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用于优化经皮能量传递功率传递特性的空间解耦的双次级线圈

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CN1736506B
CN1736506B CN 200510079656 CN200510079656A CN1736506B CN 1736506 B CN1736506 B CN 1736506B CN 200510079656 CN200510079656 CN 200510079656 CN 200510079656 A CN200510079656 A CN 200510079656A CN 1736506 B CN1736506 B CN 1736506B
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secondary
coil
power
device
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CN1736506A (zh )
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小威廉·L·哈斯勒
雷沙·H·德赛
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伊西康内外科公司
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/372Arrangements in connection with the implantation of stimulators
    • A61N1/378Electrical supply
    • A61N1/3787Electrical supply from an external energy source

Abstract

一种可植入装置,如用于双向液压控制医学人造括约肌的注入装置,增强了对次级线圈的功率传递特性,从而可以植入到身体更深处和/或容纳注入装置外壳内的次级线圈。利用纵向对齐并且在物理上和电学上并联以形成经皮能量传递系统(TET)次级环路的多个线圈代替单线圈,实现了增强的功率传递。这更好地优化了从并联调谐储能电路初级线圈到所植入的次级串联调谐储能电路线圈的功率传递。

Description

用于优化经皮能量传递功率传递特性的空间解耦的双次级

线圈

技术领域

[0001] 本发明涉及经皮能量传递(TET)系统,特别涉及在外部控制模块与深植的医疗植入体之间使用的TET系统。

背景技术

[0002] 向患者体内手术植入医疗装置以获得很多有利的结果是众所周知的。为了在患者体内正确地操作,在医疗植入体与外部控制模块之间通常必须有可靠、相容的电连接,以监 测植入体的性能或患者的某些参数,以及/或者通过植入体控制某些操作。这种电连接已 经传统地用TET系统实现,例如对于心脏起搏器,TET系统通过少量组织如患者肩部前侧相 对薄的真皮组织连通。

[0003] 在有些情况下,为了使对齐的初级和次级线圈有额外的柔性,建议TET或遥测系统使用多个线圈。例如,授予Broza的美国专利6058330公开了一种经皮系统,其中在次级 电路中使用多个线圈,在初级电路中也可能使用多个线圈。然而,在这种情况下,在为医疗 植入体连续地TET供电或者连续地参与遥测的连续应用中,为了减轻由于长期暴露于强电 磁场中而引起的组织损伤,将这些次级线圈在患者身体周围隔开。因此,’330BorZa专利描 述了组合从宽间隔的多个次级线圈接收的功率,所选择的一个次级线圈接收强电磁信号, 或者多个次级线圈同时接收较弱的电磁信号,从而使覆盖任何一个次级线圈的真皮组织不 会连续地暴露于强电磁信号中。[0004] 将电磁能连续地耦合到次级线圈引起的另外一个问题是患者不方便在适当位置外部固定初级线圈,这妨碍了移动并引起不适。授予Kimg的美国专利6366817公开了使用 在患者周围隔开的多个初级线圈,以及电路,其检测哪个初级线圈的定位最能有效地将电 磁能耦合到所植入的次级线圈,从而将电流切换到所选择的初级线圈。

[0005] 授予Goedeke的美国专利6463329公开了多个初级遥测线圈,由其外形确定的这些线圈的主表面彼此平行并隔开。这些线圈用来启动程序器或监视器与所植入装置之间的 遥测通信。在所公开的频率下,将这些线圈用作环形天线而不是电感耦合线圈。由于环形 天线的天线方向图包括非常接近该环时的“零”点,因此当必须与次级线圈通信时,该方法 用来在初级线圈之间切换,从而主要解决了置于真皮组织薄层下的医疗植入体与接触患者 的初级线圈的零位相一致的问题。

[0006] 授予Chen等人的美国专利5,741,316公开了一种发射线圈,该线圈有一半的绕组位于马蹄形磁导体的一个腿(leg)上,与位于另一个腿上的另一半绕组串联。从而结合 了每个绕组部分的磁通量作用。然而,由于尺寸会增大,并不希望在植入装置中相应地需 要马蹄形磁芯。因此,对于构成没有马蹄形磁导体的植入装置所需的次级线圈,侧向偏移 (laterally offset)、电串联的绕组是不利的。

[0007] 尽管这些提高到医疗植入体的电磁耦合效率的方法是有益的,但是我们注意到有一种应用没有受益于隔开的多个初级线圈和/或隔开的次级线圈,仍然需要提高功率传递效率。可能受益于使用增强TET的一种可植入医疗装置是一种人造括约肌,特别是包含弹性空囊的可调节束胃带,其具有固定端点,恰在食管-胃连接处下方环绕患者的胃。通过向 囊中引入盐溶液,这些囊能够膨胀和收缩。在公知的可调节束胃带中,必须用注射器针头将 这种盐溶液注射到皮下开口中,以到达位于皮肤表面以下的开口。该开口通过导管与束胃 带液压连通。尽管这是有效的,但理想的是避免用注射器针头来调节液体量,因为这可能导 致感染的危险增加,并使患者感到不便和不适。

[0008] 为此,我们最近开发了不需要向皮下口内注射即可控制盐水流动的植入注入装置。该系统将交流磁通能(magnetic flux energy)从外部初级线圈传递给次级线圈,为 与腹内束胃带连接的植入体中的泵供电。尽管可以用电池来为装置供电,但是使用TET有 利于这些长期装置,可使植入装置的尺寸缩小、复杂度降低。而且,这些装置在调节与调节 之间可以保持不通电,这提供了另外的优点。可受益于增强的TET供电和/或遥测的这 些可植入双向注入装置在2004年5月28日提交的四项共同未决且共同拥有的专利申请 中公开,在此引用这些专利申请的公开内容全文以供参考,其名称为:(1) “用于液压控制 可调式束胃带的压电驱动式波纹管注入器”,发明人为William L. Hassler, Jr.,序列号为 10/857, 762 ; (2) “用于液压控制可调式束胃带的金属波纹管位置反馈”,发明人为William L. Hassler, Jr.,Daniel F. Dlugos, Jr.,Rocco Crivelli,序列号 10/856,971 ; (3) “用 作遥控束胃带的热力驱动式双向注入器泵”,发明人为William L. Hassler, Jr.,Daniel F. Dlugos, Jr.,序列号10/857,315;和(4) “用于液压控制可调式束胃带的带有体积制 动的双向注入器泵”,发明人为William L. Hassler, Jr.,Daniel F. Dlugos, Jr.,序列号 10/857,763。

[0009] 与之前提到的医疗植入体不同,通常将用于人造括约肌的注入装置植入到皮肤和 脂肪组织的厚真皮层之下。对于通常接受可调节束胃带以治疗病态肥胖症的患者尤其如 此。而且,更深地植入可使患者的舒适度更高。然而,组织的厚度为初级TET线圈的有效功 率耦合带来了困难。

[0010] 理想的是将次级线圈包括于注入装置的外壳内,以增强装置的完整性。特别不希 望从注入装置上拆下一个或多个次级线圈并将其更浅地植入,因为这将使注入装置的植入 和移出变得复杂。因此,这些隔开次级线圈以更有助于接收信号的公知方法是不合适的。此 夕卜,医疗植入体内所含的次级线圈的结构也有物理和电磁的限制,特别是直径、线圈匝数和 每匝的直径。

[0011] 因此,为了在初级与次级TET线圈之间提供更大的功率传递范围,非常需要在对 次级线圈的尺寸限制内增强与深植的医疗装置的功率耦合。

发明内容

[0012] 通过提供一种用于可植入医疗装置的经皮能量传递(TET)系统,本发明克服了现 有技术的上述及其它缺陷,该TET系统增加了次级线圈的匝数,而保持了与单线圈结构相 同的阻抗和品质因数(即带通中心频率与3dB截止频率之比)。增强了对次级线圈的功率 传递,而在初级线圈上相对地保持了相同的功率。

[0013] 在本发明的一个方面,通过将次级TET线圈分成两个在物理上和电学上并联的线 圈来增强外部初级TET线圈与其次级TET线圈之间的功率传递有利于医疗植入体。收集磁通量的有效匝数加倍,而保持原来的次级线圈和储能电路的阻抗、电感、电容、总储能电路Q 值和自然频率。由此,出于治疗的原因以及为了简化植入和移出,医疗植入体可以更深地植 入,而仍能令人满意地工作。

[0014] 在本发明的另外一个方面,通过在电学上和物理上并联的双次级TET线圈,包括可植入医疗装置和外部初级线圈组合的TET系统实现了增强的功率效率。

[0015] 在本发明的又一个方面,通过包括一对在电学上和物理上并联的前次级线圈和后次级线圈作为谐振储能电路的一部分,增强了为通过一个屏障与外部初级线圈隔开的装置 供电的感应能量传递系统。

[0016] 优选地,本发明提供了一种可植入医疗装置,通过经皮能量传递通道与位于患者外部的初级经皮能量传递(TET)电路连通,所述可植入医疗装置包括:外壳;由所述外壳容 纳的第一 TET线圈;由所述外壳容纳的第二 TET线圈,与所述第一 TET线圈并联地电耦合, 并且在物理上接近所述第一 TET线圈且位于所述第一 TET线圈纵轴的中心;以及控制电路, 与并联的第一和第二 TET线圈电连通,并且能够利用传递给所述第一和第二 TET线圈的功 率。其中,所述外壳包括线圈容器,所述线圈容器包括所述外壳的圆柱形凹入部分。作为替 换方式,所述外壳包括线圈容器,所述线圈容器包括圆柱形线轴。所述控制电路包括遥测收 发器。

[0017] 通过附图及其描述,本发明的这些以及其它目的和优点将是显而易见的。 附图说明

[0018] 在此引用并构成本说明书的一部分的附图说明了本发明的实施方式,并与上文的发明概述和下文对实施方式的详述一起用于阐明本发明的原理。

[0019] 图1是对齐的一个公知的初级线圈的示图,该线圈用于对所植入医疗装置内所含的单次级线圈进行经皮能量传递和/或遥测,以便为其中的电器元件供电。

[0020] 图2是对齐的一个初级线圈的示图,该线圈用于对所植入医疗装置内所含的符合本发明各方面的双次级线圈进行经皮能量传递和/或遥测,以便对其中的电器元件进行增 强的供电。

[0021] 图3A是曲线图,图中比较了图1中的公知单次级线圈与图2中电学并联的双次级线圈在20kHz时接收到的次级功率。

[0022] 图3B是曲线图,图中比较了 310匝32号线圈与两个并联的325匝34号线圈在20kHz时的初级功率。

[0023] 图4是图2的双次级线圈的阻抗-相位图。

[0024] 图5是图1中的公知单次级线圈的阻抗_相位图。

具体实施方式

[0025] 在图1中,一个公知的经皮能量传递(TET)系统10在位于真皮层14外部的初级线圈12与位于真皮层14之下的植入装置18内的次级线圈16之间提供功率和/或遥测。 将初级线圈12电感耦合到次级线圈16,如磁通线20所示。

[0026] 在开发更有效的TET和/或遥测系统,特别是该系统的次级线圈时,必须优化线圈匝数、直流电阻、储能电路电容、储能电路阻抗和总储能电路Q值的组合。空间优化次级线圈设计主要在于如何相对于初级线圈12紧密地放置(距离“D”)和纵向对齐(纵轴“L”) 次级线圈。如果限制所植入装置18内的次级线圈16的可用体积和位置,则通常可以以这 种方式进一步最大化医疗植入体。

[0027] 作为优化单线圈设计的一个实例,以不同的金属线规格和匝数比绕线圈,以产生不同的阻抗。将这些次级线圈16制成单线圈结构,这种结构是次级线圈16的最佳结构。 上述注入器植入体的最佳单线圈结构是310匝32号磁线,并且大约具有30欧的直流电阻。 310匝32号次级线圈16的配置在图1中示出。在一组测试条件下,该线圈供给固定负载的 最高功率输出为3. 96瓦。

[0028] 在图2中,符合本发明各方面的TET系统110在位于真皮层14外部的初级线圈112与位于真皮层14之下的所植入装置118内的双次级线圈116之间提供功率和/或遥 测。磁通线120表示在线圈112与116的间距为d’时的提高后的功率效率。次级线圈由 并联的两个线圈组成,每一个线圈都具有325匝34号金属线。该线圈大约具有30欧的直 流电阻,并在图2中示出。在与310匝32号线圈相同的测试条件下,并联的两个325匝34 号线圈供给固定负载的最高功率为4. 46瓦。对两种线圈配置的功率传递曲线的比较在图 3A和图3B中示出。两个325匝34号线圈配置的功率传递曲线比单线圈配置的次级功率输 出更高的次级功率输出。然而,两个325匝34号线圈配置只使得初级功率略微提高,并且 与单线圈配置具有相对相同的尺寸、阻抗和Q值,具有更高的效率。

[0029] 两个线圈谐振时的总阻抗相对相同。在示出的例子中,两个60欧阻抗的并联组合相当于一个单独的30欧阻抗。这在理论上证明了为何310匝32号线圈和两个325匝34 号线圈具有相同的总阻抗。如图4-图5所示,比较两种线圈配置的阻抗-相位图,发现它 们在功能上是相当的。还发现两种线圈的阻抗图的总储能电路Q值相对地相同。

[0030] 两个325匝34号线圈配置具有最优的功率传递特性。这是如何实现的还不能完全理解,并且为了完全理解这一现象,可能需要采用电磁有限元分析(FEA)。假设通过空间 展开次级线圈的线匝以及有效地倍增其匝数,直到与初级线圈产生的磁通量耦合,提高向 次级线圈传递的功率。经简单的线性电路分析,这一效应不明显,可得出两个线圈相当的结 论。

[0031] 尽管已经通过对几个实施方式的描述说明了本发明,并且虽然已经相当详细地描述了说明性实施方式,但是申请人的目的不是将所附权利要求的范围限制或者以任何方式 限制于这些细节。其它优点和修改对于本领域的普通技术人员来说是显而易见的。

[0032] 例如,尽管TET系统16对于可植入医疗装置系统10具有特别的优点,但是符合本发明的方面也可应用于其它科学和工程方案,包括非生物性的物理边界。例如,在处理装置 中,可能希望监测和/或控制包含于容器内的致动器,而不影响金属线或导线管所穿过的 容器的完整性。

[0033] 对于另外一个实例,上文说明了用于功率传递目的以对所植入装置进行操作的TET,但是符合本发明的方面的用途也可以涉及用于通信目的的TET(即遥测)。因此,功率 耦合效率提高了所获得的通信信道的可靠性和性能。

[0034] 对于另外一个实例,通过增加在物理上和电学上与上述两个线圈并联的其它线圈,利用电路优化以保持适当的Q值和阻抗,从而使次级双线圈不仅仅限于两个线圈,可以 实现增加的功率传递效率。

Claims (8)

  1. 一种可植入医疗装置,通过经皮能量传递通道与位于患者外部的初级经皮能量传递(TET)电路连通,所述可植入医疗装置包括:外壳;由所述外壳容纳的第一TET线圈;由所述外壳容纳的第二TET线圈,与所述第一TET线圈并联地电耦合,并且在物理上接近所述第一TET线圈且位于所述第一TET线圈纵轴的中心;以及控制电路,与并联的第一和第二TET线圈电连通,并且能够利用传递给所述第一和第二TET线圈的功率。
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的可植入医疗装置,其中所述外壳包括线圈容器,所述线圈容器包括所述外壳的圆柱形凹入部分。
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的可植入医疗装置,其中所述外壳包括线圈容器,所述线圈容器包括圆柱形线轴。
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的可植入医疗装置,其中所述第一和第二TET线圈均包括约具有325匝的线圈。
  5. 5.根据权利要求4所述的可植入医疗装置,其中所述第一和第二TET线圈包括34号磁线。
  6. 6.根据权利要求1所述的可植入医疗装置,其中所述控制电路包括遥测收发器。
  7. 7.根据权利要求1所述的可植入医疗装置,还包括与所述第一和第二 TET线圈电连通 的串联电容,以形成中心频率约为20kHz的谐振储能电路。
  8. 8.根据权利要求1所述的可植入医疗装置,还包括第三TET线圈,所述第三TET线圈与 所述第一和第二 TET线圈并联地电耦合,并且在物理上靠近所述第一和第二 TET线圈且位 于所述第一和第二 TET线圈纵轴的中心,其中与并联的第一、第二和第三TET线圈电连通的 控制电路进一步能够利用传递给所述第一、第二和第三TET线圈的功率。
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