CN1746432A - Soil curing agent of road - Google Patents

Soil curing agent of road Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1746432A
CN1746432A CNA2005101127157A CN200510112715A CN1746432A CN 1746432 A CN1746432 A CN 1746432A CN A2005101127157 A CNA2005101127157 A CN A2005101127157A CN 200510112715 A CN200510112715 A CN 200510112715A CN 1746432 A CN1746432 A CN 1746432A
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soil
curing agent
slag
activator
soil stabilizer
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CN100392042C (en
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沙爱民
王振军
胡力群
翁优灵
张嘎吱
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Changan University
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Changan University
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Abstract

A firming agent contains A) slag 43wt%-73wt%; B) alkali excitant 19w%-49wt%; C) halogenic excitant 1wt%-8wt%; D) flyash 7wt%-25wt%. Unconfined compressive strength for 7d of gusset soil with same percent firming agent is much higher than with same percent lime and equal with gusset soil with 32.5 Portland cement.

Description

Soil curing agent for roads
Technical Field
The invention relates to a soil stabilizer, in particular to a soil stabilizer which is used for road construction and utilizes industrial waste.
Background
The firming agent reinforced soil is a technology which adopts a certain physical and chemical method to make the physical and mechanical properties of the soil adapt to the engineering requirements. In recent years, the inorganic material reinforced soil which is widely applied in China mainly comprises lime reinforced soil, cement reinforced soil and secondary lime (namely lime and fly ash) reinforced soil.
Lime and lime-based curing agents are less expensive, but have more disadvantages in use. For example, the early strength of the solidified soil is not high, the integrity is poor, the forming time of a certain strength is long, more than 7 days are needed, the adjustable range of the strength is not large, the compressive strength and the tensile strength are low, and the like. In addition, lime and lime have relatively poor water stability and freezing stability, and the construction period is relatively short.
The strength of the solidified soil is greatly improved compared with lime and lime-lime solidified soil by using cement as a curing agent. However, the cost of the project is increased due to the high price of the cement.
Therefore, research and development of inorganic curing agents with low cost, excellent performance and convenient construction become the concern of related engineering technicians in China.
In recent years, with the development of green building materials, industrial waste such as slag has been developed for use as a building material. Slag is a waste residue from the smelting of steel. It is quenched with water or air to form granular particles called granulated blast furnace slag whose main chemical component is SiO2、Al2O3CaO, MgO, and the like. The slag quenched by water quenching has high vitreous body content, but has coarse particles, and does not react with water. But after grinding, in the presence of an activator, SiO in the slag2And Al2O3The ingredients react with water to form a gel substance and are hydraulically active. The yield of the water quenching slag in China is 6000 million tons every year, and the price is low. Slag cement using slag as a main raw material has been developed in China. However, as far as possible,a road soil curing agent which takes slag as a main component, has a good soil curing effect and good durability of cured soil and is low in price has not been developed.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems that the currently adopted lime or lime-lime soil curing agent has poor soil-fixing effect and low strength, and the cost is higher when cement is used as the curing agent, the invention aims to provide a novel curing agent.
The invention provides a soil stabilizer, comprising A)43 wt% -73 wt% of slag; B)19 to 49 weight percent of alkali activator; and C) 1-8 wt% of salt excitant.
Wherein the specific surface area of the slag is 400-500 m2/kg of ultrafine powder.
The alkali activator adopted by the soil stabilizer can be at least one substance selected from the following group: hydrated lime, cement clinker, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
The salt excitant adopted by the soil stabilizer is at least one substance selected from the following groups: calcium sulfate, sodium carbonate, or potassium carbonate.
The content of slag is preferably 55 to 65 wt%; the content of the alkali activator is preferably 19 to 30 weight percent; and the content of the salt excitant is preferably 1.5to 5.0 weight percent.
In addition to the components, the soil curing agent of the invention can also further comprise D)7 wt% -25 wt% of fly ash. Preferably, the content of the fly ash is 8 wt% -15 wt%.
The curing agent of the invention takes industrial waste slag as a main raw material, and is used for soil reinforcement by adding other inorganic materials, thereby greatly reducing the cost of the curing agent. And under the same addition amount, the 7-day unconfined compressive strength of the curing agent reinforced soil is equivalent to that of cement reinforced soil, and is obviously superior to that of reinforced soil adopting lime. The curing agent is low in price, which is only about one half of the price of cement. The curing agent has the advantages of low cost, good reinforcing effect, capital saving for road construction, utilization of industrial waste and resource saving. In addition, the main composition materials of the curing agent are inorganic substances, are nontoxic, harmless and pollution-free, are safe to animals and plants, do not pollute soil and environment of construction sites, and completely meet the requirement on environmental protection. The curing agent is slightly alkaline but has no corrosiveness, so that the curing agent has no special requirements in the processes of packaging, transportation and storage, can be stored at normal temperature and is very convenient.
Detailed Description
The curing agent of the present invention is described in detail below with reference to specific embodiments.
The invention provides a soil stabilizer, comprising: A)43 to 73 wt% of slag; B)19 to 49 weight percent of alkali activator; and C) 1-8 wt% of salt excitant.
The main chemical component of slag is SiO2、Al2O3CaO, MgO, etc., which do not chemically react with water by themselves. SiO in slag after adding small amount of proper excitant2、Al2O3The components can react in the presence of water to form a gelled substance, and have hydraulic properties. Particularly when the slag is ground into the specific surface area of 400-500 m2The hydraulic activity can be more fully exerted by the ultrafine powder per kg.
The weight percentage of the slag in the curing agent of the present invention is 43 to 73 wt%, preferably 55 to 65 wt%, based on the total weight of the curing agent. If the weight percentage of the slag is too small, the 7-day unconfined compressive strength of the reinforced soil adopting the curing agent can not meet the requirements of technical Specification for construction of road pavement base (JTJ 034-2000) under the condition of a certain mixing amount. For example, when the slag content in the curing agent is 30 wt%, the unconfined compressive strength of the reinforced soil with 5% of the curing agent added is only 0.7MPa in 7 days, while the unconfined compressive strength of the reinforced soil with cement required by the above specifications is 1.5MPa or more. On the other hand, if the slag content is too high, the cost of the curing agent can be further reduced, but the strength of the reinforced soil is rather reduced. This is because the content of the exciting agent is relatively decreased by increasing the amount of slag, and the silicon and aluminum components in the slag do not sufficiently react to form a sufficient gelled substance, thereby causing a decrease in strength. In addition, because the fineness of the slag is small, the problem that the reinforcing soil is easy to dry and shrink or crack is easily caused when the dosage of the slag is too large.
Substances that promote the ability of the slag to gel are called excitants. The excitant is divided into two types, namely an alkaline excitant and a salt excitant.
Examples of the alkali activator that is commonly used include hydrated lime, cement clinker, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and the like. Various common alkali activators can be used as the activators of the curing agent of the invention. From the economic point of view, it is preferable to use a product with a low price according to the market price at that time. Among them, due to abundant resources of slaked lime, the market price is relatively low at present, and therefore, the slaked lime is taken as a preferred embodiment in the present application.
SiO in slag2、Al2O3There are two reaction mechanisms for forming the gel. One mechanism is thatUnder alkaline conditions, SiO2、Al2O3Dissolved out of the slag, enters an aqueous solution, and then combines with cations dissolved in the aqueous solution to form a gelled substance of silicic acid groups, aluminum acid groups, or the like. Since dissolution is a transition process in this first dissolution, re-precipitation process, the process is also referred to herein as a "transitional dissolution" process. Another mechanism is the surface physicochemical reaction, which is qualitatively described as follows:
wherein m and n are natural numbers respectively; x represents a metal cation.
The weight percentage of the alkali activator used in the curing agent of the present invention is 19 to 49 wt%, preferably 19 to 30 wt%, based on the total weight of the curing agent. If the dosage of the alkali type excitant is too small, the alkalinity of the reinforced soil is not high, and the sufficient alkalinity can not be provided for slag hydration, so that the strength of the reinforced soil is easily influenced; on the contrary, if the amount of the alkali activator is increased after reaching a certain limit, the strength of the stabilized soil cannot be further improved, and the cost of the curing agent is increased.
The salt activator is calcium sulfate, sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate. The salt activator reacts with the alkali activator to generate soluble salt and strong base. For example: na (Na)2SO4SO in (1)4 2-And Na+With lime hydrateCa2+And OH-Respectively combined to generate CaSO4And NaOH. Strong alkali such as NaOH can improve the pH value of a liquid phase, accelerate the dissolution of silicon and aluminum substances in slag, accelerate the reaction process of volcanic ash and improve the content of reaction products; na (Na)2SO4、CaSO4The calcium aluminate which is the volcanic ash reaction product can react with the calcium aluminate to generate calcium sulphoaluminate gelled substances, for example, the calcium sulphoaluminate gelled substances fill the internal pores of the reinforced soil and increase the compactness of the reinforced soil, thereby further improving the strength of the reinforced soil.
The salt-type activator can be used as the activator of the curing agent of the present invention. Among them, calcium sulfate, sodium sulfate, and sodium carbonate are preferably used in the present invention. The salt excitant with price advantage can be selected according to the market price at that time so as to further reduce the cost. In the embodiment of the invention, sodium sulfate is particularly preferred because it not only can effectively improve the strength of the solidified soil, but also has lower market price at present, which is beneficial to further reducing the cost of the curing agent of the invention.
The weight percentage of the salt activator used in the curing agent of the present invention is 1 wt% to 8 wt%, preferably 1.5 wt% to 5.0 wt%, based on the total weight of the curing agent. If the dosage of the salt excitant is too small, the strength of the curing agent reinforced soil is obviously reduced. If the amount of the salt-type activating agent is too large, not only the cost of the curing agent is increased, but also the ratio of the increase in the strength of the reinforced soil to the amount of the salt-type activating agent is decreased beyond a certain limit, which is not preferable from the economical point of view.
The curing agent according to the present invention may further include fly ash in addition to the above-mentioned slag, alkali-based activator, and salt-based activator.
The fly ash is also an industrial waste material and is a powdery substance collected from flue gas after pulverized coal combustion in a thermal power plant. The particle size is about 1 to 50 μm, and the main oxide is SiO2、Al2O3And Fe2O3The sum of the three weights is generally more than 70%. In the presence of an alkaline activator, a silicate-based or aluminate-based gelled substance is generated, i.e. the volcanic ash reaction occurs. Another effect of fly ash- "The micro-aggregate effect can increase the total gelled material quantity after the curing agent is hydrated, and is beneficial to the stability of soil with less fine particles or single particle size. The addition of a certain amount of fly ash can fully utilize the 'micro-aggregate effect' of the fly ash to increase the compactness of the reinforced soil. And alkali activator is remained after the alkali activator reacts with the slag, so that the alkali activator andSiO in the fly ash can be used by utilizing the pozzolanic effect of the fly ash2、Al2O3Etc. to increase the amount of cementitious material. But SiO in fly ash2、Al2O3Under general conditions, the activation is slow, and the generation of the cementing material is mainly in the later period, so that the later-period strength of the reinforced soil can be improved by adding the fly ash, and the pavement performance of the reinforced soil is further strengthened. However, excessive fly ash can reduce the alkalinity of the reinforced soil, is not beneficial to early hydration of slag and has certain influence on the early strength of the reinforced soil. Therefore, in the curing agent of the present invention, the amount of fly ash is 7 wt% to 25 wt% based on the total weight of the curing agent. Preferably, the content of the fly ash is 8 wt% -15 wt%.
The soil stabilizer for road use of the present invention will be further described with reference to examples.
Example (b):
preparation of the curing agent
Example 1:
grinding undisturbed water quenching slag (purchased from Shanxi Longmen iron and Steel works) into 439m specific surface area by using a ball mill2/kg of ultrafine powder having a density of 2.83g/cm3The particle size distribution was measured by a laser particle size analyzer (Mastersizer 2000, Marvin instruments Co., Ltd., UK), and the average particle size was calculated to be 14.120 μm. Slaked lime (purchased from Shaanxi Jingyang lime works) was sieved through a 2.36mm sieve. 68.57kg of ultrafine slag powder and 28.57kg of sieved slaked lime powder were mixed, and 2.86kg of fine slag powder was addedAnd (3) uniformly stirring the III-class industrial sodium sulfate (purchased from Shaanxi Baohuai chemical industry, Ltd.) to obtain the soil stabilizer. In this example, the weight ratio of slag, slaked lime and sodium sulfate was 12: 5: 0.5.
Examples 2 to 9:
the soil firming agents of examples 2 to 9 were prepared according to the weight ratio of slag, hydrated lime and sodium sulfate in table 1 by the same preparation method as example 1, respectively.
Examples 10 to 20:
in examples 10 to 20, the same preparation method as in example 1 was used except that fly ash (purchased from shanxi wei river power plant) was further added to the slag, slaked lime and sodium sulfate. The weight ratio of each raw material is shown in table 1, and the soil stabilizer of examples 10 to 20 of the present invention can be obtained by mixing and stirring the raw materials together.
Serial number Slag of mine Hydrated lime Sodium sulfate Fly ash
Example 1 12 5 0.5 -
Example 2 9 5 0.5 -
Example 3 15 5 1 -
Example 4 12 5 1 -
Example 5 9 5 1 -
Example 6 20 10 0.5 -
Example 7 15 10 0.5 -
Example 8 20 10 1 -
Example 9 15 10 1 -
Example 10 15 5 2.5 0.5
Example 11 12 5 2.5 0.5
Example 12 9 5 2.5 0.5
Example 13 15 5 5 1
Example 14 12 5 5 1
Example 15 9 5 5 1
Example 16 20 10 2.5 0.5
Example 17 15 10 2.5 0.5
Example 18 10 10 2.5 0.5
Example 19 20 10 2.5 1
Example 20 15 10 2.5 1
TABLE 1
Examples 21 to 22 and comparative example 1
In examples 21 and 22 and comparative example 1, the curing agent was prepared in the same manner as in example 1 except that calcium sulfate was used in place of sodium sulfate in example 21; sodium carbonate was used instead of sodium sulfate in example 22; in comparative example 1, calcium chloride was used instead of sodium sulfate, and the weight ratios of the raw materials used were as shown in table 2 below. Wherein the calcium sulfate, the sodium carbonate and the calcium chloride are all purchased from Shaanxi Baozhua chemical industry, Inc.
Serial number Slag of mine Hydrated lime Salt excitant Fly ash
Example 21 20 10 2.5 0.5
Example 22 20 10 2.5 0.5
Comparative example 1 20 10 2.5 0.5
TABLE 2
Comparative examples 2 and 3
The material commonly used for road construction at present is adopted as the curing agent, wherein the ordinary Portland cement 32.5 is adopted as the curing agent in the comparative example 2; comparative example 3 slaked lime was used as the curing agent.
Test examples
Soil reinforcement was carried out using the curing agents prepared in the above examples 1 to 22 and comparative examples 1 to 3 in the following manner, and the unconfined compressive strength of the reinforced soil was measured for 7 days.
The soil for reinforcement is loess near Xian, and is sieved with a 2.36mm round hole sieve before use. The optimum water content and maximum dry density were determined by compaction tests according to the test protocol for inorganic binder stabilizing materials for road engineering (JTJ 057-94). During construction, the natural water content of soil is considered to be changed frequently, so that the water consumption slightly lower than the optimal water content by 1-2 percentage points is controlled during mixing, and the water content in the material soil is not too high. The curing agents of the embodiments are respectively added into the soil to be reinforced according to a certain proportion, and the construction is carried out according to the conventional engineering implementation method of the curing agent for reinforcing the soil. Then, the 7-day unconfined compressive strength of the reinforced soil is respectively measured according to the test procedure of inorganic binder stabilized materials for highway engineering (JTJ 057-94).
The curing agents of examples 1 to 9 were added to 100 parts by weight of soil in amounts of 10 parts by weight, respectively. The results of measuring the unconfined compressive strength of the stabilized soil for 7 days are shown in Table 3.
Serial number Unconfined compressive strength of 7 days (MPa)
Example 1 2.51
Example 2 2.37
Example 3 2.31
Example 4 2.70
Example 5 2.60
Example 6 2.36
Example 7 2.32
Example 8 2.44
Example 9 2.40
TABLE 3
The curing agents of examples 10 to 20 were added to 100 parts by weight of soil in 10 parts by weight and 15 parts by weight, respectively, and the unconfined compressive strength of the reinforced soil for 7 days was measured according to the above method. In addition, the price per ton of the curing agent of the embodiment 10-20 is calculated according to the price of the raw materials at home at present. Wherein the price of the slag ultrafine powder is 90 yuan/ton, the price of the hydrated lime powder is 188 yuan/ton, the price of the industrial sodium sulfate is 480 yuan/ton, and the price of the fly ash is 120 yuan/ton. The results are shown in Table 4.
Serial number Price (Yuan/ton) Unconfined compressive strength of 7 days (MPa)
10 parts by weight 15 parts by weight of
Example 10 123 2.18 3.14
Example 11 129 2.47 3.16
Example 12 135 2.33 3.08
Example 13 129 2.18 3.34
Example 14 135 2.56 3.26
Example 15 142 2.45 3.56
Example 16 127 2.31 3.59
Example 17 135 2.28 3.51
Example 18 144 2.28 3.07
Example 19 133 2.42 3.26
Example 20 141 2.37 3.19
TABLE 4
As can be seen from the above table, the cost of the curing agent of examples 10 to 20 of the present invention is about 130 yuan per ton. If the construction is carried out with the addition amount of 10 parts by weight, the cost of the curing agent required by each ton of soil is about 13 yuan. Among them, the curing agent of example 10 has a cost of only 12.3 yuan, and the curing agent of this example also has a desirable compressive strength. As compared with Table 3, it was found that the unconfined compressive strength for 7 days of the firming agent-reinforced soils of examples 10 to 20 was slightly lower than the unconfined compressive strength for 7 days of the firming agent-reinforced soils of examples 1 to 9. This is due to the addition of a certain amount of fly ash. The reason for this has been described in detail above. Although the addition of fly ash reduces the early strength of the stabilized soil, the later strength of the stabilized soil can be improved (data not shown), which is beneficial to improving the quality of engineering.
The raw material ratio of the curing agent of example 16 was the same as that of examples 21 and 22 and comparative example 1, except that the salt-based initiator was used. The curing agents of examples 16, 21 and 22 and comparative example 1 were added to 100 parts by weight of soil in the same manner as above at 10 parts by weight, and the unconfined compressive strength was measured for 7 days. The results are shown in Table 5 below.
Serial number Unconfined compressive strength of 7 days (MPa)
Example 16 2.31
Example 21 1.85
Example 22 2.10
Comparative example 1 1.25
TABLE 5
As can be seen from Table 5, sodium sulfate has a better effect than other salt-type curing agents. The use of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphate also enables the reinforced soil to achieve higher strength. The calcium chloride has poor effect and cannot meet the engineering requirements.
To further illustrate the cost and performance characteristics of the curing agent of the present invention, the curing agent of example 10 was compared to the 7-day unconfined compressive strength of Portland cement 32.5 of comparative example 2 and hydrated lime-stabilized soil of comparative example 3. The optimum water content, maximum dry density and 7-day unconfined compressive strength of the reinforced soil were determined according to test procedures for inorganic binder stabilized materials for road engineering (JTJ057-94) when the addition amount of the curing agent was 5, 10 and 15 parts by weight, respectively, based on 100 parts by weight of soil. The measurement results are shown in table 6 below.
Serial number Adding amount of Optimum water content (%) Maximum dry density (g/cm3) Unconfined compressive strength of 7 days (MPa)
Example 10 5 parts by weight of 17.23 1.79 1.73
10 parts by weight 17.56 1.77 2.18
15 parts by weight of 17.70 1.72 3.14
Comparative example 2 5 parts by weight of 15.01 1.88 1.89
10 parts by weight 16.58 1.85 2.35
15 parts by weight of 17.16 1.80 3.20
Comparative example 3 5 parts by weight of 15.42 1.68 0.78
10 parts by weight 20.11 1.62 0.91
15 parts by weight of 22.30 1.59 1.14
TABLE 6
The cost performance ratios of the curing agent of example 10 of the present invention, cement 32.5 and lime at the addition amount of 10 parts by weight in table 6 above are summarized in table 7 below. Wherein, the price of the 32.5-grade ordinary portland cement is 260 yuan/ton; the price of the hydrated lime is 188 yuan/ton. The values of the hydrated lime are set to 1, and the values of the curing agent of the present invention and the cement are compared with each other.
Curing agent 7 days without lateral limitation Compressive strength (MPa) Compressive strength Index ratio The same amount of the mixture Cost (Yuan) The same amount of the mixture Cost ratio of construction Performance of Price ratio
Hydrated lime 0.91 1 18.80 1 1
Cement 32.5 2.35 2.58 26.00 1.38 1.87
Example 10 2.18 2.40 12.30 0.65 3.69
TABLE 7
As can be seen from tables 6 and 7, the road soil stabilizer of the invention has low price, and each ton of the road soil stabilizer is only one half of the price of cement; the strength of the cement is obviously superior to that of lime under the same addition amount, and the cement is equivalent to that of cement, and has high cost performance. The cement can be completely replaced in the construction of the road subgrade or the base course, and the capital is saved for the engineering construction under the condition of meeting the quality requirement of the same engineering.

Claims (11)

1.A soil stabilizer comprising:
A)43 to 73 wt% of slag;
B)19 to 49 weight percent of alkali activator; and
C) 1-8 wt% of salt excitant.
2. The soil stabilizer according to claim 1, wherein the specific surface area of the slag is 400 to 500m2/kg。
3. The soil stabilizer of claim 1, wherein the alkali activator is selected from the group consisting of hydrated lime, cement clinker, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide.
4. The soil stabilizer of claim 3, wherein the alkali activator is hydrated lime.
5. The soil stabilizer of claim 1, wherein the salt activator is selected from calcium sulfate, sodium carbonate, or potassium carbonate.
6. The soil stabilizer of claim 5, wherein the salt activator is sodium sulfate.
7. The soil stabilizer according to claim 1, wherein the content of the slag is 55 to 65 wt%.
8. The soil stabilizer according to claim 1, wherein the content of the alkali type activator is 19 to 30 wt%.
9. The soil stabilizer according to claim 1, wherein the salt activator is contained in an amount of 1.5 to 5.0 wt%.
10. The soil stabilizer according to any one of claims 1 to 9, further comprising:
D) 7-25 wt% of fly ash.
11. The soil stabilizer of claim 10, wherein the fly ash is present in an amount of 8 wt% to 15 wt%.
CNB2005101127157A 2005-10-10 2005-10-10 Soil curing agent of road Expired - Fee Related CN100392042C (en)

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Cited By (6)

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CN103373843A (en) * 2013-07-01 2013-10-30 河海大学 Slag-based solidified soil and preparation method thereof
CN103723974A (en) * 2013-12-19 2014-04-16 江苏苏港新材料科技有限公司 Preparation technology of coastal soil solidification agent comprising industrial residue
CN103992072A (en) * 2014-05-30 2014-08-20 镇江建科建设科技有限公司 Coal ash reinforced curing agent and preparation method thereof
CN104119043A (en) * 2014-07-24 2014-10-29 新奥生态建材有限公司 Road paving material taking building waste as main material and preparation method of road paving material
CN106350077A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-25 南京农业大学 Preparation method of carbon-based improver for reducing cadmium absorption of rice grains
CN108218264A (en) * 2018-01-17 2018-06-29 福州大学 It is a kind of using lime-sodium carbonate as the one-component alkali-activated carbonatite cementitious material of exciting agent

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CN1085195A (en) * 1993-09-02 1994-04-13 运城市地方国营水泥厂 Powdered coal ash-slag cement and manufacture method thereof
JP2959706B2 (en) * 1995-09-14 1999-10-06 ライト工業株式会社 Ground improvement agent
JP3461635B2 (en) * 1995-10-11 2003-10-27 電気化学工業株式会社 Injection method
CN1278519A (en) * 1999-06-18 2001-01-03 上海市建筑科学研究院 Cement for foundation treatment and its preparation
CN1207365C (en) * 2002-03-04 2005-06-22 北京天筑杰特种建筑材料技术开发有限公司 Soil firming agent
CN1257957C (en) * 2004-11-15 2006-05-31 西北农林科技大学 Soil curing agent

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103373843A (en) * 2013-07-01 2013-10-30 河海大学 Slag-based solidified soil and preparation method thereof
CN103723974A (en) * 2013-12-19 2014-04-16 江苏苏港新材料科技有限公司 Preparation technology of coastal soil solidification agent comprising industrial residue
CN103992072A (en) * 2014-05-30 2014-08-20 镇江建科建设科技有限公司 Coal ash reinforced curing agent and preparation method thereof
CN104119043A (en) * 2014-07-24 2014-10-29 新奥生态建材有限公司 Road paving material taking building waste as main material and preparation method of road paving material
CN106350077A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-01-25 南京农业大学 Preparation method of carbon-based improver for reducing cadmium absorption of rice grains
CN106350077B (en) * 2016-08-30 2019-04-23 南京农业大学 A kind of preparation method of the charcoal based modifier for reducing rice grain Cd uptake
CN108218264A (en) * 2018-01-17 2018-06-29 福州大学 It is a kind of using lime-sodium carbonate as the one-component alkali-activated carbonatite cementitious material of exciting agent
CN108218264B (en) * 2018-01-17 2019-12-13 福州大学 Single-component alkali-activated cementing material taking lime-sodium carbonate as activator

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