlet and the inlet.

In actual medical refuse pyrolysis treatment unit, with main pyrolytic reaction jar, mixed gas generation tank and Combustion chamber design is one, and utility appliance such as supporting gas condenser, the flow process of device is as follows: packed medical waste is by the hopper input at pyrolytic gasification stove top, in the process that moves downward, refuse bag is rotated the feeder fragmentation, and the heat that provides in the combustion chamber is provided, after super-dry, pyrolytic reaction, produce inflammable gas and solid product garbage carbon; The CO that garbage carbon and its bottom feed 2(3-2) (3-3) gasification reaction takes place with water vapor.Pyrolysis and the inflammable gas that gasifies and produce are flowed out by the top outlet of pyrolysis vaporizer, through condenser condenses, remove water vapor and tar, and dried combustion gas is sent into the combustion chamber through fan and burnt, to provide pyrolytic gasification required heat.The high-temperature flue gas that produces in the combustion chamber is flowed out by the top of stove.At first after supercooler was lowered the temperature, separated into two parts: a part entered smoke processing system to flue gas, removed inner contained sour gas, and the flue gas after the processing enters atmosphere through chimney.Another part enters the gasification layer by the bottom of pyrolytic gasification stove, for gasification reaction provides CO 2..In addition, the water of condensation in the condenser enters the bottom of pyrolysis vaporizer, for gasification reaction provides required water vapor (H equally through after the water-and-oil separator 2O).

Beneficial effect of the present invention is as follows, by the flow system that simply and cleverly gasifies, can reach the effect that clean energy was handled and produced to garbage purification; Pyrolytic gasification rubbish process need not the external energy, the inflammable gas that produces can be used as and continues the required energy of pyrolysis, garbage as resource and innoxious effect are better than simple waste incineration mode, pollution-free and discharge of harmful gases, and " three change " effect also is better than the garbage sanitary filling mode; The refuse treatment process guarantees the low generating capacity of dioxin from the mechanism aspect, innoxious effect is obvious, thereby guarantees to reach international minimum discharge standard 0.1ng TEQ/m 3Because pyrolytic process is the temperature effective process, therefore basic no-rotary part does not need rubbish to classify in advance in the device, and the entire treatment process can realize stopping property, is fit to the present national conditions needs of China; Just because of the advance of this technology, very be fit to the processing of medical waste, therefore also receive concern both domestic and external.The control muriate gasification of this patent proposition is to start with from root, promptly in treating processes, manage to prevent muriatic gasification, stop the generation of dioxin from mechanism, therefore will omit complicated vent gas treatment greatly, certainly also the auxiliary substance of handling tail gas is handled this superiority of the present invention just again with regard to need not.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 medical waste pyrolytic gasification handling principle schema;

Fig. 2 medical waste pyrolytic gasification treatment unit process flow sheet

The sectional view of Fig. 3 nucleus equipment thermal decomposition gasification combustion chamber;

Wherein:

1-master's pyrolysis oven; 2-mixed gas reaction jar; 3-water vapour producer; The 4-garbage inlet; 5-elevated temperature heat flue gas; The 6-mixed gas; The 7-clean gas; 8-rubbish ash; The 9-exhaust emissions; The 10-hopper; 11-pyrolysis vaporizer; The 12-combustion chamber; The 13-condenser; The 14-cooling tower; The 15-water-and-oil separator; The 16-gas cooler; The 17-water tank; The 18-flue gas processing device; 19-chimney 20-agitator; 21-carries air water equipment; The 22-burner noz(zle); The outlet of 23-combustible gas; The import of 24-air water; The 25-exhanst gas outlet; The outlet of 26-solid ash.

Embodiment

The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments:

As shown in Figures 2 and 3: medical waste drops into from the hopper 10 at pyrolytic gasification stove top among the present invention, stir through agitator 20, be scattering into the bottom of pyrolysis vaporizer 11, at 600-800 ℃ of following pyrolytic gasification, the combustible gas that produces through export 23 enter condenser 13 and remove water vapor and tar after, enter combustion chamber 12 by burner noz(zle) 22 and burn at 800-1000 ℃, the high-temperature flue gas after the burning is discharged by top of combustion chamber exhanst gas outlet 25; After tar that removes in condenser 13 and water vapour enter water-and-oil separator 15, isolated water of condensation is sent into the conveying air water equipment 21 of pyrolysis vaporizer 11 bottoms through air water import 24, participate in the pyrolytic reaction of rubbish, the solid residue after the complete reaction is discharged through the outlet 26 of pyrolysis vaporizer bottom; After high-temperature flue gas is discharged by top of combustion chamber outlet 25, enter and be lower than 100 ℃ of coolings in the gas cooler 16, the cooled smoke part is together sent back to pyrolysis vaporizer with above-mentioned water of condensation, participates in pyrolytic reaction, part enters flue gas processing device 18, purifies after chimney 19 is discharged; Gas cooler 16 adopts the recirculated water cooling in the water tank 17, and the water coolant of condenser 13 and flue gas processing device 18 is provided by cooling tower 14.All devices all adopts the pipeline that satisfies the basic technology requirement to connect.

The temperature of reaction of controlling main pyrolysis oven is at 700 ℃, and furnace pressure is because the pyrolysis aerogenesis keeps pressure-fired, and steady running detects the objectionable constituent in the solid sample of pyrolysis gas component, flue gas and residue after half an hour, and it is as follows to obtain the result:

Table 1 pyrolysis gas component result The component of pyrolysis gas ??CO 2 ??O 2 ??CO ????C 2H 4C 2H 6C 3H 6C 3H 8 Other does not fire composition Volumn concentration/% ??1.4 ??0.6 ??2.0 ????64.4 ??31.6

Table 2. medical waste flue gas monitoring result

Project ??SO 2 ??HCL ??H 2S Judgement criteria Hour average emission concentration (standard limited value)/(mg/m 3) ??400 ??100 ??------ The highest permission drainage rate (standard limited value)/(kg/h) ??2.6 ??0.26 ??0.15 Test result Emission concentration/(mg/m 3) ??23.3 ??3.8 ??5.1×10 -2 Drainage rate/(kg/h) ??3.5×10 -4 ??5.2×10 -5 ??7.7×10 -7

Solid sample test item of table 3. medical waste and result The sample title Test item Measurement result Analytical procedure The method foundation Sample state Medical waste Muriate ??2.95×10 4??mg/kg ??AgNO 3Volumetry ??GB/T7871-1987 The black soil sample Copper ??0.05L/mg/L Atomic absorption method ??GB/T1555.2-1995 Zinc ??0.076/mg/L Atomic absorption method Plumbous ??0.2L/mg/L Atomic absorption method Cadmium ??0.05L/mg/L Atomic absorption method

Notes: 1, muriate lixiviate ratio is for solid: water (m: V)=1: 5, the lixiviate ratio of all the other projects is admittedly: water (m: V)=1: 10.

2, " * " among the result " * L " represents the method detection limit of this project, and " L " expression is lower than detection limit.

Claims (4)

1. a device that utilizes the pyrolytic gasification treatment technology to suppress rubbish tail gas nuisance comprises main pyrolysis oven, retort and steam generator; It is characterized in that: be provided with reactor in the main pyrolysis oven, the mixed gas reaction jar is provided with inlet, steam entry, the inlet of elevated temperature heat flue gas and the outlet of clean gas (7) of gas mixture, main pyrolysis oven is provided with garbage inlet, mixed gas outlet, elevated temperature heat exhanst gas outlet and clean gas (7) inlet, is connected by pipeline between corresponding outlet and the inlet.
2. a kind of device that utilizes the pyrolytic gasification treatment technology to suppress rubbish tail gas nuisance as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that described main pyrolysis oven is made up of pyrolysis vaporizer and combustion chamber, in the combustion chamber, be provided with agitator, the axis body of agitator is provided with the air water handling equipment, be provided with burner noz(zle) in the bottom, combustion chamber, pyrolysis vaporizer is provided with garbage inlet, combustible gas outlet, the outlet of solid ash, the combustion chamber is provided with exhanst gas outlet, is connected by pipeline between corresponding outlet and the inlet.
3. the described a kind of using method of utilizing the pyrolytic gasification treatment technology to suppress the device of rubbish tail gas nuisance of a claim 1, it is characterized in that rubbish is entered retort by main pyrolysis oven inlet, pyrolytic reaction takes place in 600-800 ℃ of airtight down reaction in furnace jar, mixed gas that produces and the rubbish charcoal after the pyrolysis together enter the mixed gas reaction jar, steam generator provides water vapor to enter in the mixed gas reaction jar, the elevated temperature heat flue gas enters in the mixed gas reaction jar simultaneously, generates in retort.
4. a kind of using method of utilizing the pyrolytic gasification treatment technology to suppress the device of rubbish tail gas nuisance as claimed in claim 3, it is characterized in that: the hopper (10) of medical waste from the pyrolytic gasification stove top dropped into, stir through agitator (20), be scattering into the bottom of pyrolysis vaporizer (11), at 600-800 ℃ of following pyrolytic gasification, the combustible gas that produces is after outlet (23) enters condenser (13) and removes water vapor and tar, entering combustion chamber (12) by burner noz(zle) (22) burns at 800-1000 ℃, high-temperature flue gas after the burning is discharged by top of combustion chamber exhanst gas outlet (25); After tar that removes in condenser (13) and water vapour enter water-and-oil separator (15), isolated water of condensation is sent into the conveying air water equipment (21) of pyrolysis vaporizer (11) bottom through air water import (24), participate in the pyrolytic reaction of rubbish, the solid residue after the complete reaction is discharged through the outlet (26) of pyrolysis vaporizer bottom; After high-temperature flue gas is discharged by top of combustion chamber outlet (25), enter and be lower than 100 ℃ of coolings in the gas cooler (16), the cooled smoke part is together sent back to pyrolysis vaporizer with above-mentioned water of condensation, participate in pyrolytic reaction, part enters flue gas processing device (18), purifies after chimney (19) is discharged; Gas cooler (16) adopts the recirculated water cooling in the water tank (17), and the water coolant of condenser (13) and flue gas processing device (18) is provided by cooling tower (14); All devices all adopts the pipeline that satisfies the basic technology requirement to connect.
CN 200510015504 2005-10-19 2005-10-19 Device and method for suppressing refuse end gas injurant using pyrolysis and aerification technology CN1769397A (en)

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